WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground soil-liquefaction analysis

  1. Y-12 site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.; Hunt, R.J.; Manrod, W.E. III.

    1995-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment were performed for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The main purpose of these studies was to use the results of the analyses for evaluating the safety of the performance category -1, -2, and -3 facilities against the natural phenomena seismic hazards. Earthquake response was determined for seven (7), one dimensional soil columns (Fig. 12) using two horizontal components of the PC-3 design basis 2000-year seismic event. The computer program SHAKE 91 (Ref. 7) was used to calculate the absolute response accelerations on top of ground (soil/weathered shale) and rock outcrop. The SHAKE program has been validated for horizontal response calculations at periods less than 2.0 second at several sites and consequently is widely accepted in the geotechnical earthquake engineering area for site response analysis

  2. GIS-based soil liquefaction susceptibility map of Mumbai city for earthquake events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Sumedh Yamaji; Choudhury, Deepankar

    2010-03-01

    The problem of liquefaction of soil during seismic event is one of the important topics in the field of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Liquefaction of soil is generally occurs in loose cohesionless saturated soil when pore water pressure increases suddenly due to induced ground motion and shear strength of soil decreases to zero and leading the structure situated above to undergo a large settlement, or failure. The failures took place due to liquefaction induced soil movement spread over few square km area continuously. Hence this is a problem where spatial variation involves and to represent this spatial variation Geographic Information System (GIS) is very useful in decision making about the area subjected to liquefaction. In this paper, GIS software GRAM++ is used to prepare soil liquefaction susceptibility map for entire Mumbai city in India by marking three zones viz. critically liquefiable soil, moderately liquefiable soil and non liquefiable soil. Extensive field borehole test data for groundwater depth, standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts, dry density, wet density and specific gravity, etc. have been collected from different parts of Mumbai. Simplified procedure of Youd et al. (2001) is used for calculation of factor of safety against soil liquefaction potential. Mumbai city and suburban area are formed by reclaiming lands around seven islands since 1865 till current date and still it is progressing in the area such as Navi Mumbai and beyond Borivali to Mira road suburban area. The factors of safety against soil liquefaction were determined for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. It is found that the areas like Borivali, Malad, Dahisar, Bhandup may prone to liquefaction for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. The liquefaction susceptibility maps were created by using GRAM++ by showing the areas where the factor of safety against the soil liquefaction is less than one. Proposed liquefaction

  3. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  4. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  5. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  6. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  7. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  8. Shear wave velocity investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the Tangshan, China M7.8 earthquake of 1976 using active and passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E; Tao, Xiaxin; Shi, Lijing; Shi, Hailiang

    2008-01-01

    An initial investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the July, 28 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake was conducted between 1976 and 1978 by the National Ministry of Railways, China. These data are the basis of the ‘Chinese Method’ for assessment of liquefaction potential of silty-sand deposits, and are an important component of the worldwide data set for modern probabilistic methods for assessment of soil liquefaction using Bayesian updating and system reliability tools. We revisited 26 sites identified in the maps and published 198 report of the Ministry of Railways in order to investigate these locations with a suite of active- and passive-array surface wave methods. These sites are clustered along the north coast of the Bo Hai Sea in three areas: Lutai, Tianjin; Tangshan City and outlying village, Hebei; and Luannan county, Hebei. First, we gathered and evaluated the Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristics of the ground by comparing dispersion curves from the active source harmonic wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method and the passive array Spatial Auto-Correlation method (SPAC). The dispersive properties of the liquefied ground as measured by these two methods were found to be almost identical. These tests were hybridized and the data sets merged in order to invert of shear wave velocities for analysis of liquefaction potential using a probabilistic framework. The data from high-values of seismic intensity near Tangshan city to low-intensities distant of the event in Luannan County segregate out into clusters of liquefied and non liquefied points clearly separated by liquefaction boundary curves developed from a large global data set of 310 sites

  9. STUDIES ON SOIL LIQUEFACTION AND SETTLEMENT IN THE URAYASU DISTRICT USING EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSES FOR THE 2011 EAST JAPAN GREAT EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Kiyoshi; Jang, Jiho

    The 2011 East Japan Great Earthquake caused soil liquefaction over a wide area. In particular, severe soil liquefaction was reported in the northern parts of the reclaimed lands around Tokyo Bay, even though the seismic intensity in this area was only about 5 on the Japan scale with low acceleration. The authors surveyed the residual settlement in the Urayasu district and then conducted effective stress analyses of areas affected and not affected by liquefaction. The analyses compared with the acceleration waves monitored with K-NET Urayasu or ground settlements surveyed. It is based on the acceleration observed on the seismic bedrocks in earthquake engineering in some other districts adjacent to Urayasu. Much of the settlement was due to the long duration of the earthquake, with further settlement resulting from the aftershock. The study shows that the affects of aftershocks need to be monitored, as well as needs for improvement of simplified liquefaction prediction methods using the factor of safety, FL.

  10. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  11. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential in Defence Housing Authority, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Asif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liquefaction phenomenon may be induced in the event of a large magnitude earthquake but sometimes loose, saturated and poorly graded sand may be subjected to liquefaction due to the vibration produced by other sources. Liquefaction could cause damage to building and infrastructure due to sudden increase of pore pressure in the loose layers of saturated sand causing the loss of bearing capacity and shear strength. Defence Housing Authority (DHA is the well planned residential scheme established by Pakistan Army along the coastal belt of Karachi. The soil occurring in DHA is fine grained, poorly graded and mainly comprises of sandy silt and silty sand of Recent age, where water table is encountered at very shallow depth. Hence, it is important to assess the geotechnical behavior of the soil in DHA area, where most of the high rise buildings and mega civil structures are being constructed. In present study, seismic soil liquefaction was evaluated at 15 sites (30 bore holes in DHA by using simplified empirical method in terms of Factor of Safety (FS. The Relative Density (RD was determined with the help of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Grain size analysis was also carried out on each borehole samples. The results revealed that the DHA area is vulnerable to liquefaction during severe seismic event of magnitude between 6.5 and 7.5 in Karachi.

  12. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Paying special attention to geotechnical hazards such as liquefaction in huge civil projects like urban railways especially in susceptible regions to liquefaction is of great importance. A number of approaches to evaluate the potential for initiation of liquefaction, such as Seed and Idriss...... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria...

  13. Non-linear transient behavior during soil liquefaction based on re-evaluation of seismic records

    OpenAIRE

    Kamagata, S.; Takewaki, Izuru

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on soil liquefaction, the seismic records during the Niigata-ken earthquake in 1964, the southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake in 1995 and the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake are analyzed by the non-stationary Fourier spectra. The shift of dominant frequency in the seismic record of Kawagishi-cho during the Niigata-ken earthquake is evaluated based on the time-variant property of dominant frequencies. The reduction ratio of the soil stiffness is evaluated from the shif...

  14. Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N160] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR. Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N160 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

  15. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  16. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  17. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort

  18. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  19. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, e...

  20. “Wave - Particle Duality” and Soil Liquefaction in Geotechnical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Demin

    2017-10-01

    In the disaster situation of multi-earthquake, with the phenomenon of vibrating phenomenon and the occurrence of cracks in the surface soil, the collapse of the buildings on the ground are caused. The author tries to explain the phenomenon of earthquake disaster in this geotechnical engineering by using the wave-particle duality theory of sunlight. And proposed the sun in the physics of the already high frequency of the weak light superimposed into the low frequency of the low light wave volatility, once again superimposed, superimposed as a lower frequency of linear light, the energy from low to high. Sunlight from weak light into a strong sunlight, that is, the sun near the observation may be weak light or black sunspots is composed of black holes. By long distance, the convergence of light becomes into a dazzling luminous body. Light from the numerous light quantum and an energy line form a half-space infinite volatility curve, and the role of light plays under the linear form of particles. When the night is manifested of l black approaching unconnected light quantum. The author plays the earth as the sun, compared to the deep pressure of low-viscosity clay soil pore, water performance is complex. Similar to the surface of the sun’s spectrum, saturated silty sand is showed volatility, Ground surface high-energy clay showed particle properties. Particle performance is shear strength.

  1. Lateral displacement and pile instability due to soil liquefaction using numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Salam Ahmed Mokhtar

    2014-12-01

    Extensive studies were performed to investigate the effects of soil submergence, pile diameter, earthquake magnitude and duration on pile lateral deformation and developed bending moment along pile shaft. Study results show that earthquake magnitude and time duration have a particular effect on the pore water pressure generation and hence pile lateral deformation and bending moments. They also show the benefits of using relatively large piles to control the lateral displacement. Recommendations are presented for designers to perform comprehensive analysis and avoid buckling and plastic hinge failures.

  2. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  3. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  4. ECRB ALCOVE AND NICHE GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Keifer

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to provide design bases for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) alcove and niche ground support drawings. The objective is to evaluate the ESF Alcove Ground Support Analysis (Ref 5.1) to determine if the calculations technically bound the ECRB alcoves and to address specific differences in the conditions and constraints

  5. SHAKING TABLE TEST AND EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE WITH SEISMIC ISOLATION RUBBER TO THE INTERMEDIATE PART OF PILE FOUNDATION IN LIQUEFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kunihiko; Otsuka, Hisanori; Mitou, Masaaki

    The pile foundation is heavily damaged at the boundary division of the ground types, liquefied ground and non-liquefied ground, during an earthquake and there is a possibility of the collapse of the piles. In this study, we conduct a shaking table test and effective stress analysis of the influence of soil liquefaction and the seismic inertial force exerted on the pile foundation. When the intermediate part of the pile, there is at the boundary division, is subjected to section force, this part increases in size as compared to the pile head in certain instances. Further, we develop a seismic resistance method for a pile foundation in liquefaction using seismic isolation rubber and it is shown the middle part seismic isolation system is very effective.

  6. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  7. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  8. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  9. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  10. GRACAT, Software for grounding and collision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2002-01-01

    and grounding accidents. The software consists of three basic analysis modules and one risk mitigation module: 1) frequency, 2) damage, and 3) consequence. These modules can be used individually or in series and the analyses can be performed in deterministic or probabilistic mode. Finally, in the mitigation...

  11. Effects of Long-Duration Ground Motions on Liquefaction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael W.

    Soil liquefaction during past earthquakes has caused extensive damage to buildings, bridges, dam, pipelines and other elements of infrastructure. Geotechnical engineers use empirical observations from earthquake case histories in conjunction with soil mechanics to predict the behavior of liquefiable soils. However, current empirical databases are insufficient to evaluate the behavior of soils subject to long-duration earthquakes, such as a possible Mw = 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. The objective of this research is to develop insight into the triggering and effects of liquefaction due to long-duration ground motions and to provide recommendations for analysis and design. Recorded ground motions from 21 case histories with surficial evidence of liquefaction showed marked differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction was triggered. In some cases, strong shaking continued for several minutes after the soil liquefied, and a variety of behaviors were observed including dilation pulses, continued softening due to soil fabric degradation, and soil stiffening due to pore pressure dissipation and drainage. Supplemental field and laboratory investigations were performed at three sites that liquefied during the 2011 Mw = 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The recorded ground motions and field investigation data were used in conjunction with laboratory observations, analytical models, and numerical models to evaluate the behavior of liquefiable soils subjected to long-duration ground motions. Observations from the case histories inspired a framework to predict ground deformations based on the differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction has triggered. This framework decouples the intensity of shaking necessary to trigger liquefaction from the intensity of shaking that drives deformation by identifying the time when liquefaction triggers. The timing-based framework promises to dramatically reduce the uncertainty in deformation estimates compared to

  12. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Final report on research project: Soil liquefaction testing and evaluation for Kozloduy nuclear power plant units 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, S [Energoproekt plc., Power Consulting Engineers, Hydropower Division, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-07-01

    The object of this study is the region of the channels of additional technical water supply of Kozloduy NPP, Units 5 and 6. This region is chosen because there are enough data for water saturated sands, necessary for the analysis, including data from cyclic triaxial tests and standard penetration tests. Three kinds ofprocedures for estimation of liquefaction potential of water saturated sands are used in the study. The results obtained by different procedures were compared, analyzed and conclusions drawn about the liquefaction potential of water saturated sands in the area of the channels of additional technical water supply.

  14. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  15. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  16. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  17. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  18. Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  19. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human,......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  20. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities

  1. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  2. Sail GTS ground system analysis: Avionics system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of two different concepts for the guidance, navigation and control test set signal ground system is presented. The first is a concept utilizing a ground plate to which crew station, avionics racks, electrical power distribution system, master electrical common connection assembly and marshall mated elements system grounds are connected by 4/0 welding cable. An alternate approach has an aluminum sheet interconnecting the signal ground reference points between the crew station and avionics racks. The comparison analysis quantifies the differences between the two concepts in terms of dc resistance, ac resistance and inductive reactance. These parameters are figures of merit for ground system conductors in that the system with the lowest impedance is the most effective in minimizing noise voltage. Although the welding cable system is probably adequate, the aluminum sheet system provides a higher probability of a successful system design.

  3. Eyes On the Ground: Path Forward Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph; Little, Charles Q.; peter-stein, natacha; Wade, James Rokwel

    2018-03-01

    A previous report assesses our progress to date on the Eyes On the Ground project, and reviews lessons learned [1]. In this report, we address the implications of those lessons in defining the most productive path forward for the remainder of the project. We propose two main concepts: Interactive Diagnosis and Model-Driven Assistance. Among these, the Model-Driven Assistance concept appears the most promising. The Model-Driven Assistance concept is based on an approximate but useful model of a facility, which provides a unified representation for storing, viewing, and analyzing data that is known about the facility. This representation provides value to both inspectors and IAEA headquarters, and facilitates communication between the two. The concept further includes a lightweight, portable field tool to aid the inspector in executing a variety of inspection tasks, including capture of images and 3-d scan data. We develop a detailed description of this concept, including its system components, functionality, and example use cases. The envisioned tool would provide value by reducing inspector cognitive load, streamlining inspection tasks, and facilitating communication between the inspector and teams at IAEA headquarters. We conclude by enumerating the top implementation priorities to pursue in the remaining limited time of the project. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.

  4. Method for analysis the complex grounding cables system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackovski, R.; Acevski, N.

    2002-01-01

    A new iterative method for the analysis of the performances of the complex grounding systems (GS) in underground cable power networks with coated and/or uncoated metal sheathed cables is proposed in this paper. The analyzed grounding system consists of the grounding grid of a high voltage (HV) supplying transformer station (TS), middle voltage/low voltage (MV/LV) consumer TSs and arbitrary number of power cables, connecting them. The derived method takes into consideration the drops of voltage in the cable sheets and the mutual influence among all earthing electrodes, due to the resistive coupling through the soil. By means of the presented method it is possible to calculate the main grounding system performances, such as earth electrode potentials under short circuit fault to ground conditions, earth fault current distribution in the whole complex grounding system, step and touch voltages in the nearness of the earthing electrodes dissipating the fault current in the earth, impedances (resistances) to ground of all possible fault locations, apparent shield impedances to ground of all power cables, e.t.c. The proposed method is based on the admittance summation method [1] and is appropriately extended, so that it takes into account resistive coupling between the elements that the GS. (Author)

  5. Safety analysis methodologies for radioactive waste repositories in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is part of the IAEA Safety Series and is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of shallow ground radioactive waste repositories. It discusses approaches that are applicable for safety analysis of a shallow ground repository. The methodologies, analysis techniques and models described are pertinent to the task of predicting the long-term performance of a shallow ground disposal system. They may be used during the processes of selection, confirmation and licensing of new sites and disposal systems or to evaluate the long-term consequences in the post-sealing phase of existing operating or inactive sites. The analysis may point out need for remedial action, or provide information to be used in deciding on the duration of surveillance. Safety analysis both general in nature and specific to a certain repository, site or design concept, are discussed, with emphasis on deterministic and probabilistic studies

  6. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  7. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  8. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  9. Aeroelastic Ground Wind Loads Analysis Tool for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicles are exposed to ground winds during rollout and on the launch pad that can induce static and dynamic loads. Of particular concern are the dynamic loads caused by vortex shedding from nearly-cylindrical structures. When the frequency of vortex shedding nears that of a lowly-damped structural mode, the dynamic loads can be more than an order of magnitude greater than mean drag loads. Accurately predicting vehicle response to vortex shedding during the design and analysis cycles is difficult and typically exceeds the practical capabilities of modern computational fluid dynamics codes. Therefore, mitigating the ground wind loads risk typically requires wind-tunnel tests of dynamically-scaled models that are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In recent years, NASA has developed a ground wind loads analysis tool for launch vehicles to fill this analytical capability gap in order to provide predictions for prelaunch static and dynamic loads. This paper includes a background of the ground wind loads problem and the current state-of-the-art. It then discusses the history and significance of the analysis tool and the methodology used to develop it. Finally, results of the analysis tool are compared to wind-tunnel and full-scale data of various geometries and Reynolds numbers.

  10. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  11. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  12. Structural Analysis of Grounding Damages on MS DEXTRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Zhang, Shengming

    Sub-task 1.2 of DEXTREMEL deals with development of models for external ship collision and grounding dynamics and for internal ship structure dynamics. In order to get a better overview of the work performed in this task it has been decided to write two reports on the work. One dealing...... with internal and external collision dynamics and the present report which deals with structural analysis of grounding events.The first part of the present report is devoted to an energy balance for raking damage situations.Then follows a numerical study of the forces associated with cutting and crushing...

  13. Shake table test of soil-pile groups-bridge structure interaction in liquefiable ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Ling, Xianzhang; Xu, Pengju; Gao, Xia; Wang, Dongsheng

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a shake table test study on the seismic response of low-cap pile groups and a bridge structure in liquefiable ground. The soil profile, contained in a large-scale laminar shear box, consisted of a horizontally saturated sand layer overlaid with a silty clay layer, with the simulated low-cap pile groups embedded. The container was excited in three El Centro earthquake events of different levels. Test results indicate that excessive pore pressure (EPP) during slight shaking only slightly accumulated, and the accumulation mainly occurred during strong shaking. The EPP was gradually enhanced as the amplitude and duration of the input acceleration increased. The acceleration response of the sand was remarkably influenced by soil liquefaction. As soil liquefaction occurred, the peak sand displacement gradually lagged behind the input acceleration; meanwhile, the sand displacement exhibited an increasing effect on the bending moment of the pile, and acceleration responses of the pile and the sand layer gradually changed from decreasing to increasing in the vertical direction from the bottom to the top. A jump variation of the bending moment on the pile was observed near the soil interface in all three input earthquake events. It is thought that the shake table tests could provide the groundwork for further seismic performance studies of low-cap pile groups used in bridges located on liquefiable groun.

  14. Pattern of ground deformation in Kathmandu valley during 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Dwivedi, S. K.; Acharya, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    The 25th April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (Mw=7.8) epicentered at Barpak along with thousands of aftershocks released seismic moment nearly equivalent to an 8.0 Magnitude earthquake rupturing a 150km long fault segment. Although Kathmandu valley was supposed to be severely devastated by such major earthquake, post earthquake scenario is completely different. The observed destruction is far less than anticipated as well as the spatial pattern is different than expected. This work focuses on the behavior of Kathmandu valley sediments during the strong shaking by the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. For this purpose spatial pattern of destruction is analyzed at heavily destructed sites. To understand characteristics of subsurface soil 2D-MASW survey was carried out using a 24-channel seismograph system. An accellerogram recorded by Nepal Seismological Center was analyzed to characterize the strong ground motion. The Kathmandu valley comprises fluvio-lacustrine deposit with gravel, sand, silt and clay along with few exposures of basement rocks within the sediments. The observations show systematic repetition of destruction at an average interval of 2.5km mostly in sand, silt and clay dominated formations. Results of 2D-MASW show the sites of destruction are characterized by static deformation of soil (liquefaction and southerly dipping cracks). Spectral analysis of the accelerogram indicates maximum power associated with frequency of 1.0Hz. The result of this study explains the observed spatial pattern of destruction in Kathmandu valley. This is correlated with the seismic energy associated with the frequency of 1Hz, which generates an average wavelength of 2.5km with an average S-wave velocity of 2.5km/s. The cumulative effect of dominant frequency and associated wavelength resulted in static deformation of surface soil layers at an average interval of 2.5km. This phenomenon clearly describes the reason for different scenario than that was anticipated in Kathmandu valley.

  15. Advanced gamma ray balloon experiment ground checkout and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, M.

    1976-01-01

    A software programming package to be used in the ground checkout and handling of data from the advanced gamma ray balloon experiment is described. The Operator's Manual permits someone unfamiliar with the inner workings of the software system (called LEO) to operate on the experimental data as it comes from the Pulse Code Modulation interface, converting it to a form for later analysis, and monitoring the program of an experiment. A Programmer's Manual is included.

  16. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  17. A coupled soil-pore fluid formulation for modeling soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility in seabed using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Roenby, Johan; Hededal, Ole

    The stability of offshore structures, such as wind turbine foundations, breakwaters, and immersed tunnels can be strongly affected by the liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena in the seabed. Our goal is to develop a numerical code for analysis of these situations. For this purpose, we start ...... matrix solver, are discussed as well. Overall, investigations in this paper provide a methodology for developing a numerical code simulating liquefaction and cyclic mobility. In future work this will be implemented in practice with the aid of the open source CFD toolbox, OpenFOAM....

  18. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  19. Ground subsidence information as a valuable layer in GIS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdzek, Radosław; Malik, Hubert; Leśniak, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    Among the technologies used to improve functioning of local governments the geographic information systems (GIS) are widely used. GIS tools allow to simultaneously integrate spatial data resources, analyse them, process and use them to make strategic decisions. Nowadays GIS analysis is widely used in spatial planning or environmental protection. In these applications a number of spatial information are utilized, but rarely it is an information about environmental hazards. This paper includes information about ground subsidence that occurred in USCB mining area into GIS analysis. Monitoring of this phenomenon can be carried out using the radar differential interferometry (DInSAR) method.

  20. Ground subsidence information as a valuable layer in GIS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdzek Radosław

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies used to improve functioning of local governments the geographic information systems (GIS are widely used. GIS tools allow to simultaneously integrate spatial data resources, analyse them, process and use them to make strategic decisions. Nowadays GIS analysis is widely used in spatial planning or environmental protection. In these applications a number of spatial information are utilized, but rarely it is an information about environmental hazards. This paper includes information about ground subsidence that occurred in USCB mining area into GIS analysis. Monitoring of this phenomenon can be carried out using the radar differential interferometry (DInSAR method.

  1. Ground-Fault Characteristic Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Stations with Neutral Grounding Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A centralized grid-connected photovoltaic (PV station is a widely adopted method of neutral grounding using resistance, which can potentially make pre-existing protection systems invalid and threaten the safety of power grids. Therefore, studying the fault characteristics of grid-connected PV systems and their impact on power-grid protection is of great importance. Based on an analysis of the grid structure of a grid-connected PV system and of the low-voltage ride-through control characteristics of a photovoltaic power supply, this paper proposes a short-circuit calculation model and a fault-calculation method for this kind of system. With respect to the change of system parameters, particularly the resistance connected to the neutral point, and the possible impact on protective actions, this paper achieves the general rule of short-circuit current characteristics through a simulation, which provides a reference for devising protection configurations.

  2. Analysis of seismic waves and strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.; Sutton, R.

    1976-10-01

    A number of Western USA earthquake acceleration-time histories concerning events of magnitude less than 6 are considered and their Fourier spectra calculated. An analysis of some of the simpler types of seismic wave is given in order to consider the generation of a spatially dependent acceleration-time history suitable for input into a soil-structure program of analysis. Such an acceleration-time history is required by a comprehensive analysis of soil-structure interaction since the conventionally assumed model of vertically propagating seismic waves, which give rise to three spatially independent ground motions, can lead to over-conservative estimates of the building response in the high frequency range. The possible application is discussed of a given component of a recorded acceleration-time history to the base of structure under the assumption of surface Rayleigh waves or obliquely incident P and SV bulk waves. (author)

  3. System of gait analysis based on ground reaction force assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Vaverka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical analysis of gait employs various methods used in kinematic and kinetic analysis, EMG, and others. One of the most frequently used methods is kinetic analysis based on the assessment of the ground reaction forces (GRF recorded on two force plates. Objective: The aim of the study was to present a method of gait analysis based on the assessment of the GRF recorded during the stance phase of two steps. Methods: The GRF recorded with a force plate on one leg during stance phase has three components acting in directions: Fx - mediolateral, Fy - anteroposterior, and Fz - vertical. A custom-written MATLAB script was used for gait analysis in this study. This software displays instantaneous force data for both legs as Fx(t, Fy(t and Fz(t curves, automatically determines the extremes of functions and sets the visual markers defining the individual points of interest. Positions of these markers can be easily adjusted by the rater, which may be necessary if the GRF has an atypical pattern. The analysis is fully automated and analyzing one trial takes only 1-2 minutes. Results: The method allows quantification of temporal variables of the extremes of the Fx(t, Fy(t, Fz(t functions, durations of the braking and propulsive phase, duration of the double support phase, the magnitudes of reaction forces in extremes of measured functions, impulses of force, and indices of symmetry. The analysis results in a standardized set of 78 variables (temporal, force, indices of symmetry which can serve as a basis for further research and diagnostics. Conclusions: The resulting set of variable offers a wide choice for selecting a specific group of variables with consideration to a particular research topic. The advantage of this method is the standardization of the GRF analysis, low time requirements allowing rapid analysis of a large number of trials in a short time, and comparability of the variables obtained during different research measurements.

  4. Performance Analysis of Slinky Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the thermal performance of reclined (parallel to ground surface and standing (perpendicular to ground surface slinky horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs with different water mass flow rates in the heating mode of continuous and intermittent operations. A copper tube with an outer surface protected with low-density polyethylene was selected as the tube material of the ground heat exchanger. Effects on ground temperature around the reclined slinky HGHE due to heat extraction and the effect of variation of ground temperatures on reclined HGHE performance are discussed. A higher heat exchange rate was experienced in standing HGHE than in reclined HGHE. The standing HGHE was affected by deeper ground temperature and also a greater amount of backfilled sand in standing HGHE (4.20 m3 than reclined HGHE (1.58 m3, which has higher thermal conductivity than site soil. For mass flow rate of 1 L/min with inlet water temperature 7 °C, the 4-day average heat extraction rates increased 45.3% and 127.3%, respectively, when the initial average ground temperatures at 1.5 m depth around reclined HGHE increased from 10.4 °C to 11.7 °C and 10.4 °C to 13.7 °C. In the case of intermittent operation, which boosted the thermal performance, a short time interval of intermittent operation is better than a long time interval of intermittent operation. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of power consumption by the circulating pump, the intermittent operation is more efficient than continuous operation.

  5. Empathy from the client's perspective: A grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Peter; Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    Although empathy is one of most robust predictors of client outcome, there is little consensus about how best to conceptualize this construct. The aim of the present research was to investigate clients' perceptions and in-session experiences of empathy. Semi-structured, video-assisted interpersonal process recall interviews were used to collect data from nine clients receiving individual psychotherapy at a university psychology clinic. Grounded theory analysis yielded a model consisting of three clusters: (1) relational context of empathy (i.e., personal relationship and professional relationship), (2) types of empathy (i.e., psychotherapists' cognitive empathy, psychotherapists' emotional empathy, and client attunement to psychotherapist), and (3) utility of empathy (i.e., process-related benefits and client-related benefits). These results suggest that empathy is a multi-dimensional, interactional process that affects-and is affected by-the broader relationship between client and psychotherapist.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDING RESISTANCE VALUE IN SOIL AND SEPTICTANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of grounding system to protect of electrical equipment and instrumentation system and peopletogether. The lightning stroke near the strucutre of building can damage of equipment and instrumentationsystem. Therefore, it is very important to protect theese electrical and electronic equipment from lightningstrike uses lightning protection system and grounding system.This paper presents kind of grounding system at type of soil and place. The measurement of groundingresistance in soil and septictank have done. Types of soil for grounding resistance measuring aremarshland, clay and rockland.The measurement results of grounding resistance show that value of grounding resistance depend ondeepness of electrode and kind of soil and septictank. Grounding resistance value in septictank is morelower than soil.

  7. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  8. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  9. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  10. grounded theory approach in sermon analysis of sermons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grounded theory approach is implemented in analysing sermons on poverty and directed at ... poverty situation in South Africa, especially in the black community (Pieterse ..... The activity of open coding discovers gaps or holes of needed.

  11. Challenges in combining different data sets during analysis when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-05-01

    To describe the challenges in combining two data sets during grounded theory analysis. The use of grounded theory in nursing research is common. It is a suitable method for studying human action and interaction. It is recommended that many alternative sources of data are collected to create as rich a dataset as possible. Data from interviews with people with diabetes (n=19) and their family members (n=19). Combining two data sets. When using grounded theory, there are numerous challenges in collecting and managing data, especially for the novice researcher. One challenge is to combine different data sets during the analysis. There are many methodological textbooks about grounded theory but there is little written in the literature about combining different data sets. Discussion is needed on the management of data and the challenges of grounded theory. This article provides a means for combining different data sets in the grounded theory analysis process.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Dark Ground Buffy Coat Technique (DG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of typanosome infection in 65 cattle reared under expensive system of management was determined using the dark ground buffy coat (DG) technique and the enzyme-linkedimmunisorbent assay (ELISA). The DG technique showed that there were 18 positive cases (27.69%) of total number of animals, made ...

  13. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  14. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...

  15. Fuzzy mathematics method for theoretical analysis of ground movements due to underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenxiu (Changsa Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsa (China))

    1991-07-01

    The analysis of the rock mass movements due to excavation operations is one of the many important problems of rock mass mechanics. It is difficult to calculate the ground movements due to underground excavation accurately because of the complexity of the problem. In this paper, the application is described of the fuzzy probability measures to the analysis of ground movements. Based on the definition of the fuzzy probability measure, the theories for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems are developed and are applied to the analysis of ground movements due to underground excavation. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems

  17. A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wellons

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.

  18. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed Ground Test Article Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to CRYOTE ground test data. The CRYOTE ground test artide was jointly developed by Innovative Engineering Solutions, United Launch Alliance and NASA KSC. The test article was constructed out of a titanium alloy tank, Sapphire 77 composite skin (similar to G10), an external secondary payload adapter ring, thermal vent system, multi layer insulation and various data acquisition instrumentation. In efforts to understand heat loads throughout this system, the GTA (filled with liquid nitrogen for safety purposes) was subjected to a series of tests in a vacuum chamber at Marshall Space Flight Center. By anchoring analytical models against test data, higher fidelity thermal environment predictions can be made for future flight articles which would eventually demonstrate critical cryogenic fluid management technologies such as system chilldown, transfer, pressure control and long term storage. Significant factors that influenced heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation performance, tank fill levels and pressures and even contact conductance coefficients. This report demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established and includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses.

  19. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  20. Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based, Long-slit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996-12-08

    Dec 8, 1996 ... Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based,. Long-slit .... Figure 1 plots spectra from the 2-D array, after instrumental calibration and before correction for ..... which would merit attention and a better understanding.

  1. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  2. Technical Analysis in Foreign Exchange - The Workhorse Gains Further Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrig, Thomas; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    This work extends earlier survey studies on the use of technical analysis by considering flow analysis as a third form of information production. Moreover the survey covers FX dealers and also the rising fund managers. Technical analysis has gained importance over time and is now the most equally spread kind of analysis. It has by far the greatest importance in FX dealing and is second in fund management. Charts are used for shorter-term forecasting horizons while flows dominate at the shorte...

  3. Distribution of ground rigidity and ground model for seismic response analysis in Hualian project of large scale seismic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, T.; Nishi, K.; Okamoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ueshima, T.; Kudo, K.; Kataoka, T.; Ikemi, M.; Kawai, T.; Sawada, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Yajima, K.; Higashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    An international joint research program called HLSST is proceeding. HLSST is large-scale seismic test (LSST) to investigate soil-structure interaction (SSI) during large earthquake in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the gravelly soil in this site, and the backfill material of crushed stone was placed around the model plant after excavation for the construction. Also the model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumental to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after base excavation, after structure construction and after backfilling. And the distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil and the backfill are measured after the completion of the construction by penetration test and PS-logging etc. This paper describes the distribution and the change of the shear wave velocity (V s ) measured by the field test. Discussion is made on the effect of overburden pressure during the construction process on V s in the neighbouring soil and, further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (orig.)

  4. Vertical ground reaction force analysis during gait with unstable shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Footwear is no longer just an accessory but also a protection for the musculoskeletal system, and its most important characteristic is comfort.Objectives This study aims to identify and to analyze the vertical ground reaction force in barefoot women and women with unstable shoes.Methodology Five women aged 25 ± 4 years old and mass of 50 ± 7 kg participated in this study. An AMTI force plate was used for data acquisition. The 10 trials for each situation were considered valid where the subject approached the platform with the right foot and at the speed of 4 km/h ± 5%. The instable shoe of this study is used in the practice of physical activity.Results The results showed that the first peak force was higher for the footwear situation, about 5% and significant differences between the barefoot and footwear situation. This significant difference was in the first and second peaks force and in the time of the second peak.Conclusion The values showed that the footwear absorbs approximately 45% of the impact during gait.

  5. Ground state analysis of magnetic nanographene molecules with modified edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjizadeh, Narjes; Ota, Norio; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene molecules can become ferromagnetic by edge modifications. ► Dihydrogenation of one zigzag edge of rectangular flakes make them ferromagnetic. ► Triangular flakes become high-spin state by dehydrogenization of one zigzag edge. - Abstract: We study spin states of edge modified nanographene molecules with rectangular and triangular shapes by first principle calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree–Fock (HF) methods with Møller–Plesset (MP) correlation energy correction at different levels. Anthracene (C 14 H 10 ) and phenalenyl (C 13 H 9 ), which contain three benzene rings combined in two different ways, can be considered as fragments of a graphene sheet. Carbon-based ferromagnetic materials are of great interest both in fundamental science and technological potential in organic spintronics devices. We show that non-magnetic rectangular molecules such as C 14 H 10 can become ferromagnetic with high-spin state as the ground state by dihydrogenization of one of the zigzag edges, while triangular molecules such as C 13 H 9 become ferromagnetic with high-spin state by dehydrogenization of one of the zigzag edges

  6. Study of Ground Treatment on Improvement of Pile Foundation Response in Liquefiable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the disastrous the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake, the government of Japan has conducted studies to revise the seismic design code, and elevated peak ground accelerations have been adopted. Consequently, revisions on existing design to comply with the updated code are required for public projects that are still undergoing. The design safety needs to be reassessed, and implementation of strengthening measures is required if deemed necessary. For liquefaction countermeasures, ground treatment techniques that could increase the density of soils are often the preferable alternatives. The treatment usually increases the in-situ SPT-N or CPT-qc values, which in turn would increase the resistance of soil against liquefaction. For many public infrastructures in Japan supported by bored piles embedded partly or entirely in sandy soils, reevaluation of design safety against soil liquefaction would be required. In an assessment of possible retrofitting countermeasures for an infrastructure foundation, ground treatment has been considered. In this case study, effect of ground treatment on response of piles in liquefiable soils was investigated with numerical analyses using FLAC. Results provide insights into this ground treatment effect and useful information for consideration in future design or decision making.

  7. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  8. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  10. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., considering potential amplification of earthquakes through soil-structure interaction, and soil liquefaction potential or other soil instability due to vibratory ground motion; and (C) the requirements of § 72.104... the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) referenced in the Certificate of Compliance and the related NRC...

  11. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  12. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate. Part I. Regional suitability of earth-tempering practices: summary and conclusions. Part II. Bioclimatic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labs, K.

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate-control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above-ground climate-control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dewpoint ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation, from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically. While the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above-ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate-control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above- and below-ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and a detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States. 3 references, 12 figures, 14 tables.

  13. Semianalytical Solution and Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Shallow Shield Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boundary soil properties on tunneling-induced ground settlement is generally not considered in current analytic solutions, and the hypothesis of equal initial stress in vertical and horizontal makes the application of the above solutions limited. Based on the homogeneous half-plane hypothesis, by defining the boundary condition according to the ground loss pattern in shallow tunnel, and with the use of Mohr-Coulomb plastic yielding criteria and classic Lame and Kiersch elastic equations by separating the nonuniform stress field to uniform and single-direction stress field, a semiempirical solution for ground settlement induced by single shallow circular tunnel is presented and sensitivity to the ground parameters is analyzed. The methods of settlement control are offered by influence factors analysis of semiempirical solution. A case study in Beijing Metro tunnel shows that the semiempirical solution agrees well with the in situ measured results.

  14. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  15. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  16. A new energy analysis tool for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, POB 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    A new tool, suitable for energy analysis of vertical ground source heat pump systems, is presented. The tool is based on analytical equations describing the heat exchanged with the ground, developed in Matlab {sup registered} environment. The time step of the simulation can be freely chosen by the user (e.g. 1, 2 h etc.) and the calculation time required is very short. The heating and cooling loads of the building, at the afore mentioned time step, are needed as input, along with the thermophysical properties of the soil and of the ground heat exchanger, the operation characteristic curves of the system's heat pumps and the basic ground source heat exchanger dimensions. The results include the electricity consumption of the system and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The efficiency of the tool is verified through comparison with actual electricity consumption data collected from an existing large scale ground coupled heat pump installation over a three-year period. (author)

  17. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated ground water. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations. Permeable reactive barriers are no longer perceiv...

  18. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  19. Waste Analysis Plan for the Low-Level Burial Grounds [CANCELLED] Reissued as HNF-5841

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Canceled see HNF-5841 Rev 0. This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  20. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  1. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  2. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  3. Visibility Analysis of Domestic Satellites on Proposed Ground Sites for Optical Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to analyze the satellite visibility at the randomly established ground sites, to determine the five optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking of domestic satellites, and to verify the acquisition of the optical observation time sufficient to maintain the precise ephemeris at optimal ground sites that have been already determined. In order to accomplish these objectives, we analyzed the visibility for sun-synchronous orbit satellites, low earth orbit satellites, middle earth orbit satellites and domestic satellites as well as the continuous visibility along with the fictitious satellite ground track, and calculate the effective visibility. For the analysis, we carried out a series of repetitive process using the satellite tool kit simulation software developed by Analytical Graphics Incorporated. The lighting states of the penumbra and direct sun were set as the key constraints of the optical observation. The minimum of the observation satellite elevation angle was set to be 20 degree, whereas the maximum of the sun elevation angle was set to be -10 degree which is within the range of the nautical twilight. To select the candidates for the optimal optical observation, the entire globe was divided into 84 sectors in a constant interval, the visibility characteristics of the individual sectors were analyzed, and 17 ground sites were arbitrarily selected and analyzed further. Finally, five optimal ground sites (Khurel Togoot Observatory, Assy-Turgen Observatory, Tubitak National Observatory, Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory, and South Africa Astronomical Observatory were determined. The total observation period was decided as one year. To examine the seasonal variation, the simulation was performed for the period of three days or less with respect to spring, summer, fall and winter. In conclusion, we decided the optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking

  4. Numerical and experimental analysis of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate a heat pump system using the ground as a source of heat. A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system has been installed and tested at the test room, University of Firat, Elazig, Turkey. Results obtained during experimental testing are presented and discussed here. The coefficient of performance (COP{sub sys}) of the GCHP system is determined from the measured data. A numerical model of heat transfer in the ground was developed for determining the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the pipe. The finite difference approximation is used for numerical analysis. It is observed that the numerical results agree with the experimental results. (author) (author)

  5. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  6. Performance analysis of a ground-assisted direct evaporative cooling air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Khalajzadeh, Vahid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran); Delfani, Shahram [Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), P O Box 13145-1696, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, the results of performance analysis of a ground-assisted hybrid evaporative cooling system in Tehran have been discussed. A Ground Coupled Circuit (GCC) provides the necessary pre-cooling effects, enabling a Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) that cools the air even below its wet-bulb temperature. The GCC includes four vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE) which were arrayed in series configuration. In order to have an accurate prediction of the optimum performance of a GCC, a computational fluid dynamic simulation was performed. Simulation results revealed that the combination of GCC and DEC system could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the simulation results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than 100%. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems. (author)

  7. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  8. Analysis of Ground Effects on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aerofoils Using Boundary Layer Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Hirano, Kimitaka

    A study of a new high-speed zero-emission transportation “Aerotrain” is being carried out in Tohoku University and the University of Miyazaki. Because the aerotrain utilizes the ground effect, research on the aerofoil section, which can harness the ground effect effectively, is important. The aerotrain moves along a U-shaped guideway, which has a ground and sidewalls, so it has many viscous interference elements. In an analysis of the ground effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils, the boundary layers on the aerofoil surface must be considered. At first, velocity distributions on the surfaces of aerofoils in potential flows are computed using the vortex method, then the momentum integration equations of the boundary layer are solved with experimental formulas. This procedure has the following advantages: modifications of the aerofoil section are easy because it is not necessary to make complicated computational grids, boundary layer transition and separation can be predicted using empirical procedures. The aerodynamic characteristics of four types of aerofoil sections are investigated to clarify the relationship between aerofoil sections and ground effects. Computational results are compared with experimental results obtained using a towing wind tunnel to verify computational precisions. In addition, aerofoil characteristics at an actual cruise speed are analyzed.

  9. Methodological tools for the collection and analysis of participant observation data using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.

  10. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  11. Probabilistic analysis of deformed mode of engineering constructions’ soil-cement grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vynnykov Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of probabilistic methods that are used to assess the deformed state of the foundations of engineering structures are presented. A finite element analysis of the stress-strain state of the “man made soil ground – foundation – structure” system was carried out. A method for probabilistic calculation using the finite element method is proposed. On a real example, the level of reliability of a design decision based on a deterministic calculation is estimated by probabilistic calculation. On the basis of the statistic data obtained by imitational modeling, the probability of failure and no-failure operation of the structure regarding the absolute value of settlement and regarding the value of tilt against the reinforcement ratio of soft soil grounds settlements was determined. The probability of failure regarding the value of tilt against the reinforcement ratio was taken (15 to 25%, which is 0.03 – 0.05.

  12. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals’ ground: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Methods Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study...

  13. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  14. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    Full Text Available For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths, which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual 'Malagasy aardvark' shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival.

  15. Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa; Pihtili, Kazim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    In this paper we investigate of energetic and exergetic efficiencies of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system as a function of depth trenches for heating season. The horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) were used and it were buried with in 1 m (HGHE1) and 2 m (HGHE2) depth trenches. The energy efficiency of GCHP systems are obtained to 2.5 and 2.8, respectively, while the exergetic efficiencies of the overall system are found to be 53.1% and 56.3%, respectively, for HGHE1 and HGHE2. The irreversibility of HGHE2 is less than of the HGHE1 as about 2.0%. The results show that the energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the system increase when increasing the heat source (ground) temperature for heating season. And the end of this study, we deal with the effects of varying reference environment temperature on the exergy efficiencies of HGHE1 and HGHE2. The results show that increasing reference environment temperature decreases the exergy efficiency in both HGHE1 and HGHE2. (author)

  16. Exergy Analysis of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Heating System with Different Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate and improve the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP heating system with radiant floors as terminals, an exergy analysis based on test results is performed in this study. The system is divided into four subsystems, and the exergy loss and exergy efficiency of each subsystem are calculated using the expressions derived based on exergy balance equations. The average values of the measured parameters are used for the exergy analysis. The analysis results show that the two largest exergy losses occur in the heat pump and terminals, with losses of 55.3% and 22.06%, respectively, and the lowest exergy efficiency occurs in the ground heat exchange system. Therefore, GCHP system designers should pay close attention to the selection of heat pumps and terminals, especially in the design of ground heat exchange systems. Compared with the scenario system in which fan coil units (FCUs are substituted for the radiant floors, the adoption of radiant floors can result in a decrease of 12% in heating load, an increase of 3.24% in exergy efficiency of terminals and an increase of 1.18% in total exergy efficiency of the system. The results may point out the direction and ways of optimizing GCHP systems.

  17. Ground Contact Analysis for Korea’s Fictitious Lunar Orbiter Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the ground contact opportunity for the fictitious low lunar orbiter is analyzed to prepare for a future Korean lunar orbiter mission. The ground contact opportunity is basically derived from geometrical relations between the typical ground stations at the Earth, the relative positions of the Earth and Moon, and finally, the lunar orbiter itself. Both the cut-off angle and the orbiter’s Line of Sight (LOS conditions (weather orbiter is located at near or far side of the Moon seen from the Earth are considered to determine the ground contact opportunities. Four KOMPSAT Ground Stations (KGSs are assumed to be Korea’s future Near Earth Networks (NENs to support lunar missions, and world-wide separated Deep Space Networks (DSNs are also included during the contact availability analysis. As a result, it is concluded that about 138 times of contact will be made between the orbiter and the Daejeon station during 27.3 days of prediction time span. If these contact times are converted into contact duration, the duration is found to be about 8.55 days, about 31.31% of 27.3 days. It is discovered that selected four KGSs cannot provide continuous tracking of the lunar orbiter, meaning that international collaboration is necessary to track Korea’s future lunar orbiter effectively. Possible combinations of world-wide separated DSNs are also suggested to compensate for the lack of contact availability with only four KGSs, as with primary and backup station concepts. The provided algorithm can be easily modified to support any type of orbit around the Moon, and therefore, the presented results could aid further progress in the design field of Korea’s lunar orbiter missions.

  18. Ranking of several ground-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, H; Zare, M; Fukushima, Y

    2008-01-01

    In this study, six attenuation relationships are classified with respect to the ranking scheme proposed by Scherbaum et al (2004 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94 1–22). First, the strong motions recorded during the 2002 Avaj, 2003 Bam, 2004 Kojour and 2006 Silakhor earthquakes are consistently processed. Then the normalized residual sets are determined for each selected ground-motion model, considering the strong-motion records chosen. The main advantage of these records is that corresponding information about the causative fault plane has been well studied for the selected events. Such information is used to estimate several control parameters which are essential inputs for attenuation relations. The selected relations (Zare et al (1999 Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 18 101–23); Fukushima et al (2003 J. Earthq. Eng. 7 573–98); Sinaeian (2006 PhD Thesis International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran); Boore and Atkinson (2007 PEER, Report 2007/01); Campbell and Bozorgnia (2007 PEER, Report 2007/02); and Chiou and Youngs (2006 PEER Interim Report for USGS Review)) have been deemed suitable for predicting peak ground-motion amplitudes in the Iranian plateau. Several graphical techniques and goodness-of-fit measures are also applied for statistical distribution analysis of the normalized residual sets. Such analysis reveals ground-motion models, developed using Iranian strong-motion records as the most appropriate ones in the Iranian context. The results of the present study are applicable in seismic hazard assessment projects in Iran

  19. A genetic algorithm approach for assessing soil liquefaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion is needed to reach better engineering decisions. ... FS and hence it provides possibility of decision making based on the liquefac- ..... relation's regressed correction for the effect of FC. ...... common and rational basis for engineering appli-.

  20. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    report includes an analysis of test drilling costs leading to a production well field. The discussion shows that test drilling is a relatively low cost item and that more than a minimum of test holes in a previously unexplored area is, above all, simple insurance in keeping down costs and may easily result in final lower costs for the system. Use of the jet drill for testing is considered short sighted and may result in higher total costs and possibly failure to discover good aquifers. Economic development of ground water supplies will depend on obtaining qualified hydrologic and engineering advice, on carrying out adequate test drilling, and on utilizing high-quality (at times, more costly) material.

  1. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  2. Seismic fragility analysis of a CANDU containment structure for near-fault ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon; Ahn, Seong Moon

    2005-01-01

    The R. G. 1.60 spectrum used for the seismic design of Korean nuclear power plants provides a generally conservative design basis due to its broadband nature. A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. It is likely that these faults will be identified as active ones. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants located near these faults. The probability based scenario earthquakes were identified as near-field earthquakes. In general, the near-fault ground motion records exhibit a distinctive long period pulse like time history with very high peak velocities. These features are induced by the slip of the earthquake fault. Near-fault ground motions, which have caused much of the damage in recent major earthquakes, can be characterized by a pulse-like motion that exposes the structure to a high input energy at the beginning of the motion. It is necessary to estimate the near-fault ground motion effects on the nuclear power plant structures and components located near the faults. In this study, the seismic fragility analysis of a CANDU containment structure was performed based on the results of nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses

  3. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  4. Design and optimization of a ground water monitoring system using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D.; Gupta, A.D.; Ramnarong, V.

    1998-12-31

    A GIS-based methodology has been developed to design a ground water monitoring system and implemented for a selected area in Mae-Klong River Basin, Thailand. A multicriteria decision-making analysis has been performed to optimize the network system based on major criteria which govern the monitoring network design such as minimization of cost of construction, reduction of kriging standard deviations, etc. The methodology developed in this study is a new approach to designing monitoring networks which can be used for any site considering site-specific aspects. It makes it possible to choose the best monitoring network from various alternatives based on the prioritization of decision factors.

  5. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  6. Music from Ground Zero. The coloniality of theory and musical analysis at the university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jovanna Holguín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer the influence of the coloniality of knowledge, the cleansing of blood and the hybris of the zero ground in the conception of the theory and musical analysis which is taught in our Latin American universities. The aim is to examine the survival of coloniality in the imaginary of musical theory and analysis in order to recognize the predominant hegemonic discourses and propose some options to decolonize these disciplines of professional music education. The rationale is based on the presentation of some concepts of decolonial studies, research on the conservatory model and the ideology of theory and analysis.The article is divided into three parts. In the first one, an approximation is made to the concept of coloniality and its categories. The second takes the categories to review the ideology of the chosen fields of musical knowledge and the third proposes some options to decolonize our conceptions in higher education.

  7. Numerical analysis of propeller induced ground vortices by actuator disk model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: During the ground operation of aircraft, the interaction between the propulsor-induced flow field and the ground may lead to the generation of ground vortices. Utilizing numerical approaches, the source of vorticity entering ground vortices is investigated. The results show that the

  8. Spatial-temporal and modal analysis of propeller induced ground vortices by particle image velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    During the ground operation of aircraft, there is potentially a system of vortices generated from the ground toward the propulsor, commonly denoted as ground vortices. Although extensive research has been conducted on ground vortices induced by turbofans which were simplified by suction tubes, these

  9. Evaluation of ground motion scaling methods for analysis of structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A. P.; Beltsar, O.A.; Kurama, Y.C.; Kalkan, E.; Taflanidis, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground motion selection and scaling comprises undoubtedly the most important component of any seismic risk assessment study that involves time-history analysis. Ironically, this is also the single parameter with the least guidance provided in current building codes, resulting in the use of mostly subjective choices in design. The relevant research to date has been primarily on single-degree-of-freedom systems, with only a few studies using multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Furthermore, the previous research is based solely on numerical simulations with no experimental data available for the validation of the results. By contrast, the research effort described in this paper focuses on an experimental evaluation of selected ground motion scaling methods based on small-scale shake-table experiments of re-configurable linearelastic and nonlinear multi-story building frame structure models. Ultimately, the experimental results will lead to the development of guidelines and procedures to achieve reliable demand estimates from nonlinear response history analysis in seismic design. In this paper, an overview of this research effort is discussed and preliminary results based on linear-elastic dynamic response are presented. ?? ASCE 2011.

  10. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis with probabilistic risk assessment for the management of contaminated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadam, Ibrahim M.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental decision analysis in subsurface contamination scenarios is performed using cost-benefit analysis. In this paper, we discuss some of the limitations associated with cost-benefit analysis, especially its definition of risk, its definition of cost of risk, and its poor ability to communicate risk-related information. This paper presents an integrated approach for management of contaminated ground water resources using health risk assessment and economic analysis through a multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology introduces several important concepts and definitions in decision analysis related to subsurface contamination. These are the trade-off between population risk and individual risk, the trade-off between the residual risk and the cost of risk reduction, and cost-effectiveness as a justification for remediation. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates probabilistic health risk assessment into a comprehensive, yet simple, cost-based multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology focuses on developing decision criteria that provide insight into the common questions of the decision-maker that involve a number of remedial alternatives. The paper then explores three potential approaches for alternative ranking, a structured explicit decision analysis, a heuristic approach of importance of the order of criteria, and a fuzzy logic approach based on fuzzy dominance and similarity analysis. Using formal alternative ranking procedures, the methodology seeks to present a structured decision analysis framework that can be applied consistently across many different and complex remediation settings. A simple numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results showed the importance of using an integrated approach for decision-making considering both costs and risks. Future work should focus on the application of the methodology to a variety of complex field conditions to

  12. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  13. An analysis model of the secondary tunnel lining considering ground-primary support-secondary lining interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seok-Bue [Yooshin Engineering Corporation, Seoul(Korea); Lee, Sang-Duk [Ajou University, Suwon(Korea)

    2002-06-30

    It is the common practice to over design the reinforcement for the secondary tunnel lining due to the lack of rational insight into the ground loosening loads, and due to the conservative application of the empirical design methods. The main loads of the secondary lining are the ground loosening loads and the ground water pressure, and the ground load is critical in the reinforcement design of the secondary lining in the case of drained tunnel. If the external load is absent around a tunnel. the reasons of the load for secondary tunnel lining are the deterioration of the primary supports such as shotcrete, steel rib, and rock bolts. Accordingly, the analysis method considering the ground-primary supports-secondary lining interaction should be required for the rational design of the secondary tunnel lining. In this paper, the interaction was conceptually described by the simple mass-spring model and the load transfer from the ground and primary supports to the secondary lining is showed by the ground-primary supports-secondary lining reaction curves for the theoretical solution of a circular tunnel, And also, the application of this proposed model to numerical analysis is verified in order to check the potential for the tunnel with the complex analysis conditions. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Probabilistic and deterministic soil structure interaction analysis including ground motion incoherency effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhoraibi, T.; Hashemi, A.; Ostadan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a major step for seismic design of massive and stiff structures typical of the nuclear facilities and civil infrastructures such as tunnels, underground stations, dams and lock head structures. Currently most SSI analyses are performed deterministically, incorporating limited range of variation in soil and structural properties and without consideration of the ground motion incoherency effects. This often leads to overestimation of the seismic response particularly the In-Structure-Response Spectra (ISRS) with significant impositions of design and equipment qualification costs, especially in the case of high-frequency sensitive equipment at stiff soil or rock sites. The reluctance to incorporate a more comprehensive probabilistic approach is mainly due to the fact that the computational cost of performing probabilistic SSI analysis even without incoherency function considerations has been prohibitive. As such, bounding deterministic approaches have been preferred by the industry and accepted by the regulatory agencies. However, given the recently available and growing computing capabilities, the need for a probabilistic-based approach to the SSI analysis is becoming clear with the advances in performance-based engineering and the utilization of fragility analysis in the decision making process whether by the owners or the regulatory agencies. This paper demonstrates the use of both probabilistic and deterministic SSI analysis techniques to identify important engineering demand parameters in the structure. A typical nuclear industry structure is used as an example for this study. The system is analyzed for two different site conditions: rock and deep soil. Both deterministic and probabilistic SSI analysis approaches are performed, using the program SASSI, with and without ground motion incoherency considerations. In both approaches, the analysis begins at the hard rock level using the low frequency and high frequency hard rock

  15. Probabilistic and deterministic soil structure interaction analysis including ground motion incoherency effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhoraibi, T., E-mail: telkhora@bechtel.com; Hashemi, A.; Ostadan, F.

    2014-04-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a major step for seismic design of massive and stiff structures typical of the nuclear facilities and civil infrastructures such as tunnels, underground stations, dams and lock head structures. Currently most SSI analyses are performed deterministically, incorporating limited range of variation in soil and structural properties and without consideration of the ground motion incoherency effects. This often leads to overestimation of the seismic response particularly the In-Structure-Response Spectra (ISRS) with significant impositions of design and equipment qualification costs, especially in the case of high-frequency sensitive equipment at stiff soil or rock sites. The reluctance to incorporate a more comprehensive probabilistic approach is mainly due to the fact that the computational cost of performing probabilistic SSI analysis even without incoherency function considerations has been prohibitive. As such, bounding deterministic approaches have been preferred by the industry and accepted by the regulatory agencies. However, given the recently available and growing computing capabilities, the need for a probabilistic-based approach to the SSI analysis is becoming clear with the advances in performance-based engineering and the utilization of fragility analysis in the decision making process whether by the owners or the regulatory agencies. This paper demonstrates the use of both probabilistic and deterministic SSI analysis techniques to identify important engineering demand parameters in the structure. A typical nuclear industry structure is used as an example for this study. The system is analyzed for two different site conditions: rock and deep soil. Both deterministic and probabilistic SSI analysis approaches are performed, using the program SASSI, with and without ground motion incoherency considerations. In both approaches, the analysis begins at the hard rock level using the low frequency and high frequency hard rock

  16. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  17. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  18. The ground support computer and in-orbit survey data analysis program for the SEEP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, H.D.; Datlowe, D.W.; Mobilia, J.; Roselle, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ground support computer equipment (GSE) and production survey plot and analysis software are described for the Stimulated Emissions of Energetic Particles (SEEP) experiment on the S81-1 satellite. A general purpose satellite data acquisition circuit was developed based on a Z-80 portable microcomputer. By simply changing instrument control software and electrical connectors, automatic testing and control of the various SEEP instruments was accomplished. A new feature incorporated into the SEEP data analysis phase was the development of a correlative data base for all of the SEEP instruments. A CPU efficient survey plot program (with ephemeris) was developed to display the approximate 3100 hours of data, with a time resolution of 0.5 sec, from the ten instrument sensors. The details of the general purpose multigraph algorithms and plot formats are presented. For the first time new associations are being investigated of simultaneous particle, X-ray, optical and plasma density satellite measurements

  19. Monitoring and Analysis of Ground Settlement Induced by Tunnelling with Slurry Pressure-Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunku Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of monitoring and analysis of ground settlement caused by tunnelling of stacked twin tunnels for underground metro line construction through the densely populated area using the slurry pressure-balanced TBM is presented. Detailed ground settlement monitoring was carried out for the initial stage of down-track tunnelling in order to estimate trough width factor and volume losses including face, shield, and tail losses. In addition, using the gap model, prediction of volume loss and ground settlement was carried out with consideration of the ground condition, TBM configurations, and actual operation data. The predictions of the gap model were compared with the observed results, and adjustment factors were determined for volume loss estimation. The adjusted factors were applied to predict ground settlement of the up-track tunnel, and its results were compared with the field measurements.

  20. Anions Analysis in Ground and Tap Waters by Sequential Chemical and CO2-Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Andrew D. De Vera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatographic method using conductivity detection with sequential chemical and CO2 suppression was optimized for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate,phosphate and sulfate in ground and tap water. The separation was done using an anion exchange column with an eluent of 3.2 mM Na2CO3 and 3.2 mM NaHCO3 mixture. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5 to 300 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 for the six inorganic anions. The method was also shown to be applicable in trace anions analysis as given by the low method detection limits (MDL. The MDL was 1μg/L for both fluoride and chloride. Bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate had MDLs of 7 μg/L, 10 μg/L, 9 μg/L and 2 μg/L, respectively. Good precision was obtained as shown in the relative standard deviation of 0.1 to 12% for peak area and 0.1 to 0.3% for retention time. The sensitivity of the method improved with the addition of CO2 suppressor to chemical suppression as shown in the lower background conductivity and detection limits. The recoveries of the anions spiked in water at 300 μg/L level ranged from 100 to 104%. The method was demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate and precise for trace analysis of the six anions and was applied in the anions analysis in ground and tap waters in Malolos, Bulacan. The water samples were found to contain high concentrations of chloride of up to 476 mg/L followed by sulfate (38 mg/L, bromide (1 mg/L, phosphate (0.4 mg/L, fluoride (0.2 mg/L and nitrate (0.1 mg/L.

  1. Analysis of gait symmetry during over-ground walking in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jeffrey D; Harry, John R; Hickman, Robbin A; Dufek, Janet S

    2017-06-01

    Gait symmetry is utilized as an indicator of neurologic function. Healthy gait often exhibits minimal asymmetries, while pathological gait exhibits exaggerated asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to examine symmetry of mechanical gait parameters during over-ground walking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained from 10 children (aged 5-12 years) with ASD. The Model Statistic procedure (α=0.05) was used to compare gait related parameters between limbs. Analysis revealed children with ASD exhibit significant lower extremity joint position and ground reaction force asymmetries throughout the gait cycle. The observed asymmetries were unique for each subject. These data do not support previous research relative to gait symmetry in children with ASD. Many individuals with ASD do not receive physical therapy interventions, however, precision medicine based interventions emphasizing lower extremity asymmetries may improve gait function and improve performance during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elements of Risk Analysis for Collision and Grounding of a RoRo Passenger Ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Samuelidis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Newly developed software was applied to study the effects of damages due to collision and grounding. The annual risk of collision and grounding was computed for an example RoRo passenger ferry. Collision frequency was evaluated for a specified route taking into account traffic data. Grounding...

  3. Functional data analysis on ground reaction force of military load carriage increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Wan Rozita Wan; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of ground reaction force on military load carriage is done through functional data analysis (FDA) statistical technique. The main objective of the research is to investigate the effect of 10% load increment and to find the maximum suitable load for the Malaysian military. Ten military soldiers age 31 ± 6.2 years, weigh 71.6 ± 10.4 kg and height of 166.3 ± 5.9 cm carrying different military load range from 0% body weight (BW) up to 40% BW participated in an experiment to gather the GRF and kinematic data using Vicon Motion Analysis System, Kirstler force plates and thirty nine body markers. The analysis is conducted in sagittal, medial lateral and anterior posterior planes. The results show that 10% BW load increment has an effect when heel strike and toe-off for all the three planes analyzed with P-value less than 0.001 at 0.05 significant levels. FDA proves to be one of the best statistical techniques in analyzing the functional data. It has the ability to handle filtering, smoothing and curve aligning according to curve features and points of interest.

  4. Landslide monitoring using multitemporal terrestrial laser scanning for ground displacement analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbarella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of the temporal evolution of landslides and of related hydrogeological hazards, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS seems to be a very suitable technique for morphological description and displacement analysis. In this note we present some procedures designed to solve specific issues related to monitoring. A particular attention has been devoted to data georeferencing, both during survey campaigns and while performing statistical data analysis. The proper interpolation algorithm for digital elevation model generation has been chosen taking into account the features of the landslide morphology and of the acquired datasets. For a detailed analysis of the different dynamics of the hillslope, we identified some areas with homogeneous behaviour applying in a geographic information system (GIS environment a sort of rough segmentation to the grid obtained by differentiating two surfaces. This approach has allowed a clear identification of ground deformations, obtaining detailed quantitative information on surficial displacements. These procedures have been applied to a case study on a large landslide of about 10 hectares, located in Italy, which recently has severely damaged the national railway line. Landslide displacements have been monitored with TLS surveying for three years, from February 2010 to June 2012. Here we report the comparison results between the first and the last survey.

  5. Transient analysis for grounding systems considering the ground ionization; Analisis transitorio de sistemas de puesta a tierra considerando la ionizacion del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado Salgado, Luis Alberto

    2008-06-15

    All electrical installation must have an effective grounding system. The purpose of this grounding system is to provide a low impedance path for draining electric currents generated by faults, switching operations or atmospheric discharges to earth, avoiding damage to people, equipment or installations. High currents drained to ground leads to an electric field which can be capable of breaking down the dielectric strength of the ground. When this happens, the ionization phenomena takes place, which reduce the grounding system impedance and modify its performance. In this thesis, a computational model for evaluating the transient performance of grounding systems subjected to high magnitude and frequency currents is presented. The model is based in a transmission line approach and the grounding system transient analysis is carried out in the frequency domain. The time domain translation is performed by means of the Fast Fourier Inverse Transform (FFIT). The computer model is capable of simulating soil ionization. The computer model developed is used to study the performance of vertical rods and grounding grids of different sizes. In every case, different electric field magnitudes and soil's resistivity were used, currents of different frequency components and magnitude values where used as well. The obtained results presented were compared and validated with other computer model results and measurements published in the literature. [Spanish] Toda instalacion electrica debe contar con un sistema de puesta a tierra efectivo. La finalidad de este sistema es proporcionar un camino de baja impedancia para drenar a tierra las corrientes generadas por fallas, maniobras o fenomenos naturales como las descargas atmosfericas, evitando de esta manera danos a las personas, equipos o instalaciones. Cuando las corrientes drenadas a tierra son de gran magnitud se origina un campo electrico critico capaz de romper la rigidez dielectrica del suelo que rodea los conductores del

  6. Nitrates in ground and drinking water: analysis of policies and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, J

    1986-05-01

    On the societal level, risks are the result of collective processes of definition. Accepted risks are mainly the output and secondarily the (scientific) input of these processes. As a consequence, in this paper the question of risk management of the nitrate burden to ground and drinking water is analysed within the framework of comparative policy analysis. Various actors pursue their respective interests in different policy arenas within the given rules of the policy game. The impacts of the policy outputs on the policy addressees, namely farmers and water companies, (substantially) determine the level of actual risk. Different national regulatory styles and traditions towards nitrate regulation shape the policy outputs. Consequently, the assumption or normative postulate of a rational (scientific) risk assessment and risk management appears to be utterly heroic and, in the end, misleading.

  7. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  8. Site Classification using Multichannel Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method on Soft and Hard Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  10. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste 5 acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall 6 processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for disposal at the Low-Level 7 Burial Grounds (LLBG), which are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of 8 the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not 9 include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of 10 mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. 11 The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. The 12 LLBG also receive low-level radioactive waste for disposal. The requirements 13 of this WAP are not applicable to this low-level waste

  11. Exergoeconomic analysis of a solar assisted ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, Onder; Hepbasli, Arif

    2005-01-01

    EXCEM analysis may prove useful to investigators in engineering and other disciplines due to the methodology are being based on the quantities exergy, cost, energy and mass. The main objective of the present study is to investigate between capital costs and thermodynamic losses for devices in solar assisted ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system (SAGSHPGHS) with a 50 m vertical 32 mm nominal diameter U-bend ground heat exchanger. This system was designed and installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Thermodynamic loss rate-to-capital cost ratios are used to show that, for components and the overall system, a systematic correlation appears to exist between capital cost and exergy loss (total or internal), but not between capital cost and energy loss or external exergy loss. This correlation may imply that devices in successful air conditioning are configured so as to achieve an overall optimal design, by appropriately balancing the thermodynamic (exergy-based) and economic characteristics of the overall system and its devices. The results may, (i) provide useful insights into the relations between thermodynamics and economics, both in general and for SAGSHPGHS (ii) help demonstrate the merits of second-law analysis. It is observed from the results that the maximum exergy destructions in the system particularly occur due to the electrical, mechanical and isentropic efficiencies and emphasize the need for paying close attention to the selection of this type of equipment, since components of inferior performance can considerably reduce the overall performance of the system. In conjunction with this, the total exergy losses values are obtained to be from 0.010 kW to 0.480 kW for the system. As expected, the largest energy and exergy losses occur in the greenhouse and compressor. The ratio of thermodynamic loss rate to capital cost values are obtained for a range from 0.035 to 1.125

  12. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  14. DEA (data envelopment analysis)-assisted supporting measures for ground coupled heat pumps implementing in Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, L.; Colantoni, A.; Castellucci, S.; Carlini, M.; Vecchione, L.; Savuto, E.; Pallozzi, V.; Di Carlo, A.; Bocci, E.; Moneti, M.; Cocchi, S.; Boubaker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing of the energy consumption is producing serious global warming issues. Mainly most of greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries come from building equipments. In this context, GCHPs (ground coupled heat pumps) are candidate solution as air conditioning systems in buildings due to their higher efficiency compared to conventional devices. Actually, ground coupled heat pump systems are widely, recognized among the most efficient and comfortable used systems. Nevertheless, economic efficiency of the ground coupled heat pumps has to be proved. In this study, DEA (data envelopment analyses) method is applied to a real case in Italy. - Highlights: • Original investigation in terms of energy demands in buildings. • Gathering conjoint classical and scientific analyses. • Presenting original DEA (data envelopment analysis) economic optimization scheme analyses. • Outlining economical feasibility of an efficient low enthalpy-geothermal plant with GCHP (ground coupled heat pump) exchangers.

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Analysis of Power-Ground Planes Taking Into Account Decoupling Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2017-03-22

    In this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is developed to analyze the power-ground planes taking into account the decoupling capacitors. In the presence of decoupling capacitors, the whole physical system can be split into two subsystems: 1) the field subsystem that is governed by Maxwell\\'s equations that will be solved by the DGTD method, and 2) the circuit subsystem including the capacitor and its parasitic inductor and resistor, which is going to be characterized by the modified nodal analysis algorithm constructed circuit equations. With the aim to couple the two subsystems together, a lumped port is defined over a coaxial surface between the via barrel and the ground plane. To reach the coupling from the field to the circuit subsystem, a lumped voltage source calculated by the integration of electric field along the radial direction is introduced. On the other hand, to facilitate the coupling from the circuit to field subsystem, a lumped port current source calculated from the circuit equation is introduced, which serves as an impressed current source for the field subsystem. With these two auxiliary terms, a hybrid field-circuit matrix equation is established, which enables the field and circuit subsystems are solved in a synchronous scheme. Furthermore, the arbitrarily shaped antipads are considered by enforcing the proper wave port excitation using the magnetic surface current source derived from the antipads supported electric eigenmodes. In this way, the S-parameters corresponding to different modes can be conveniently extracted. To further improve the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in handling multiscale meshes, the local time-stepping marching scheme is applied. The proposed algorithm is verified by several representative examples.

  16. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  17. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals' ground: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-09-29

    Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study. Free text qualitative responses analysed using thematic analysis. Pinderfields Hospital, a UK National Health Service hospital in the county of Yorkshire, provides a health service to around half a million people living in the Wakefield and North Kirklees area. Surveys were distributed 10th-18th September and 17th-21st December 2012. Of the n=952 participants who completed an anonymous survey n=306 participants provided a response to the optional free text question. Thematic analysis revealed 5 distinct themes: (1) smoking is a dirty problem; (2) smokers are free to do as they wish; (3) the poor smoker; (4) smoke in our space: the battleground; and (5) no smoking please. Of the n=272 represented by the five themes, generally people accepted that smoking is socially unacceptable but their understanding of smoking behaviours and attitudes towards management and control of smoking differed. There was a strong sense that action is needed to separate the space smokers and non-smokers share. We identified a distinct group of participants that supported a hard line approach and suggested enforcing the no smoking policy through fines and monitoring. Smoking on hospital grounds remains a contentious issue. Participants acknowledge that smoking is an increasingly unacceptable social behaviour but their understanding and acceptance of smokers vary. There is a strong sense of dislike about the impact of smoke and smokers on the shared hospital environment, with a focus on the hospital entrance

  18. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  19. Flow Quality Analysis of Shape Morphing Structures for Hypersonic Ground Testing Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Background: Shape morphing, high temperature, ceramic structural materials are now becoming available and can revolutionize ground testing by providing dynamic flow...

  20. Computer-aided mathematical analysis of probability of intercept for ground-based communication intercept system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Chul

    1989-09-01

    We develop a mathematical analysis model to calculate the probability of intercept (POI) for the ground-based communication intercept (COMINT) system. The POI is a measure of the effectiveness of the intercept system. We define the POI as the product of the probability of detection and the probability of coincidence. The probability of detection is a measure of the receiver's capability to detect a signal in the presence of noise. The probability of coincidence is the probability that an intercept system is available, actively listening in the proper frequency band, in the right direction and at the same time that the signal is received. We investigate the behavior of the POI with respect to the observation time, the separation distance, antenna elevations, the frequency of the signal, and the receiver bandwidths. We observe that the coincidence characteristic between the receiver scanning parameters and the signal parameters is the key factor to determine the time to obtain a given POI. This model can be used to find the optimal parameter combination to maximize the POI in a given scenario. We expand this model to a multiple system. This analysis is conducted on a personal computer to provide the portability. The model is also flexible and can be easily implemented under different situations.

  1. Characterization of Ground Displacement Sources from Variational Bayesian Independent Component Analysis of Space Geodetic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Adriano; Serpelloni, Enrico; Elina Belardinelli, Maria; Bonafede, Maurizio; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Tolomei, Cristiano

    2015-04-01

    A critical point in the analysis of ground displacement time series, as those measured by modern space geodetic techniques (primarly continuous GPS/GNSS and InSAR) is the development of data driven methods that allow to discern and characterize the different sources that generate the observed displacements. A widely used multivariate statistical technique is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which allows to reduce the dimensionality of the data space maintaining most of the variance of the dataset explained. It reproduces the original data using a limited number of Principal Components, but it also shows some deficiencies, since PCA does not perform well in finding the solution to the so-called Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem. The recovering and separation of the different sources that generate the observed ground deformation is a fundamental task in order to provide a physical meaning to the possible different sources. PCA fails in the BSS problem since it looks for a new Euclidean space where the projected data are uncorrelated. Usually, the uncorrelation condition is not strong enough and it has been proven that the BSS problem can be tackled imposing on the components to be independent. The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is, in fact, another popular technique adopted to approach this problem, and it can be used in all those fields where PCA is also applied. An ICA approach enables us to explain the displacement time series imposing a fewer number of constraints on the model, and to reveal anomalies in the data such as transient deformation signals. However, the independence condition is not easy to impose, and it is often necessary to introduce some approximations. To work around this problem, we use a variational bayesian ICA (vbICA) method, which models the probability density function (pdf) of each source signal using a mix of Gaussian distributions. This technique allows for more flexibility in the description of the pdf of the sources

  2. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    FernáNdez Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A. G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; GonzáLez GarcíA, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which approximates the fields incident on the ground interface as plane waves and calculates the time domain RC using the inverse Fourier transform of Fresnel equations. The implementation presented in this paper uses general expressions for the RC which extend its range of applicability to lossy grounds, and is proven to be accurate and fast for antennas located not too near to the ground. The resulting general purpose procedure, able to treat arbitrarily oriented thin-wire antennas, is appropriate for all kind of half-spaces, including lossy cases, and it has turned out to be as computationally fast solving the problem of an arbitrary ground as dealing with a perfect electric conductor ground plane. Results show a numerical validation of the method for different half-spaces, paying special attention to the influence of the antenna to ground distance in the accuracy of the results.

  3. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.

    2017-11-01

    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  4. Comparison of equivalent linear and non linear methods on ground response analysis: case study at West Bangka site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto; Eric Yee

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on the selected NPP site (West Bangka) using Deep Soil software. Equivalent linear method is widely used because requires soil data in simple way and short time of computational process. On the other hand, non linear method is capable of representing the actual soil behaviour by considering non linear soil parameter. The results showed that EQL method has similar trends to NL method. At surface layer, the acceleration values for EQL and NL methods are resulted as 0.425 g and 0.375 g respectively. NL method is more reliable in capturing higher frequencies of spectral acceleration compared to EQL method. (author)

  5. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  6. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  7. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and pressure systems; (iv) Electrical and non-ionizing radiation systems; and (v) Ionizing radiation...) Electrical and non-ionizing radiation ground support and checkout systems; (v) Ionizing radiation ground... each special interest issue, such as a high-risk situation or potential non-compliance with any...

  8. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakus Murat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13 has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different coefficients of friction. Experiments are run under certain conditions to check the accuracy of the numerical model. The natural frequencies are measured to describe free vibration and vibration of the tire contacted by ground, using a damping monitoring method. It is seen, that experimental and numerical results are in good agreement. On the other hand, investigating the impact of three different factors together is quite difficult on the natural frequencies. When some of these factors are assumed to be constant and the variables are taken one by one, it is easier to assess the effects.

  9. Analysis of the karst aquifer structure of the Lamalou area (Herault, France) with ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fares, W.; Bakalowicz, M.; Guerin, R.; Dukhan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The study site at Lamalou karst spring Hortus karst plateau) is situated 40 km north of Montpellier in France. It consists of a limestone plateau, drained by a karst conduit discharging as a spring. This conduit extends for a few dozen meters in fractured and karstified limestone rocks, 15 to 70 m below the surface. The conduit is accessible from the surface. The main goal of this study is to analyze the surface part of the karst and to highlight the karstic features and among them the conduit, and to test the performances of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a karstic environment. This method thus appears particularly well adapted to the analysis of the near-surface (<30 m in depth) structure of a karst, especially when clayey coating or soil that absorbs and attenuates the radar is rare and discontinuous. A GPR pulse EKKO 100 (Sensors and Software) was used on the site with a 50 MHz antenna frequency. The results highlight structures characterizing the karstic environment: The epikarst, bedding planes, fractured and karstified zones, compact and massive rock and karrens, a typical karst landform. One of the sections revealed in detail the main conduit located at a depth of 20 m, and made it possible to determine its geometry. This site offers possibilities of validation of GPR data by giving direct access to the karstic conduit and through two cored boreholes. These direct observations confirm the interpretation of all the GPR sections. (author

  10. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  11. Losses Analysis of Different Grounding Schemes for Transformer-less Wind Turbine with Full-Scale Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Teodorescu, Remus; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Following work examines IGBT power loss and temperature distribution with regard to specific grounding method for the future concept of transformer-less offshore wind turbine. Analysis is performed via steady-state IGBT power loss estimator, which is made based on averaging of repetitive pulse...... cycles. Obtained results are validated with the experimental test set-up consisting of high power IGBTs....

  12. Explaining transgression in respiratory rate observation methods in the emergency department: A classic grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Tracy; Dwyer, Trudy; Applegarth, Judith

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal respiratory rates are one of the first indicators of clinical deterioration in emergency department(ED) patients. Despite the importance of respiratory rate observations, this vital sign is often inaccurately recorded on ED observation charts, compromising patient safety. Concurrently, there is a paucity of research reporting why this phenomenon occurs. To develop a substantive theory explaining ED registered nurses' reasoning when they miss or misreport respiratory rate observations. This research project employed a classic grounded theory analysis of qualitative data. Seventy-nine registered nurses currently working in EDs within Australia. Data collected included detailed responses from individual interviews and open-ended responses from an online questionnaire. Classic grounded theory (CGT) research methods were utilised, therefore coding was central to the abstraction of data and its reintegration as theory. Constant comparison synonymous with CGT methods were employed to code data. This approach facilitated the identification of the main concern of the participants and aided in the generation of theory explaining how the participants processed this issue. The main concern identified is that ED registered nurses do not believe that collecting an accurate respiratory rate for ALL patients at EVERY round of observations is a requirement, and yet organizational requirements often dictate that a value for the respiratory rate be included each time vital signs are collected. The theory 'Rationalising Transgression', explains how participants continually resolve this problem. The study found that despite feeling professionally conflicted, nurses often erroneously record respiratory rate observations, and then rationalise this behaviour by employing strategies that adjust the significance of the organisational requirement. These strategies include; Compensating, when nurses believe they are compensating for errant behaviour by enhancing the patient's outcome

  13. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  14. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  15. Charge analysis on lightning discharges to the ground in Chinese inland plateau (close to Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qie

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the summer of 1996, scientists from China and Japan have conducted a joint observation of natural cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in the Zhongchuan area that is located close to Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet Plateau, China. It has been found that the long-duration of intracloud discharge processes, just before the first return stroke, lasted more than 120 ms for 85% of cloud-to-ground flashes in this area, with a mean duration of 189.7 ms and a maximum of 300 ms. We present the results of charge sources neutralized by four ground flashes and two intracloud discharge processes, just before the first return stroke, by using the data from a 5-site slow antenna network synchronized by GPS with 1 µs time resolution. The result shows that the altitudes of the neutralized negative charge for three negative ground flashes were between 2.7 to 5.4 km above the ground, while that of neutralized positive charges for one positive ground flash and one continuing current process were at about 2.0 km above the ground. The comparison with radar echo showed that the negative discharges initiated in the region greater than 20 dBZ or near the edge of the region with intense echoes greater than 40 dBZ, while positive discharge initiated in the weak echo region.Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; convective processes; lightning  

  16. Coastal change analysis of Lovells Island using high resolution ground based LiDAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jennifer K.

    Many methods have been employed to study coastline change. These methods range from historical map analysis to GPS surveys to modern airborne LiDAR and satellite imagery. These previously used methods can be time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive and have varying degrees of accuracy and temporal coverage. Additionally, it is often difficult to apply such techniques in direct response to an isolated event within an appropriate temporal framework. Here we utilize a new ground based Canopy Biomass LiDAR (CBL) system built at The University of Massachusetts Boston (in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology) in order to identify and analyze coastal change on Lovells Island, Boston Harbor. Surveys of a bluff developing in an eroding drumlin and beach cusps on a high-energy cobble beach on Lovells Island were conducted in June, September and December of 2013. At each site for each survey, the CBL was set up and multiple scans of each feature were taken on a predetermined transect that was established parallel to the high-water mark at distances relative to the scale of the bluff and cusps. The scans from each feature were compiled, integrated and visualized using Meshlab. Results from our surveys indicate that the highly portable and easy to deploy CBL system produces images of exceptional clarity, with the capacity to resolve small-scale changes to coastal features and systems. The CBL, while still under development (and coastal surveying protocols with it are just being established), appears to be an ideal tool for analyzing coastal geological features and is anticipated to prove to be a useful tool for the observation and analysis of coastal change. Furthermore, there is significant potential for utilizing the low cost ultra-portable CBL in frequent deployments to develop small-scale erosion rate and sediment budget analyses.

  17. Quantitative CT analysis of pulmonary pure ground-glass nodule predicts histological invasiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiong, E-mail: liqiongsmmu2008@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, NO. 415, Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Li, E-mail: fanli0930@163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, NO. 415, Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cao, En-Tao, E-mail: cet123cs@126.com [Department of Radiology, Suzhou Municipal Hospital (East District), No.16 West Baita Road, Suzhu, Jiangsu Province 215001 (China); Li, Qing-Chu, E-mail: Wudi327@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, NO. 415, Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gu, Ya-Feng, E-mail: 2528473557@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, NO. 415, Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Shi−Yuan, E-mail: liusy1186@163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, NO. 415, Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To assess whether quantitative computed tomography (CT) can help predict histological invasiveness of pulmonary adenocarcinoma appearing as pure ground glass nodules (pGGNs). Methods: A total of 110 pulmonary pGGNs were retrospectively evaluated, and pathologically classified as pre-invasive lesions, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma (IPA). Maximum nodule diameters, largest cross-sectional areas, volumes, mean CT values, weights, and CT attenuation values at the 0th,2th,5th, 25th, 50th,75th, 95th, 98th and100th percentiles on histogram, as well as 2th to 98th, 5th to 95th, 25th to 75th,and 0th to 100thslopes, respectively, were compared among the three groups. Results: Of the 110 pGGNs, 50, 28, and 32 were pre-invasive lesions, MIA, and IPA, respectively. Maximum nodule diameters, largest cross-sectional areas, andmass weights were significantly larger in the IPA group than in pre-invasive lesions. The 95th, 98th, 100th percentiles, and 2th to 98th, 25th to 75th, and 0th to 100thslopes were significantly different between pre-invasive lesions and MIA or IPA. Logistic regression analysis showed that the maximum nodule diameter (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.071–1.366, p < 0.01) and 100th percentile on histogram (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.009–1.032, p < 0.001) independently predicted histological invasiveness. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of CT imaging can predict histological invasiveness of pGGNs, especiallythe maximum nodule diameter and 100th percentile on CT number histogram; this can instruct the long-term follow-up and selective surgical management.

  18. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprykina Irina А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb. The core (48% consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%, tin or triple bronze (40%; it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%. As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products require further research.

  19. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  20. An analysis of solar assisted ground source heat pumps in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Galgaro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The work focuses on solar assisted ground source heat pump in cold climates. • Multi-year simulations of SAGSHP, are carried out in six cold locations. • GSHP and SAGSHP are compared. • The effect of total borehole length on the heat pump energy efficiency is studied. • A dedicated control strategy is used to manage both solar and ground loops. - Abstract: Exploiting renewable energy sources for air-conditioning has been extensively investigated over recent years, and many countries have been working to promote the use of renewable energy to decrease energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. Electrical heat pumps currently represent the most promising technology to reduce fossil fuel usage. While ground source heat pumps, which use free heat sources, have been taking significant steps forward and despite the fact that their energy performance is better than that of air source heat pumps, their development has been limited by their high initial investment cost. An alternative solution is one that uses solar thermal collectors coupled with a ground source heat pump in a so-called solar assisted ground source heat pump. A ground source heat pump system, used to heat environments located in a cold climate, was investigated in this study. The solar assisted ground source heat pump extracted heat from the ground by means of borehole heat exchangers and it injected excess solar thermal energy into the ground. Building load profiles are usually heating dominated in cold climates, but when common ground source heat pump systems are used only for heating, their performance decreases due to an unbalanced ground load. Solar thermal collectors can help to ensure that systems installed in cold zones perform more efficiently. Computer simulations using a Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) tool were carried out in six cold locations in order to investigate solar assisted ground source heat pumps. The effect of the borehole length on the energy efficiency of

  1. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: pyisoethein@yahoo.com [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  2. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Analysis of Power-Ground Planes Taking Into Account Decoupling Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is developed to analyze the power-ground planes taking into account the decoupling capacitors. In the presence of decoupling capacitors, the whole physical system can be split

  3. Performance analysis on a large scale borehole ground source heat pump in Tianjin cultural centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan; Wu, Xiaoting

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the temperature distribution of the geothermal field for the vertical borehole ground-coupled heat pump was tested and analysed. Besides the borehole ground-coupled heat pump, the system composed of the ice storage, heat supply network and cooling tower. According to the operation data for nearly three years, the temperature constant zone is in the ground depth of 40m -120m with a temperature gradient of about 3.0°C/100m. The temperature of the soil dropped significantly in the heating season, increased significantly in the cooling season, and reinstated in the transitional season. With the energy balance design of the heating and cooling and the existence of the soil thermal inertia, the soil temperature stayed in a relative stable range and the ground source heat pump system was operated with a relative high efficiency. The geothermal source heat pump was shown to be applicable for large scale utilization.

  4. TCM Analysis of Defected Ground Structures for MIMO Antenna Designs in Mobile Terminals

    KAUST Repository

    Ghalib, Asim; Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of characteristic modes (TCM) is used for the first time to analyze the behavior of defected ground structures (DGS) when added to antenna designs. A properly designed DGS introduces currents opposite in direction

  5. Seismic Hazard Analysis based on Earthquake Vulnerability and Peak Ground Acceleration using Microseismic Method at Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiawan, H.; Supriyadi; Yulianti, I.

    2017-02-01

    Microseismic is a harmonic vibration of land that occurs continuously at a low frequency. The characteristics of microseismic represents the characteristics of the soil layer based on the value of its natural frequency. This paper presents the analysis of seismic hazard at Universitas Negeri Semarang using microseismic method. The data acquisition was done at 20 points with distance between points 300 m by using three component’s seismometer. The data was processed using Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method to obtain the natural frequency and amplification value. The value of the natural frequency and amplification used to determine the value of the earthquake vulnerability and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The result shows then the earthquake vulnerability value range from 0.2 to 7.5, while the value of the average peak ground acceleration (PGA) is in the range 10-24 gal. Therefore, the average peak ground acceleration equal to earthquake intensity IV MMI scale.

  6. Experimental performance analysis of a direct-expansion ground source heat pump in Xiangtan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The DX GSHP (direct-expansion ground source heat pump), which uses a buried copper piping network through which refrigerant is circulated, is one type of GSHP (ground source heat pump). This study investigates the performance characteristics of a vertical U-bend direct-expansion ground source (geothermal) heat pump system (DX GSHPS) for both heating and cooling. Compared with the conventional GCHP (ground coupled heat pump) system, the DX GSHP system is more efficient, with lower thermal resistance in the GHE (ground heat exchanger) and a lower (higher) condensing (evaporating) temperature in the cooling (heating) mode. In addition, the system performance of the whole DX GSHP system is also higher than that of the conventional GCHP system. A DX GSHP system in Xiangtan, China with a U-bend ground heat exchanger 42 m deep with a nominal outside diameter of 12.7 mm buried in a water well was tested and analysed. The results showed that the performance of this system is very high. The maximum (average) COPs of the system were found to be 6.08 (4.73) and 6.32 (5.03) in the heating and cooling modes, respectively. - Highlights: • The reasons for the higher performance of the DX GSHP (direct-expansion ground source heat pump) are analysed theoretically compared with the conventional GCHP (ground coupled heat pump). • The experimental performance of a DX GSHP system is investigated, which makes a valuable contribution to the literature. • The study is helpful in demonstrating the energy efficiency of the DX GSHP system

  7. Precise ground motion measurements to support multi-hazard analysis in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2015-04-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. Flood events have been increasing in severity during the past decade. The February 2007 event inundated 235 Km2 (about 36%) of the city, by up to seven meters in some areas. This event affected more than 2.6 million people; the estimated financial and economic losses from this event amounted to US900 million [1][2]. Inundations continue to occur under any sustained rainfall conditions. Flood events in Jakarta are expected to become more frequent in coming years, with a shift from previously slow natural processes with low frequency to a high frequency process resulting in severe socio-economic damage. Land subsidence in Jakarta results in increased vulnerability to flooding due to the reduced gravitational capacity to channel storm flows to the sea and an increased risk of tidal flooding. It continues at increasingly alarming rates, principally caused by intensive deep groundwater abstraction [3]. Recent studies have found typical subsidence rates of 7.5-10 cm a year. In localized areas of north Jakarta subsidence in the range 15-25 cm a year is occurring which, if sustained, would result in them sinking to 4-5 m below sea level by 2025 [3]. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion measurements with millimetric precision and high accuracy [4]. Within the RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk) project, ALTAMIRA INFORMATION will apply GlobalSARTM to assess recent land subsidence in Jakarta, based on the processing of Very High

  8. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating

  9. Quantitative analysis of ground penetrating radar data in the Mu Us Sandland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Tan, Lihua; Wu, Yongqiu; Wen, Yanglei; Li, Dawei; Duan, Jinlong

    2018-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), which can reveal the sedimentary structure and development process of dunes, is widely used to evaluate aeolian landforms. The interpretations for GPR profiles are mostly based on qualitative descriptions of geometric features of the radar reflections. This research quantitatively analyzed the waveform parameter characteristics of different radar units by extracting the amplitude and time interval parameters of GPR data in the Mu Us Sandland in China, and then identified and interpreted different sedimentary structures. The results showed that different types of radar units had specific waveform parameter characteristics. The main waveform parameter characteristics of sand dune radar facies and sandstone radar facies included low amplitudes and wide ranges of time intervals, ranging from 0 to 0.25 and 4 to 33 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed gradually with time intervals. The amplitude distribution curves of various sand dune radar facies were similar as unimodal distributions. The radar surfaces showed high amplitudes with time intervals concentrated in high-value areas, ranging from 0.08 to 0.61 and 9 to 34 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed drastically with time intervals. The amplitude and time interval values of lacustrine radar facies were between that of sand dune radar facies and radar surfaces, ranging from 0.08 to 0.29 and 11 to 30 ns respectively, and the mean amplitude and time interval curve was approximately trapezoidal. The quantitative extraction and analysis of GPR reflections could help distinguish various radar units and provide evidence for identifying sedimentary structure in aeolian landforms.

  10. Stochastic ground-water flow analysis FY-81 status report. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Vail, L.W.; Devary, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a research computational package for the stochastic analysis of ground-water flow. Both unsteady and steady-state analysis were examined, and a steady-state research code was developed for the study of stochastic processes. This report describes the theoretical development of both unsteady and steady analyses, and presents the preliminary studies undertaken to verify and exercise the encoded algorithm. The stochastic analysis of ground-water flow is a promising new method which can supply more comprehensive analyses of the ground-water environment. The work reported herein provided experience in the methodology while producing a research-oriented stochastic analysis capability. Single-layer aquifers of horizontal extent were selected for this effort. Kriging has been employed to describe the uncertainty in field data. The resulting stochastic parameters enter the problem physics through boundary conditions and Darcy's equation. The mean and variance of the piezometric head are estimated by the stochastic analysis

  11. Charge analysis on lightning discharges to the ground in Chinese inland plateau (close to Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qie

    Full Text Available Since the summer of 1996, scientists from China and Japan have conducted a joint observation of natural cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in the Zhongchuan area that is located close to Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet Plateau, China. It has been found that the long-duration of intracloud discharge processes, just before the first return stroke, lasted more than 120 ms for 85% of cloud-to-ground flashes in this area, with a mean duration of 189.7 ms and a maximum of 300 ms. We present the results of charge sources neutralized by four ground flashes and two intracloud discharge processes, just before the first return stroke, by using the data from a 5-site slow antenna network synchronized by GPS with 1 µs time resolution. The result shows that the altitudes of the neutralized negative charge for three negative ground flashes were between 2.7 to 5.4 km above the ground, while that of neutralized positive charges for one positive ground flash and one continuing current process were at about 2.0 km above the ground. The comparison with radar echo showed that the negative discharges initiated in the region greater than 20 dBZ or near the edge of the region with intense echoes greater than 40 dBZ, while positive discharge initiated in the weak echo region.

    Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; convective processes; lightning

     

  12. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  13. Analysis and Improvement of Adaptive Coefficient Third Harmonic Voltage Differential Stator Grounding Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel third harmonic voltage differential stator grounding protection (THV-DSGP method combining the adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient. It can solve the protection sensitivity degradation problem when the insulation resistance of stator winding to ground is slowly declining. This protection method retains the advantages of the adaptive coefficient, which is to maintain high sensitivity in case of an instantaneous ground fault. Moreover, the fixed coefficient can remember the initial insulation state of the stator winding and prevent relay failure when the stator insulation is slowly declining. In addition, due to zero-sequence voltage disconnection (ZSVD often leading to malfunctioning of the THV stator ground protection, the existing criterion of the ZSVD was improved according to the electrical characteristics of the generator when ZSVD happens. THV-DSGP with both adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient was simulated in the Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the proposed protection can be applied to the slow ground fault of the stator winding. Furthermore, the improved criterion of ZSVD can effectively distinguish the stator metal earth fault and the secondary loop break of the zero-sequence voltage.

  14. Error Analysis of Relative Calibration for RCS Measurement on Ground Plane Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Peng-fei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground plane range is a kind of outdoor Radar Cross Section (RCS test range used for static measurement of full-size or scaled targets. Starting from the characteristics of ground plane range, the impact of environments on targets and calibrators is analyzed during calibration in the RCS measurements. The error of relative calibration produced by the different illumination of target and calibrator is studied. The relative calibration technique used in ground plane range is to place the calibrator on a fixed and auxiliary pylon somewhere between the radar and the target under test. By considering the effect of ground reflection and antenna pattern, the relationship between the magnitude of echoes and the position of calibrator is discussed. According to the different distances between the calibrator and target, the difference between free space and ground plane range is studied and the error of relative calibration is calculated. Numerical simulation results are presented with useful conclusions. The relative calibration error varies with the position of calibrator, frequency and antenna beam width. In most case, set calibrator close to the target may keep the error under control.

  15. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  16. Generation of Earthquake Ground Motion Considering Local Site Effects and Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ancient Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Lee, J. S.; Yang, T. S.; Cho, J. R.; R, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    In order to establish a correct correlation between them, mechanical characteristics of the ancient structures need to be investigated. Since sedimentary basins are preferred dwelling sites in ancient times, it is necessary to perform SSI analysis to derive correct correlation between the damage and ground motion intensity. Contents of Project are as follows: (1) Generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. (2) Analysis of seismic response of sedimentary basin. (3) Soil-structure interaction analysis of ancient structures (4) Investigation of dynamic response characteristics of ancient structure considering soil-structure interaction effects. A procedure is presented for generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. The simulation method proposed by Boore is used to generate the outcropping rock motion. The free field motion at the soil site is obtained by a convolution analysis. And for the study of wood structures, a nonlinear SDOF model is developed. The effects of soil-structure interaction on the behavior of the wood structures are found to be very minor. But the response can be significantly affected due to the intensity and frequency contents of the input motion. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  17. A transit timing analysis with combined ground- and space-based photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raetz St.

    2015-01-01

    The CoRoT satellite looks back on six years of high precision photometry of a very high number of stars. Thousands of transiting events are detected from which 27 were confirmed to be transiting planets so far. In my research I search and analyze TTVs in the CoRoT sample and combine the unprecedented precision of the light curves with ground-based follow-up photometry. Because CoRoT can observe transiting planets only for a maximum duration of 150 days the ground-based follow-up can help to refine the ephemeris. Here we present first examples.

  18. Molecular polymorphism as a tool for differentiating ground beetles (Carabus species): application of ubiquitin PCR/SSCP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boge, A; Gerstmeier, R; Einspanier, R

    1994-11-01

    Differentiation between Carabus species (ground beetle) and subspecies is difficult, although there have been extensive studies. To address this problem we have applied PCR in combination with SSCP analysis focussing on the evolutionally conservative ubiquitin gene to elaborate a new approach to molecular differentiation between species. We report that Carabidae possess an ubiquitin gene and that its gene has a multimeric structure. Differential SSCP analysis was performed with the monomeric form of the gene to generate a clear SSCP pattern. Such PCR/SSCP resulted in reproducible patterns throughout our experiments. Comparing different Carabus species (Carabus granulatus, C. irregularis, C. violaceus and C. auronitens) we could observe clear interspecies differences but no differences between genders. Some species showed some remarkable differences between the individuals. We suggest that the ubiquitin PCR-SSCP technique might be an additional tool for the differentiation of ground beetles.

  19. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  20. Effects of Prophylactic Ankle Supports on Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Landing: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu, Tienan Feng, Lejun Wang, Chenghua Jiang, Ming Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate on how prophylactic ankle supports (PASs may influence the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF during landing. Therefore, the primary aims of this meta-analysis were to systematically review and synthesize the effect of PASs on vGRF, and to understand how PASs affect vGRF peaks (F1, F2 and the time from initial contact to peak loading (T1, T2 during landing. Several key databases, including Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Physical Activity Index, were used for identifying relevant studies published in English since inception to April 1, 2015. The computerized literature search and cross-referencing the citation list of the articles yielded 3,993 articles. Criteria for inclusion required that 1 the study was conducted on healthy adults; 2 the subject number and trial number were known; 3 the subjects performed landing with and without PAS; 4 the landing movement was in the sagittal plane; 5 the comparable vGRF parameters were reported; and 6 the F1 and F2 must be normalized to the subject’s body weight. After the removal of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 6, 6, 15 and 11 studies were respectively pooled for outcomes of F1, T1, F2 and T2. This study found a significantly increased F2 (.03 BW, 95% CI: .001, .05 and decreased T1 (-1.24 ms, 95% CI: -1.77, -.71 and T2 (-3.74 ms, 95% CI: -4.83, -2.65 with the use of a PAS. F1 was not significantly influenced by the PAS. Heterogeneity was present in some results, but there was no evidence of publication bias for any outcome. These changes represented deterioration in the buffering characteristics of the joint. An ideal PAS design should limit the excessive joint motion of ankle inversion, while allowing a normal range of motion, especially in the sagittal plane.

  1. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M. P.; Wasyl, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples

  2. Comparison and analysis of release scenarios for ground disposal of various nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Sadahiro; Nakai, Kunihiro

    1985-01-01

    This report is aimed at comparing and analyzing the concept and evaluation methods of varuous foreign countries concerning their release scenarios for ground disposal of low- and high-level radioactive wastes in order to provide helpful information to be used in developing release scenarios for Japan. The groundwater release scenario and human intrusion scenario should particularly be well examined in considering shallow ground disposal of low-level wastes. Assessment of the leaching rate is important for a groundwater release scenario. Experimental data and verification tests are required to support the simplified model to be used for safety assessment. Evaluation of the radioactive nucleide inventory is also important for ground disposal of low-level wastes. An evaluation system should be established as soon as possible. For ground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, on the other hand, it will become increasingly important to establish performance assessment models for practical evaluation of the rate of release from the engineered barrier and to collect test and verification data for suporting them. (Nogami, K.)

  3. STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE TO EVALUATE THE SOURCE OF TBA IN GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared those of the conventional fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In the year 2002, th...

  4. Analysis of Ground-Wind Vortex Sensing System Data from O'Hare International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    From July 1976 through September 1977, aircraft wake vortex data were collected on the approach to runways 14R, 27R, and 32L at O'Hare International Airport. The vortices from over 21,000 aircraft were tracked using the propeller anemometer Ground-Wi...

  5. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models.

  6. Relativistic analysis of nuclear ground state densities at 135 to 200 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fitting of differential cross-section and analyzing power, and the appearance of wine-bottle- ... So, the effect of different nuclear density distributions is quite conspicuous in the relativistic ap- proach. Hence, we have analyzed five different nuclear ground state .... The NEG and FNEG densities have been used to see the effect.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DISSOLVED METHANE, ETHANE, AND ETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER BY A STANDARD GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of dissolved gases such as methane, ethane, and ethylene in ground water is important in determining whether intrinsic bioremediation is occurring in a fuel- or solvent-contaminated aquifer. A simple procedure is described for the collection and subsequent analys...

  8. Analysis of propeller-induced ground vortices by particle image velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The interaction between a propeller and its self-induced vortices originating on the ground is investigated in a scaled experiment. The velocity distribution in the flow field in two different planes containing the self-induced vortices is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  9. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  10. Transitory and steady analysis of grounding structures using the LN-FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Melo e Silva de; Souza Sobrinho, Carlos Leonidas da S. [Federal University of Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.], Emails: rodrigo@lane.ufpa.br, leonidas@ufpa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work presents an overview of the LN-FDTD method (FDTD in local and non orthogonal coordinate system) to solve Maxwell's Equations. This method has been used to simulate curved grounding structures. Results are obtained by employing the presented methodology and they are compared to reference equations available in literature. (author)

  11. Air-ground temperature coupling: analysis by means of Thermal Orbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Bodri, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-122 ISSN 2160-0414 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0183; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13040 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Thermal Orbits * temperature monitoring * air temperature vs ground temperature Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  12. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  13. Analysis of the charge exchange between the human body and ground: evaluation of "earthing" from an electrical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Kent; Smith, Wayne; Chirgwin, Christopher; Appasani, Seshank; Rioux, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "earthing" from an electrical perspective through measurement and analysis of the naturally occurring electron flow between the human body or a control and ground as this relates to the magnitude of the charge exchange, the relationship between the charge exchange and body functions (respiration and heart rate), and the detection of other information that might be contained in the charge exchange. Sensitive, low-noise instrumentation was designed and fabricated to measure low-level current flow at low frequencies. This instrumentation was used to record current flow between human subjects or a control and ground, and these measurements were performed approximately 40 times under varied circumstances. The results of these measurements were analyzed to determine if information was contained in the current exchange. The currents flowing between the human body and ground were small (nanoamperes), and they correlated with subject motion. There did not appear to be any information contained in this exchange except for information about subject motion. This study showed that currents flow between the environment (earth) and a grounded human body; however, these currents are small (nanoamperes) and do not appear to contain information other than information about subject motion.

  14. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low-Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts (SMEs) have been tasked with developing the ground-test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototypes will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3. This paper describes the process by which the ground test protocol was developed and the objectives, methods, and metrics by which the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts will be rigorously and systematically evaluated. The protocol has been developed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. Top-down development began with the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) exploration objectives and ISS Exploration Capability Study Team (IECST) candidate flight objectives. Strategic

  15. A Multipixel Time Series Analysis Method Accounting for Ground Motion, Atmospheric Noise, and Orbital Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, R.; Simons, M.

    2018-02-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar time series methods aim to reconstruct time-dependent ground displacements over large areas from sets of interferograms in order to detect transient, periodic, or small-amplitude deformation. Because of computational limitations, most existing methods consider each pixel independently, ignoring important spatial covariances between observations. We describe a framework to reconstruct time series of ground deformation while considering all pixels simultaneously, allowing us to account for spatial covariances, imprecise orbits, and residual atmospheric perturbations. We describe spatial covariances by an exponential decay function dependent of pixel-to-pixel distance. We approximate the impact of imprecise orbit information and residual long-wavelength atmosphere as a low-order polynomial function. Tests on synthetic data illustrate the importance of incorporating full covariances between pixels in order to avoid biased parameter reconstruction. An example of application to the northern Chilean subduction zone highlights the potential of this method.

  16. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  17. Seismic hazard analysis. Review panel, ground motion panel, and feedback results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern U.S. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern U.S. Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. (author)

  18. Model track studies on fouled ballast using ground penetrating radar and multichannel analysis of surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn

    2011-08-01

    Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.

  19. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Bodri, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2018), s. 145-152 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0183; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13040 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geothermics * climate change * ground-air temperature offset * soil temperature * temperature monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  20. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  1. The on-ground acquisition and data analysis system for the PDS detector on board the SAX satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Fiume, D.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.; Trifoglio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Phoswich Detection System (PDS) is the high-energy (15-300 keV) instrument on board the Italian-Dutch X-ray astronomy satellite SAX. Functional tests were carried out at BICRON (Newbury, Ohio USA) and at LABEN (Vimodrone Italy). Full ground calibrations have been performed between the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995. The authors describe in the following the system that they used to acquire and analyse the data coming from the PDS experiment during the ground tests and calibration. It will be used to store and maintain data during both the pre-operational and the operational phases. In a previous report (Dal Fiume D., Frontera F., Orlandini M., and Trifoglio M., AIP Conf. Proc., 61 (1994) 395) they described the general architecture of the data analysis system. In this report they give a detailed description of the entire system, including the hardware and software developed by LABEN to acquire data during on-ground tests. A complete description of the different modules, user interface, inter-process communications, analysis and display tools are presented. Current status of the project is discussed

  2. Preliminary analysis of the Late Natufian ground stone from Shubayqa 1, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Nørskov Pedersen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shubayqa 1 is a newly identified early and late Natufian site in the harra desert of northeastern Jordan. In addition to buildings, and rich chipped stone, faunal, and botanical assemblages, the site has produced a large collection of ground stone tools. This paper presents the result of a preliminary study of the ground stone artefacts associated with the late Natufian phase. Results indicate that while the assemblage is overall very similar to other Natufian sites in the Mediterranean zone, there are also some notable differences. Although grinding rather than pounding tools appear to be more important at the site, many tools were seemingly involved in both grinding and pounding activities. We hypothesize that this dual function could be explained by the processing of rhizome tubers, which were found in abundance at the site, and which may have represented an important food source for the inhabitants. In addition, we argue that the relationship between ground stone tools and cereal processing has been overemphasized and the processing of other plant food resources, in this case tubers could have been equally significant. While the processing of plant foods was one function, many tools are also associated with pigment stains, suggesting that they were involved in the processing of non-vegetal matter.

  3. Analysis on traditional fishing grounds in Indonesia`s Natuna waters under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniaty, R.; Ikaningtyas; Ruslijanto, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the boundary tension between Indonesia and China regarding traditional fishing ground in Natuna. Indonesia`s Natuna island is claimed by the China government as its traditional fishing zone/ground. The inclusion of Natuna territory into China`s traditional fishing zone brings new problems to Indonesia, especially with the Chinese ships docked and entered Indonesia`s exclusive economic zone, as well as several cases of illegal fishing over the territorial waters of Indonesia. Claims on traditional fishing zones have the potential to threaten the sovereignty of the Indonesian territory. This study aims to analyze the claims of the traditional fishing rights of China over the waters of the Natuna Islands under international law, especially UNCLOS 1982. This study revealed that the china`s argument of traditional fishing ground in Natuna to the nine dash line map is a unilateral claim, there is no international legal norm that can be used as the legal basis. Indonesia and some ASEAN countries have Internationally validated bilateral agreement on the continental shelf (i.e. Indonesia-Vietnam and Indonesia-Malaysia) thus the inclusion of Natuna into China`s nine dash line map rejects the legal status of Indonesian water under UNCLOS 1982.

  4. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...... by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Keyword: Thermal pollution,Summer months,Advanced-along track scanning radiometers,Urban heat island,Remote sensing,Canopy layer,Atmospheric temperature,Ground based sensors,Weather information services,Satellite remote sensing,Infra-red sensor,Weather stations...

  5. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  6. Analysis of the variability in ground-motion synthesis and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Paul A.; Cirella, Antonella; Scognamiglio, Laura; Tinti, Elisa

    2017-12-07

    In almost all past inversions of large-earthquake ground motions for rupture behavior, the goal of the inversion is to find the “best fitting” rupture model that predicts ground motions which optimize some function of the difference between predicted and observed ground motions. This type of inversion was pioneered in the linear-inverse sense by Olson and Apsel (1982), who minimized the square of the difference between observed and simulated motions (“least squares”) while simultaneously minimizing the rupture-model norm (by setting the null-space component of the rupture model to zero), and has been extended in many ways, one of which is the use of nonlinear inversion schemes such as simulated annealing algorithms that optimize some other misfit function. For example, the simulated annealing algorithm of Piatanesi and others (2007) finds the rupture model that minimizes a “cost” function which combines a least-squares and a waveform-correlation measure of misfit.All such inversions that look for a unique “best” model have at least three problems. (1) They have removed the null-space component of the rupture model—that is, an infinite family of rupture models that all fit the data equally well have been narrowed down to a single model. Some property of interest in the rupture model might have been discarded in this winnowing process. (2) Smoothing constraints are commonly used to yield a unique “best” model, in which case spatially rough rupture models will have been discarded, even if they provide a good fit to the data. (3) No estimate of confidence in the resulting rupture models can be given because the effects of unknown errors in the Green’s functions (“theory errors”) have not been assessed. In inversion for rupture behavior, these theory errors are generally larger than the data errors caused by ground noise and instrumental limitations, and so overfitting of the data is probably ubiquitous for such inversions.Recently, attention

  7. Nonlinear interaction analysis of RC cylindrical tank with subsoil by adopting two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiński, Paweł M.; Dudziak, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    In the paper, two kinds of constitutive models for ground and structure were adopted for the nonlinear interaction analysis of the RC cylindrical tank with subsoil. The paper discusses deformational and incremental approaches to a nonlinear FE analysis of soil-structure interaction including the description of behaviour of the RC structure and the subsoil under short-term loading. Moreover, a non-linear elastic-brittle-plastic analysis of RC axisymmetric structures using finite element iterative techniques is presented. The constitutive laws for concrete and subsoil are developed in compliance with the deformational and plastic flow theories of plasticity. Two examples of an FE analysis of soil-structure interaction were performed and the results were analysed.

  8. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling in Porous Ground - Measurements and Analysis for On-Site-Inspection Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Gorschlüter, Felix; Altmann, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    During on-site inspections (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) a local seismic network can be installed to measure seismic aftershock signals of an assumed underground nuclear explosion. These signals are caused by relaxation processes in and near the cavity created by the explosion and when detected can lead to a localisation of the cavity. This localisation is necessary to take gas samples from the ground which are analysed for radioactive noble gas isotopes to confirm or dismiss the suspicion of a nuclear test. The aftershock signals are of very low magnitude so they can be masked by different sources, in particular periodic disturbances caused by vehicles and aircraft in the inspection area. Vehicles and aircraft (mainly helicopters) will be used for the inspection activities themselves, e.g. for overhead imagery or magnetic-anomaly sensing. While vehicles in contact with the ground can excite soil vibrations directly, aircraft and vehicles alike emit acoustic waves which excite soil vibrations when hitting the ground. These disturbing signals are of periodic nature while the seismic aftershock signals are pulse-shaped, so their separation is possible. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is yet incomplete, a better understanding is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. In a project funded by the Young Scientist Research Award of the CTBTO to one of us (ML), we investigated the acoustic-seismic coupling of airborne signals of jet aircraft and artificially induced ones by a speaker. During a measurement campaign several acoustic and seismic sensors were placed below the take-off trajectory of an airport at 4 km distance. Therefore taking off and landing jet aircraft passed nearly straightly above the setup. Microphones were placed close to the ground to record the sound pressure of incident

  9. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  10. Retrieval and analysis of atmospheric XCO2 using ground-based spectral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Chun; Lei, Li-Ping; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Masafumi, Ohashi; Takahiro, Kuroki; Zeng, Zhao-Cheng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 column concentration (column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide) data obtained by ground-based hyperspectral observation is an important source of data for the verification and improvement of the results of CO2 retrieval based on satellite hyperspectral observation. However, few studies have been conducted on atmospheric CO2 column concentration retrieval based on ground-based spectral hyperspectral observation in China. In the present study, we carried out the ground-based hyperspectral observation in Xilingol Grassland, Inner Mongolia of China by using an observation system which is consisted of an optical spectral analyzer, a sun tracker, and some other elements. The atmospheric CO2 column concentration was retrieved using the observed hyperspectral data. The effect of a wavelength shift of the observation spectra and the meteorological parameters on the retrieval precision of the atmospheric CO2 concentration was evaluated and analyzed. The results show that the mean value of atmospheric CO2 concentration was 390.9 microg x mL(-1) in the study area during the observing period from July to September. The shift of wavelength in the range between -0.012 and 0.042 nm will generally lead to 1 microg x mL(-1) deviation in the CO2 retrievals. This study also revealed that the spectral transmittance was sensitive to meteorological parameters in the wavelength range of 6 357-6 358, 6 360-6 361, and 6 363-6 364 cm(-1). By comparing the CO2 retrievals derived from the meteorological parameters observed in synchronous and non-synchronous time, respectively, with the spectral observation, it was showed that the concentration deviation caused by using the non-synchronously observed meteorological parameters is ranged from 0.11 to 4 microg x mL(-1). These results can be used as references for the further improvement of retrieving CO2 column concentration based on spectral observation.

  11. Automated cloud classification using a ground based infra-red camera and texture analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Emal; Kerr, David; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Sandford, Andrew P.; Brettle, Mike J.

    2013-10-01

    Clouds play an important role in influencing the dynamics of local and global weather and climate conditions. Continuous monitoring of clouds is vital for weather forecasting and for air-traffic control. Convective clouds such as Towering Cumulus (TCU) and Cumulonimbus clouds (CB) are associated with thunderstorms, turbulence and atmospheric instability. Human observers periodically report the presence of CB and TCU clouds during operational hours at airports and observatories; however such observations are expensive and time limited. Robust, automatic classification of cloud type using infrared ground-based instrumentation offers the advantage of continuous, real-time (24/7) data capture and the representation of cloud structure in the form of a thermal map, which can greatly help to characterise certain cloud formations. The work presented here utilised a ground based infrared (8-14 μm) imaging device mounted on a pan/tilt unit for capturing high spatial resolution sky images. These images were processed to extract 45 separate textural features using statistical and spatial frequency based analytical techniques. These features were used to train a weighted k-nearest neighbour (KNN) classifier in order to determine cloud type. Ground truth data were obtained by inspection of images captured simultaneously from a visible wavelength colour camera at the same installation, with approximately the same field of view as the infrared device. These images were classified by a trained cloud observer. Results from the KNN classifier gave an encouraging success rate. A Probability of Detection (POD) of up to 90% with a Probability of False Alarm (POFA) as low as 16% was achieved.

  12. Regression analysis of MCS Intensity and peak ground motion data in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, L.; Michelini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Intensity scales are historically important because no instrumentation is necessary, and useful measurements of earthquake shaking can be made by an unequipped observer. The use of macroseismics data are essential for the revision of historical seismicity and of great importance for seismic hazard assessment of vulnerable areas. The procedure ShakeMap (Wald et al., Earthquake Spectra., 15, 1999) provides instrumentally based estimates of intensity maps. In Italy, intensities have been hitherto reported through the use of the MCS (Mercalli, Cancani Sieberg) intensity scale. The DBMI2004 (and the most recent DBMI08) report intensities for earthquakes in Italy that date back to Roman age. In order to exploit fully the potential of such a long intensity catalogue for past large events and with the aim of presenting ShakeMaps using an intensity scale consistent with that of the past, we have ri-calibrated the relationships between MCS intensity and observed peak ground motion (PGM) values in terms of both peak-ground acceleration and peak-ground velocities. To this end, we have used the two most updataed and complete dataset available for Italy - the strong motion Itaca database and the DBMI08 macroseismic database. In this work we have first assembled a data set consisting of PGM-intensity pairs and we have then determined the most suitable regressions parameters. Many tests have been made to quantify the accuracy and robustness of the results. The new instrumental intensity scale is going to be adopted for mapping the level of shaking resulting from earthquakes in Italy replacing the instrumental Modified Mercalli scale currently in use (Michelini et al., SRL, 79, 2008) and to determine shakemaps for historical events.

  13. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  14. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2018-04-06

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  15. THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT IN SECONDARY COSMIC RAYS (MUONS) OBSERVED AT THE GROUND: ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J. [Space Geophysics Division, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Munakata, K.; Kato, C. [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621 (Japan); Kuwabara, T. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kozai, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M. [Physics Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, 13060 (Kuwait); Tokumaru, M. [Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan); Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 (Australia); Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Sabbah, I. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City, 72853 (Kuwait)

    2016-10-20

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  16. THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT IN SECONDARY COSMIC RAYS (MUONS) OBSERVED AT THE GROUND: ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  17. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  18. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  19. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  20. On-the-Job Ethics – Proximity Morality Forming in Medical School: A grounded theory analysis using survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans O. Thulesius, MD, Ph.D.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On-the-job-ethics exist in all businesses and can also be called proximity morality forming. In this paper we propose that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards ethics education at medical school. This means that they want to form physician morality “on the job” instead of being taught ethics like any other subject. On-the-job-ethics for medical students involves learning ethics that is used when practicing ethics. Learning ethics includes comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide ethics grammar useful for the ethics practicing in attitude exercises and vignette reflections in tutored group discussions. On-the-job-ethics develops professional identity, handles diversity of religious and existential worldviews, trains students described as ethically naive, processes difficult clinical experiences, and desists negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations. This grounded theory analysis was made from a questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed over 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiplechoice questions using classic grounded theory procedures, but also compared questionnaire data using statistics such as multiple regression models. The paper gives an example of how grounded theory can be used with a limited amount of survey data.

  1. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  2. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered soil deposits subjected to transient and vertically propagating shear waves through a one-dimensional-soil column. Each soil layer was assumed to be homogeneous, visco-elastic, and infinite in the horizontal extent. The results of this study were compared to other studies and forward computation of the geotechnical dynamic parameters of the investigated site. The amplification triggered by the 1997 Burra seismic event was deduced. This study reveals the amplification factor up to 3.6 at the studied site.

  3. Analysis of the seventh spectrum of copper using orthogonal operators for the ground configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, G.J. van het; Raassen, A.J.J.; Uylings, P.H.M.; Joshi, Y.N.; Podobedova, L.I.; Ryabtsev, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of copper has been photographed in the wavelength region 190-250 A. In the 3d 5 -3d 4 4p transition array of the Cu VII spectrum 487 lines were identified. All 37 levels of the ground configuration and 129 of the 180 possible levels of the 3d 4 4p configurations have been established. The ground configuration is described by means of an orthogonal parameter set. When approximately half of the 3d 5 levels were established a least squares fit was made in which only six important parameters were varied while the others were kept fixed at estimated values. This provided estimated energy values for the remaining levels within 20 cm -1 of the observed values. For comparison a description with the conventional parameter set is also given. The standard set yielded a mean error for the level values of 57 cm -1 . For the description of the 3d 4 4p configuration only the conventional parameter set was used. The standard deviation in the level values amounted 161 cm -1 . The LSF values of the conventional parameters are compared with their Hartree-Fock values. (orig.)

  4. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  5. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  6. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  7. A sensitivity analysis method for the body segment inertial parameters based on ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamure, Sumire; Bonnet, Vincent; Dumas, Raphael; Venture, Gentiane

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a method allowing a simple and efficient sensitivity analysis of dynamics parameters of complex whole-body human model. The proposed method is based on the ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices, developed initially in robotics system identification theory, and involved in the equations of motion of the human body. The regressor matrices are linear relatively to the segment inertial parameters allowing us to use simple sensitivity analysis methods. The sensitivity analysis method was applied over gait dynamics and kinematics data of nine subjects and with a 15 segments 3D model of the locomotor apparatus. According to the proposed sensitivity indices, 76 segments inertial parameters out the 150 of the mechanical model were considered as not influent for gait. The main findings were that the segment masses were influent and that, at the exception of the trunk, moment of inertia were not influent for the computation of the ground reaction forces and moments and the joint moments. The same method also shows numerically that at least 90% of the lower-limb joint moments during the stance phase can be estimated only from a force-plate and kinematics data without knowing any of the segment inertial parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis spectral shapes from California and central United States ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the spectral shapes from earthquake records with magnitudes and distances comparable to those that dominate seismic hazard at Oak Ridge, in order to provide guidance for the selection of site-specific design-spectrum shapes for use in Oak Ridge. The authors rely heavily on California records because the number of relevant records from the central and eastern United States (CEUS) is not large enough for drawing statistically significant conclusions. They focus on the 0.5 to 10-Hz frequency range for two reasons: (1) this is the frequency range of most engineering interest, and (2) they avoid the effect of well-known differences in the high-frequency energy content between California and CEUS ground motions

  9. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  10. Analysis of Compression Algorithm in Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Tyler; Ryan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS) utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) stored onboard a plane to determine potential recovery maneuvers. Because of the current limitations of computer hardware on military airplanes such as the F-22 and F-35, the DTED must be compressed through a lossy technique called binary-tree tip-tilt. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the compressed data with respect to the original DTED. This study is mainly interested in the magnitude of the error between the two as well as the overall distribution of the errors throughout the DTED. By understanding how the errors of the compression technique are affected by various factors (topography, density of sampling points, sub-sampling techniques, etc.), modifications can be made to the compression technique resulting in better accuracy. This, in turn, would minimize unnecessary activation of A-GCAS during flight as well as maximizing its contribution to fighter safety.

  11. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  12. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  13. Core fracture analysis applied to ground water flow systems: Chickamauga Group, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, E.; Dreier, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate hydrologic properties with detailed geologic fabrics and to investigate the influence of a complex geologic setting on ground water systems. The Chickamauga Group (CH) located in Bethel Valley on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation is comprised of limestones and interbedded shales. Five core holes (CH 1-5), oriented across strike, provide a cross section of the CH and were mapped for fracture density, orientation and cross-cutting relationships as well as lithologic variations. Correlation of structural and lithologic features with downhole geophysical logs and hydraulic conductivity values shows a relationship between lithology, fracture density and increased permeability in an otherwise low-permeability environment. Structures identified as influential in enhancing hydraulic conductivity include contractional bedding plane and tectonic stylolites and extensional fractures. Three sets of extensional fractures are indicated by cross-cutting relationships and various degrees of veining. Hydraulic conductivity values (K) for the five wells indicate two ground water flow systems in the valley. A shallow system (up to 150 feet deep) shows a range in K from 10E-4 centimeters per second to 10E-6 centimeters per second. Shallow horizons show more open fractures than are observed at depth, and these fractures appear to control the enhanced K in the shallow system. A subhorizontal interface that is not defined by pre-existing structures or a stratigraphic horizon separates the two flow systems. The deeper system ranges in K values from 10E-9 centimeters per second to 10E-5 centimeters per second. The higher K values at depth correspond to increased fracture density at lithologic contacts, zones of tectonic stylolitization and partially veined extension fractures. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Performance analysis of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system with multi-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Tian; Wang, Baolong; Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybrid GCHP system with multi-functions is proposed. • The system maintains the soil temperature and heating reliability steady. • The multi-functional operation of HCUT can save more energy of the system. - Abstract: Underground thermal imbalance is a significant problem for ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems that serve predominately heated buildings in cold regions, which extract more heat from the ground and inject less heat, especially in buildings requiring domestic hot water (DHW). To solve this problem, a previously developed heat compensation unit with thermosyphon (HCUT) is integrated with a GCHP unit to build a hybrid GCHP system. To improve the energy savings of this hybrid GCHP system, the HCUT unit is set to have multiple functions (heat compensation, direct DHW and direct space heating) in this paper. To analyze the improved system performance, a hotel requiring air-conditioning and DHW is selected and simulated in three typical cold cities using the dynamic software DeST and TRNSYS. The results indicate that the hybrid GCHP system can maintain the underground thermal balance while keeping the indoor air temperature within the design range. Furthermore, the HCUT unit efficiently reduces the energy consumption via its multi-functional operations. Compared to the previous system that only used HCUT for heat compensation, adding the direct DHW function further saves 7.5–11.0% energy in heat compensation (HC) and DHW (i.e., 3.6–4.8% of the whole system). Simultaneously adding the direct DHW and space heating functions to the HCUT can save 9.8–12.9% energy in HC and DHW (i.e., 5.1–6.0% of the whole system). The hybrid GCHP system with a multi-functional HCUT provides more energy savings while maintaining the underground thermal balance in cold regions that demand both air-conditioning and DHW

  15. Ground movement analysis in the north of Belgium by radar interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Devleeschouwer, Xavier; Brassinnes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) presently investigates the plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and the Ypresian clays) occurring in the northern part of Belgium as a potential host-rock for geological disposal. Boom Clay is a Rupelian (i.e., 34-28 Ma) silici-clastic sediment deposited in an open marine environment at the southern border of the epi-continental North Sea Basin. The Ypresian clays refer to the nearly continuous sequence of the clay-rich sediments deposited early in the Ypresian stage (i.e., 56-48 Ma) in a similar basin configuration. The investigated area (6400 km 2 extents E-W from the Roer valley graben in The Netherlands to Antwerpen and N-S from Tilburg to Diest) is characterized by a succession of sub-horizontal (1-2 deg. dip towards N to NE) layers of Cenozoic clays and sands; this thick sedimentary cover overlies an old Palaeozoic basement and is covered by some Quaternary sediments. Moreover, the northern end of the region of interest (ROI) is characterized by the famous Roer Valley Graben. At Mol, a reference site for the research, development and demonstration of the safety and the feasibility of geological disposal, the Boom Clay is present at a depth of approximately 190 to 290 meters below a thick Neogene sandy sequence. At Doel, another reference site for the RD and D, Boom Clay is present at shallow depth (from 56 m to 113 m) whereas Ypresian clays occur at depth relevant for geological disposal (i.e., 340-440 m). Both clay units are separated by a mid to latest Eocene intercalation of sands, clayey sands and clay layers. Boom clay at the Doel site is overlain by Neogene deposits and by the alluvium of the Quaternary Flemish Valley. The aim of the study is to determine, quantify and cartography ground movements, if any, in the region of

  16. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  17. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  18. Costs and profitability of renewable energies in metropolitan France - ground-based wind energy, biomass, solar photovoltaic. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    After a general presentation of the framework of support to renewable energies and co-generation (purchasing obligation, tendering, support funding), of the missions of the CRE (Commission for Energy Regulation) within the frame of the purchasing obligation, and of the methodology adopted for this analysis, this document reports an analysis of production costs for three different renewable energy sectors: ground-based wind energy, biomass energy, and solar photovoltaic energy. For each of them, the report recalls the context (conditions of purchasing obligation, winning bid installations, installed fleet in France at the end of 2012), indicates the installations taken into consideration in this study, analyses the installation costs and funding (investment costs, exploitation and maintenance costs, project funding, production costs), and assesses the profitability in terms of capital and for stakeholders

  19. Coupling analysis on the soft ground settlement laws in Qinshan nuclear power phase I sea wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Pan Rong; Zhu Xiuyun; Zhang Dingli

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall project is a barrier engineering in defending the design basis flooding, which is of importance to the safety of NPP. The geological condition has the feature of high compressibility and low penetration, such as the soft ground of 1 + 450 section of Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall. Based on parameters acquired from the site experiment, 3-D finite difference analysis is put forward to study the feature of consolidation settlement laws, which can embody the fluid-solid coupling interaction. The conclusions of numerical analysis agree well with the in-site measured data, and it, can contribute to the design and construction of raising sea wall project. (authors)

  20. Strength on cut edge and ground edge glass beams with the failure analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agnetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of the effect of the finishing of the edge of glass when it has a structural function. Experimental investigations carried out for glass specimens are presented. Various series of annealed glass beam were tested, with cut edge and with ground edge. The glass specimens are tested in four-point bending performing flaw detection on the tested specimens after failure, in order to determine glass strength. As a result, bending strength values are obtained for each specimen. Determining some physical parameter as the depth of the flaw and the mirror radius of the fracture, after the failure of a glass element, it could be possible to calculate the failure strength of that.The experimental results were analyzed with the LEFM theory and the glass strength was analyzed with a statistical study using two-parameter Weibull distribution fitting quite well the failure stress data. The results obtained constitute a validation of the theoretical models and show the influence of the edge processing on the failure strength of the glass. Furthermore, series with different sizes were tested in order to evaluate the size effect.

  1. Competence in providing mental health care: a grounded theory analysis of nurses' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Julie; Happell, Brenda

    In view of the evidence that general nurses have difficulty in caring for patients experiencing mental health problems, the aim of this study was to explore and describe the subjective experience of nurses in providing care for this client group. A grounded theory approach was used. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study was conducted with nurses from general health care settings that provide medical and surgical care and treatment. Four nurses who were completing their second year post graduation participated in the study. The experiences of providing care for people experiencing a mental illness as described by participants. The findings indicated the nurses were striving for competence in the provision of mental health care. They acknowledged the mental health needs of patients and their right to quality care. This study supports the notion that general nurses lack confidence when caring for patients with mental health problems in medical and surgical settings. It also highlights a discrepancy between the holistic framework encouraged at undergraduate level and what is experienced in practice.

  2. Ground Motion Analysis of Co-Located DAS and Seismometer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lord, N. E.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Zeng, X.; Parker, L.; Chalari, A.; Miller, D.; Feigl, K. L.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    The PoroTomo research team deployed 8700-meters of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable in a shallow trench and 400-meters in a borehole at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 together with an array of 246, three-component geophones. The seismic sensors occupied a natural laboratory 1500 x 500 x 400 meters overlying the Brady geothermal field. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100-meters in length and geophones were spaced at approximately 50-m intervals. In several line segments, geophones were co-located within one meter of the DAS cable. Both DAS and the conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 days. A large Vibroseis truck (T-Rex) provided the seismic source at approximately 250 locations outside and within the array. The Vibroseis protocol called for excitation in one vertical and two orthogonal horizontal directions at each location. For each mode, three, 5-to-80-Hz upsweeps were made over 20 seconds. In addition, a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on March 21, 2016. Its epicenter was approximately 150-km away. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to test relationships between the strain rate recorded by DAS and ground velocity recorded by the geophones.

  3. TCM Analysis of Defected Ground Structures for MIMO Antenna Designs in Mobile Terminals

    KAUST Repository

    Ghalib, Asim

    2017-08-14

    In this paper, the theory of characteristic modes (TCM) is used for the first time to analyze the behavior of defected ground structures (DGS) when added to antenna designs. A properly designed DGS introduces currents opposite in direction to the original characteristic modes (CM) currents thus reducing mutual coupling. TCM is also applied to multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) antenna systems to develop a systematic approach that can predict whether the isolation can be enhanced further or not. For this purpose two 4-element and one 2-element MIMO designs, i.e. monopole and planar inverted-F antennas (PIFA) are studied. The addition of different antenna elements affects the CM significantly as well as differently. Some of the CM excited on the antenna surface contribute to the coupling between the antenna ports that is why they can be classified as coupling modes. To improve the isolation, the DGS should be introduced at certain locations that blocks the coupling modes but at the same time does not affect the non-coupling modes. If their is no such location or the current on the surface of the chassis for coupling and non-coupling modes is approximately same, the isolation cannot be enhanced further. Using this approach, isolation was improved on an average by 11 dB in all the designs considered, giving the most isolation enhancement following a systematic way compared to other works.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  5. Improving buried threat detection in ground-penetrating radar with transfer learning and metadata analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Kenneth A.; Torrione, Peter A.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2015-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has proven capable of detecting buried threats. The system relies on a binary classifier that is trained to distinguish between two classes: a target class, encompassing many types of buried threats and their components; and a nontarget class, which includes false alarms from the system prescreener. Typically, the training process involves a simple partition of the data into these two classes, which allows for straightforward application of standard classifiers. However, since training data is generally collected in fully controlled environments, it includes auxiliary information about each example, such as the specific type of threat, its purpose, its components, and its depth. Examples from the same specific or general type may be expected to exhibit similarities in their GPR data, whereas examples from different types may differ greatly. This research aims to leverage this additional information to improve overall classification performance by fusing classifier concepts for multiple groups, and to investigate whether structure in this information can be further utilized for transfer learning, such that the amount of expensive training data necessary to learn a new, previously-unseen target type may be reduced. Methods for accomplishing these goals are presented with results from a dataset containing a variety of target types.

  6. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  7. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense). Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates

  8. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  9. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  10. Multi-Hazard Analysis for the Estimation of Ground Motion Induced by Landslides and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rubén; Koudogbo, Fifame; Ardizzone, Francesca; Mondini, Alessandro; Bignami, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors allow obtaining all-day all-weather terrain complex reflectivity images which can be processed by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for the monitoring of displacement episodes with extremely high accuracy. In the work presented, different PSI strategies to measure ground surface displacements for multi-scale multi-hazard mapping are proposed in the context of landslides and tectonic applications. This work is developed in the framework of ESA General Studies Programme (GSP). The present project, called Multi Scale and Multi Hazard Mapping Space based Solutions (MEMpHIS), investigates new Earth Observation (EO) methods and new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions to improve the understanding and management of disasters, with special focus on Disaster Risk Reduction rather than Rapid Mapping. In this paper, the results of the investigation on the key processing steps for measuring large-scale ground surface displacements (like the ones originated by plate tectonics or active faults) as well as local displacements at high resolution (like the ones related with active slopes) will be presented. The core of the proposed approaches is based on the Stable Point Network (SPN) algorithm, which is the advanced PSI processing chain developed by ALTAMIRA INFORMATION. Regarding tectonic applications, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. In this context, a low-resolution approach based in the integration of differential phase increments of velocity and topographic error (obtained through the fitting of a linear model adjustment function to data) will be evaluated. Data from the default mode of Sentinel-1, the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode, will be considered for this application. Regarding landslides

  11. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  12. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results. PMID:27941602

  13. Why (and how) they decide to leave: A grounded theory analysis of STEM attrition at a large public research university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutello, Michael F.

    A grounded theory investigation of STEM attrition was conducted that describes and explains why undergraduates at a large Mid-Atlantic research university decided to leave their initial STEM majors to pursue non-STEM courses of study. Participants ultimately decided to leave their initial STEM majors because they were able to locate preferable non-STEM courses of study that did not present the same kinds of obstacles they had encountered in their original STEM majors. Grounded theory data analysis revealed participants initially enrolled in STEM majors with tenuous motivation that did not withstand the various obstacles that were present in introductory STEM coursework. Obstacles that acted as demotivating influences and prompted participants to locate alternative academic pathways include the following: (1.) disengaging curricula; (2.) competitive culture; (3.) disappointing grades; (4.) demanding time commitments; and (5.) unappealing career options. Once discouraged from continuing along their initial STEM pathways, participants then employed various strategies to discover suitable non-STEM majors that would allow them to realize their intrinsic interests and extrinsic goals. Participants were largely satisfied with their decisions to leave STEM and have achieved measures of personal satisfaction and professional success.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  15. Breast self-examination pamphlets: a content analysis grounded in fear appeal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K N; Mattson, M

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we used the topic of breast self-examination (BSE) to illustrate how content analysis of promotional texts (already in existence, in the process of being created, or both) can provide supplementary data to that derived from audience analysis. Specifically, we used content analysis to isolate messages in BSE pamphlets that are consistent with the variables of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy, identified by existing fear appeal research and supported by other persuasion research as critical to the construction of effective health promotion messages. We then used statistical analyses to describe the relation among these 4 message variables. Our findings suggested that BSE pamphlets contain an unbalanced proportion of threat to efficacy arguments. Additionally, the efficacy messages were substantively weak. We contrasted these messages against the relatively strong mammography arguments contained in these pamphlets. We then provided recommendations for formulating stronger persuasive arguments in BSE promotional materials.

  16. Analysis of the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapple, Glenn W.; Mitten, Hugh T.; Durbin, Timothy J.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-element, digital model was developed for the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin using measured, computed, and estimated discharge and recharge data for the basin. Discharge data included evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and agricultural, municipal, and domestic pumpage. Recharge data included river leakage, tributary runoff, and pumping return flow. Recharge from subsurface boundary flow and rainfall infiltration was assumed to be insignificant. From 1974 through 1978, the annual pumping rate ranged from 5,900 to 9,100 acre-feet per year with 55 percent allotted to municipal use principally exported out of the valley, 44 percent to agricultural use, and 1 percent to domestic use. The pumpage return flow within the valley ranged from 900 to 1,500 acre-feet per year. The aquifer properties of transmissivity (about 5,900 feet squared per day) and of the storage coefficient (0.19) were estimated from an average alluvial thickness of 75 feet and from less well-defined data on specific capacity and grain-size distribution. During calibration the values estimated for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for the lower valley were reduced because of the smaller grain size there. The river characteristics were based on field and laboratory analyses of hydraulic conductivity and on altitude survey data. The model is intended principally for simulation of flow conditions using monthly time steps. Time variations in transmissivity and short-term, highrecharge potential are included in the model. The years 1974 through 1978 (including "pre-" and "post-" drought) were selected because of the extreme fluctuation in water levels between the low levels measured during dry years and the above-normal water levels measured during the preceding and following wet years. Also, during this time more hydrologic information was available. Significantly, computed water levels were generally within a few feet of the measured levels, and computed

  17. METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS ABOUT ALGORITHM OF DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Eitutis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the initial stage of reorganization is to run diagnostics of the enterprise, under which a decision on development of an algorithm for structural transformations shall be made. Organizational and management analysis is an important component of diagnostics and is aimed at defining the methods and principles for the enterprise management system. The results of the carried out organizational analysis allow defining the problems and «bottle necks» in the system of strategic management of Ukrainian railways as a whole and in different directions of their economic activities.

  18. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  19. Numerical methods for analysis of structure and ground vibration from moving loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Nielsen, S.R.K.; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the main theoretical aspects of finite-element and boundary-element modelling of the response to moving loads is given. The moving loads represent sources of noise and vibration generated by moving vehicles, and the analysis describes the propagation of the disturbances generated i...

  20. Satellite tracking and stable isotope analysis link wintering and feeding grounds of North Atlantic baleen whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    e Silva, Monica Almeida; Prieto, Rui; Gauffier, Pauline; Palsboll, Per; Bérubé, Martine; Colaco, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of baleen whales throughout their annual cycle is critical for understanding their ecology, life history and behavior, and for their effective conservation. We combined analysis of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and satellite tracking data of blue (Balaenoptera

  1. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  2. Losing ground: a critical analysis of teachers' agency for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Hoeks, C.C.M.Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the agency of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between context - education policies and governance - and agent - teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka

  3. SSRPT (SSR Pointer Trackeer) for Cassini Mission Operations - A Ground Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking the resources of the two redundant Solid State Recorders (SSR) is a necessary routine for Cassini spacecraft mission operations. Instead of relying on a full-fledged spacecraft hardware/software simulator to track and predict the SSR recording and playback pointer positions, a stand-alone SSR Pointer Tracker tool was developed as part of JPL's Multimission Spacecraft Analysis system.

  4. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  5. Satellite and Ground-Based Sensors for the Urban Heat Island Analysis in the City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fabrizi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3–4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations.

  6. Agustin de Betancourt’s wind machine for draining marshy ground: analysis of its construction through computer-aided engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Rojas-Sola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the construction of the wind machine for draining marshy ground designed by Agustin de Betancourt and Molina in 1789. To do this, a static analysis by finite elements method from the threedimensional model obtained with Autodesk Inventor Professional has been performed. The results show that the greatest stresses of the mechanism take place when the main shaft is meshed with the cogwheel, namely the point of contact between the worm screw and cogwheel. However, the maximum displacements and the greatest deformations take place in the blades. In addition, the mechanism is oversized, reaching at no point the tensile strength of the material, confirming the successful construction of this historical invention.

  7. Competitiveness analysis on the grounds of information from the annual financial statements of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Rositsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is a category which is innate in every economic subject. It shows itself in the conditions of market competition. Between competition and competitiveness objectively exist mutual relations and dependence. The presence of competition is a prerequisite for rise of competitiveness and for its manifestation in the real business. In the scientific literature, there is no synonymous definition of the nature of competitiveness. This paper represents an attempt at systematization of the views on this scientific issue. The methodology and the methods of competitiveness analysis should be based on a system of methods. The purpose of this paper is to present possibilities for use of information from the annual financial statements of the enterprises for analysis of their competitiveness by taking into consideration the legislative decisions and the specific business conditions in the Republic of Bulgaria. .

  8. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Karakus Murat; Cavus Aydin; Colakoglu Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13) has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different...

  9. Seismic response analysis of reactor containment structures - axisymmetric model with modified ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Basu, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic analysis of a Reactor Building is performed idealising the system as a beam model (BM) and also an Axi-symmetric model (ASM) and the results compared. In both the cases effect of Soil-Structure Interaction have been taken Into account. Since the lower boundary of the ASM was at a depth much lower than that of the BM, deconvolution of the specified Free-Field Motion (FFM) was necessary. The deconvolution has been performed using frequency domain approach. (author)

  10. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  11. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  12. Finite element analysis of an underground protective test station subjected to severe ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, S.N.; Milloy, J.A.; Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    A recoverable test station, to be used at a location very close to the detonation point of an underground nuclear test, was designed and tested. The design required that the station survive the very severe free-field stress and that the acceleration of the station be limited to a tolerable level. The predicted magnitude and time history of the free-field stress and acceleration indicated that the volcanic tuff medium and the materials of the proposed structure would exhibit nonlinear behavior, so that a transient dynamic analysis of a composite type structure involving nonlinear materials and large deformations was necessary. Parameter studies using a linear elastic dynamic finite element technique were first done to gain an understanding of the effect of the material properties and to study the response of various configurations of the protective structure to the transient loading. Based upon the results of these parameter studies and upon fielding considerations, a tentative design was chosen. This design was then evaluated using a newly developed finite element computer program. The results obtained from this analysis are compared to the field test results. (U.S.)

  13. Multiscale Trend Analysis for Pampa Grasslands Using Ground Data and Vegetation Sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Scottá

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate changes in the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP of grasslands in the Pampa biome by using experimental plots and changes in the spectral responses of similar vegetation communities obtained by remote sensing and to compare both datasets with meteorological variations to validate the transition scales of the datasets. Two different geographic scales were considered in this study. At the local scale, an analysis of the climate and its direct influences on grassland ANPP was performed using data from a long-term experiment. At the regional scale, the influences of climate on the grassland reflectance patterns were determined using vegetation sensor imagery data. Overall, the monthly variations of vegetation canopy growth analysed using environmental changes (air temperature, total rainfall and total evapotranspiration were similar. The results from the ANPP data and the NDVI data showed the that variations in grassland growth were similar and independent of the analysis scale, which indicated that local data and the relationships of local data with climate can be considered at the regional scale in the Pampa biome by using remote sensing.

  14. Metadata database and data analysis software for the ground-based upper atmospheric data developed by the IUGONET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Hori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Abe, S.; Kagitani, M.; Kouno, T.; Yoshida, D.; Ueno, S.; Kaneda, N.; Yoneda, M.; Tadokoro, H.; Motoba, T.; Umemura, N.; Iugonet Project Team

    2011-12-01

    The Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a Japanese inter-university project by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. The IUGONET institutes/universities have been collecting various types of data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. at various locations all over the world and at various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. The metadata database will be of great help to researchers in efficiently finding and obtaining these observational data spread over the institutes/universities. This should also facilitate synthetic analysis of multi-disciplinary data, which will lead to new types of research in the upper atmosphere. The project has also been developing a software to help researchers download, visualize, and analyze the data provided from the IUGONET institutes/universities. The metadata database system is built on the platform of DSpace, which is an open source software for digital repositories. The data analysis software is written in the IDL language with the TDAS (THEMIS Data Analysis Software suite) library. These products have been just released for beta-testing.

  15. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  16. Event-sequence time series analysis in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P.; Daniel, M.; Nolan, S.; McComb, L.

    2008-01-01

    The recent, extreme episodes of variability detected from Blazars by the leading atmospheric Cerenkov experiments motivate the development and application of specialized statistical techniques that enable the study of this rich data set to its furthest extent. The identification of the shortest variability timescales supported by the data and the actual variability structure observed in the light curves of these sources are some of the fundamental aspects being studied, that answers can bring new developments on the understanding of the physics of these objects and on the mechanisms of production of VHE gamma-rays in the Universe. Some of our efforts in studying the time variability of VHE sources involve the application of dynamic programming algorithms to the problem of detecting change-points in a Poisson sequence. In this particular paper we concentrate on the more primary issue of the applicability of counting statistics to the analysis of time-series on VHE gamma-ray astronomy.

  17. Development of Fast-Time Stochastic Airport Ground and Runway Simulation Model and Its Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport congestion, in particular congestion of departure aircraft, has already been discussed by other researches. Most solutions, though, fail to account for uncertainties. Since it is difficult to remove uncertainties of the operations in the real world, a strategy should be developed assuming such uncertainties exist. Therefore, this research develops a fast-time stochastic simulation model used to validate various methods in order to decrease airport congestion level under existing uncertainties. The surface movement data is analyzed first, and the uncertainty level is obtained. Next, based on the result of data analysis, the stochastic simulation model is developed. The model is validated statistically and the characteristics of airport operation under existing uncertainties are investigated.

  18. A review of the cylindrical heat source method for the design and analysis of vertical ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2000-12-01

    The successful design and analysis of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems depends in large part on the adequate prediction of ground water heat transfer. The author presented a detailed review of the cylindrical heat source method utilized for the prediction of transient heat transfer in vertical U-tube ground heat exchangers. The physics that underlies the theory applicable to this technology is explained in a step-by-step manner. Explanations are also provided for the equations that govern the determination of design lengths for the cylindrical heat method, as presented in the ASHRAE handbook. Some improvements were recommended by the author, such as the calculation of the effective thermal resistances using the borehole diameter instead of the equivalent U-tube diameter now in use. Annual hour-by-hour building load calculations should be used to calculate ground loads. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 3 appendices.

  19. Analysis of polarization characteristics of plant canopies using ground-based remote sensing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sid’ko, A.F.; Botvich, I.Yu.; Pisman, T.I.; Shevyrnogov, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents results and analysis of a study on polarized characteristics of the reflectance factor of different plant canopies under field conditions, using optical remote sensing techniques. Polarization characteristics were recorded from the elevated work platform at heights of 10–18 m in June and July. Measurements were performed using a double-beam spectrophotometer with a polarized light filter attachment, within the spectral range from 400 to 820 nm. The viewing zenith angle was below 20 degree. Birch (Betila pubescens), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), wheat (Triticum acstivum) [L.] crops, corn (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) crops, and various grass canopies were used in this study. The following polarization characteristics were studied: the reflectance factor of the canopy with the polarizer adjusted to transmit the maximum and minimum amounts of light (R max and R min ), polarized component of the reflectance factor (R q ), and the degree of polarization (P). Wheat, corn, and grass canopies have higher R max and R min values than forest plants. The R q and P values are higher for the birch than for the pine within the wavelength range between 430 and 740 nm. The study shows that polarization characteristics of plant canopies may be used as an effective means of decoding remote sensing data. - Highlights: • The reflection and polarization properties of plant were studied. • The compiled electronic database of the spectrophotometric information of plant. • Polarization characteristics are a source of useful data on the state of plants

  20. A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Caldarelli

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the bipartite network of countries and products from UN data on country production. We define the country-country and product-product projected networks and introduce a novel method of filtering information based on elements' similarity. As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries. On the same footings the products clustering can be efficiently used for a bottom-up classification of produced goods. Furthermore we mathematically reformulate the "reflections method" introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann as a fixpoint problem; such formulation highlights some conceptual weaknesses of the approach. To overcome such an issue, we introduce an alternative methodology (based on biased Markov chains that allows to rank countries in a conceptually consistent way. Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.

  1. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Cryogenically Ground Samples from Primary and Secondary/Persistent Endodontic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Demiryürek, Ebru Özsezer; Onuk, Ertan Emek

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities of primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections using high-throughput pyrosequencing from the pulverized samples. The roots of 20 extracted human teeth with primary endodontic infection and 20 teeth with secondary/persistent endodontic infection were collected. The outer surfaces of the roots were disinfected, and whole roots were cryopulverized. 16S amplicon pyrosequencing data from the DNA extracted from the pulverized root powders were obtained, and microorganism abundance and diversity were calculated. Data were analyzed using statistical and bioinformatic methods. Pyrosequencing analysis resulted a total of 2,606,128 sequences from 40 samples. A total of 15 phyla, 160 genera, and 368 species were detected. No significant difference between primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections was found regarding the diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units at the phyla, genera, and species levels (P > .005). The present study revealed that the microbial diversity of secondary/persistent endodontic infections did not differ than those of primary endodontic infections. A new archaeal species, Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia, was detected in root canals of 1 patient with primary endodontic infection for the first time. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and sensitivity analysis of a correlated ground rule system (design arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Eric; Chidambarrao, Dureseti; Rausch, Werner; Topaloglu, Rasit O.; Shao, Dongbing; Ramachandran, Ravikumar; Angyal, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a tool which can function as an interface between VLSI designers and process-technology engineers throughout the Design-Technology Co-optimization (DTCO) process. This tool uses a Monte Carlo algorithm on the output of lithography simulations to model the frequency of fail mechanisms on wafer. Fail mechanisms are defined according to process integration flow: by Boolean operations and measurements between original and derived shapes. Another feature of this design rule optimization methodology is the use of a Markov-Chain-based algorithm to perform a sensitivity analysis, the output of which may be used by process engineers to target key process-induced variabilities for improvement. This tool is used to analyze multiple Middle-Of-Line fail mechanisms in a 10nm inverter design and identify key process assumptions that will most strongly affect the yield of the structures. This tool and the underlying algorithm are also shown to be scalable to arbitrarily complex geometries in three dimensions. Such a characteristic which is becoming more important with the introduction of novel patterning technologies and more complex 3-D on-wafer structures.

  3. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  4. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  5. Predicting ground contact events for a continuum of gait types: An application of targeted machine learning using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2016-05-01

    An ongoing challenge in the application of gait analysis to clinical settings is the standardized detection of temporal events, with unobtrusive and cost-effective equipment, for a wide range of gait types. The purpose of the current study was to investigate a targeted machine learning approach for the prediction of timing for foot strike (or initial contact) and toe-off, using only kinematics for walking, forefoot running, and heel-toe running. Data were categorized by gait type and split into a training set (∼30%) and a validation set (∼70%). A principal component analysis was performed, and separate linear models were trained and validated for foot strike and toe-off, using ground reaction force data as a gold-standard for event timing. Results indicate the model predicted both foot strike and toe-off timing to within 20ms of the gold-standard for more than 95% of cases in walking and running gaits. The machine learning approach continues to provide robust timing predictions for clinical use, and may offer a flexible methodology to handle new events and gait types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exergy analysis of a two-stage ground source heat pump with a vertical bore for residential space conditioning under simulated occupancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, Moonis R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy and energy analysis of a vertical-bore ground source heat pump over a 12-month period is presented. • The ground provided more than 75% of the heating energy. • Performance metrics are presented. • Sources of systemic inefficiency are identified and prioritized using Exergy analysis. • Understanding performance metrics is vital for judicial use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56 W (2.16-ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m 2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kW h at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4 °C and 21.7 °C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work, are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources

  7. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  8. Evaluation of 3D Ground Penetrating Radar Efficiency for Abandoned Tailings Pond Internal Structure Analysis and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortada, Unai; Martínez, Julián; Hidalgo, Mª Carmen; Rey, Javier

    2017-04-01

    Evaluation of 3D Ground Penetrating Radar Efficiency for Abandoned Tailings Pond Internal Structure Analysis and Risk Assessment Abandoned tailings ponds constitute a severe environmental problem in old Pb mining districts due to their high contents in metallic and semi-metallic elements. In most of the cases, there is a lack of information about the construction procedures and the previous environmental situation, which hinders the environmental risk evaluation. In these cases, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) could be an interesting technique to analyze the internal structure of the tailings ponds and detect vulnerable zones for leaching processes. Consequently, the GPR could help in the abandoned tailings ponds environmental risk assessment. In this study, a GPR 3D campaign was carried out with a 250 MHz frequency antenna in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique in both the analysis of internal structures and the environmental risk assessment. Subsequently, 2D and 3D models were undertaken to represent graphically the obtained results. The studied tailings pond is located in the Guadiel river bank, a water course draining the mining district of Linares, Spain. The dam is 150 m length and 80 m width. The GPR 3D was done in a selected area near the central part of the pond. The analyzed grid was 25x50 m and the spacing of the slides was 1 m. The study revealed that the contact between the tailings and the substratum is located at 2.5 m. No intermediate layer was found, which means that the tailings pond was heightened on the fluvial terrace without any insulation system. Inside the first meter of the pond, a cross stratification was identified. The orientation of those laminations changed with the depth, which means that the stockpiling was performed from the different sides of the tailings pond. Furthermore, the direction of these stratifications is slightly concentric to the middle of the dam which could be associated with a central drainage system

  9. A simulation-based analysis of variable flow pumping in ground source heat pump systems with different types of borehole heat exchangers: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; Emmi, Giuseppe; De Carli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The work focuses on the variable flow in ground source heat pump systems. • The constant and variable speed circulation pumps in the ground loop are compared. • The constant temperature difference control across the heat pump is studied. • The variable flow affects the energy performance of the heat pump. • The constant temperature difference control offers an attractive energy saving. - Abstract: A simulation model of ground source heat pump systems has been used to investigate to what extent a variable flow of the heat-carrier fluid of the ground loop affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. The model contemporaneously considers the borehole heat exchangers, the heat pump, the building load, and the control strategies for the circulation pumps of the ground loop. A constant speed of the circulation pumps of the ground loop was compared with a variable flow controlled by means of a constant temperature difference across the heat pump on the ground side considering the load profile of an office building located in North Italy. The analysis was carried out for a single U-tube, double U-tube and coaxial pipe heat exchangers. The control strategies adopted to manage the flow rate of the heat-carrier fluid of the ground loop affect both the heat exchange rate of the borehole field and the heat pump’s long-term energy efficiency. The simulations show considerable differences in the system’s seasonal energy efficiency. The constant speed of the circulation pumps leads to the best results as far as the heat pump’s energy performance was concerned, but this advantage was lost because of the greater amount of electrical energy used by the circulation pumps; this, of course, affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. The optimal solution appears then to be a constant temperature difference in the heat-carrier fluid across the heat pump.

  10. Human Factors Virtual Analysis Techniques for NASA's Space Launch System Ground Support using MSFC's Virtual Environments Lab (VEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Brittani

    2017-01-01

    Using virtual environments to assess complex large scale human tasks provides timely and cost effective results to evaluate designs and to reduce operational risks during assembly and integration of the Space Launch System (SLS). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a suite of tools to conduct integrated virtual analysis during the design phase of the SLS Program. Siemens Jack is a simulation tool that allows engineers to analyze human interaction with CAD designs by placing a digital human model into the environment to test different scenarios and assess the design's compliance to human factors requirements. Engineers at MSFC are using Jack in conjunction with motion capture and virtual reality systems in MSFC's Virtual Environments Lab (VEL). The VEL provides additional capability beyond standalone Jack to record and analyze a person performing a planned task to assemble the SLS at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The VEL integrates Vicon Blade motion capture system, Siemens Jack, Oculus Rift, and other virtual tools to perform human factors assessments. By using motion capture and virtual reality, a more accurate breakdown and understanding of how an operator will perform a task can be gained. By virtual analysis, engineers are able to determine if a specific task is capable of being safely performed by both a 5% (approx. 5ft) female and a 95% (approx. 6'1) male. In addition, the analysis will help identify any tools or other accommodations that may to help complete the task. These assessments are critical for the safety of ground support engineers and keeping launch operations on schedule. Motion capture allows engineers to save and examine human movements on a frame by frame basis, while virtual reality gives the actor (person performing a task in the VEL) an immersive view of the task environment. This presentation will discuss the need of human factors for SLS and the benefits of analyzing tasks in NASA MSFC's VEL.

  11. Analysis of a dryline-like feature in northern Germany detected by ground-based microwave profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaenkuch, Dietrich [Leibniz-Soziaetet der Wissenschaften zu Berlin e.V. (Germany); Gueldner, Juergen [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg - Richard-Assmann-Observatorium; Bender, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (DE). Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ); Steinhagen, Hans

    2011-08-15

    Two dryline-like humidity drops without considerable temperature change were detected by the ground-based microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) at the Richard-Assmann-Observatory Lindenberg (52.21 N, 14.12 E) on April 28, 2007. The detailed analysis of these two events includes cloud radar and radar wind profiler measurements at the site as well as data from the surface synoptic network and from integrated water vapour (IWV) maps derived from GPS. The first more pronounced humidity drop is part of a roughly 200 km long line that meets the criterion of a classical dryline or dewpoint front, namely of a moisture gradient larger 3.5 g m{sup -3} per 100 km. This dewpoint front is ahead of an approaching cold front and is caused by strong downdraft induced by low tropospheric wind shear due to weakening of a midtropospheric high over Germany. It consisted in particular in two kernels of variable size depending on their stage. The fate of the kernels - migration, speed, unification and divorce - is described in detail. Their lifetime was a bit more than 9 hours. The second humidity drop at the site was observed after the passage of the cold front and was caused by dry advection behind the front. Both events are predicted by the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service to some extent.

  12. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  14. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  15. The ground state hydrogen conformations and vibrational analysis of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5- dihydroxybenzaldehyde: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirak, C.; Saglam, A.; Ucun, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ground state hydrogen conformations of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde have been investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The calculations have indicated that the compounds in the ground state exist with the carbonyl group O atom linked intra molecularly by the two hydrogen bonds of the two hydroxyl groups. The vibrational analyses of the ground state conformers of all the compounds were done and their optimized geometry parameters were given.

  16. Analysis of the Source and Ground Motions from the 2017 M8.2 Tehuantepec and M7.1 Puebla Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, D.; Sahakian, V. J.; Perez-Campos, X.; Quintanar, L.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Spica, Z.; Espindola, V. H.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Baltay, A.; Geng, J.

    2017-12-01

    The September 2017 Tehuantepec and Puebla earthquakes were intra-slab earthquakes that together caused significant damage in broad regions of Mexico, including the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas, Morelos, Puebla, Mexico, and Mexico City. Ground motions in Mexico City have approximately the same angle of incidence from both earthquakes and potentially sample similar paths close to the city. We examine site effects and source terms by analysis of residuals between Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) and observed ground motions for both of these events at stations from the Servicio Sismólogico Nacional, Instituto de Ingeniería, and the Instituto de Geofísica Red del Valle de Mexico networks. GMPEs are a basis for seismic design, but also provide median ground motion values to act as a basis for comparison of individual earthquakes and site responses. First, we invert for finite-fault slip inversions for Tehuantepec with high-rate GPS, static GPS, tide gauge and DART buoy data, and for Puebla with high-rate GPS and strong motion data. Using the distance from the stations with ground motion observations to the derived slip models, we use the GMPEs of Garcia et al. (2005), Zhao et al. (2006), and Abrahamson, Silva and Kamai (2014), to compute predicted values of peak ground acceleration and velocity (PGA and PGV) and response spectral accelerations (SA). Residuals between observed and predicted ground motion parameters are then computed for each recording, and are decomposed into event and site components using a mixed effects regression. We analyze these residuals as an adjustment away from median ground motions in the region to glean information about the earthquake source properties, as well as local site response in and outside of the Mexico City basin. The event and site terms are then compared with available values of stress drop for the two earthquakes, and Vs30 values for the sites, respectively. This analysis is useful in determining which GMPE is most

  17. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  18. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  19. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  20. NPP planning based on analysis of ground vibration caused by collapse of large-scale cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Ji, Hongkui [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, No. 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Mingreng; Lin, Tao [East China Electric Power Design Institute Co., Ltd, No. 409 Wuning Road, Shanghai 200063 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • New recommendations for NPP planning were addressed taking into account collapse-induced ground vibration. • Critical factors influencing the collapse-induced ground vibration were investigated. • Comprehensive approach was presented to describe the initiation and propagation of collapse-induced disaster. - Abstract: Ground vibration induced by collapse of large-scale cooling towers can detrimentally influence the safe operation of adjacent nuclear-related facilities. To prevent and mitigate these hazards, new planning methods for nuclear power plants (NPPs) were studied considering the influence of these hazards. First, a “cooling tower-soil” model was developed, verified, and used as a numerical means to investigate ground vibration. Afterwards, five critical factors influencing collapse-induced ground vibration were analyzed in-depth. These influencing factors included the height and weight of the towers, accidental loads, soil properties, overlying soil, and isolation trench. Finally, recommendations relating to the control and mitigation of collapse-induced ground vibration in NPP planning were proposed, which addressed five issues, i.e., appropriate spacing between a cooling tower and the nuclear island, control of collapse modes, sitting of a cooling tower and the nuclear island, application of vibration reduction techniques, and the influence of tower collapse on surroundings.

  1. Hydrogeologic setting, water budget, and preliminary analysis of ground-water exchange at Lake Starr, a seepage lake in Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.; O'Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Starr, a 134-acre seepage lake of multiple-sinkhole origin on the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida, was the subject of a detailed water-budget study from August 1996 through July 1998. The study monitored the effects of hydrogeologic setting, climate, and ground-water pumping on the water budget and lake stage. The hydrogeologic setting of the Lake Starr basin differs markedly on the two sides of the lake. Ground water from the surficial aquifer system flows into the lake from the northwest side of the basin, and lake water leaks out to the surficial aquifer system on the southeast side of the basin. Lake Starr and the surrounding surficial aquifer system recharge the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The rate of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer is determined by the integrity of the intermediate confining unit and by the downward head gradient between the two aquifers. On the inflow side of the lake, the intermediate confining unit is more continuous, allowing ground water from the surficial aquifer system to flow laterally into the lake. Beneath the lake and on the southeast side of the basin, breaches in the intermediate confining unit enhance downward flow to the Upper Floridan aquifer, so that water flows both downward and laterally away from the lake through the ground-water flow system in these areas. An accurate water budget, including evaporation measured by the energy-budget method, was used to calculate net ground-water flow to the lake, and to do a preliminary analysis of the relation of net ground-water fluxes to other variables. Water budgets constructed over different timeframes provided insight on processes that affect ground-water interactions with Lake Starr. Weekly estimates of net ground-water flow provided evidence for the occurrence of transient inflows from the nearshore basin, as well as the short-term effects of head in the Upper Floridan aquifer on ground-water exchange with the lake. Monthly water budgets showed the effects

  2. Evaluation of the thermal efficiency and a cost analysis of different types of ground heat exchangers in energy piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok; Lee, Seung-Rae; Xue, Jianfeng; Zosseder, Kai; Go, Gyu-Hyun; Park, Hyunku

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed field TPT with W and coil-type GHEs in energy piles. • We evaluated heat exchange rates from TPT results. • Field TPT results were compared with numerical analysis. • Cost analysis with GSHP design method was conducted for each type of GHEs in energy piles. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the results of a thermal performance test using precast high-strength concrete (PHC) energy piles with W and coil-type ground heat exchangers (GHEs). In-situ thermal performance tests (TPTs) were conducted for four days under an intermittent operation condition (8 h on; 16 h off) on W and coil-type PHC energy piles installed in a partially saturated weathered granite soil deposit. In addition, three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted and the results were compared with the four-day experimental results. The heat exchange rates were also predicted for three months using the numerical analysis. The heat exchange rate of the coil-type GHE showed 10–15% higher efficiency compared to the W-type GHE in the energy pile. However, in considering the cost for the installation of the heat exchanger and cement grouting the additional cost of W-type GHE in energy pile was 200–250% cheaper than coil-type GHE under the condition providing equivalent thermal performance. Furthermore, the required lengths of the W, 3U and coil-type GHEs in the energy piles were calculated based on the design process of Kavanaugh and Rafferty. The additional cost for the W and 3U types of GHEs were also 200–250% lower than that of the coil-type GHE. However, the required number of piles was much less with the coil-type GHE as compared to the W and 3U types of GHEs. They are advantageous in terms of the construction period, and further, selecting the coil-type GHE could be a viable option when there is a limitation in the number of piles in consideration of the scale of the building.

  3. Detection and Characterization of Ground Displacement Sources from Variational Bayesian Independent Component Analysis of GPS Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, A.; Serpelloni, E.; Belardinelli, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    A critical point in the analysis of ground displacements time series is the development of data driven methods that allow to discern and characterize the different sources that generate the observed displacements. A widely used multivariate statistical technique is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which allows to reduce the dimensionality of the data space maintaining most of the variance of the dataset explained. It reproduces the original data using a limited number of Principal Components, but it also shows some deficiencies. Indeed, PCA does not perform well in finding the solution to the so-called Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem, i.e. in recovering and separating the original sources that generated the observed data. This is mainly due to the assumptions on which PCA relies: it looks for a new Euclidean space where the projected data are uncorrelated. Usually, the uncorrelation condition is not strong enough and it has been proven that the BSS problem can be tackled imposing on the components to be independent. The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is, in fact, another popular technique adopted to approach this problem, and it can be used in all those fields where PCA is also applied. An ICA approach enables us to explain the time series imposing a fewer number of constraints on the model, and to reveal anomalies in the data such as transient signals. However, the independence condition is not easy to impose, and it is often necessary to introduce some approximations. To work around this problem, we use a variational bayesian ICA (vbICA) method, which models the probability density function (pdf) of each source signal using a mix of Gaussian distributions. This technique allows for more flexibility in the description of the pdf of the sources, giving a more reliable estimate of them. Here we present the application of the vbICA technique to GPS position time series. First, we use vbICA on synthetic data that simulate a seismic cycle

  4. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  5. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  6. Edge responses are different in edges under natural versus anthropogenic influence: a meta-analysis using ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history. Forest edges maintained by natural processes had significantly higher species richness than their interiors, while edges with continued anthropogenic influence did not. The filter function of edges was also essentially different depending on their history. For forest specialist species, edges maintained by natural processes were penetrable, allowing these species to move right through the edges, while edges still under anthropogenic interventions were impenetrable, preventing the dispersal of forest specialists out of the forest. For species inhabiting the surrounding matrix (open-habitat and generalist species), edges created by forestry activities were penetrable, and such species also invaded the forest interior. However, natural forest edges constituted a barrier and prevented the invasion of matrix species into the forest interior. Preserving and protecting all edges maintained by natural processes, and preventing anthropogenic changes to their structure, composition, and characteristics are key factors to sustain biodiversity in forests. Moreover, the increasing presence of anthropogenic edges in a landscape is to be avoided, as they contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Simultaneously, edges under continued anthropogenic disturbance should be restored by increasing habitat heterogeneity.

  7. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  8. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  9. Locally distributed ground deformation in an area of potential phreatic eruption, Midagahara volcano, Japan, detected by single-look-based InSAR time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu

    2018-05-01

    Although it is difficult to monitor the spatial extent and temporal evolution of local and small-magnitude ground inflation, this information is vital to assess the potential for phreatic eruption. Herein, we demonstrate the detection of locally distributed ground deformation preceding the enhancement of geothermal activity in the Midagahara volcano, Japan, through the application of single-look-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis. In the Jigoku-dani geothermal area, the ground deformation proceeded at a low speed of 4 cm/year at most with a spatial extent of 500 m in the east-west direction and 250 m in the north-south direction. The deformation can be recognized to progress from 2007, at the latest, to 2010, after which the geothermal activity increased, with the collapse of sulfur towers and the appearance of active fumaroles and boiling water on the ground surface. The most deformed area corresponds to the geothermal area with the highest activity observed on the ground surface. Assuming a sill opening model, the deformation source is estimated to be located at a depth of 50 m from the surface with a speed of 7 cm/year at most, which is consistent with the depth of the highly conductive medium inferred from magnetotelluric analyses. This may suggest that volcanic fluid and/or heat was injected into the fluid-rich medium from depth and caused the ground inflation. Our results demonstrate that high-spatial-resolution deformation data can be an effective tool to monitor subsurface pressure conditions with pinpoint spatial accuracy during the build-up to phreatic eruptions.

  10. Evaluation of site effects on ground motions based on equivalent linear site response analysis and liquefaction potential in Chennai, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampally, Subhadra; Padhy, Simanchal; Trupti, S.; Prabhakar Prasad, P.; Seshunarayana, T.

    2018-05-01

    We study local site effects with detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization to evaluate the site-specific seismic hazard for the seismic microzonation of the Chennai city in South India. A Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) of magnitude 6.0 is considered based on the available seismotectonic and geological information of the study area. We synthesized strong ground motion records for this target event using stochastic finite-fault technique, based on a dynamic corner frequency approach, at different sites in the city, with the model parameters for the source, site, and path (attenuation) most appropriately selected for this region. We tested the influence of several model parameters on the characteristics of ground motion through simulations and found that stress drop largely influences both the amplitude and frequency of ground motion. To minimize its influence, we estimated stress drop after finite bandwidth correction, as expected from an M6 earthquake in Indian peninsula shield for accurately predicting the level of ground motion. Estimates of shear wave velocity averaged over the top 30 m of soil (V S30) are obtained from multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) at 210 sites at depths of 30 to 60 m below the ground surface. Using these V S30 values, along with the available geotechnical information and synthetic ground motion database obtained, equivalent linear one-dimensional site response analysis that approximates the nonlinear soil behavior within the linear analysis framework was performed using the computer program SHAKE2000. Fundamental natural frequency, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at surface and rock levels, response spectrum at surface level for different damping coefficients, and amplification factors are presented at different sites of the city. Liquefaction study was done based on the V S30 and PGA values obtained. The major findings suggest show that the northeast part of the city is characterized by (i) low V S30 values

  11. Risk-based screening analysis of ground water contaminated by radionuclides introduced at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in the southwestern part of Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962 and ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. This concern prompted this examination of the potential health risk to these individuals from drinking the contaminated ground water either at a location on the NTS (assuming loss of institutional control after 100 y) or at one offsite (considering groundwater migration). For the purpose of this assessment, a representative mix of the radionuclides of importance and their concentrations in ground water beneath the NTS were identified from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples-of-opportunity collected at the NTS. Transport of radionuclide-contaminated ground water offsite was evaluated using a travel-time-transport approach. At both locations of interest, potential human-health risk was calculated for an individual ingesting radionuclide-contaminated ground water over the course of a 70-y lifetime. Uncertainties about human physiological attributes, as well as about estimates of physical detriment per unit of radioactive material, were quantified and incorporated into the estimates of risk. The maximum potential excess lifetime risk of cancer mortality estimated for an individual at the offsite location ranges from 7 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -5 , and at the onsite location ranges from 3 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . Both the offsite and the onsite estimates of risk are dominated by the lifetime doses from tritium. For the assessment of radionuclides in ground water, the critical uncertainty is their concentration today under the entire NTS

  12. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System. Report 76-311965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) has been made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Ground Demonstration System (BIPS-GDS). Details of the analysis are discussed. The BIPS Flight System was recently analyzed in an AIRPHX report. Since the results of the Flight System FMECA are directly applicable to the BIPS to be tested in the GDS mode, the contents of the earlier FMECA have not been repeated in this current analysis. The BIPS-FS FMECA has been reviewed and determined to be essentially current

  13. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  14. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  15. Statistical analysis of ground-water contamination at the alert apron and northern landfill areas of Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, P.; Naber, S.; Verducci, J.

    1988-07-01

    Two plumes of contamination are analyzed to determine their extent, composition, and movement. The large number of ground-water monitoring wells sampled over the past eight years at Wurtsmith AFB allow this analysis to be performed directly from empirical data, with minimal assumptions about solute transport mechanisms. Conclusions are drawn about the likely sources of contamination in the two plumes, the adequacy of the data for making risk assessments, and the likely consequences of alternative programs of remediation.

  16. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  17. Inversion and sensitivity analysis of ground penetrating radar data with waveguide dispersion using deterministic and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikowski, J.; Huisman, J.A.; Vrugt, J.A.; Vereecken, H.; van der Kruk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data affected by waveguide dispersion are not straightforward to analyse. Therefore, waveguide dispersed common midpoint measurements are typically interpreted using so-called dispersion curves, which describe the phase velocity as a function of frequency. These

  18. Risk-based decision analysis of atmospheric emission alternatives to reduce ground water degradation on the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wladis, D.; Rosen, L.; Kros, H.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental degradation due to emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrate oxides, and ammonia from diffuse sources amounts to substantial costs to society and so do the alternatives to protect and restore the environment. Damage to ground water includes acidification, aluminum leaching, elevated

  19. A calibration system for measuring 3D ground truth for validation and error analysis of robot vision algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, R.; Greig, A.; Gilby, J.

    2006-10-01

    An important task in robot vision is that of determining the position, orientation and trajectory of a moving camera relative to an observed object or scene. Many such visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the computer vision, artificial intelligence and robotics literature over the past 30 years. However, it is seldom possible to explicitly measure the accuracy of these algorithms, since the ground-truth camera positions and orientations at each frame in a video sequence are not available for comparison with the outputs of the proposed vision systems. A method is presented for generating real visual test data with complete underlying ground truth. The method enables the production of long video sequences, filmed along complicated six-degree-of-freedom trajectories, featuring a variety of objects and scenes, for which complete ground-truth data are known including the camera position and orientation at every image frame, intrinsic camera calibration data, a lens distortion model and models of the viewed objects. This work encounters a fundamental measurement problem—how to evaluate the accuracy of measured ground truth data, which is itself intended for validation of other estimated data. Several approaches for reasoning about these accuracies are described.

  20. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  1. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  2. Processo Orçamentário: uma aplicação da análise substantiva com utilização da grounded theory [Budgeting: substantive analysis using grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Sordi Relvas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diante da constatação de que os estudos sobre o orçamento exploram o fenômeno de forma reducionista, este artigo tem por objetivo propor uma teoria substantiva abrangente e fundamentada em dados empíricos para a análise do orçamento. Essa abordagem considera seus elementos constituintes e suas interdependências. Isso foi feito por meio da aplicação da abordagem indutiva fundamentada nos dados empíricos (grounded theory, sob o paradigma qualitativo. O foco de análise foi uma instituição financeira de grande porte e o trabalho de campo foi desenvolvido ao longo de dois anos, envolvendo vários níveis gerenciais. A contribuição do trabalho advém da disponibilização de framework para o tratamento do tema em um contexto amplo, o que permitiu entender aspectos que deixariam de ser considerados com uma abordagem de análise mais restrita e menos abrangente. Como produto da teoria substantiva, cinco proposições foram desenvolvidas com a perspectiva de serem aplicadas nas organizações. --- Budgeting: substantive analysis using grounded theory --- Abstract --- Considering the fact that studies into budgeting basically use a reductionist approach, this paper proposes a comprehensive substantive theory based on empirical data to be used in budget analysis. This approach takes into consideration its elements and interdependence by applying the inductive approach based on empirical data (grounded theory on a qualitative paradigm. The focus was an in-depth two-year study of a large Brazilian financial institution involving several management levels. The main contribution of the study is as a framework that treats all elements of the budget process in a comprehensive and coherent fashion, otherwise impossible using a reductionist approach. As products of the substantive theory, five propositions were developed to be applied in organizations.

  3. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  4. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  5. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  6. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  7. Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities

  8. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  9. Theoretical Calculation and Analysis on the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure in Burst-Prone Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the increase in mining depth and intensity, tunnel failure as a result of rock burst has become an important issue in the field of mining engineering in China. Based on the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure, which is formed due to the interaction of the bolts driven into the surrounding rock, this paper analyzes a rock burst prevention mechanism, establishes a mechanical model in burst-prone ground, deduces the strength calculation formula of the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure in burst-prone ground, and confirms the rock burst prevention criterion of the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure. According to the rock burst prevention criterion, the amount of the influence on rock burst prevention ability from the surrounding rock parameters and bolt support parameters is discussed.

  10. Theoretical Calculation and Analysis on the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure in Burst-Prone Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Cui, Mantang; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2015-01-01

    Given the increase in mining depth and intensity, tunnel failure as a result of rock burst has become an important issue in the field of mining engineering in China. Based on the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structure, which is formed due to the interaction of the bolts driven into the surrounding rock, this paper analyzes a rock burst prevention mechanism, establishes a mechanical model in burst-prone ground, deduces the strength calculation formula of the Composite Rock-Bolt Bearing Structur...

  11. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  13. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  14. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  15. 3D visual analysis tool in support of the SANDF's growing ground based air defence simulation capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available and live field exercises. The 3D visualisation resulted in improved situational awareness during experiment analysis, in increased involvement of the SANDF in experiment analysis and in improved credibility of analysis results presented during live or after...

  16. Non-invasive genetics outperforms morphological methods in faecal dietary analysis, revealing wild boar as a considerable conservation concern for ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-01-01

    Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet. To distinguish between different mammalian predator species, as well as different grouse prey species, we developed a molecular method based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA that allows accurate species identification. We collected 109 wild boar faeces at protected capercaillie leks and surrounding areas and analysed bird consumption using genetic methods and classical morphological examination. Genetic analysis revealed that the proportion of birds in wild boar faeces was significantly higher (17.3%; 4.5×) than indicated by morphological examination (3.8%). Moreover, the genetic method allowed considerably more precise taxonomic identification of consumed birds compared to morphological analysis. Our results demonstrate: (i) the value of using genetic approaches in faecal dietary analysis due to their higher sensitivity, and (ii) that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, deserving serious consideration in conservation planning for capercaillie and other grouse.

  17. An analysis of ground shaking and transmission loss from infra sound generated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Kristoffer T.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Tae Sung Kim; Il-Young Che; Groot-Hedlin, Catherine de; Garces, Milton

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated infra sound that was recorded by nine infrasonic arrays. Most arrays recorded a back azimuth variation with time due to the expanse of the source region. We use ray tracing to predict group velocities and back azimuth wind corrections. A Japan accelerometer network recorded ground shaking in unprecedented spatial resolution. We back projected infra sound from arrays IS44 (Kamchatka) and IS30 (Tokyo) to the source region and compare these results with acceleration data. IS44 illuminates the complex geometry of land areas that experienced shaking. IS30 illuminates two volcanoes and a flat area around the city of Sendai, where the maximum accelerations occurred. The arrays and epicentral region define three source-receiver profiles. The observed broadband energy transmission loss (TL) follows an exponential decay law. The best fitting model, which has parameters that are interpreted to include the effects of geometric spreading, scattering, and the maximum ratio of the effective sound speed in the stratosphere to that at the ground (accounts for stratospheric wind speed), yields a 65% variance reduction relative to predictions from a traditional TL relationship. This model is a simplified version of the model of Le Pichon et al. (2012), which yields an 83% variance reduction for a single frequency, implying that fine-scale atmospheric structure is required to explain the TL for stratospheric upwind propagation. Our results show that infrasonic arrays are sensitive to ground acceleration in the source region of mega-thrust earthquakes. The TL results may improve infrasonic amplitude scaling laws for explosive yield. (authors)

  18. An Analysis of Conjugate Ground-based and Space-based Measurements of Energetic Electrons during Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, N.; Semeter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Substorms within the Earth's magnetosphere release energy in the form of energetic charged particles and several kinds of waves within the plasma. Depending on their strength, satellite-based navigation and communication systems are adversely affected by the energetic charged particles. Like many other natural phenomena, substorms can have a severe economic impact on a technology-driven society such as ours. Though energization of charged particles is known to occur in the magnetosphere during substorms, the source of this population and its relation to traditional acceleration region dynamics, are not completely understood. Combining measurements of energetic charged particles within the plasmasheet and that of charged particles precipitated in to the ionosphere will provide a better understanding of the role of processes that accelerate these charged particles. In the current work, we present energetic electron flux measured indirectly using data from ground-based Incoherent Scatter Radar and that measured directly at the plasmasheet by the THEMIS spacecraft. Instances of low-altitude-precipitation observed from ground suggest electrons of energy greater than 300 keV, possibly arising from particle injection events during substorms at the magnetically conjugate locations in the plasmasheet. The differences and similarities in the measurements at the plasmasheet and the ionosphere indicate the role different processes play in influencing the journey of these energetic particles form the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. Our observations suggest that there is a lot more to be understood of the link between magnetotail dynamics and energetic electron precipitation during substorms. Understanding this may open up novel and potentially invaluable ways of diagnosing the magnetosphere from the ground.

  19. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Behavior and Climatic Effects by Analysis of SAGE 2 and Other Space, Air, and Ground Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, John M.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the research performed under NASA Ames Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-991, which covered the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1999. Previously, an interim technical report (Technical Report No. 1, 20 March 1998) summarized the work completed during the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1998. The objective of the proposed research was to advance our understanding of atmospheric aerosol behavior, aerosol-induced climatic effects, and the remote measurement and retrieval capabilities of spaceborne sensors such as SAGE II by combining and comparing data from these instruments and from airborne and ground-based instruments.

  20. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  2. A Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking-Water-Supply Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Horn, Marilee A.

    2000-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to review current drinking-water standards for arsenic, propose a maximum contaminant level for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and issue a final regulation by January, 2001. Quantification of the national occurrence of targeted ranges in arsenic concentration in ground water used for public drinking-water supplies is an important component of USEPA's regulatory process. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) were used in a retrospective analysis of arsenic in the ground-water resources of the United States. The analysis augments other existing sources of data on the occurrence of arsenic collected in ground water at public water-supply systems.The USGS, through its District offices and national programs, has been compiling data for many years on arsenic concentrations collected from wells used for public water supply, research, agriculture, industry, and domestic water supply throughout the United States. These data have been collected for a variety of purposes ranging from simple descriptions of the occurrence of arsenic in local or regional ground-water resources to detailed studies on arsenic geochemistry associated with contamination sites. A total of 18,864 sample locations were selected from the USGS NWIS data base regardless of well type, of which 2,262 were taken from public water-supply sources. Samples with non-potable water (dissolved-solids concentration greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 50o Celsius) were not selected for the retrospective analysis and other criteria for selection included the amount and type of ancillary data available for each sample. The 1,528 counties with sufficient data included 76 percent of all large public water-supply systems (serving more than 10,000 people) and 61 percent of all small public water-supply systems (serving more than 1

  3. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification. The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R and volume linear depolarization (δV ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4, which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l. since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p- and perpendicular (s- polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times. Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC, as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS, parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function

  4. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  5. Physically based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis using broadband ground motion simulation: a case study for the Prince Islands Fault, Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Aydin; Fahjan, Yasin M.; Hutchings, Lawrence J.; Pınar, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The main motivation for this study was the impending occurrence of a catastrophic earthquake along the Prince Island Fault (PIF) in the Marmara Sea and the disaster risk around the Marmara region, especially in Istanbul. This study provides the results of a physically based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) methodology, using broadband strong ground motion simulations, for sites within the Marmara region, Turkey, that may be vulnerable to possible large earthquakes throughout the PIF segments in the Marmara Sea. The methodology is called physically based because it depends on the physical processes of earthquake rupture and wave propagation to simulate earthquake ground motion time histories. We included the effects of all considerable-magnitude earthquakes. To generate the high-frequency (0.5-20 Hz) part of the broadband earthquake simulation, real, small-magnitude earthquakes recorded by a local seismic array were used as empirical Green's functions. For the frequencies below 0.5 Hz, the simulations were obtained by using synthetic Green's functions, which are synthetic seismograms calculated by an explicit 2D /3D elastic finite difference wave propagation routine. By using a range of rupture scenarios for all considerable-magnitude earthquakes throughout the PIF segments, we produced a hazard calculation for frequencies of 0.1-20 Hz. The physically based PSHA used here followed the same procedure as conventional PSHA, except that conventional PSHA utilizes point sources or a series of point sources to represent earthquakes, and this approach utilizes the full rupture of earthquakes along faults. Furthermore, conventional PSHA predicts ground motion parameters by using empirical attenuation relationships, whereas this approach calculates synthetic seismograms for all magnitudes of earthquakes to obtain ground motion parameters. PSHA results were produced for 2, 10, and 50 % hazards for all sites studied in the Marmara region.

  6. Physically-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Using Broad-Band Ground Motion Simulation: a Case Study for Prince Islands Fault, Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, A.

    2016-12-01

    The main motivation of this study is the impending occurrence of a catastrophic earthquake along the Prince Island Fault (PIF) in Marmara Sea and the disaster risk around Marmara region, especially in İstanbul. This study provides the results of a physically-based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) methodology, using broad-band strong ground motion simulations, for sites within the Marmara region, Turkey, due to possible large earthquakes throughout the PIF segments in the Marmara Sea. The methodology is called physically-based because it depends on the physical processes of earthquake rupture and wave propagation to simulate earthquake ground motion time histories. We include the effects of all considerable magnitude earthquakes. To generate the high frequency (0.5-20 Hz) part of the broadband earthquake simulation, the real small magnitude earthquakes recorded by local seismic array are used as an Empirical Green's Functions (EGF). For the frequencies below 0.5 Hz the simulations are obtained using by Synthetic Green's Functions (SGF) which are synthetic seismograms calculated by an explicit 2D/3D elastic finite difference wave propagation routine. Using by a range of rupture scenarios for all considerable magnitude earthquakes throughout the PIF segments we provide a hazard calculation for frequencies 0.1-20 Hz. Physically based PSHA used here follows the same procedure of conventional PSHA except that conventional PSHA utilizes point sources or a series of point sources to represent earthquakes and this approach utilizes full rupture of earthquakes along faults. Further, conventional PSHA predicts ground-motion parameters using by empirical attenuation relationships, whereas this approach calculates synthetic seismograms for all magnitude earthquakes to obtain ground-motion parameters. PSHA results are produced for 2%, 10% and 50% hazards for all studied sites in Marmara Region.

  7. Analysis of Secular Ground Motions in Istanbul from a Long-Term InSAR Time-Series (1992–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Aslan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and measurement of ground deformations in urban areas is of great importance for determining the vulnerable parts of the cities that are prone to geohazards, which is a crucial element of both sustainable urban planning and hazard mitigation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR time series analysis is a very powerful tool for the operational mapping of ground deformation related to urban subsidence and landslide phenomena. With an analysis spanning almost 25 years of satellite radar observations, we compute an InSAR time series of data from multiple satellites (European Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2, Envisat, Sentinel-1A, and its twin sensor Sentinel-1B in order to investigate the spatial extent and rate of ground deformation in the megacity of Istanbul. By combining the various multi-track InSAR datasets (291 images in total and analysing persistent scatterers (PS-InSAR, we present mean velocity maps of ground surface displacement in selected areas of Istanbul. We identify several sites along the terrestrial and coastal regions of Istanbul that underwent vertical ground subsidence at varying rates, from 5 ± 1.2 mm/yr to 15 ± 2.1 mm/yr. The results reveal that the most distinctive subsidence patterns are associated with both anthropogenic factors and relatively weak lithologies along the Haramirede valley in particular, where the observed subsidence is up to 10 ± 2 mm/yr. We show that subsidence has been occurring along the Ayamama river stream at a rate of up to 10 ± 1.8 mm/yr since 1992, and has also been slowing down over time following the restoration of the river and stream system. We also identify subsidence at a rate of 8 ± 1.2 mm/yr along the coastal region of Istanbul, which we associate with land reclamation, as well as a very localised subsidence at a rate of 15 ± 2.3 mm/yr starting in 2016 around one of the highest skyscrapers of Istanbul, which was built in 2010.

  8. Efficiency of optical-electronic systems: methods application for the analysis of structural changes in the process of eye grounds diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Yosyp R.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Vovkotrub, Dina V.; Saldan, Yulia Y.; Vassilenko, Valentina B.; Mazur, Nadia I.; Nikolaichuk, Daria V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Suleimenov, Batyrbek; Bainazarov, Ulan

    2017-08-01

    Process of eye tomogram obtaining by means of optical coherent tomography is studied. Stages of idiopathic macula holes formation in the process of eye grounds diagnostics are considered. Main stages of retina pathology progression are determined: Fuzzy logic units for obtaining reliable conclusions regarding the result of diagnosis are developed. By the results of theoretical and practical research system and technique of retinal macular region of the eye state analysis is developed ; application of the system, based on fuzzy logic device, improves the efficiency of eye retina complex.

  9. SOUTH RAMP DEVIATED ALIGNMENT 3.01.X AREA GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS (STATION 71+07.10 TO 71+44.10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Mrugala

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to provide a basis for ensuring safe conditions in the Case VI area. The scope of this analysis is to analyze and recommend future action for a section of the South Ramp with a deviated alignment, here referred to as Case VI 3.01.X area. This area is located between Stations 71+07.10 to 71+44.10 in the South Ramp of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) Main Loop tunnel. The scope of the analysis includes accomplishing the following goals: (1) Document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support; (2) Document the geotechnical properties of the rock mass and structural features; and (3) Evaluate the stability and develop recommendations for future action

  10. Description and comparison of selected models for hydrologic analysis of ground-water flow, St Joseph River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) is developing water-management policies designed to assess the effects of irrigation and other water uses on water supply in the basin. In support of this effort, the USGS, in cooperation with IDNR, began a study to evaluate appropriate methods for analyzing the effects of pumping on ground-water levels and streamflow in the basin 's glacial aquifer systems. Four analytical models describe drawdown for a nonleaky, confined aquifer and fully penetrating well; a leaky, confined aquifer and fully penetrating well; a leaky, confined aquifer and partially penetrating well; and an unconfined aquifer and partially penetrating well. Analytical equations, simplifying assumptions, and methods of application are described for each model. In addition to these four models, several other analytical models were used to predict the effects of ground-water pumping on water levels in the aquifer and on streamflow in local areas with up to two pumping wells. Analytical models for a variety of other hydrogeologic conditions are cited. A digital ground-water flow model was used to describe how a numerical model can be applied to a glacial aquifer system. The numerical model was used to predict the effects of six pumping plans in 46.5 sq mi area with as many as 150 wells. Water budgets for the six pumping plans were used to estimate the effect of pumping on streamflow reduction. Results of the analytical and numerical models indicate that, in general, the glacial aquifers in the basin are highly permeable. Radial hydraulic conductivity calculated by the analytical models ranged from 280 to 600 ft/day, compared to 210 and 360 ft/day used in the numerical model. Maximum seasonal pumping for irrigation produced maximum calculated drawdown of only one-fourth of available drawdown and reduced streamflow by as much as 21%. Analytical models are useful in estimating aquifer properties and predicting local effects of pumping in areas with

  11. The Strategic Exercise of Options Using Government Subsidies: An Analysis of Production Subsidies for the Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hau; Li, Jia-Hsun; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Hsieh, Jing-Chzi; Liao, Pin-Chao

    2018-04-01

    This study utilizes consolidation investment theory to incorporate with business strategies and government subsidy to develop a strategic exercise of options model. This empirical investigation examines the ground source heat pump (GSHP) government subsidy program, which is part of China’s 12th Five Year Plan. The developed model is applied to explain the behaviours of business investment with regard to strategic investment timing, option values, and the influence of government subsidies in duopolistic real-world investment decisions. The results indicate that subsidy policy can reduce the differences of investment timing among GSHP investors and has clearly evidenced the positive benefit–cost ratio of government subsidy, which facilitates China’s GSHP industry development.

  12. First ground-based optical analysis of Hβ Doppler profiles close to local noon in the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Robertson

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations of hydrogen emissions along the magnetic zenith at Longyearbyen (78.2 N, 15.8 E geographic are used to investigate the energy and source of protons precipitating into the high latitude region. During the hours around local solar noon (11:00 UT, measurements of the hydrogen Balmer β line are severely affected by sunlight, such that most data until now have been disregarded during these times. Here we use a simple technique to subtract sunlight contamination from such spectral data. An example is shown in which the removal of twilight contamination reveals a brightening of Hβ aurora over Svalbard on 27 November 2000 between 08:00 UT and 10:00 UT, which is centred on magnetic noon (08:48 UT. These data were measured by the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES, one instrument on the Southampton-UCL Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. Data from the IMAGE satellite confirms the location of a cusp "spot" over Svalbard at the time of the ground-based measurements, which moved in response to changes in the IMF conditions. A coincident pass of the DMSP F12 satellite provided input spectra for modelling studies of the Hβ profiles, which confirm that the method for removing the twilight contamination is robust. The results described here are the first ground-based optical measurements of Hβ Doppler profiles from the cusp region close to local solar noon, when scattered sunlight swamps the raw data.

  13. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  14. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Winter Fog Episodes over South Asia by exploiting ground-based and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Yasmin, Naila; Zaib, Naila; Murtaza, Rabia; Noreen, Asma; Ishtiaq, Hira; Khayyam, Junaid; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    The South Asian region in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in particular hold about 1/6th of the world's population and is considered as one of the major hotspots with increasing air pollution. Due to growing population and globalization, South Asia is experiencing high transformations in the urban and industrial sectors. Fog is one of the meteorological/environmental phenomena which can generate significant social and economic problems especially havoc to air and road traffic. Meteorological stations provide information about the fog episodes only on the basis of point observation. Continuous monitoring as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution can only be possible through the use of satellite imagery. Current study focus on winter fog episodes over South Asian region using Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Level 2 Terra Product and other MODIS Aerosol Product in addition to ground-based sampling and AERONET measurements. MODIS Corrected Reflectance RGBs are used to analyse the spatial extent of fog over study area. MOD04 level 2 Collection 6 data is used to study aerosol load and distribution which are further characterised by using aerosol type land product of MODIS. In order to study the variation of ground based observations from satellite data MODIS, AERONET and high volume air Sampler were used. Main objective of this study was to explore the spatial extent of fog, its causes and to analyse the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over South Asia with particular focus over Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Current studies show a descent increase in AOD from past few decades over South Asia and is contributing to poor air quality in the region due to growing population, urbanization, and industrialization. Smoke and absorbing aerosol are major constituent of fog over South Asia. Furthermore, winter 2014-15 extended span of Fog was also observed over South Asia. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD) and AERONET Station (AOD

  16. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  17. Generation of Ground Truth Datasets for the Analysis of 3d Point Clouds in Urban Scenes Acquired via Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Sun, Z.; Boerner, R.; Koch, T.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel way of generating ground truth dataset for analyzing point cloud from different sensors and the validation of algorithms. Instead of directly labeling large amount of 3D points requiring time consuming manual work, a multi-resolution 3D voxel grid for the testing site is generated. Then, with the help of a set of basic labeled points from the reference dataset, we can generate a 3D labeled space of the entire testing site with different resolutions. Specifically, an octree-based voxel structure is applied to voxelize the annotated reference point cloud, by which all the points are organized by 3D grids of multi-resolutions. When automatically annotating the new testing point clouds, a voting based approach is adopted to the labeled points within multiple resolution voxels, in order to assign a semantic label to the 3D space represented by the voxel. Lastly, robust line- and plane-based fast registration methods are developed for aligning point clouds obtained via various sensors. Benefiting from the labeled 3D spatial information, we can easily create new annotated 3D point clouds of different sensors of the same scene directly by considering the corresponding labels of 3D space the points located, which would be convenient for the validation and evaluation of algorithms related to point cloud interpretation and semantic segmentation.

  18. Architectural element analysis within the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) using ground-probing radar and sedimentological profiling, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark

    1994-05-01

    A well exposed outcrop in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) in southwestern Colorado was examined in order to delineate the stratigraphy in the subsurface and test the usefulness of ground-probing radar (GPR) in three-dimensional architectural studies. Two fluvial styles are present within the Kayenta Formation. Sandbodies within the lower third of the outcrop are characterized by parallel laminations that can be followed in the cliff-face for well over 300 m. These sandbodies are sheet-like in appearance, and represent high-energy flood deposits that most likely resulted from episodic floods. The remainder of the outcrop is characterized by concave-up channel deposits with bank-attached and mid-channel macroforms. Their presence suggests a multiple channel river system. The GPR data collected on the cliff-top, together with sedimentological data, provided a partial three-dimensional picture of the paleo-river system within the Kayenta Formation. The 3-D picture consists of stacked channel-bar lenses approximately 50 m in diameter. The GPR technique offers a very effective means of delineating the subsurface stratigraphy. Its high resolution capabilities, easy mobility, and rapid rate of data collection make it a useful tool. Its shallow penetration depth and limitation to low-conductivity environments are its only drawbacks.

  19. Integrating Morphology, Breeding Ground and Mitochondrial COI Gene Analysis for Species Identification of Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhu Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic public health concern that causes human severe eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and China. As a medically important intermediate host of A. cantonensis, Bellamya lithophaga (Gastropoda: Viviparidae is often confused with other morphologically similar sibling species of genus Bellamya, such as B. aeruginosa and B. purificata in the past. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate evidences to discriminate these equivocal Bellamya species.This study was carried out by getting Bellamya snail samples from Fujian Province in the South-East of China. The snail morphological features, breeding grounds and phylogenetic relationship according to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene marker were analyzed.Based on external morphology, radular shape and cusp formula, as well as major breeding environment, B. lithophaga could be distinguished from B. aeruginosa, B. purificata. The phylogenetic tree also unconfirmed that B. lithophaga belongs to a different genetic clade from other morphologically similar species.Our findings demonstrate the significant differences in B. lithophaga and other sibling species, which supports the traditional species delimitation in the genus Bellamya.

  20. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  1. A waveguide finite element aided analysis of the wave field on a stationary tyre, not in contact with the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiniarz, Patrick; Kropp, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Although tyre/road noise has been a research subject for more than three decades, there is still no consensus in the literature as to which waves on a tyre are mainly responsible for the radiation of sound during rolling. Even the free vibrational behaviour of a stationary (non-rotating) tyre, not in contact with the ground, is still not well understood in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. Thus, gaining an improved understanding of this behaviour is a natural first step towards illuminating the question of which waves on a rolling tyre contribute to sound radiation. This is the topic of the present paper, in which a model based on the waveguide finite element method (WFEM) is used to study free wave propagation, on a stationary tyre, in the range 0-1500 Hz. In the low-frequency region (0-300 Hz), wave propagation is found to be rather straightforward, with two main wave-types present. Both have cross-section modes involving a nearly rigid motion of the belt. For higher frequencies (300-1500 Hz) the behaviour is more complex, including phenomena such as 'curve veering' and waves for which the phase speed and group speed have opposite signs. Wave-types identified in this region include (i) waves involving mainly sidewall deformation, (ii) belt bending waves, (iii) a wave with significant extensional deformation of the central belt region and (iv) a wave with a 'breathing' cross-section mode. The phase speed corresponding to found waves is computed and their radiation efficiency is discussed, assuming free-field conditions. In a future publication, the tyre model will be used in conjunction with a contact model and a radiation model to investigate the contribution of these waves to radiated sound during rolling.

  2. PSI Analysis of Ground Deformations Along the South-Western Coast of the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorska, Magdalena; Graniczny, Marek; Uscinowicz, Szymon; Nutricato, Raffaele; Triggiani, Saverio; Nitti, David Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Wasowski, Janusz

    2010-03-01

    We use over 40 descending ERS-1/2 SLC (Frame = 2511 , Track = 36) images from the period 1995 - 2001 and the SPINUA (Stable Point Interferometry over Un- urbanised Areas) Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) processing technique to study Earth surface deformations along the SW coast of the Gulf of Gdansk, along the SE part of the Baltic Sea.The area of interest (AOI) includes few cities and several towns, villages and harbours. The low lying coastal areas of the SW part of the Gulf of Gdansk are at risk of floods and marine erosion. It is expected that this problem can be exacerbated by the ongoing sea level rise and possibly by crustal movements (subsidence) reported in the literature.The PSI results, however, did not reveal the presence of a regional scale, spatially consistent pattern of displacements. It is likely that any crustal deformations in the AOI simply do not exceed +-2 mm/year, which is the velocity threshold we assumed to distinguish between moving and non-moving radar targets. Nevertheless, significant downward displacements, amounting to several mm/year, are locally present in the coastal zone east of Gdansk that belongs to the Vistula river delta-alluvial plain system, as well as in the inland area west of the cities of Gdansk and Sopot. It is apparent that in all these cases the movements reflect mainly differential settlements of buildings and engineering infrastructure, which have recently been built in the areas including clay-rich, compressible sediments. Indeed, one of the highest subsidence rates (- 12 mm/year) was observed in the Gdansk petroleum refinery constructed on alluvial sediments. Thus the anthropogenic loading and consolidation of the recent deposits can locally be an important factor causing ground settlements. Importantly, for the most part the urban areas of the main cities (Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot) result to be stable.

  3. Analysis of isotope element by electrolytic enrichment method for ground water and surface water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been aimed for the assessment of isotope element Tritium (3H. It is a great threat to human health and environment for lengthy duration. The tritium exists in earth in diverse forms such as (1 small amounts of natural tritium are produced by alpha decay of lithium-7, (2 natural atmospheric tritium is also generated by secondary neutron cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen, (3 atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s, although the contribution from nuclear power plants is small. Tritium or 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years. Water samples from ground water, surface water, and precipitation were collected from different locations in Gujarat area and were analyzed for the same. Distillation of samples was done to reduce the conductivity. Deuterium and Hydrogen were removed by the process of physico-chemical fractionation in the tritium enrichment unit. The basis of physico-chemical fractionation is the difference in the strength of bonds formed by the light vs. the heavier isotope of a given element. A total of 10 cycles (runs were executed using Quintals process. Tritium concentration files were created with help of WinQ and Quick start software in Quintals process (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. The concentration of tritium in terms of tritium units (TU of various samples has been determined. The TU values of the samples vary in the range of 0.90–6.62 TU.

  4. Proposed Functional Architecture and Associated Benefits Analysis of a Common Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    systems using the same interface reduces the training time for operators, says Maj. Robert Kadavy, an action officer in the aviation directorate at U.S...Vehicle (VTUAV) and Navy MQ-8B Manpower & Training Requirements [ Raymer , 2009], another thesis titled An Operational Manpower Analysis of the RQ-8 Fire...program_assistance_and_t ools/best_practices_and_lessons_learned Raymer , M. K. (2009). A Comparative Analysis of the Army MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff

  5. Ground and excited state absorption of Ni{sup 2+} ions in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Crystal field analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brik, M.G. [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan) and Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)]. E-mail: brik@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Avram, N.M. [Department of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Avram, C.N. [Department of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan No. 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Rudowicz, C. [Institute of Physics, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Yeung, Y.Y. [Department of Mathematics, Science, Social Sciences and Technology, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, New Territories (Hong Kong); Gnutek, P. [Institute of Physics, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland)

    2007-04-25

    The exchange charge model (ECM) of crystal field is utilized to provide the theoretical explanation of the ground state absorption and the excited state absorption observed for the octahedrally coordinated Ni{sup 2+} ions in the spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The ECM enables modeling of the crystal field parameters (CFPs) for the impurity ions based on the crystal structure data of the host lattice. To ensure the reliability of the CFPs, the convergence of the CFP values with the increasing number of the coordination spheres taken into account in the ECM calculations is considered. The trigonal CFPs B{sub 2}{sup 0},B{sub 4}{sup 0}andB{sub 4}{sup -3} determined by the ECM, together with the appropriate Racah parameters B and C, serve as input to two crystal field analysis computer packages, which compute the energy level schemes within the whole 3d{sup 8} configuration. The cubic approximation utilizing only one CFP Dq is also discussed. Basic features of the ground and excited state absorption spectra observed for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Ni{sup 2+} are satisfactorily explained by our crystal field analysis. In order to model the pressure dependence of the CFPs (and thus of the absorption spectra when relevant experimental data become available), the variation of the CFPs induced by possible distortions of the lattice due to, e.g. overall relaxation of the ions or accommodation of the impurity ions in the lattice, is studied. Analysis of the experimental absorption spectra enables us to evaluate also the Huang-Rhys parameter, the effective phonon energy, and the zero-phonon line position.

  6. In situ influence of coal ash dump on the quality of neighboring surface and ground waters by applying correlation statistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasna M. Djinovic; Aleksandar R. Popovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the real in situ influence of coal ash and slag transport and storage on the quality of neighboring surface and ground waters by applying correlation statistic analysis. It was found that the waste waters from the coal ash dump do not have any influence on the quality of the Danube river water. The Danube and the waste waters, however, influence the quality of the ground waters of the Petka spring. Changes in the concentrations of elements in the Danube or in the waste waters can have immediate or delayed impact on the quality of the spring waters. The immediate impact has calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, vanadium, cobalt from Danube; magnesium, vanadium from overflow and drainage waters; copper from drainage water. And the delayed impact has calcium, magnesium, vanadium and silicon from the Danube waters, cobalt from drainage waters, chromium and silicon from overflow waters and magnesium and vanadium from both overflow and drainage waters. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  8. Analysis of Venusian Atmospheric Two-Dimensional Winds and Features Using Venus Express, Akatsuki, and Ground-Based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Peralta, Javier; Gray, Candace L.; McGouldrick, Kevin; Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shigeto

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the horizontal dynamics of Venus’s atmosphere at cloud-top level. In particular, we focus on the atmospheric superrotation, in which the equatorial atmosphere rotates with a period of approximately 4-5 days (~60 times faster than the solid planet). The superrotation’s forcing and maintenance mechanisms remain to be explained. Temporal evolution of the zonal (latitudinal direction) wind could reveal the transport of energy and momentum in/out of the equatorial region, and eventually shed light on mechanisms that maintain the Venusian superrotation. As a first step, we characterize the zonal mean wind field of Venus between 2006 and 2013 in ultraviolet images captured by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on board the ESA Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft which observed Venus’s southern hemisphere. Our measurements show that, between 2006 and 2013, the westward wind speed at mid- to equatorial latitudes exhibit an increase of ~20 m/s; these results are consistent with previous studies by Kouyama et al. 2013 and Khatuntsev et al. 2013. The meridional component of the wind could additionally help us characterize large-scale cloud features and their evolution that may be connected to such superrotation. We also conduct ground-based observations contemporaneously with JAXA’s Akatsuki orbiter at the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM to extend our temporal coverage to present. Images we have captured at APO to date demonstrate that, even under unfavorable illumination, it is possible to see large features that could be used for large-scale feature tracking to be compared to images taken by Akatsuki. Our work has been supported by the following grants: NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NASA MUREP NNX15AQ03A, NSF AAG 1212216, and JAXA’s ITYF Fellowship.Kouyama, T. et al (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 37-46, doi:10.1029/2011JE004013.Khatuntsev et al. (2013), Icarus, 226, 140-158, doi

  9. Final Hazard Categorization and Auditable Safety Analysis for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the initial hazard categorization, final hazard categorization and auditable safety analysis for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  10. Capability of space-spectral analysis used for studying underground nuclear explosions effect on ground surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the results of the work of study of the influence underground nucleus blasts (UNB) on condition of the day surface of the site Balapan on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site using materials of remote space sensing. The estimation of the cosmic spectral analysis information density is given for revealing the post-explosive geo- dynamic processes. (author)

  11. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; González García, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which

  12. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  13. 6-C polarization analysis using point measurements of translational and rotational ground-motion: theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, David; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Robertsson, Johan O. A.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a six-component (6-C) polarization model for P-, SV-, SH-, Rayleigh-, and Love-waves both inside an elastic medium as well as at the free surface. It is shown that single-station 6-C data comprised of three components of rotational motion and three components of translational motion provide the opportunity to unambiguously identify the wave type, propagation direction, and local P- and S-wave velocities at the receiver location by use of polarization analysis. To extract such information by conventional processing of three-component (3-C) translational data would require large and dense receiver arrays. The additional rotational components allow the extension of the rank of the coherency matrix used for polarization analysis. This enables us to accurately determine the wave type and wave parameters (propagation direction and velocity) of seismic phases, even if more than one wave is present in the analysis time window. This is not possible with standard, pure-translational 3-C recordings. In order to identify modes of vibration and to extract the accompanying wave parameters, we adapt the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC). Due to the strong nonlinearity of the MUSIC estimator function, it can be used to detect the presence of specific wave types within the analysis time window at very high resolution. We show how the extracted wavefield properties can be used, in a fully automated way, to separate the wavefield into its different wave modes using only a single 6-C recording station. As an example, we apply the method to remove surface wave energy while preserving the underlying reflection signal and to suppress energy originating from undesired directions, such as side-scattered waves.

  14. Monitoring Ground Deformation of Subway Area during the Construction Based on the Method of Multi-Temporal Coherent Targets Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, J.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, M.

    2018-04-01

    Multi-temporal coherent targets analysis is a high-precision and high-spatial-resolution monitoring method for urban surface deformation based on Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), and has been successfully applied to measure land subsidence, landslide and strain accumulation caused by fault movement and so on. In this paper, the multi-temporal coherent targets analysis is used to study the settlement of subway area during the period of subway construction. The eastern extension of Shanghai Metro Line. 2 is taking as an example to study the subway settlement during the construction period. The eastern extension of Shanghai Metro Line. 2 starts from Longyang Road and ends at Pudong airport. Its length is 29.9 kilometers from east to west and it is a key transportation line to the Pudong Airport. 17 PalSAR images during 2007 and 2010 are applied to analyze and invert the settlement of the buildings nearby the subway based on the multi-temporal coherent targets analysis. But there are three significant deformation areas nearby the Line 2 between 2007 and 2010, with maximum subsidence rate up to 30 mm/y in LOS. The settlement near the Longyang Road station and Chuansha Town are both caused by newly construction and city expansion. The deformation of the coastal dikes suffer from heavy settlement and the rate is up to -30 mm/y. In general, the area close to the subway line is relatively stable during the construction period.

  15. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  17. Viability of the ground of Shithatha, western Iraqi plateau, for industrial and commercial uses via hydrochemistry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    Iraqi western plateau is considered as one of the most resourceful areas of the middle east, that is not yet well explored, due to the many political disturbances and security issues. The viability of underground water for the various industrial, municipal, commercial and agricultural uses is examined for Shithatha, Karbala governorates as a representative for the western plateau via chemical and physical analysis of water samples that are taken from 9 wells and 3 springs all-around the study area during the wet and dry periods. Hydro chemical and statistical analysis for the field samples have proved that groundwater of the studied area is classified as slightly-brackish water and water hardness is very high. Also, the results of the analyses of trace elements in the groundwater of the study area have confirmed the contamination of groundwater with some elements such as (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni) in concentrations that have exceeded the WHO and Iraqi national standards IQS, permissible limits. The application of Hydro-chemical formulae of Kurlouv and Piper, Schoeller, Stiff classifications have demonstrated that most samples of the study area have water type of (Na2SO4) while other samples have ranged between (MgSO4), and (NaCl) water type. The quality of groundwater is unsuitable for drinking and industrial purposes and it is almost suitable for irrigation purposes, but it is suitable for livestock, building and agricultural purposes because the salinity of the water is within the permissible limits when considering the nature of the soil.

  18. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Malek Mohammadi; R, Derakhshani; M, Tavallaie; M, Raoof; N, Hasheminejad; Aa, Haghdoost

    2017-06-01

    The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean's Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25%) and had an educational status of high school level (66%). About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  19. A robust and fast method of sampling and analysis of delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in ground waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph

    2005-09-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)) is traditionally determined using either direct precipitation or gas evolution methods in conjunction with offline gas preparation and measurement in a dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. A gas evolution method based on continuous-flow technology is described here, which is easy to use and robust. Water samples (100-1500 microl depending on the carbonate alkalinity) are injected into He-filled autosampler vials in the field and analysed on an automated continuous-flow gas preparation system interfaced to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Sample analysis time including online preparation is 10 min and overall precision is 0.1 per thousand. This method is thus fast and can easily be automated for handling large sample batches.

  20. Dynamical analysis of nearby clusters. Automated astrometry from the ground: precision proper motions over a wide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Moraux, E.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Bouvier, J.; Barrado, D.; Solano, E.; Bayo, A.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The kinematic properties of the different classes of objects in a given association hold important clues about the history of its members, and offer a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the various models of stellar formation and evolution. Aims: DANCe (standing for dynamical analysis of nearby clusters) is a survey program aimed at deriving a comprehensive and homogeneous census of the stellar and substellar content of a number of nearby (history, and the presence of reference extragalactic sources for the anchoring onto the ICRS. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. On Which Abilities Are Category Fluency and Letter Fluency Grounded A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 53 Alzheimer's Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bizzozero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer's dementia (AD, letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test, and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test. Methods: We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results: Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions: Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention.

  2. Determining spatio-temporal distribution of bee forage species of Al-Baha region based on ground inventorying supported with GIS applications and Remote Sensed Satellite Image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuru Adgaba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In arid zones, the shortage of bee forage is critical and usually compels beekeepers to move their colonies in search of better forages. Identifying and mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of the bee forages over given area is important for better management of bee colonies. In this study honey bee plants in the target areas were inventoried following, ground inventory work supported with GIS applications. The study was conducted on 85 large plots of 50 × 50 m each. At each plot, data on species name, height, base diameter, crown height, crown diameter has been taken for each plant with their respective geographical positions. The data were stored, and processed using Trimble GPS supported with ArcGIS10 software program. The data were used to estimate the relative frequency, density, abundance and species diversity, species important value index and apicultural value of the species. In addition, Remotely Sensed Satellite Image of the area was obtained and processed using Hopfield Artificial Neural Network techniques. During the study, 182 species from 49 plant families were identified as bee forages of the target area. From the total number of species; shrubs, herbs and trees were accounting for 61%, 27.67%, and 11.53% respectively. Of which Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia tortilis, Acacia origina, Acacia asak, Lavandula dentata, and Hypoestes forskaolii were the major nectar source plants of the area in their degree of importance. The average vegetation cover values of the study areas were low (<30% with low Shannon’s species diversity indices (H′ of 0.5–1.52 for different sites. Based on the eco-climatological factors and the variations in their flowering period, these major bee forage species were found to form eight distinct spatiotemporal categories which allow beekeepers to migrate their colonies to exploit the resources at different seasons and place. The Remote Sensed Satellite Image analysis confirmed the spatial

  3. Analysis of Biomass Burning Impacts on the Air Quality of El Paso, Texas in July 2016 using Ground Observations and NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odwuor, A.; Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Colley, B. E.; White, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    Texas (TX), U.S., is surrounded by areas prone to wildfire and agricultural burning (collectively referred to as biomass burning) and smoke plumes from these fires can be driven by meteorological conditions to travel across the state, depositing a variety of pollutants. These pollutants include aerosols, which exert several negative effects on the environment and human health and are especially harmful when deposited in highly-populated metropolitan areas. In El Paso, TX, elevated atmospheric concentrations of ozone and PM 2.5 occur when aerosol-carrying biomass burning smoke plumes reach the city. One such pollution episode was identified by El Paso UTEP (CAMS 12) ground monitor on July 16th, 2016. To identify the sources of this pollution episode, this study utilized NASA Earth Observations including Terra MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) and CALIPSO CALIOP calibrated and geo-located vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds to perform 3-D spatial temporal plume tracking. Thermal anomaly maps from Suomi NPP VIIRS were also used in conjunction with NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model trajectories. Results from these analyses indicated several potential source wildfires that could have contributed to the elevated pollutant concentration levels, of which the School and Black Range Complex Fires in the Gila Wilderness of New Mexico, U.S. and agricultural biomass burning in Guaymas, Mexico were identified as the main contributors. 3-D aerosol transport maps produced using Terra MODIS AOD data for the exceedance date and CALIPSO CALIOP vertical profiles for a date leading up to the exceedance further validated this result. The results of this study can be replicated for other dates in other locations where similar elevated pollutant concentration levels are observed via ground monitors. This analysis, which combined in situ data, trajectory models and remote sensing data, proves itself a valuable tool for studying air pollution

  4. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA Approach to Seasonal and Zooplankton Diversity Relationships in Fishing Grounds of Mannar Gulf, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin J. PITCHAIKANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is a technique used to emphasize variation and bring out strong patterns in a dataset. It is often used to make data easy to explore and visualize. The primary objective of the present study was to record information of zooplankton diversity in a systematic way and to study the variability and relationships among seasons prevailed in Gulf of Mannar. The PCA for the zooplankton seasonal diversity was investigated using the four seasonal datasets to understand the statistical significance among the four seasons. Two different principal components (PC were segregated in all the seasons homogeneously. PCA analyses revealed that Temora turbinata is an opportunistic species and zooplankton diversity was significantly different from season to season and principally, the zooplankton abundance and its dynamics in Gulf of Mannar is structured by seasonal current patterns. The factor loadings of zooplankton for different seasons in Tiruchendur coastal water (GOM is different compared with the Southwest coast of India; particularly, routine and opportunistic species were found within the positive and negative factors. The copepods Acrocalanus gracilis and Acartia erythrea were dominant in summer and Southwest monsoon due to the rainfall and freshwater discharge during the summer season; however, these species were replaced by Temora turbinata during Northeast monsoon season.

  5. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  6. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis of ground water flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yi.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed

  7. Improving access to health information for older migrants by using grounded theory and social network analysis to understand their information behaviour and digital technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, K T; Newman, L A; Ward, P R

    2014-11-01

    Migrant well-being can be strongly influenced by the migration experience and subsequent degree of mainstream language acquisition. There is little research on how older Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD) migrants who have 'aged in place' find health information, and the role which digital technology plays in this. Although the research for this paper was not focused on cancer, we draw out implications for providing cancer-related information to this group. We interviewed 54 participants (14 men and 40 women) aged 63-94 years, who were born in Italy or Greece, and who migrated to Australia mostly as young adults after World War II. Constructivist grounded theory and social network analysis were used for data analysis. Participants identified doctors, adult children, local television, spouse, local newspaper and radio as the most important information sources. They did not generally use computers, the Internet or mobile phones to access information. Literacy in their birth language, and the degree of proficiency in understanding and using English, influenced the range of information sources accessed and the means used. The ways in which older CALD migrants seek and access information has important implications for how professionals and policymakers deliver relevant information to them about cancer prevention, screening, support and treatment, particularly as information and resources are moved online as part of e-health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique; Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity (≥64%) and specificity (≥78%) and a high negative predictive value (≥93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity (≥78%) and specificity (≥89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  9. Ground stone tool assemblages at the end of the Chalcolithic period: A preliminary analysis of the Late Chalcolithic sites in the Fazael Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggai Cohen-Klonymus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The very Late Chalcolithic sites of the Fazael Valley exhibit changes in settlement patterns and material culture. This paper presents the analysis of the ground stone tool assemblages of these sites, and includes the combination of attribute analysis, functional typology, and spatial and contextual analyses, allowing comparisons both between the different sites and between different phases within the sites. The assemblages of the late sites of Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 show similar use of raw materials and tool design, which is clearly different from the assemblage of the earlier typical Ghassulian Chalcolithic site of Fazael 1. In Fazael 2, two phases revealed a shift from the use of large grinding tools to mortars and small grinding tools. In both the earlier and the later phases, the separation of activity areas within the site is clear. Grinding activity in both phases is restricted to the western side of the site, while mortars and spindle whorls were found only in the south-eastern part. Finally, a comparison with Fazael 1, as well as with other Late Chalcolithic sites, such as Gilat, 'Ein Hilu and 'En Esur, show that the large number of mortars found in Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 is unique, and may hint at a shift to different subsistence strategies appearing in this region in the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period.

  10. Extreme events in total ozone over the Northern mid-latitudes: an analysis based on long-term data sets from five European ground-based stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Harald E. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)), e-mail: hr2302@columbia.edu; Jancso, Leonhardt M. (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics, Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)); Di Rocco, Stefania (Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)) (and others)

    2011-11-15

    We apply methods from extreme value theory to identify extreme events in high (termed EHOs) and low (termed ELOs) total ozone and to describe the distribution tails (i.e. very high and very low values) of five long-term European ground-based total ozone time series. The influence of these extreme events on observed mean values, long-term trends and changes is analysed. The results show a decrease in EHOs and an increase in ELOs during the last decades, and establish that the observed downward trend in column ozone during the 1970-1990s is strongly dominated by changes in the frequency of extreme events. Furthermore, it is shown that clear 'fingerprints' of atmospheric dynamics (NAO, ENSO) and chemistry [ozone depleting substances (ODSs), polar vortex ozone loss] can be found in the frequency distribution of ozone extremes, even if no attribution is possible from standard metrics (e.g. annual mean values). The analysis complements earlier analysis for the world's longest total ozone record at Arosa, Switzerland, confirming and revealing the strong influence of atmospheric dynamics on observed ozone changes. The results provide clear evidence that in addition to ODS, volcanic eruptions and strong/moderate ENSO and NAO events had significant influence on column ozone in the European sector

  11. A Grounded Theory Qualitative Analysis of Interprofessional Providers' Perceptions on Caring for Critically Ill Infants and Children in Pediatric and General Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Sandeep; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Gawel, Marcie; Walsh, Barbara M; Brown, Linda L; Lavoie, Megan; Tay, Khoon-Yen; Auerbach, Marc A

    2016-10-04

    The objective of this study was to explore pediatric emergency department (PED) and general emergency department (GED) providers' perceptions on caring for critically ill infants and children. This study utilized qualitative methods to examine the perceptions of emergency department providers caring for critically ill infants and children. Teams of providers participated in 4 in situ simulation cases followed by facilitated debriefings. Debriefings were recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were reviewed independently and followed by group coding discussions to identify emerging themes. Consistent with grounded theory, the team iteratively revised the debriefing script as new understanding was gained. A total of 188 simulation debriefings were recorded in 24 departments, with 15 teams participating from 8 PEDs and 32 teams from 16 GEDs. Twenty-four debriefings were audiotaped and professionally transcribed verbatim. Thematic saturation was achieved after 20 transcripts. In our iterative qualitative analysis of these transcripts, we observed 4 themes: (1) GED provider comfort with algorithm-based pediatric care and overall comfort with pediatric care in PED, (2) GED provider reliance on cognitive aids versus experience-based recall by PED providers, (3) GED provider discomfort with locating and determining size or dose of pediatric-specific equipment and medications, and (4) PED provider reliance on larger team size and challenges with multitasking during resuscitation. Our qualitative analysis produced several themes that help us to understand providers' perceptions in caring for critically ill children in GEDs and PEDs. These data could guide the development of targeted educational and improvement interventions.

  12. A Mental Health Storytelling Intervention Using Transmedia to Engage Latinas: Grounded Theory Analysis of Participants’ Perceptions of the Story’s Main Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adrienne; Soderlund, Patricia D

    2018-01-01

    Background Transmedia storytelling was used to attract English-speaking Latina women with elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety to engage in an intervention that included videos and a webpage with links to symptom management resources. However, a main character for the storyline who was considered dynamic, compelling, and relatable by the target group was needed. Objective We conducted interviews with 28 English-speaking Latinas (target group) with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety who participated in an Internet-accessible transmedia storytelling intervention. The objective of this study was to examine participants’ perceptions of the lead character of the story. Development of this character was informed by deidentified data from previous studies with members of the target group. Critique of the character from a panel of therapists informed editing, as did input from women of the target group. Methods All interviews were conducted via telephone, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Data analysis was guided by grounded theory methodology. Results Participants embraced the main character, Catalina, related to her as a person with an emotional life and a temporal reality, reported that they learned from her and wanted more episodes that featured her and her life. Grounded theory analysis led to the development of one category (She “just felt so real”: relating to Catalina as a real person with a past, present, and future) with 4 properties. Properties included (1) relating emotionally to Catalina’s vulnerability, (2) recognizing shared experiences, (3) needing to support others while simultaneously lacking self-support, and (4) using Catalina as a springboard for imagining alternative futures. Participants found Catalina’s efforts to pursue mental health treatment to be meaningful and led them to compare themselves to her and consider how they might pursue treatment themselves. Conclusions When creating a story-based mental health intervention

  13. A Mental Health Storytelling Intervention Using Transmedia to Engage Latinas: Grounded Theory Analysis of Participants' Perceptions of the Story's Main Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Martinez, Adrienne; Soderlund, Patricia D

    2018-05-02

    Transmedia storytelling was used to attract English-speaking Latina women with elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety to engage in an intervention that included videos and a webpage with links to symptom management resources. However, a main character for the storyline who was considered dynamic, compelling, and relatable by the target group was needed. We conducted interviews with 28 English-speaking Latinas (target group) with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety who participated in an Internet-accessible transmedia storytelling intervention. The objective of this study was to examine participants' perceptions of the lead character of the story. Development of this character was informed by deidentified data from previous studies with members of the target group. Critique of the character from a panel of therapists informed editing, as did input from women of the target group. All interviews were conducted via telephone, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Data analysis was guided by grounded theory methodology. Participants embraced the main character, Catalina, related to her as a person with an emotional life and a temporal reality, reported that they learned from her and wanted more episodes that featured her and her life. Grounded theory analysis led to the development of one category (She "just felt so real": relating to Catalina as a real person with a past, present, and future) with 4 properties. Properties included (1) relating emotionally to Catalina's vulnerability, (2) recognizing shared experiences, (3) needing to support others while simultaneously lacking self-support, and (4) using Catalina as a springboard for imagining alternative futures. Participants found Catalina's efforts to pursue mental health treatment to be meaningful and led them to compare themselves to her and consider how they might pursue treatment themselves. When creating a story-based mental health intervention to be delivered through an app, regardless of type, careful

  14. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  15. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  16. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  17. GRASP [GRound-Water Adjunct Sensitivity Program]: A computer code to perform post-SWENT [simulator for water, energy, and nuclide transport] adjoint sensitivity analysis of steady-state ground-water flow: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.L.; RamaRao, B.S.; McNeish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    GRASP (GRound-Water Adjunct Senstivity Program) computes measures of the behavior of a ground-water system and the system's performance for waste isolation, and estimates the sensitivities of these measures to system parameters. The computed measures are referred to as ''performance measures'' and include weighted squared deviations of computed and observed pressures or heads, local Darcy velocity components and magnitudes, boundary fluxes, and travel distance and time along travel paths. The sensitivities are computed by the adjoint method and are exact derivatives of the performance measures with respect to the parameters for the modeled system, taken about the assumed parameter values. GRASP presumes steady-state, saturated grondwater flow, and post-processes the results of a multidimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) finite-difference flow code. This document describes the mathematical basis for the model, the algorithms and solution techniques used, and the computer code design. The implementation of GRASP is verified with simple one- and two-dimensional flow problems, for which analytical expressions of performance measures and sensitivities are derived. The linkage between GRASP and multidimensional finite-difference flow codes is described. This document also contains a detailed user's manual. The use of GRASP to evaluate nuclear waste disposal issues has been emphasized throughout the report. The performance measures and their sensitivities can be employed to assist in directing data collection programs, expedite model calibration, and objectively determine the sensitivity of projected system performance to parameters

  18. Ground motion analysis of OSSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, R.P.; Snell, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield experiment, OSSY, was performed to investigate the viability of a high-explosive technique to help estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the 100-pound OSSY experiments performed in hole UE-10 ITS No. 3 at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity wave forms from these experiments show a distinct dual-pulse structure in the close-in and far-field regions, with the amplitude of the second pulse being as large as or larger than the first pulse. To gain some insight into the cause of the dual-pulse feature, we examine how the explosion-induced close-in response is affected by (1) certain features of inelastic rock/soil constitutive models applied in the near-field region, (2) the large length-to-diameter charge ratio of 8, (3) the charge and gauge package emplacement, and (4) geology (e.g., layering) in the vicinity of the explosion. Our results from 1-D and 2-D simulations show the following: (a) the response, measured by accelerometers located above the charges, is significantly influenced by the charge length-to-diameter ratio out to a distance of 8 m. (b) the grout emplacement of the charge has very little effect on the response. (c) the geologic layering serves mainly to phase the arrival of the pulses. (d) the second pulse can be best accounted for by applying a dilatant feature that allows for pore recovery during unloading. Other material property variations do not provide any contribution to the formation of a second pulse.

  19. Ground motion analysis of OSSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, R.P.; Snell, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The On Site Seismic Yield experiment, OSSY, was performed to investigate the viability of a high-explosive technique to help estimate the yield of nuclear explosions. We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the 100-pound OSSY experiments performed in hole UE-10 ITS No. 3 at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity wave forms from these experiments show a distinct dual-pulse structure in the close-in and far-field regions, with the amplitude of the second pulse being as large as or larger than the first pulse. To gain some insight into the cause of the dual-pulse feature, we examine how the explosion-induced close-in response is affected by (1) certain features of inelastic rock/soil constitutive models applied in the near-field region, (2) the large length-to-diameter charge ratio of 8, (3) the charge and gauge package emplacement, and (4) geology (e.g., layering) in the vicinity of the explosion. Our results from 1-D and 2-D simulations show the following: (a) the response, measured by accelerometers located above the charges, is significantly influenced by the charge length-to-diameter ratio out to a distance of 8 m. (b) the grout emplacement of the charge has very little effect on the response. (c) the geologic layering serves mainly to phase the arrival of the pulses. (d) the second pulse can be best accounted for by applying a dilatant feature that allows for pore recovery during unloading. Other material property variations do not provide any contribution to the formation of a second pulse

  20. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  1. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui

    2016-07-01

    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  2. Investigation of co-combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and coffee grounds mixtures using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to artificial neural networks modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiacong; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Sun, Jian; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Huang, Shaosong; Ning, Xunan

    2017-02-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was applied to thermal data obtained by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 1000°C at three different heating rates in air to predict the TG curves of sewage sludge (SS) and coffee grounds (CG) mixtures. A good agreement between experimental and predicted data verified the accuracy of the ANN approach. The results of co-combustion showed that there were interactions between SS and CG, and the impacts were mostly positive. With the addition of CG, the mass loss rate and the reactivity of SS were increased while charring was reduced. Measured activation energies (E a ) determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) methods deviated by <5%. The average value of E a (166.8kJ/mol by KAS and 168.8kJ/mol by OFW, respectively) was the lowest when the fraction of CG in the mixture was 40%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco; Iraldo, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. → Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. → Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. → Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. → Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  4. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  5. AMS of actinides in ground- and seawater: a new procedure for simultaneous analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes below ppq levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    U-236, Np-237, Pu isotopes and Am-243 were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq with a maximum sample size of 0.250 l. Such high sensitivity measurement was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with an improved gas stripping and an additional high resolving magnet. The use of non-isotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow the determination of those nuclides, namely Np-237 and Am-243, for which isotopic tracers for mass spectrometry are rarely available. The actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide co-precipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated with the analysis of IAEA 443 seawater Reference Material and applied to background samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration project at the Grimsel Test Site and to sea- and freshwater samples affected solely by global fallout. The sensitivity of the presented analytical method provides the capability to study the long-term release of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems.

  6. GIS Analysis of Available Data to Identify regions in the U.S. Where Shallow Ground Water Supplies are Particularly Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases to Biofuels from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIS analysis of available data to identify regions in the U.S. where shallow ground water supplies are particularly vulnerable to contamination by releases of biofuels from underground storage tanks. In this slide presentation, GIS was used to perform a simple numerical and ...

  7. Seismic behavior of breakwaters on complex ground by numerical tests: Liquefaction and post liquefaction ground settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Zhang, Feng; Bao, Xiaohua; Shi, Zhenming; Ye, Guanlin; Ling, Xianzhang

    2018-04-01

    A large number of breakwaters have been constructed along coasts to protect humans and infrastructures from tsunamis. There is a risk that foundation soils of these structures may liquefy, or partially liquefy during the earthquake preceding a tsunami, which would greatly reduce the structures' capacity to resist the tsunami. It is necessary to consider not only the soil's liquefaction behavior due to earthquake motions but also its post-liquefaction behavior because this behavior will affect the breakwater's capacity to resist an incoming tsunami. In this study, numerical tests based on a sophisticated constitutive model and a soil-water coupled finite element method are used to predict the mechanical behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils. Two real breakwaters subjected to two different seismic excitations are examined through numerical simulation. The simulation results show that, earthquakes affect not only the immediate behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils but also their long-term settlements due to post-earthquake consolidation. A soil profile with thick clayey layers beneath liquefied soil is more vulnerable to tsunami than a soil profile with only sandy layers. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the seismic behavior of breakwaters and surrounding soils is important for the design of breakwater structures to resist tsunamis.

  8. Mortality after ground-level fall in the elderly patient taking oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation/flutter: a long-term analysis of risk versus benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Tazo Stowe; Parina, Ralitza; Chang, David C; Inui, Thomas S; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-03-01

    Elderly patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter who experience ground-level falls are at risk for lethal head injuries. Patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) for thromboprophylaxis may be at higher risk for these head injuries. Trauma surgeons treating these patients face a difficult choice: (1) continue OAC to minimize stroke risk while increasing the risk of a lethal head injury or (2) discontinue OAC to avoid intracranial hemorrhage while increasing the risk of stroke. To inform this choice, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess long-term outcomes and risk factors for mortality after presentation with a ground-level fall among patients with and without OAC. Retrospective analysis of the longitudinal version of the California Office of Statewide Planning and Development database was performed for years 1995 to 2009. Elderly anticoagulated patients (age > 65 years) with known atrial fibrillation or flutter who fell were stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score and compared with a nonanticoagulated control cohort. Multivariable logistic regression including patient demographics, stroke risk, injury severity, and hospital type identified risk factors for mortality. A total of 377,873 patient records met the inclusion criteria, 42,913 on OAC and 334,960 controls. The mean age was 82.4 and 80.6 years, respectively. Most were female, with CHA2DS2-VASc scores between 3 and 5. Mortality among OAC patients after a first fall was 6%, compared with 3.1% among non-OAC patients. Patients dying with a head injury constituted 31.6% of deaths within OAC patients compared with 23.8% among controls. Risk of eventual death with head injury exceeded annualized stroke risk for patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 to 2. Predictors for mortality with head injury on the first admission included male sex, Asian ethnicity, a history of stroke, and trauma center admission. Elderly patients on OAC for atrial fibrillation and/or flutter who fall have a greater risk for

  9. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  10. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-02-02

    Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the "social support" perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual's efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. In this paper, we describe grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual's efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include "sleepiness," "pledge," "patch," "spouse," and "slip." Examples of themes include "traditions," "social support

  11. The hyperbolic chemical bond: Fourier analysis of ground and first excited state potential energy curves of HX (X = H-Ne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John A

    2008-09-04

    RHF/aug-cc-pVnZ, UHF/aug-cc-pVnZ, and QCISD/aug-cc-pVnZ, n = 2-5, potential energy curves of H2 X (1) summation g (+) are analyzed by Fourier transform methods after transformation to a new coordinate system via an inverse hyperbolic cosine coordinate mapping. The Fourier frequency domain spectra are interpreted in terms of underlying mathematical behavior giving rise to distinctive features. There is a clear difference between the underlying mathematical nature of the potential energy curves calculated at the HF and full-CI levels. The method is particularly suited to the analysis of potential energy curves obtained at the highest levels of theory because the Fourier spectra are observed to be of a compact nature, with the envelope of the Fourier frequency coefficients decaying in magnitude in an exponential manner. The finite number of Fourier coefficients required to describe the CI curves allows for an optimum sampling strategy to be developed, corresponding to that required for exponential and geometric convergence. The underlying random numerical noise due to the finite convergence criterion is also a clearly identifiable feature in the Fourier spectrum. The methodology is applied to the analysis of MRCI potential energy curves for the ground and first excited states of HX (X = H-Ne). All potential energy curves exhibit structure in the Fourier spectrum consistent with the existence of resonances. The compact nature of the Fourier spectra following the inverse hyperbolic cosine coordinate mapping is highly suggestive that there is some advantage in viewing the chemical bond as having an underlying hyperbolic nature.

  12. Ground state hydrogen conformations and vibrational analysis of 1,2-dihdroxyanthraquinone (alizarin) molecule by AB initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delta, E.; Ucun, F.; Saglam, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ground state hydrogen conformations of 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (alizarin) molecule have been investigated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The calculations indicate that the compound in the ground state exist with the doubly bonded O atom linked intra molecularly by the two hydrogen bonds. The vibrational analyses of the ground state conformation of the compound were also made and its optimized geometry parameters were given.

  13. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  14. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  15. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  16. Tightly-coupled real-time analysis of GPS and accelerometer data for translational and rotational ground motions and application to earthquake and tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.; Hasse, J.; Crowell, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    High-rate GPS can play an important role in earthquake early warning (EEW) systems for large (>M6) events by providing permanent displacements immediately as they are achieved, to be used in source inversions that can be repeatedly updated as more information becomes available. This is most valuable to implement at a site very near the potential source rupture, where broadband seismometers are likely to clip, and accelerometer data cannot be objectively integrated to produce reliable displacements in real time. At present, more than 525 real-time GPS stations have been established in western North America, which are being integrated into EEW systems. Our analysis technique relies on a tightly-coupled combination of GPS and accelerometer data, an extension of precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). We operate a PPP service based on North American stations available through the IGS and UNAVCO/PBO. The service provides real-time satellite clock and fractional-cycle bias products that allow us to position individual client stations in the zone of deformation. The service reference stations are chosen to be further than 200 km from the primary zones of tectonic deformation in the western U.S. to avoid contamination of the satellite products during a large seismic event. At client stations, accelerometer data are applied as tight constraints on the positions between epochs in PPP-AR, which improves cycle-slip repair and rapid ambiguity resolution after GPS outages. Furthermore, we estimate site displacements, seismic velocities, and coseismic ground tilts to facilitate the analysis of ground motion characteristics and the inversion for source mechanisms. The seismogeodetic displacement and velocity waveforms preserves the detection of P wave arrivals, and provides P-wave arrival displacement that is key new information for EEW. Our innovative solution method for coseismic tilts mitigates an error source that has continually plagued strong motion

  17. Thermal analysis of the position of the freezing front around an LNG in-ground storage tank with a heat barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, O.; Tanaka, M.

    A technique of controlling the extent of the freezing zone created by in ground liquefied natural gas storage tanks by installing a heat barrier is described. The freezing conditions around three representative tanks after operating the system were compared.

  18. A Full Cost Analysis of the Replacement of Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay's Marine Ground Defense Force by the Fleet Antiterrorism Security Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ordona, Placido

    2000-01-01

    ... of these diminishing resources. One such initiative is the restructuring of the Marine security presence at Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through the replacement of the 350 man Marine Ground Defense Force with a smaller...

  19. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current

  20. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Liedtke, Christian; Droog, Ed

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  1. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  2. High resolution infrared synchrotron study of CH2D81Br: ground state constants and analysis of the ν5, ν6 and ν9 fundamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldacci, A.; Stoppa, P.; Visinoni, R.

    2012-01-01

    .710 cm-1) and ν9 (930.295 cm-1) fundamental bands. The ground state constants up to sextic centrifugal distortion terms have been obtained for the first time by ground-state combination differences from the three bands and subsequently employed for the evaluation of the excited state parameters. Watson...... and a high-order coupling constant which takes into account the interaction between ν5 and ν9 have been determined....

  3. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-01

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  4. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  5. Experimental and modelling analysis of an office building HVAC system based in a ground-coupled heat pump and radiant floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, José Ignacio; Villarino, Alberto; Fernández, Francisco Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of a geothermal heat pump in an office building. • A numerical model in EnergyPlus is validated by experimental results. • An energy, economic and environmental analysis is presented. • A comparison with other technologies demonstrates the potential of the system. - Abstract: This paper shows the evaluation of the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump system monitored building providing heating, ventilating and air conditioning to an office building located in Madrid, in Spain. The system consists of one borehole exchanger, heat pump unit, radiant floor system, mechanical ventilation and data control system. A simulation model was performed with EnergyPlus software and validated. The analyzed period corresponds to the most unfavorable weather conditions in heating and cooling mode. The coefficient of performance obtained in heating and cooling mode was 3.86/5.29, considering all the energy consumption elements of the building and the thermal demand corresponding to an office operation. The CO_2 emissions obtained with a value of 34.68 kg corresponding to the period analyzed represents a low CO_2 emission system. The monitored temperatures reached set point values of 22 °C/25 °C, considered as acceptable comfort temperatures. The values obtained in the validated simulation model presented a deviation of 2% respected experimental results in heating and cooling mode. A comparative of COP_s_y_s and CO_2 emissions with other technologies is performed in order to analyze GCHP compared to other available technologies. The GCHP system is presented as a technology that can fully supply the HVAC conditions for a building and environmentally friendly.

  6. Information pertinent to the migration of radionuclides in ground water at the Nevada Test Site. Part 1. Review and analysis of existing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.; Stone, R.; Levy, H.B.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    A history of NTS is given, the geologic and hydrologic setting is described, and the amount of radioactivity deposited within and near the main aquifers is estimated. The conclusions include: information currently available is insufficient to state categorically that radioactivity will never be carried off the Nevada Test Site by ground water movement; nonetheless, such a migration at levels above the maximum permissible concentration to existing wells and springs is considered unlikely; if offsite migration occurs, it will probably be from the southwestern margins of Pahute Mesa, where there is only a small chance of contaminating existing public water supplies; tritium is the most mobile radionuclide and may be the only long-lived isotope of concern. Highest priority is assigned to measurement of tritium and other radionuclides in large water samples taken from nuclear chimneys that water has re-entered after an explosion; expansion of the existing groundwater monitoring program at NTS to include wells with a higher probability of intersecting flow of contaminated water; measurement of groundwater flow velocities and other associated hydrologic parameters. High priority is assigned to production of an inventory of radionuclides deposited near NTS borders, especially beneath Pahute Mesa; determination of amounts of radioactivity deposited directly into the Lower Carbonate Aquifer; a sensitivity analysis of the many parameters that enter into transport calculations; a study of the many unplugged holes that penetrate the Tuff Aquitard; testing of the assumption that radionuclides deposited in the unsaturated zone are isolated from the saturated zone because of limited precipitation and downward movement of moisture; and determination of distribution coefficients for NTS alluvium, carbonate, and rhyolitic rocks, which are lacking or poorly represented in the literature. Twelve other recommendations of lesser priority are also given

  7. Analysis of Aerosol Properties in Beijing Based on Ground-Based Sun Photometer and Air Quality Monitoring Observations from 2005 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles are the major contributor to the deterioration of air quality in China’s capital, Beijing. Using ground-based sun photometer observations from 2005 to 2014, the long-term variations in optical properties and microphysical properties of aerosol in and around Beijing were investigated in this study. The results indicated little inter-annual variations in aerosol optic depth (AOD but an increase in the fine mode AODs both in and outside Beijing. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo in urban Beijing is larger, while observations at the site that is southeast of Beijing suggested that the aerosol there has become more absorbing. The intra-annual aspects were as follow: The largest AOD and high amount of fine mode aerosols are observed in the summer. However, the result of air pollution index (API that mainly affected by the dry density of near-surface aerosol indicated that the air quality has been improving since 2006. Winter and spring were the most polluted seasons considering only the API values. The inconsistency between AOD and API suggested that fine aerosol particles may have a more important role in the deterioration of air quality and that neglecting particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 in the calculation of API might not be appropriate in air quality evaluation. Through analysis of the aerosol properties in high API days, the results suggested that the fine mode aerosol, especially PM2.5 has become a major contributor to the aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  8. Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wespes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O3 together with HNO3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O3 and HNO3 into the Arctic (north of 60° N. The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15%, but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O3 with HNO3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses.

    Based on model simulations of O3 and HNO3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressures greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer.

    Additional analysis of tropospheric O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made

  9. Analysis of the altitudinal structure of Storm-enhanced density using Total Electron Content data of space-borne and ground-based GPS receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Goi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The altitudinal structure of Storm-enhanced density (SED was studied using the Total Electron Content (TEC data of the GPS receiver on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite and the ground-based GPS receivers. The GRACETEC-data are derived from the GPS receiver on the GRACE satellite. A SED is a high-electron density phenomenon that extends from the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA toward the north-west in the northern hemisphere during geomagnetic disturbed time. TwoSEDs were observed as TEC variations in the GRACE-TEC data and in the ground-GPS TEC data. The ground-GPS TEC data is the TEC data between the ground GPS receiver and the GPS satellites. The SED observed in the GRACE-TEC data appeared at higher latitudes than that in the ground-GPS TEC data. We concluded detected that the altitudinal structure of the SED would be different between at lower than at higher latitudes due to the effects of the eastward E×B drift.

  10. Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing ground-truth investigation and collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    , acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological ground-truthing will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.

  11. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  13. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  15. Beginning of the ozone recovery over Europe? − Analysis of the total ozone data from the ground-based observations, 1964−2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Krzyścin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The total ozone variations over Europe (~50° N in the period 1964–2004 are analyzed for detection of signals of ozone recovery. The ozone deviations from the long-term monthly means (1964–1980 for selected European stations, where the ozone observations (by the Dobson spectrophotometers have been carried out continuously for at least 3–4 decades, are averaged and examined by a regression model. A new method is proposed to disclose both the ozone trend variations and date of the trend turnaround. The regression model contains a piecewise linear trend component and the terms describing the ozone response to forcing by "natural" changes in the atmosphere. Standard proxies for the dynamically driven ozone variations are used. The Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS methodology and principal component analysis are used to find an optimal set of the explanatory variables and the trend pattern. The turnaround of the ozone trend in 1994 is suggested from the pattern of the piecewise linear trend component. Thus, the changes in the ozone mean level are calculated over the periods 1970–1994 and 1994–2003, for both the original time series and the time series having "natural" variations removed. Statistical significance of the changes are derived by bootstrapping. A first stage of recovery (according to the definition of the International Ozone Commission, i.e. lessening of a negative trend, is found over Europe. It seems possible that the increase in the ozone mean level since 1994 of about 1–2% is due to superposition of the "natural" processes. Comparison of the total ozone ground-based network (the Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers and the satellite (TOMS, version 8 data over Europe shows the small bias in the mean values for the period 1996–2004, but the differences between the daily ozone values from these instruments are not trendless, and this may hamper an identification of the next stage of the ozone recovery over

  16. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS FOR RISK-ORIENTED SURVEILLANCE OVER CONSUMER PRODUCTS: TASKS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on basic legal and sub-legislative documents issued in the EU, the USA, Canada, by the WTO and Codex Alimentarius Commission which provide control of consumer products safety on the basis of assessing risks for consumers' life and health. Risk-oriented surveillance is shown as a system which makes for lower loads on business but still provides systemic control over most hazardous products. The EU legislation fixes the right to perform supranational control over state control systems existing in the EU member states in terms of their relevance and legitimacy. This supranational control is supported by organizational structures and regulatory and methodological documents. National control systems are systematically reviewed and analyzed in order to secure their conformity to supranational regulatory acts, to detect any cases of non-compliance, and to spread the best practices. Risk analysis reviews and results are open and discussable. As a result of products hazards assessment their turnover can be limited, or they can be withdrawn from the market, or additional information on hazards or risks they may cause is to be provided for consumers. Public and constantly operating systems of informing about hazardous goods are well-developed. International experience and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented surveillance over consumer products can be and should be applied in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU countries. The Eurasian Economic Union countries fix orientation at observing consumer goods safety principles in their legislation. There are also legal grounds for and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented approach to products manufactures. But it is necessary to further develop a products classification system as per consumer health risk parameters. And this task requires working out unified approaches to classification of both eatable and non-eatable products. It seems relevant to develop a public analytical database of risk

  17. Do runners who suffer injuries have higher vertical ground reaction forces than those who remain injury-free? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp, Henk; Vrielink, Jelte W.; Bredeweg, Steef W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters have been implicated as a cause of several running-related injuries. However, no systematic review has examined this relationship. Aim We systematically reviewed evidence for a relation between VGRF parameters and specific running-related

  18. Use of a three-dimensional model for the analysis of the ground-water flow system in Parker Valley, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional, finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow conditions in Parker Valley. The study evaluated present knowledge and concepts of the ground-water system and the ability of the model to represent the system. Modeling assumptions and generalized physical parameters that were used may have transfer value in the construction and calibration of models of other basins along the lower Colorado River. The aquifer was simulated in two layers to represent the three-dimensional system. Ground-water conditions were simulated for 1940-41, the mid-1960's, and 1980. Overall model results generally compared favorably with available field information. The model results showed that for 1940-41 the Colorado River was a losing stream through out Parker Valley. Infiltration of surface water from the river was the major source of recharge. The dominant mechanism of discharge was evapotranspiration by phreatophytes. Agricultural development between 1941 and the mid-1960 's resulted in significant changes to the ground-water system. Model results for conditions in the mid-1960 's showed that the Colorado River had become a gaining stream in the northern part of the valley as a result of higher water levels. The rise in water levels was caused by infiltration of applied irrigation water. Diminished water-level gradients from the river in the rest of the valley reduced the amount of infiltration of surface water from the river. Models results for conditions in 1980 showed that ground-water level rises of several feet caused further reduction in the amount of surface-water infiltration from the river. (USGS)

  19. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  20. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  1. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  2. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  3. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  4. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous

  5. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  6. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  7. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  8. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D.; Beckenbach, E.; Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R.; Dooher, B.

    1996-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites

  9. A full cost analysis of the replacement of Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay's Marine ground defense force by the fleet antiterrorism security team

    OpenAIRE

    Ordona, Placido C.

    2000-01-01

    Constrained defense budgets and manpower resources have motivated the United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy to seek initiatives that maximize the efficient use and allocation of these diminishing resources. One such initiative is the restructuring of the Marine security presence at Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through the replacement of the 350 man Marine Ground Defense Force with a smaller, rotating unit consisting of two platoons from the Fleet Antiterrorism Security...

  10. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  11. Deposits related to supercritical flows in glacifluvial deltas and subaqueous ice-contact fans: Integrating facies analysis and ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Sievers, Julian; Loewer, Markus; Igel, Jan; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    Bedforms related to supercritical flows have recently received much interest and the understanding of flow morphodynamics and depositional processes has been greatly advanced. However, outcrop studies of these bedforms are commonly hampered by their long wavelengths. Therefore, we combined outcrop-based facies analysis with extensive ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Different GPR antennas (200, 400 and 1500 MHz) were utilised to measure both long profiles and densely spaced grids in order to map the large-scale facies architecture and image the three-dimensional geometry of the deposits. The studied delta and subaqueous ice-contact fan successions were deposited within ice-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets across Northern Germany. These glacilacustrine depositional systems are characterised by high aggradation rates due to the rapid expansion and deceleration of high-energy sediment-laden flows, favouring the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows. In flow direction, delta foresets commonly display lenticular scours, which are 2 to 6 m wide and 0.15 to 0.5 m deep. Characteristically, scours are filled by upslope dipping backsets, consisting of pebbly sand. In a few cases, massive and deformed strata were observed, passing upflow into backsets. Across flow, scours are 2 to 3 m wide and typically display a concentric infill. The scour fills are commonly associated with subhorizontally or sinusoidal stratified pebbly sand. These facies types are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps and antidunes, respectively, representing deposition from supercritical density flows, which formed during high meltwater discharge events or regressive slope failures (Winsemann et al., in review). The GPR-sections show that the scour fills form trains along the delta foresets, which can be traced for up to 15 m. The studied subaqueous ice-contact fan succession relates to the zone of flow

  12. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  13. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers

  14. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  15. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  16. 太阳能-地源热泵复合系统在医疗建筑中的应用分析%Application analysis of solar ground-source heat pump composite system to medical building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世康; 卢志鹏

    2017-01-01

    太阳能-地源热泵复合系统具有良好的节能效果和运行特性,本文利用TRNSYS分析其应用于山东某医院综合楼的可行性,并分析其与常规系统(城市热网配套+冷水机组)的全寿命周期成本.分析结果表明,太阳能-地源热泵复合系统的全寿命周期成本比常规系统节省26.4%,在2.16年之后,太阳能-地源热泵复合系统经济性优势明显.%The solar ground-source heat pump composite system has good energy-saving effect and operation characteristic.The feasibility of its application to one medical building in Shandong is analyzed using TRNSYS, and the life cycle cost of solar ground-source heat pump composite system and the conventional system of urban network supporting & chiller is analyzed.The analysis results show that the former life cycle cost can be saved by 26.4% compared with the latter, and 2.16 years later, the solar ground-source heat pump composite system will have evident economy trend.

  17. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    Collection of papers produced by tutors involved in a master´s degree course for teacher in Ethiopia offers an important challenge to the dominant neo-liberal agenda that has taken over educational reform throughtout the world. The project was based on the practice of critical practitioner inquiry...... and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  18. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tessitore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982–1984, 1992–1995 and 2004–2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  19. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structure. Pt. 2. Verification of the ground modeling methods applied to non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsui, Jun; Matsuo, Toyofumi

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)

  20. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  1. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  2. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  3. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  4. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  5. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a major matter affecting coffee quality in Brazil, mainly due to the harvesting method adopted. Brazilian harvests are based on fruits collected from the ground mixed with those that fall on collection cloths. As the Bacillus cereus bacterium frequently uses the soil as its environmental reservoir, it is easily capable of becoming a contaminant. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination and potential of B. cereus enterotoxin genes encoding the HBL and NHE complexes, which were observed in strains of ground and roasted coffee samples sold in Rio de Janeiro. The PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results revealed high potential of enterotoxin production in the samples. The method described by Speck (1984 was used for the isolation of contaminants. The investigation of the potential production of enterotoxins through isolates of the microorganism was performed using the B. cereus enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test-kit (BCET-RPLA, Oxoid, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for hblA, hblD and hblC genes (encoding hemolysin HBL and for nheA, nheB and nheC genes (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. Of all the 17 strains, 100% were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin gene; 52.9% (9/17 were positive for the 3 genes encoding the HBL complex; 35.3% (6/17 were positive for the three NHE encoding genes; and 29.4% (5/17 were positive for

  6. Trends in Solar energy Driven Vertical Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Sweden - An Analysis Based on the Swedish Well Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, K.; Gehlin, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sweden is a world leader in developing and using vertical ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology. GSHP systems extract passively stored solar energy in the ground and the Earth's natural geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is an admitted renewable energy source in Sweden since 2007 and is the third largest renewable energy source in the country today. The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) is the authority in Sweden that provides open access geological data of rock, soil and groundwater for the public. All wells drilled must be registered in the SGU Well Database and it is the well driller's duty to submit registration of drilled wells.Both active and passive geothermal energy systems are in use. Large GSHP systems, with at least 20 boreholes, are active geothermal energy systems. Energy is stored in the ground which allows both comfort heating and cooling to be extracted. Active systems are therefore relevant for larger properties and industrial buildings. Since 1978 more than 600 000 wells (water wells, GSHP boreholes etc) have been registered in the Well Database, with around 20 000 new registrations per year. Of these wells an estimated 320 000 wells are registered as GSHP boreholes. The vast majority of these boreholes are single boreholes for single-family houses. The number of properties with registered vertical borehole GSHP installations amounts to approximately 243 000. Of these sites between 300-350 are large GSHP systems with at least 20 boreholes. While the increase in number of new registrations for smaller homes and households has slowed down after the rapid development in the 80's and 90's, the larger installations for commercial and industrial buildings have increased in numbers over the last ten years. This poster uses data from the SGU Well Database to quantify and analyze the trends in vertical GSHP systems reported between 1978-2015 in Sweden, with special focus on large systems. From the new aggregated data, conclusions can be drawn about

  7. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  8. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  9. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the hazard categorizations and classifications for the activities associated with the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) remediation. Categories and classifications presented are applicable only to the 300-FF-1 OU waste sites specifically listed in the inventory. The purpose of this remedial action is to remove contaminated soil, debris, and solid waste from liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4 within the 300-FF-1 OU. Resulting waste from this project will be sent to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) in the 200 West Area. The 300-FF-1 OU is part of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and is next to the Columbia River. The objective of this remedial action is to reduce contamination at these waste sites to levels that are acceptable for industrial purposes. Specific remedial objectives (cleanup goals) for each contaminant of concern (COC) are provided in a table, along with the maximum soil concentration detected

  10. A comparative analysis of extended water cloud model and backscatter modelling for above-ground biomass assessment in Corbett Tiger Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Sarnam; Chatterjee, R. S.; Trivedi, Mukul

    2016-04-01

    Forest biomass acts as a backbone in regulating the climate by storing carbon within itself. Thus the assessment of forest biomass is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the environment. Traditionally the destructive methods were adopted for the assessment of biomass which were further advanced to the non-destructive methods. The allometric equations developed by destructive methods were further used in non-destructive methods for the assessment, but they were mostly applied for woody/commercial timber species. However now days Remote Sensing data are primarily used for the biomass geospatial pattern assessment. The Optical Remote Sensing data (Landsat8, LISS III, etc.) are being used very successfully for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). However optical data is not suitable for all atmospheric/environmental conditions, because it can't penetrate through clouds and haze. Thus Radar data is one of the alternate possible ways to acquire data in all-weather conditions irrespective of weather and light. The paper examines the potential of ALOS PALSAR L-band dual polarisation data for the estimation of AGB in the Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) covering an area of 889 km2. The main focus of this study is to explore the accuracy of Polarimetric Scattering Model (Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) with respect to Backscatter model in the assessment of AGB. The parameters of the EWCM were estimated using the decomposition components (Raney Decomposition) and the plot level information. The above ground biomass in the CTR ranges from 9.6 t/ha to 322.6 t/ha.

  11. Analysis of 2015 Winter In-Flight Icing Case Studies with Ground-Based Remote Sensing Systems Compared to In-Situ SLW Sondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serke, David J.; King, Michael Christopher; Hansen, Reid; Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology has recently been extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage utilizes a vertical pointing cloud radar, a multi-frequency microwave radiometer with azimuth and elevation pointing, and a NEXRAD radar. The new terminal area icing remote sensing system processes the data streams from these instruments to derive temperature, liquid water content, and cloud droplet size for each examined point in space. These data are then combined to ultimately provide icing hazard classification along defined approach paths into an airport. To date, statistical comparisons of the vertical profiling technology have been made to Pilot Reports and Icing Forecast Products. With the extension into relatively large area coverage and the output of microphysical properties in addition to icing severity, the use of these comparators is not appropriate and a more rigorous assessment is required. NASA conducted a field campaign during the early months of 2015 to develop a database to enable the assessment of the new terminal area icing remote sensing system and further refinement of terminal area icing weather information technologies in general. In addition to the ground-based remote sensors listed earlier, in-situ icing environment measurements by weather balloons were performed to produce a comprehensive comparison database. Balloon data gathered consisted of temperature, humidity, pressure, super-cooled liquid water content, and 3-D position with time. Comparison data plots of weather balloon and remote measurements, weather balloon flight paths, bulk comparisons of

  12. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  13. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  14. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  15. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  16. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  17. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  18. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  19. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  20. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)