WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground sloths xenarthra

  1. Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory McDonald, H.; Stafford jr., Thomas; Gnidovec, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    A partial skeleton of the extinct ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii, recovered from a farm near Millersburg, Ohio in 1890, was radiocarbon dated for the first time. The ungual dated is part of a skeleton mounted for exhibit at the Orton Geological Museum at Ohio State University and was the first...... mounted skeleton of this animal. From its initial discovery the bones were treated with multiple organic compounds that had the potential to compromise the radiocarbon age and the specimen required special treatments in order to obtain a valid radiocarbon age. The 14C measurement on the ungual from...

  2. Chromosome painting in three-toed sloths: a cytogenetic signature and ancestral karyotype for Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nathália F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenarthra (sloths, armadillos and anteaters represent one of four currently recognized Eutherian mammal supraorders. Some phylogenomic studies point to the possibility of Xenarthra being at the base of the Eutherian tree, together or not with the supraorder Afrotheria. We performed painting with human autosomes and X-chromosome specific probes on metaphases of two three-toed sloths: Bradypus torquatus and B. variegatus. These species represent the fourth of the five extant Xenarthra families to be studied with this approach. Results Eleven human chromosomes were conserved as one block in both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: (HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21 and the X chromosome. B. torquatus, three additional human chromosomes were conserved intact (HSA 1, 3 and 4. The remaining human chromosomes were represented by two or three segments on each sloth. Seven associations between human chromosomes were detected in the karyotypes of both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: HSA 3/21, 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 and 17/19. The ancestral Eutherian association 16/19 was not detected in the Bradypus species. Conclusions Our results together with previous reports enabled us to propose a hypothetical ancestral Xenarthran karyotype with 48 chromosomes that would differ from the proposed ancestral Eutherian karyotype by the presence of the association HSA 7/10 and by the split of HSA 8 into three blocks, instead of the two found in the Eutherian ancestor. These same chromosome features point to the monophyly of Xenarthra, making this the second supraorder of placental mammals to have a chromosome signature supporting its monophyly.

  3. Chromosome painting in three-toed sloths: a cytogenetic signature and ancestral karyotype for Xenarthra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Xenarthra (sloths, armadillos and anteaters) represent one of four currently recognized Eutherian mammal supraorders. Some phylogenomic studies point to the possibility of Xenarthra being at the base of the Eutherian tree, together or not with the supraorder Afrotheria. We performed painting with human autosomes and X-chromosome specific probes on metaphases of two three-toed sloths: Bradypus torquatus and B. variegatus. These species represent the fourth of the five extant Xenarthra families to be studied with this approach. Results Eleven human chromosomes were conserved as one block in both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: (HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21 and the X chromosome). B. torquatus, three additional human chromosomes were conserved intact (HSA 1, 3 and 4). The remaining human chromosomes were represented by two or three segments on each sloth. Seven associations between human chromosomes were detected in the karyotypes of both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: HSA 3/21, 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 and 17/19. The ancestral Eutherian association 16/19 was not detected in the Bradypus species. Conclusions Our results together with previous reports enabled us to propose a hypothetical ancestral Xenarthran karyotype with 48 chromosomes that would differ from the proposed ancestral Eutherian karyotype by the presence of the association HSA 7/10 and by the split of HSA 8 into three blocks, instead of the two found in the Eutherian ancestor. These same chromosome features point to the monophyly of Xenarthra, making this the second supraorder of placental mammals to have a chromosome signature supporting its monophyly. PMID:22429690

  4. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Marques

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  5. Social behavior between mothers × young of sloths Bradypus variegatus SCHINZ, 1825 (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. SOARES

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the ex situ and in situ conservation and preservation of Sloths. The behavioral records of the social interaction between mothers and offspring allow the detection of important learning interactions and psychomotor development. The results provide valuable information that may assist in improving management conditions of captive orphan progeny. They also favor a more effective monitoring of released or transferred specimens. Age is of fundamental importance in deciding what is important during the release, transfer, or reintroduction of the species.

  6. Social behavior between mothers ´ young of sloths Bradypus variegatus SCHINZ, 1825 (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES C. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the ex situ and in situ conservation and preservation of Sloths. The behavioral records of the social interaction between mothers and offspring allow the detection of important learning interactions and psychomotor development. The results provide valuable information that may assist in improving management conditions of captive orphan progeny. They also favor a more effective monitoring of released or transferred specimens. Age is of fundamental importance in deciding what is important during the release, transfer, or reintroduction of the species.

  7. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S.; Foppe, Theresa; Long, Austin

    1980-11-01

    Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dung balls provided radiocarbon ages of 11,330, 12,330 and 12,430 yr B.P. Packrat ( Neotoma) middens disclose a xeric juniper woodland at Shelter Cave during the sloth's occupation. Plant cuticles from the dung indicate that the ground sloth had a diet dominated by mormon tea ( Ephedra) and other xerophytic shrubs. Pollen spectra from the coprolites have high representations of anemophilous plants and low representations of the dietary items shown in the cuticle analysis. Fifteen radiocarbon dates of sloth dung obtained since 1974 strengthen the hypothesis that sloth extinction occurred about 11,000 yr B.P. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that ground sloths lived in juniper woodlands and montane conifer communities. Nothrotheriops commonly dined on shrubs that are still present in these habitats. It is difficult to explain the demise of the Shasta ground sloth by climatic change or dietary stress. Human predation remains as a possible explanation; ground sloth extinction appears to coincide with the time of Clovis mammoth hunters.

  9. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael; Fariña, Richard A.; Lawless, Craig; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Powell, Jaime E.; Martinez, Jorge G.

    2015-01-01

    For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the ‘native’ South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths), which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual ‘Malagasy aardvark’ shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival. PMID:26540101

  10. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    Full Text Available For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths, which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual 'Malagasy aardvark' shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival.

  11. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Glass

    Full Text Available Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium, not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims.

  12. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jessica R; Davis, Matt; Walsh, Timothy J; Sargis, Eric J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium), not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims.

  13. Phylogenetic and functional implications of the ear region anatomy of Glossotherium robustum (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Iurino, Dawid A.; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Sardella, Raffaele; Tirao, German; Gaudin, Timothy J.; Pujos, François

    2018-04-01

    Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were conducted historically, but these are increasing in number in recent years, in both the extinct and extant representatives, due to wider access to CT-scanning facilities, which allow non-destructive access to internal morphologies. In the present study, we analyze the extinct ground sloth Glossotherium robustum and provide a description of the external features of the ear region and the endocranial side of the petrosal bone, coupled with the first data on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth. Some features observable in the ear region of G. robustum (e.g., the shape and size of the entotympanic bone and the morphology of the posteromedial surface of the petrosal) are highly variable, both intraspecifically and intraindividually. The form of the bony labyrinth of G. robustum is also described, providing the first data from this anatomical region for the family Mylodontidae. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the genus Glossotherium is here compared at the level of the superorder Xenarthra, including all available extant and extinct representatives, using geometric morphometric methods. In light of the new data, we discuss the evolution of inner ear anatomy in the xenarthran clade, and most particularly in sloths, considering the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and physiology on the shape of this highly informative region of the skull. These analyses show that the inner ear of Glossotherium more closely resembles that of the extant anteaters, and to a lesser extent those of the giant ground sloth Megatherium and euphractine armadillos, than those of the extant sloths Bradypus and Choloepus, further demonstrating the striking

  14. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  15. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense). Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates

  16. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  17. Morphology of the tongue of Vermilingua (Xenarthra: Pilosa) and evolutionary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Daniel M; Martins-Santos, Elisângela; Santos, André L Q; Miranda, Flávia R; Mahecha, Germán A B; Perini, Fernando A

    2017-10-01

    The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent. The filiform papillae of Myrmecophaga tridactyla are simple all over the tongue, differing from Tamandua tetradactyla and Cyclopes didactylus, which present composed filiform papillae in the rostral and middle regions. Histologically, the tongue has a peculiar organization of muscular and neurovascular tissues, differing from the usual mammalian pattern. However, the tongue structure is less divergent in Cyclopes. The presence of two circumvallate papillae is common to the three major clades of Xenarthra (Cingulata, Folivora and Vermilingua). In each group, the tongue may reflect functional features related to myrmecophagous (anteaters and some armadillos), omnivorous (remaining armadillos) and folivorous (sloths) feeding habits. The similarities between the tongues of Vermiligua and other non-xenarthran eutherian myrmecophagous mammals are somewhat general and, under close inspection, superficial, being an example of different lineages achieving the same morphofunctional adaptations through distinct evolutionary pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2pu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L. Naples

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication.

  19. Neocortical neuron types in Xenarthra and Afrotheria: implications for brain evolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Butti, Camilla; Bonar, Christopher J; Newton, Alisa L; Allman, John M; Hof, Patrick R

    2009-02-01

    Interpreting the evolution of neuronal types in the cerebral cortex of mammals requires information from a diversity of species. However, there is currently a paucity of data from the Xenarthra and Afrotheria, two major phylogenetic groups that diverged close to the base of the eutherian mammal adaptive radiation. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution and morphology of neocortical neurons stained for nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y in three xenarthran species-the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla), and the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus)-and two afrotherian species-the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and the black and rufous giant elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi). We also studied the distribution and morphology of astrocytes using glial fibrillary acidic protein as a marker. In all of these species, nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons predominated in layer V. These neurons exhibited diverse morphologies with regional variation. Specifically, high proportions of atypical neurofilament-enriched neuron classes were observed, including extraverted neurons, inverted pyramidal neurons, fusiform neurons, and other multipolar types. In addition, many projection neurons in layers II-III were found to contain calbindin. Among interneurons, parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing cells were generally denser compared to calretinin-immunoreactive cells. We traced the evolution of certain cortical architectural traits using phylogenetic analysis. Based on our reconstruction of character evolution, we found that the living xenarthrans and afrotherians show many similarities to the stem eutherian mammal, whereas other eutherian lineages display a greater number of derived traits.

  20. A systematic reassessment and paleogeographic review of fossil xenarthra from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    coast region. Pleistocene nothrotheres are found only in the Amazonian forest region (Nothropus priscus in Río Acre. Megatheriidae are well diversified and have an extended geographic range. The tropical genus Eremotherium (E. laurillardi is present on the northern coast and is possibly represented in Amazonia by a gigantic form. The temperate genus Megatherium is represented in Peru by a small-sized, quadrupedal, and browser of the Andean linage of the subgenus M. (Pseudomegatherium, which includes M. (P. tarijense, M. (P. elenense, M. (P. urbinai, and new species from the northern Andes. Large species of sloths such as Megatherium (Megatherium americanum, Lestodon sp., and Scelidotherium leptocephalum that are typical of the Argentinian Pampas are absent in Peru. A peculiar new megalonychid was discovered in the north coast region (Cupisnique desert and in the Andes near Lake Titicaca at Casa del Diablo cave. 14C dating indicates that most of fossil mammals in Peru are Lujanian in age. Along the coast and probably in Amazonia, Xenarthra are found in open localities, in contrast to the Andean region in which most specimens are preserved in caves. In Peru, and all over South America, large Xenarthra did not survive beyond the beginning of the Holocene.

  1. Chromosome study of Anteaters (Myrmecophagideae, Xenarthra: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Rubens Jacintho Pereira Júnior

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteaters belong to the Order Xenarthra / Family Myrmecophagidae and are the only members without teeth. There are three genera with four living species in the family Myrmecophagidae: Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (southern lesser anteater, Tamandua mexicana (northern lesser anteater, and Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater. The karyotypes of M. tridactyla (2n = 60, T. tetradactyla (2n = 54 and C. didactylus (2n = 64 have already been described. In the present paper, three female and two male specimens of giant anteater and one lesser anteater male were analyzed. The results indicate the existence of a new karyotype in the genus Tamandua, with 2n = 56 chromosomes, which can represent a new lesser anteater species. The karyotype of M. tridactyla was also described, supporting previous reports.

  2. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Cliffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2. Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  3. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  4. (Illicit) transfer by De Gree | Sloth-Nielsen | Law, Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law, Democracy & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. (Illicit) transfer by De Gree. Julia Sloth-Nielsen, Benyam ...

  5. Policy and practice in South African prisons: An update | Sloth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy and practice in South African prisons: An update. Julia Sloth-Nielsen. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  6. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Pia Martin, Maria; Weaver, Scott C.; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths. PMID:27479900

  7. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  8. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Tooth morphology of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Benetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sloths are exclusively herbivores, feeding from leaves, flowers, sprouts, green stalks and fruits, just from two types of tree. The aim of this research was to explore the anatomy of the teeth comparing them with those of other mammals, besides those of man. Twelve animals were used, including males, females and stillborns, all of the species Bradypus torquatus. Macroscopic and radiographic exams were carried out, complemented by light microscopic technique of wasted and decalcification and scanning electron microscopy to analyses ultra structure components. The sloths are born with teeth already, presenting in each hemiarcade five teeth in the jawbone and four in the jaw, totaling eighteen in all. The morphology of the tooth in these specimens is strongly related to the alimentary habits and the whole dental arch (maxilla and jaw, presenting teeth with a similar shape and indicating that dental specialization does not exist. The teeth present lingual, vestibular, distal, mesial and occlusal faces, and the presence of "peaks” is marked. The components of the teeth are cement, internal, and external dentine and pulp. It is possible to identify tissue located between the cement and the external dentine containing tubules, which are continuous with those of the external dentine and the vascular channels of the internal dentine. This investigation can assist the search for answers as to what constitutes an appropriate alimentary diet for the animals in captivity.

  10. Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Giovanni Quintavalle; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela

    2017-05-13

    Three brown bear ( Ursus arctos arctos ) individuals and two sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus inornatus ) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural observations (coding) and keeper questionnaires (rating). The behavioural observations indicated a number of stereotypic behaviours in sloth bears but not in brown bears. The uniformity of zone usage was calculated to investigate if the enclosure size and features were adequate for use, and a social aspect of otherwise solitary animals was also identified. The behavioural profiles generated through coding and rating were compared to determine the reliability between these two methods in Ursids. Profiles were not compared between individuals since this study is not a comparison between different personality types but rather an effort (one of the few ones existing in literature) to select a valid and reproducible methodology capable of assessing personality in bears.

  11. An update on the physiology of two- and three-toed sloths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Gilmore

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and pharmacological research undertaken on sloths during the past 30 years is comprehensively reviewed. This includes the numerous studies carried out upon the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, anesthesia, blood chemistry, neuromuscular responses, the brain and spinal cord, vision, sleeping and waking, water balance and kidney function and reproduction. Similarities and differences between the physiology of sloths and that of other mammals are discussed in detail.

  12. Patterns of morphological variation of extant sloth skulls and their implication for future conservation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Billet, Guillaume; Eastwood, Bethany; Lane, Jemima

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown an increased morphological variability of sloths from mammalian norms, affecting varied phenotypic traits from skeletal parts to soft tissues. We present here the first descriptive comparison of the whole skull morphology within the two extant sloth genera, combining geometric morphometric approaches with comparative anatomy. We used these methods to explore the patterns of the intra- and interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as phylogeny, geography, allometry, or sexual dimorphism. Our study first revealed strong phylogenetic and geographical imprints on the cranial and mandibular morphological traits. This result demonstrates the importance of accurate knowledge of species and their geographical distributions; here we show from an example pertaining to Bradypus variegatus populations the implications this has on conservation management. Moreover, in order to control the amount of this detected variation, we tentatively compared sloths to a wide range of mammalian species. Our analysis found no significant increase in the average deviation of skull shape within each investigated sloth species compared to other mammals. This suggests that the intraspecific cranial variation in sloths does not depart significantly from the variation observed in other mammals. This result has positive implications for the demarcation of anatomical regions that maintain high levels of morphological variation in sloths. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  14. Paleohistologia comparada em osteodermos de Panochthus sp. Burmeister, 1866 e Neuryurus sp. Ameghino, 1889 (Xenarthra, Glyptodontoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Yumi Asakura Bezerra de

    2015-01-01

    Osteodermos constituem um osso tegumentar com alto potencial de fossilização que proporciona inúmeras informações sobre a morfologia do tegumento de animais existentes e fósseis, apresentando um alto grau de diversidade morfológica e histológica. Entre os mamíferos, osteodermos ocorrem principalmente em membros do clado Xenarthra. A escassez de informações sobre a microestrutura de osteodermos de xenartros indica a necessidade de estudos semelhantes para mamíferos encouraçados, como aqueles d...

  15. Electrocardiographic studies of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms (ECG obtained with standard limb leads and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded from 17 unanesthetized adult sloths. The animals were held in their habitual position in an experimental chair. We determined heart rate and rhythm from the R-R intervals, the amplitude and duration of each wave, and the duration of the segments and intervals of the ECG. The mean electrical axes of P and T waves and QRS complex were calculated on the basis of the amplitude of these waves in leads I, II, III, aV R, aV L, and aV F. The P wave appeared positive in most tracings with low amplitude in lead II, the QRS complex was generally negative in leads aV R, III and aV F, and no arrhythmias were observed. With a mean ± SD heart rate for all recordings of 81 ± 18 bpm, the duration of P and T waves, QRS complex, and PR, QT and RR intervals averaged 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.07 ± 0.02, 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.38 ± 0.04, and 0.74 ± 0.17 s, respectively. The ECG shape had a definite configuration on each lead. The angles of the mean ± SD electrical axes for atrial and ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization in the horizontal plane were +34 ± 68º, -35 ± 63º, and -23 ± 68º, respectively. All electrical axes showed great variations and their mean values suggest that, when the sloth is in a seated position, the heart could be displaced by the diaphragm to a semi-horizontal position.

  16. Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: On sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela-Lasheras Irma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammals as a rule have seven cervical vertebrae, except for sloths and manatees. Bateson proposed that the change in the number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is due to homeotic transformations. A recent hypothesis proposes that the number of cervical vertebrae in sloths is unchanged and that instead the derived pattern is due to abnormal primaxial/abaxial patterning. Results We test the detailed predictions derived from both hypotheses for the skeletal patterns in sloths and manatees for both hypotheses. We find strong support for Bateson's homeosis hypothesis. The observed vertebral and rib patterns cannot be explained by changes in primaxial/abaxial patterning. Vertebral patterns in sloths and manatees are similar to those in mice and humans with abnormal numbers of cervical vertebrae: incomplete and asymmetric homeotic transformations are common and associated with skeletal abnormalities. In sloths the homeotic vertebral shift involves a large part of the vertebral column. As such, similarity is greatest with mice mutant for genes upstream of Hox. Conclusions We found no skeletal abnormalities in specimens of sister taxa with a normal number of cervical vertebrae. However, we always found such abnormalities in conspecifics with an abnormal number, as in many of the investigated dugongs. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that the evolutionary constraints on changes of the number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is due to deleterious pleitropic effects. We hypothesize that in sloths and manatees low metabolic and activity rates severely reduce the usual stabilizing selection, allowing the breaking of the pleiotropic constraints. This probably also applies to dugongs, although to a lesser extent.

  17. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELLE O. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605. We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590 to George Marcgrave (1610-1644. We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S mitochondrial DNA data in sloths and anteaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Maria Claudene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced part of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene in 17 extant taxa of Pilosa (sloths and anteaters and used these sequences along with GenBank sequences of both extant and extinct sloths to perform phylogenetic analysis based on parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. By increasing the taxa density for anteaters and sloths we were able to clarify some points of the Pilosa phylogenetic tree. Our mitochondrial 16S results show Bradypodidae as a monophyletic and robustly supported clade in all the analysis. However, the Pleistocene fossil Mylodon darwinii does not group significantly to either Bradypodidae or Megalonychidae which indicates that trichotomy best represents the relationship between the families Mylodontidae, Bradypodidae and Megalonychidae. Divergence times also allowed us to discuss the taxonomic status of Cyclopes and the three species of three-toed sloths, Bradypus tridactylus, Bradypus variegatus and Bradypus torquatus. In the Bradypodidae the split between Bradypus torquatus and the proto-Bradypus tridactylus / B. variegatus was estimated as about 7.7 million years ago (MYA, while in the Myrmecophagidae the first offshoot was Cyclopes at about 31.8 MYA followed by the split between Myrmecophaga and Tamandua at 12.9 MYA. We estimate the split between sloths and anteaters to have occurred at about 37 MYA.

  19. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  20. Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears in Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle Pastorino, Giovanni; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal personality research is a growing field, since understanding animal personalities has notable implications in ecology and the evolution of animal behaviours. In the current study, we tested different methods described in the literature to obtain robust individual behavioural profiles. Data collected through behavioral observations were categorised into activity budgets, space usage, and social interactions for each individual. In addition, behavioural profile questionnaires were completed by the three zoo keepers who had regular interactions with the bears. The questionnaires included 22 adjectives, which were rated on a scale of 1–12 depending on how well they described each individual bear. The mean ratings of the keepers were used to create the behavioural profiles by adding the adjectives to the appropriate domains, according to the NEO Five Factor Inventory of personality model (NEO-FFI). The data gathered was used to produce behavioural profiles for all animals, in order to clarify the personality characteristics of each subject. Testing and improving existing methodologies to determine animal personality is important for providing optimal welfare and management of captive animals, since it can help to develop more effective management regimes in zoos by remodelling husbandry according to each animal’s personality type. Abstract Three brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural

  1. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarello Adriano G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sloths are slow-moving arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical rainforests in Central and South America. The six living species of sloths are occasionally reported to display a greenish discoloration of their pelage. Trichophilus welckeri, a green algal species first described more than a century ago, is widely believed to discolor the animals fur and provide the sloth with effective camouflage. However, this phenomenon has not been explored in any detail and there is little evidence to substantiate this widely held opinion. Results Here we investigate the genetic diversity of the eukaryotic community present in fur of all six extant species of sloth. Analysis of 71 sloth hair samples yielding 426 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences demonstrates a diverse eukaryotic microbial assemblage. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that sloth fur hosts a number of green algal species and suggests that acquisition of these organisms from the surrounding rainforest plays an important role in the discoloration of sloth fur. However, an alga corresponding to the morphological description of Trichophilus welckeri was found to be frequent and abundant on sloth fur. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the retention of this alga on the fur of sloths independent of geographic location. Conclusions These results demonstrate a unique diverse microbial eukaryotic community in the fur of sloths from Central and South America. Our analysis streghtens the case for symbiosis between sloths and Trichophilus welckeri.

  2. The effect of feeding on the respiratory activity of the sloth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to confirm whether feeding influences the resting breathing rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus. Five adult male sloths (4.1 ± 0.6 kg were placed daily in an experimental chair for a period of at least 4 h for sitting adaptation. Five measurements were made for each sloth. However, the sloths one, two and five were studied once and the sloths three and four were studied twice. Breathing rate was determined with an impedance meter and the output signal was digitized. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis with a BGE electrolytes analyzer and adjusted for the animal's body temperature and hemoglobin content. The data are reported as mean ± SD and were collected during the resting period (8:00-10:00 h and during the feeding period (16:00-18:00 h. The mean breathing rate increased during mastication of ymbahuba leaves (rest: 5.0 ± 1, feeding: 10 ± 1 bpm. No significant alterations were observed in arterial pH (rest: 7.42 ± 0.05, feeding: 7.45 ± 0.03, PCO2 (rest: 35.2 ± 5.3, feeding: 33.3 ± 4.4 mmHg or PO2 (rest: 77.5 ± 8.2, feeding: 78.4 ± 5.2 mmHg levels. These results indicate that in unanesthetized sloths 1 feeding evokes an increase in breathing rate without a significant change in arterial pH, PCO2 or PO2 levels, and 2 the increase in breathing rate produced by feeding probably is due to the act of mastication.

  3. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  4. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Oliveira Moreira

    Full Text Available The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro, but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

  5. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  6. Tundmatud kohad ja asjade loomus / Katrine Gram Sloth, Johna Hansen ; intervjueerinud Laura Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gram Sloth, Katrine, 1983-

    2016-01-01

    Taani kunstnik Katrine Gram Sloth ja Rootsi arhitekt Johna Hansen räägivad oma lapsepõlvest, kunstnikuteest, loomingust. Johna Hanseni jaapanipärasest einelaua installatsioonist "Laud" (2015-2016), Katrine Gram Slothi Islandil loodud teosest "Vista Revisited" (2015)

  7. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  8. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H.; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring ...

  9. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mess, Andrea M; Favaron, Phelipe O; Pfarrer, Christiane; Osmann, Christine; Melo, Allan P F; Rodrigues, Rosangela F; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Bevilacqua, Estela; Miglino, Maria A

    2012-11-30

    Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occurred near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  10. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates.

  11. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mess Andrea M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Methods Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occured near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Conclusions Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  12. Spatial transposition tasks in Indian sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) and Bornean sun bears (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniela; Davila-Ross, Marina; Wong, Siew Te; Call, Josep; Scheumann, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Spatial transposition tasks assess individuals' ability to represent nonvisible spatial object displacements. Several nonhuman mammal species have been tested on this task including primates, cats, and dogs, but to date, great apes seem the only taxon that has repeatedly and consistently solved spatial transposition tasks. The authors investigated the ability of captive sloth and sun bears to solve spatial transposition tasks. Both species belong to the same taxonomic group as cats and dogs, but unlike them and similar to apes, they have an omnivorous diet that requires them to keep track of fruit sources in space and time. The bears were first tested on a visible displacement task and those that succeeded were further tested on a spatial transposition task that involved a 180° transposition, followed by 2 tasks with two 360° transpositions. All 7 sloth bears and 7 out of 9 sun bears solved the visible displacement task. The 180° transposition task was solved by 6 out of 7 sloth bears and 1 out of the 5 tested sun bears. Three sloth bears were tested on all 4 experiments and even solved 2-chained 360° transpositions. Control conditions were conducted showing that the bears' performance did not rely on olfactory or auditory cues. The results provide the first indication that bears might be able to track invisible objects. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results and to control the influence of associative learning. The present study emphasizes the importance of including different animal species in the investigation of what underlies the evolution of different cognitive skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Structural analyses of acessory genital glands of maned sloths (Bradypus torquatus, Illiger, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Sloths belong to the Mammalian class and Xenarthar Order, presenting very peculiar corporal designs and habits of life. One particular species, Bradypus torquatus, belongs to the Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, this research aims to contribute to knowledge of the male genital organ morphology of the maned sloth on account of the fact that it has so far only been inadequately elucidated by existing science. In this research, six Bradypus torquatus males were used, provided by the Anatomy Laboratory of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia/USP, originally donated by the Reserva Zoobotânica Matinha, Ilhéus/BA. The commom carotid arteries of the animals were canulated and the arterial systems were washed with 40°C water for posterior injection of 10% water formaldehyde solution. The animals were dissected for gross evaluation and sections of tissue from the seminal vesicles and prostates were collected and submitted to light microscopy. The maned sloth presented two genital accessory glands, a prostate and a vesicular gland. It was established through histology that the vesicular gland followed the norm for mammals, but that the prostate showed a peculiar aspect, dividing into muscular and urethral forms.

  14. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  15. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudene Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences observed between the two non-Atlantic forest forms of sloths. These results have important implications for the taxonomy of sloths and anteaters and strongly suggest the placement of pigmy anteaters in their own family (Cyclopidae and raising the taxonomic status of Bradypus torquatus to a genus.

  16. Potential suitable areas of giant ground sloths dropped before its extinction in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Varela, Sara; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    of the climate preferences through time for the two species and modeled their potential distributions at last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 ky BP) and mid-Holocene (6 ky BP) using Bioclimatic Envelope Modeling (BEM), fossil records and paleoclimatic simulations. The model predictions showed a drastic reduction...

  17. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. MORAES

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 ± 0.07 to 0.87 ± 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations.

  18. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAES N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 ± 0.07 to 0.87 ± 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations.

  19. Armadillos exhibit less genetic polymorphism in North America than in South America: nuclear and mitochondrial data confirm a founder effect in Dasypus novemcinctus (Xenarthra).

    OpenAIRE

    Huchon, Dorothée; Delsuc, Frédéric; Catzeflis, François,; Douzery, Emmanuel,

    1999-01-01

    International audience; Heterozygosity at eight nuclear enzymatic loci and mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) sequence polymorphism was compared between North and South American nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus: Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). All markers revealed a striking genetic homogeneity amongst Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi individuals, vs. the usual level of polymorphism for the French Guiana population. This may reflect a founder effect during colonization of North A...

  20. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection associated with respiratory signs in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, N C; Nelson, M I; Killian, M L; Torchetti, M K; Barthel, T; Murray, S

    2017-11-01

    In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds. A combination of phylogenetic and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests the sloth bear was infected with a human-origin pH1N1 virus, supporting the implementation of biosecurity measures to protect human and animal health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Unexpected strong polygyny in the brown-throated three-toed sloth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N Pauli

    Full Text Available Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the "rule" rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the "polygyny potential" of the environment and promote other mating strategies like promiscuity in females. We explored the social and genetic mating system for one of the most sedentary extant mammals, the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus, within a highly fragmented Neotropical habitat. Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong reproductive skew. Indeed, only 25% of all resident adult males sired offspring and one individual sired half of all sampled juveniles. Paradoxically, a sedentary life-history strategy seems to facilitate polygyny in fragmented landscapes because multiple females can persist within small patches of habitat, and be monopolized by a single male. Our work demonstrates that strong polygyny can arise in systems in which the polygyny potential should be extremely low, and other strategies, including promiscuity, would be favoured. Mating systems can be influenced by a multitude of factor and are dynamic, varying among taxa, over time, and across habitats; consequently, mating systems remain difficult to predict based on general ecological principles.

  2. Caracterização comparativa do intestino das espécies da Ordem Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O sucesso na manutenção de uma espécie depende de vários fatores entre eles a eficiência digestiva, sendo assim parâmetros morfométricos do tubo digestório são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestivos dos alimentos no organismo animal além de indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Este trabalho visou descrever morfologicamente os intestinos delgado e grosso, órgãos do sistema digestório de representantes da ordem Xenarthra a fim de fornecer subsídios para a avaliação da dieta e realização de procedimentos clínicos nestes animais, sejam eles de vida livre ou de cativeiro. Foram utilizados 7 espécimes entre preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, tatu-verdadeiro (Dasypus novemcinctus e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Todos as amostras foram processadas seguindo procedimentos de rotina efetuados nos laboratórios de Anatomia Animal e Histologia da FZEA/USP. Os intestinos de B. torquatus se apresentaram curtos e simples, enquanto que nos exemplares de D. novemcintus e M. tridactyla o intestino era longo e com algumas peculiaridades. No duodeno de todos os espécimes notamos a presença das glândulas de Brünner e estruturas para aumentar a superfície de absorção. Apenas em preguiças, o mesentério mantém o jejuno preso à parede dorsal da cavidade abdominal. O íleo representou a menor porção nas preguiças e tatus, exceto em tamanduáque apresentava o íleo como a maior parte depois do jejuno. O ceco em tatus e tamanduás apresentavam tamanho considerável e a presença de glândulas na mucosa, nestas espécies destacamos a funcionalidade do ceco, uma vez que este se apresentou repleto de restos alimentares. Na mucosa do cólon de todos os espécimes, haviam criptas de Lieberkühn, sendo mais numerosas em D. novemcinctus e M. tridactyla. Apenas em B. torquatus, o reto apresentou maior diâmetro e rigidez em relação ao cólon. No reto de todas as espécies estudadas, a

  3. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte D.P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24ºC with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean ± SD were obtained for SBP (121 ± 22 mmHg, DBP (86 ± 17 mmHg, mean BP (MBP, 98 ± 18 mmHg and heart rate (73 ± 16 bpm. The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test during the light period (125 ± 21, 88 ± 15 and 100 ± 17 mmHg, respectively than during the dark period (120 ± 21, 85 ± 17 and 97 ± 17 mmHg, respectively and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 ± 19 to 90 ± 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h. Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively. The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  4. Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana P. MEWADA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterisations of the Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus diet during three distinguished seasons (monsoon, winter and summer in the semi-arid region of western India was under study. Diet was estimated using scat analysis, based on the calculation of Index of Relative Importance (IRI in order to determine the contribution of different food items in the Sloth bear diet. Sloth bears were observed to feed on a wide variety of prey items. They are specialized on insect prey, particularly termites or ants, and are considered as myrmecophagous. The myrmecophagousis character was confirmed by the highest score of insect part (IRI = 21.37 from the samples (n = 566, which was followed by Diospyros melanoxylon (IRI Score 13.51, Ficus spp. (IRI score 12.69 and Cassia fistula (IRI Score 10.13. Sloth bear dietary proportions varied among the three seasons under the study interval. Data suggested that the Sloth bear is essentially behaving as an omnivore, having similar diet (in terms of high incidence of wild fruits and insects with the bears inhabiting semi-arid regions. The opportunistic and generalist strategy of selecting diet ingredients has probably helped the species to survive in semi-arid habitat across the North Gujarat.

  5. Trend Toward Individualization of the Endocrine and Exocrine Portions of the Giant Anteater Pancreas (Myrmecophaga Tridactyla, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Luciana Pedrosa; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Borghesi, Jéssica; Oliveira Carreira, Ana Claudia; Miglino, Maria Angelica; de Melo, Alan Perez Ferraz

    2017-06-01

    Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum. The corpus pancreatis was elongated and showed a caudal curvature of 45°. The pancreas exhibited a facies dorsalis (related to the spleen and stomach) and a facies ventralis (related to the renal capsule and intestine). Macroscopically, a craniodorsal, medial, and caudoventral regions were identified, in addition to the left lobe. Structurally, the organ exhibited two distinct parts: the first had exocrine characteristics, consisting of acini and ducts; the second, which was the endocrine portion, consisted of the pancreatic islets, which were located in the medial, caudoventral and left lobe regions. Ultrastructural analysis identified secretory vesicles containing zymogen granules, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic centroacinar cells. Morphological data on the anatomy of members of the Xenarthra have revealed important peculiarities of several organs and systems, adding great biological value to the representatives of this group. In addition, these studies significantly contribute not only to knowledge of the biology, taxonomy and, consequently, preservation of these animals but also to the discovery of new experimental models. Anat Rec, 300:1104-1113, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  7. Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion. In mammals the extrinsic shoulder musculature forms a ‘muscular sling’ to support the trunk in quadrupedal postures. In addition, the extrinsic pectoral muscles are responsible for moving the proximal forelimb elements during locomotion. Due to the inverse orientation of the body in regard to the gravitational force, the muscular sling as configured as in pronograde mammals is unsuited to suspend the weight of the thorax in sloths. We here review the muscular topography of the shoulder in Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus variegatus in the light of presumably convergent evolution to adapt to the altered functional demands of the inverse orientation of the body. In addition, we venture to deduce the effect of the shoulder musculature of C. didactylus during locomotion based on previously published 3D kinematic data. Finally, we assess likely convergences in the muscular topography of both extant sloth lineages to test the hypothesis that convergent evolution is reflected by differing morphological solutions to the same functional demands posed by the suspensory posture. Muscular topography of the shoulder in C. didactylus is altered from the plesiomorphic condition of pronograde mammals, whereas the shoulder in B. variegatus more closely resembles the general pattern. Overall kinematics as well as the muscles suitable for pro- and retraction of the forelimb were found to be largely comparable to pronograde mammals in C. didactylus. We conclude that most of the peculiar topography of extrinsic forelimb musculature can be attributed to the inverse orientation of the body. These characteristics are often similar in both genera, but we also identified different morphological solutions that evolved to satisfy the new functional demands and are indicative of convergent evolution. We suggest that the shared phylogenetic heritage canalized

  8. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  9. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  10. Sloth hair as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Higginbotham

    Full Text Available The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths--arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama--carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus, Bradypodidae in Soberanía National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs, several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity in vitro. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair.

  11. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%), most occurring when person(s) were working in fields (7%), defecating (5%), or engaged in construction work (3%). Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57%) and most (54%) were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40%) followed by monsoon (35%) and winter (25%). Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15%) of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  12. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha H Dhamorikar

    Full Text Available Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%, with the greatest number of those (42% occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP, 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%, most occurring when person(s were working in fields (7%, defecating (5%, or engaged in construction work (3%. Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57% and most (54% were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40% followed by monsoon (35% and winter (25%. Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15% of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  13. Differentiation of Xenarthra (Mammalia species through the identification of their fecal bile acid patterns: An ecological tool Diferenciación de especies de Xenarthra (Mammalia a través de la identificación de sus patrones de ácidos biliares fecales: Una herramienta ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOLEDAD ARAUJO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of feces is a fundamental tool for field work, especially to identify the presence of certain species in an area. Fecal bile acids and their relative concentration follow patterns that are species-specific, and can be characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. This technique has been used for differentiating feces of several mammal species; however it has never been used for Xenarthra species. In this work, 96 feces of Xenarthra species were analyzed by TLC to determine the bile acid pattern. The species were: Zaedyus pichiy (n = 10, Chaetophractus vellerosus (n = 5, Chaetophractus villosus (n = 57, Dasypus kybridus (n = 4, Priodontes maximus (n = 2, Tamanduá tetradactyla (n = 14 and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (n = 4. There were differences between the bile acid patterns of all the species, but not between males and females, nor between wild and captive animals of the same species. We found seven known bile acids, cholesterol and seven unidentified compounds (X1-X7. All the species had taurocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and cholesterol. Only C. villosus had deoxycholic acid (Rf: 0.30 ± 0.01. Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C. villosus had two or three bands of dehydrocholic acid (Rf between 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.45 ± 0.02, while the other species had one or two. Z. pichiy had two unidentified bile acids, X6 (Rf: 0.85 ± 0.06 and X7 (Rf 0.93 ± 0.03, that were almost indistinguishable in other species. D. hybridus differed from Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C villosus because it did not have chenodeoxycholic acid and X7. T. tetradactyla was the only species without cholic acid and it differed from M. tridactyla because it had dehydrocholic acid. D. hybridus was the species with the lowest number of compounds (seven, and differed from the others because it did not have the X1 and X5 unidentified compounds. These results are the first for Xenarthra and would be very important for fu ture studies about the

  14. Parasitismo por Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 e Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 em Bradypus variegatus (preguiça) Parasitism by Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 and Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 in Bradypus variegatus (sloth)

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Oliveira; M.D.C. Brito; G.F. Ferreira; C.A. Soares; G.A. Anderlini; G.A.A. Xavier; A. Evêncio Sobrinho

    2000-01-01

    Skin scrapings of three sloths Bradypus variegatus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analysed after lactophenol clarification. The mites Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 and Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 were identified. For the first time, S. scabiei and L. trouessarti are recorded as mange agents in B. variegatus.

  15. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  16. Identification of endotrypanum species from a sloth, a squirrel and Lutzomyia sandflies in ecuador by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mini-exon gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Ken; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Furuya, Masato; Uezato, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Shigeo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2003-05-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the mini-exon gene revealed that four strains isolated from a sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), a squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) and two sandflies (Lutzomyia hartmanni) in Ecuador were indistinguishable from Endotrypanum monterogeii. Another strain isolated from Lu. hartmanni showed the high sequence similarity to E. schaudinni. Since three of these strains have been previously identified as Leishmania (Viannia) equatorensis, the results demonstrate that L. (V.) equatorensis is genetically closely related to the genus Endotrypanum. The present study also indicates that Endotrypanum species are distributed in arboreal animals and sandflies in Ecuador, and that mini-exon gene amplification is useful for epidemiological studies of Leishmania and Endotrypanum in the New World.

  17. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  18. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the pectoral girdle during upside-down locomotion of two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus, Linné 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakatura John A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theria (marsupials and placental mammals are characterized by a highly mobile pectoral girdle in which the scapula has been shown to be an important propulsive element during locomotion. Shoulder function and kinematics are highly conservative during locomotion within quadrupedal therian mammals. In order to gain insight into the functional morphology and evolution of the pectoral girdle of the two-toed sloth we here analyze the anatomy and the three-dimensional (3D pattern of shoulder kinematics during quadrupedal suspensory ('upside-down' locomotion. Methods We use scientific rotoscoping, a new, non-invasive, markerless approach for x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM, to quantify in vivo the 3D movements of all constituent skeletal elements of the shoulder girdle. Additionally we use histologic staining to analyze the configuration of the sterno-clavicular articulation (SCA. Results Despite the inverse orientation of the body towards gravity, sloths display a 3D kinematic pattern and an orientation of the scapula relative to the thorax similar to pronograde claviculate mammalian species that differs from that of aclaviculate as well as brachiating mammals. Reduction of the relative length of the scapula alters its displacing effect on limb excursions. The configuration of the SCA maximizes mobility at this joint and demonstrates a tensile loading regime between thorax and limbs. Conclusions The morphological characteristics of the scapula and the SCA allow maximal mobility of the forelimb to facilitate effective locomotion within a discontinuous habitat. These evolutionary changes associated with the adoption of the suspensory posture emphasized humeral influence on forelimb motion, but allowed the retention of the plesiomorphic 3D kinematic pattern.

  19. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... such campaigns, New Jersey Democrat Linda Stender's and that of Democratic Congressman Jim Himes of Connecticut, who both ran for Congress in 2008. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen examines how American political operatives use "personalized political communication" to engage with the electorate, and weighs the implications...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...

  20. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    grounded approach to studying differences. This provides an opportunity, for scholars and practitioners, to reassess possible a priori given assumptions, and open up to new explorations beyond conventional identity theorization. Social implications – The paper suggests a need for an empirically grounded...... approach to studying social differences, which would not only create an opportunity to reassess common assumptions but also open up for explorations beyond conventional identity theorizations. Originality/value – The framework departs from traditional (critical) diversity scholarship, as it is process...

  1. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  2. Benjamin's Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nägele

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin‘s reading of Hölderlin in one of his earliest essays already delineates some of the major constellations of his thought. Searching for the ground of language and of poetic language in particular, Benjamin sets out to lay the ground for the possibility of literary criticism. His text enters into a specific relationship with Hölderlin's theory of poetics and poetic language. The movement of this search leads through a metaphoric relationship of "surface" and "depth" toward an ever-receding ground that can be articulated ultimately only in relation to a non-representable abyss (Abgrund . A new topography of surface and writing emerges and replaces the surface/depth relationship. Both Hölderlin's poetics and Benjamin's criticism develop a model of representation based on a radical rethinking of writing and script, marked by a "cut" or "caesura" as the precondition of representation and of the possibility of any "thing" represented. In the recurring motif of waking up, Benjamin marks the threshold of that caesura and connects it at the same time with a specific trait of modern aesthetics as embodied in Kafka's work.

  3. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  4. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  5. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  6. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  7. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Barney G.

    2007-01-01

    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  8. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  9. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  10. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  11. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  13. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelo de suprimento sanguíneo do intestino delgado e grosso da preguiça de coleira (Bradypus torquatus Blood supply model of the small and large intestine of the maned three-toed sloth (Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Bradypus torquatus, conhecido como preguiça de coleira, está classificado na lista vermelha da IUCN como vulnerável. Este animal é um folívoro estrito que se alimenta de um pequeno número de plantas. O suprimento sanguíneo do intestino delgado e grosso de oito Bradypus torquatus, pertencentes ao acervo da Anatomia dos Animais Domésticos e Sivestres da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, foi estudado. O método incluiu preparação de relatório macroscópico, perfusão do sistema arterial com água (40°C, injeção de látex corado (Neoprene® 650, Sulvinil® 2350-0003, fixação com formaldeído (10%, conservação em solução modificada de Laskowiski e dissecação por mesoscopia de luz (Lupa LTS® 3700. A irrigação dos intestinos delgado e grosso dependeu da aorta abdominal, cujo ramo visceral ventral identificado como artéria mesentérica comum distribuiu-se no mesentério e mesocólon. Uma sequência de 9 a 25 ramos colaterais primários craniais destinaram-se ao duodeno, jejuno, íleo e parte da bolsa cecal. Outra sequência de 4 a 11 ramos caudais destinaram-se à bolsa cecal e cólons. No animal adulto, o modelo de vascularização do intestino diferiu dos outros vertebrados recentes em razão de não ocorrer coalescência peritoneal ao longo do intestino delgado e grosso.The Bradypus torquatus also known as maned three-toed sloth is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN red list. This species is strict folivorous that feeds on a relatively small number of food plants. The blood supply in the small and large intestines of eight Bradypus torquatus was studied. These animals are from the Anatomia dos Animais Domésticos e Silvestres collection of the Universidade de São Paulo . The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water (40°C, injection of colored latex (Neoprene 650®, 2350-0003 Suvinil® dye, fixation in

  15. On slippery ground:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2018-01-01

    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...

  16. Grounding, shielding, and bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, J.

    1991-06-01

    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  17. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  18. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  19. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  20. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  1. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  2. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  3. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  4. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  5. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  6. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  7. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  8. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  9. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  10. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  11. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  12. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  13. Patterns in Frozen Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Fletcher, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    The expansion and contraction of ice-cemented soils, due to seasonal and shorter term temperature fluctuations, or to the growth and decay of ice lenses in soils, produce some of the most striking geometric patterns in nature. These patterns, known as patterned ground, have diverse surface expressions including local relief, soil cracks, size-segregated mineral material, and spatial variations in vegetation density and species composition. They can be subdivided into sorted patterns, which range in size from 0.1 to 3 m and are defined by spatial differentiation of soil material according to grain size, and non-sorted patterns that may be 10's of meters in size. The processes underlying the pattern development have been elucidated through detailed observations and measurements in the field, as well as instructive numerical simulations. Substantial mechanistic insight has also been gained from recent advances in the fundamental physics of ice in porous media and in the nonlinear dynamics of granular media. Current research activity is focused on polygonal patterned ground in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica where distinct 10 to 30 m polygons are ubiquitous; they are characteristically outlined by vertical cracks that become infilled with wedges of sand. This patterned ground is of particular interest because it resembles patterns seen on the surface of Mars and because a long-term, high-resolution record exists of soil temperatures and thermal strains. The crack network, which is very similar to the networks of contraction cracks in drying mud and other contracting materials, self-organizes through interactions between thermal stresses, fracture, and the evolving pattern of cracks bounding the polygons. Initially, these cracks tend to curve to join pre-existing cracks at right angles due to the influence of these early cracks on the stress field. The evolution of the patterns toward 5 or 6-sided polygons with straight-sided cracks that join at symmetric triple junctions

  14. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  15. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  16. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  17. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  18. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  19. On slippery ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical complexity and dilemmas, which arise in the coproduction of knowledge between researchers and other participants. Design/methodology/approach The starting-point for the article is a narrative from a conference we attended where we......, as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...... in collaborative research. More specifically, at the conference, we sought to expose and discuss the gap between our good intentions and our own practice as researchers in a collaborative research project at a major hospital. However, instead of reflexive discussions with the research community, we experienced...

  20. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  1. Julia Sloth-Nielsen and Jacqui Gallinetti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    juliasn

    mediation and to "any other restorative justice process". The detail as to how this might occur is set out earlier in the Act, insofar as these mechanisms may also be used as diversion options. The difference when they are utilised in the sentencing process relates to how the outcomes may affect the sentence imposed. Where ...

  2. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  3. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  4. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events...

  5. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  6. Grounding as a Side-Effect of Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Staffan

    2018-01-22

    In relation to semantics, "grounding" has (at least) two relevant meanings. "Symbol grounding" is the process of connecting symbols (e.g., words) to perception and the world. "Communicative grounding" is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants (DPs) may adjust the meanings they assign to linguistic expressions, in a process of semantic coordination. Meanings of at least some expressions (e.g., concrete nouns) include perceptual aspects which enable DPs to classify entities as falling under the expression or not based on their perception of those entities. We show how perceptual grounding of symbols can be achieved in a process of interactively adding to common ground. This requires that perceptual aspects of meaning can be updated as a result of participating in linguistic interaction, thereby enabling fine-grained semantic coordination of perceptually grounded linguistic meanings. A formal semantics for low-level perceptual aspects of meaning is presented, tying these together with the logical-inferential aspects of meaning traditionally studied in formal semantics. The key idea is to model perceptual meanings as classifiers of perceptual input. This requires a framework where intensions are (a) represented independently of extensions, and (b) structured objects which can be modified as a result of learning. We use Type Theory with Records (TTR), a formal semantics framework which starts from the idea that information and meaning are founded on our ability to perceive and classify the world, that is, to perceive objects and situations as being of types. As an example of our approach, we show how a simple classifier of spatial information based on the Perceptron can

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  8. English for Airport Ground Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  9. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  10. Grounded Theory: Research as Praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotto, Joyce Neff

    In the mid-1960s, social scientists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss developed grounded theory as a systematic and rigorous method of qualitative data analysis leading to "the discovery of theory from data." In grounded theory, the researcher applies a set of coding procedures to the data until a provisional theory emerges inductively.…

  11. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  12. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  13. Feeding preference of the sand flies Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. spathotrichia (diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in an urban forest patch in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Coelho da Rocha

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitin tests were performed on blood meals of 199 sand flies (161 Lutzomyia umbratilis, 34 L. spathotrichia, two Lutzomyia of group shannoni, one L. anduzei in a non-flooded upland forest on the Campus of the Universidade Federal do Amazonas. This is the second largest forest fragment in an urban setting in Brazil. Results on L. umbratilis, which is considered to be the principal leishmaniasis vector in this region, indicated rodents as its predominant blood source in contrast to previous reports in which blood meal analysis indicated that this species fed principally on Xenarthra (particularly sloths

  14. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  15. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  16. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  17. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  18. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  19. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  20. Antarctic grounding-line migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T.; Konrad, H.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Hogg, A.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of grounding-line position is critical for quantifying ice discharge into the ocean, as a boundary condition for numerical models of ice flow, and as an indicator of ice sheet stability. Although geological investigations have documented extensive grounding-line retreat since the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, observations of grounding line migration during the satellite era are restricted to a handful of locations. We combine satellite altimeter observations of ice-elevation change and airborne measurements of ice geometry to track movement of the Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding line. Based on these data, we estimate that 22%, 3%, and 10% of the West Antarctic, East Antarctic, and Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet grounding lines are retreating at rates faster than the typical pace since the Last Glacial Maximum, and that the continent loses over 200 km2 of grounded-ice area per year. Although by far the fastest rates of retreat occurred in the Amundsen Sea Sector, the Pine Island Glacier grounding line has stabilized - likely as a consequence of abated ocean forcing during the survey period.

  1. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  2. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  3. 46 CFR 129.375 - System grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.375 System grounding. (a) If a grounded distribution system... nonmetallic vessel with a grounded distribution system, the common ground plate must have— (1) Only one... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System grounding. 129.375 Section 129.375 Shipping COAST...

  4. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  5. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  6. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  7. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  8. Flexible propulsors in ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Daniel B; Smits, Alexander J; Lauder, George V

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming ‘in ground effect’, that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. (paper)

  9. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  10. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  11. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  12. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  13. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  14. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  15. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  16. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801...-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not...

  17. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  18. First record of giant anteater (xenarthra, myrmecophagidae) in north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G

    1987-04-10

    A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.

  19. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  20. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  1. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Anthony Finn; Adam Jacoff; Mike...these metrics against the detailed choreography of the challenge to prevent teams ‘gaming’ the result (i.e. devising technical solutions that were

  2. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  3. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...

  4. TARDEC's Intelligent Ground Systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2009-05-01

    The mission of the Intelligent Ground Systems (IGS) Area at the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is to conduct technology maturation and integration to increase Soldier robot control/interface intuitiveness and robotic ground system robustness, functionality and overall system effectiveness for the Future Combat System Brigade Combat Team, Robotics Systems Joint Project Office and game changing capabilities to be fielded beyond the current force. This is accomplished through technology component development focused on increasing unmanned ground vehicle autonomy, optimizing crew interfaces and mission planners that capture commanders' intent, integrating payloads that provide 360 degree local situational awareness and expanding current UGV tactical behavior, learning and adaptation capabilities. The integration of these technology components into ground vehicle demonstrators permits engineering evaluation, User assessment and performance characterization in increasingly complex, dynamic and relevant environments to include high speed on road or cross country operations, all weather/visibility conditions and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). Focused testing and experimentation is directed at reducing PM risk areas (safe operations, autonomous maneuver, manned-unmanned collaboration) and transitioning technology in the form of hardware, software algorithms, test and performance data, as well as User feedback and lessons learned.

  5. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  6. Grounding Visual Explanations (Extended Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lisa Anne; Hu, Ronghang; Darrell, Trevor; Akata, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Existing models which generate textual explanations enforce task relevance through a discriminative term loss function, but such mechanisms only weakly constrain mentioned object parts to actually be present in the image. In this paper, a new model is proposed for generating explanations by utilizing localized grounding of constituent phrases in generated explanations to ensure image relevance. Specifically, we introduce a phrase-critic model to refine (re-score/re-rank) generated candidate e...

  7. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  8. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  9. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  10. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  11. Ground-State of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Emily; Carey, Mike; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Mancini, Jay D.; Bowen, Samuel P.

    2002-03-01

    The study of the ground-state properties of molecular systems has long been the focus of both quantum chemists as well as physicists. In general, most of the calculational methods are dependent on the use of high-power computers to generate large basis states. Such schemes as the full-configuration-interaction method, coupled-pair functionals and its modification, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as well as both the restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock schemes have been used not only for ground-state calculations but also to calculate electron correlation energies. In general such schemes are limited to those basis which are constructed from single Slatter determinant. Here we wish to study the ground-state of water as well as hydrogen fluoride using the recently developed canonical sequence scheme which is a calculational cousin of the Connected Moments Expansion of Cioslowski. Comparisons are then made with other methods [for example P.J. Knowles Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 512 (1987)].

  12. Grounding information security in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Antunes, Luis; Chadwick, David; Correia, Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that grounded theory (GT), together with mixed methods, can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the design and enhancement of access control policies to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. The mixed methods applied for this research included, in this sequence, focus groups (main qualitative method that used grounded theory for the data analysis) and structured questionnaires (secondary quantitative method). Results showed that the presented methodology can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the definition of access control policies to EMR systems and explore these issues in a diversified and integrated way. The methodology allowed for the generation of great amounts of data in the beginning of the study and in a short time span. Results from the applied methodology revealed a first glimpse of the theories to be generated and integrated, with future research, into access control policies. The methodological research described in this paper is very rarely, if ever, applied in developing security tools such as access control. Nevertheless, it can be an effective way of involving healthcare professionals in the definition and enhancement of access control policies and in making information security more grounded into their workflows and daily practices. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radon in ground water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  15. The Future of Ground Fire Support Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckinger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... The potential of these and future systems, such as armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and micro-robotic platforms, signal the demise of at least ground fire support systems if not conventional ground forces...

  16. Empirically grounding grounded cognition: the case of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Grounded cognition theories hold that the neural states involved in experiencing objects play a direct functional role in representing and accessing object knowledge from memory. However, extant data marshaled to support this view are also consistent with an opposing view that perceptuo-motor activations occur only following access to knowledge from amodal memory systems. We provide novel discriminating evidence for the functional involvement of visuo-perceptual states specifically in accessing knowledge about an object's color. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while manipulating the visual contrast of monochromatic words ("lime") in a semantic decision task: responses were made for valid colors ("green") and locations ("kitchen") and withheld for invalid colors and locations. Low contrast delayed perceptual processing for both color and location. Critically, low contrast slowed access to color knowledge only. This finding reveals that the visual system plays a functional role in accessing object knowledge and uniquely supports grounded views of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  18. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801... resistors. [Statutory Provisions] The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not more than 100...

  19. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  20. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  1. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course must...

  2. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characteri- zed by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper deve- lops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the.

  3. 46 CFR 129.370 - Equipment grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment grounding. 129.370 Section 129.370 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.370 Equipment grounding. (a) On a metallic vessel... grounding conductor must be sized to comply with section 250-95 of NEC (NFPA 70). (d) Each nonmetallic mast...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grounding. 3280.809 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.809 Grounding. (a) General. Grounding of both electrical and nonelectrical metal parts in a manufactured home shall be...

  5. [Facial prosthetics: grounds and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, R; Lieben, G; Bouwman, S; Wolterink, R; van den Brekel, M W M; Lohuis, P J F M

    2017-09-01

    Surgical treatment of advanced facial tumours is often physically, functionally and emotionally debilitating. The resulting defects often give grounds for surgical reconstruction, prosthetic reconstruction or a combination of both. During the past two decades, huge advances have been achieved in the development of prostheses. This has led to improved rehabilitation of facial defects. In the clinic of the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, both adhesive- and implant-retained facial prostheses are used. In recent decades, implant-retained prostheses have been used increasingly often. Patient satisfaction rates are very high for both types of prostheses.

  6. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  7. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  8. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  9. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  10. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robot locomotion on weak ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Li, Chen; Umbanhowar, Paul; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Natural substrates like sand, soil, and leaf litter vary widely in penetration resistance. Little is known about how animals (and increasingly robots) respond to this variation. To address this deficit, we built an air fluidized bed trackway, in which we control penetration resistance of 1mm granular substrates down to zero by increasing the upward flow rate, Q , to the fluidization transition. Using a 2 . 5 kg bio-inspired hexapedal robot as our model locomotor, we systematically study how locomotion performance (average forward speed, v) varies with penetration resistance, limb kinematics, and foot morphology. Average robot speed decreases with increasing Q, and decreases faster for robots with higher leg frequency or narrower leg width. A previously developed model, which captured the robot's performance on granular media with Q = 0 , also captures the observed performance for weakened states with Q > 0 . A single dimensionless control parameter from the model, which combines gait and ground parameters, determines v for all penetration resistances. Our ground control technique and modeling approach provide a way to probe and understand the limits of locomotor performance on yielding substrates.

  12. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by

  13. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alp ÖZEL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth bears importance for any country with different levels of development. It is seen that various theories of economic growth give a different importance to technological development and human capital. Theories of economic growth referred to as exogenous economic growth theories, which assume technological development and human capital as determinants of economic growth and propose that they are not affected by economic variables, consider them as the main determinants of economic growth in the long run While these models support technological development as the main source of economic growth in the long run, they have deficiencies in explaining the sources of technological development. These deficiencies are overcome by endogenous growth theories. Endogenous growth theories consider technological development as a variable that is affected by the decisions of economic units and internalize them. The aim of this study is to explain the thoretical grounds of exogenous and endogenous economic growth theories and stress the differences based on their nature.

  14. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the character of a certain type of clay till and hereby find the necessary tool in future geographical mapping of the vulnerability of the ground water resources....

  15. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  16. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1). Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136). The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result i...

  17. Towards a Theory Grounded Theory of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Christopher G.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Kosolapov, Oleksandr V.; Lykken, Troy R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we build upon the idea of theory grounding and propose one specific form of theory grounding, a theory of language. Theory grounding is the idea that we can imbue our embodied artificially intelligent systems with theories by modeling the way humans, and specifically young children, develop skills with theories. Modeling theory development promises to increase the conceptual and behavioral flexibility of these systems. An example of theory development in children is the social ...

  18. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  19. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  20. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  1. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  2. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  3. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety review...

  4. Puzzling the Picture Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…

  5. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  6. 49 CFR 234.213 - Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance Standards § 234.213 Grounds. Each circuit that affects the proper functioning of a highway-rail... in the circuit. This requirement does not apply to: circuits that include track rail; alternating current power distribution circuits that are grounded in the interest of safety; and common return wires...

  7. Schoolyard Learning: The Impact of School Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This paper utilizes a literature review and survey as the basis for comments about the influence of schoolyards on academic learning and child development. The researchers find that school grounds form an important albeit under-utilized part of the built environment. School grounds have a positive impact on social development, academic…

  8. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  9. 30 CFR 57.6601 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 57.6601 Section 57.6601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND...-Surface and Underground § 57.6601 Grounding. Electric blasting circuits, including powerline sources when...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.68 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 1918.68 Section 1918.68 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... § 1918.68 Grounding. The frames of portable electrical equipment and tools, other than double insulated...

  11. 33 CFR 183.572 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 183.572 Section 183.572 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.572 Grounding. Each...

  12. 33 CFR 183.415 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 183.415 Section 183.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.415 Grounding...

  13. 46 CFR 105.20-15 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding. 105.20-15 Section 105.20-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-15 Grounding. (a) All...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6601 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 56.6601 Section 56.6601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6601 Grounding. Electric blasting circuits, including powerline sources when used, shall not be...

  15. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in ...

  16. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  17. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  18. Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) Project: Developing a COTS-Intensive Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Richard; Esker, Linda; Herman, Frank; Jacobsohn, Jeremy; Saylor, Rick; Hoffman, Constance

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) is to implement a new modern ground segment that will enable the NASA Space Network (SN) to deliver high quality services to the SN community for the future The key SGSS Goals: (1) Re-engineer the SN ground segment (2) Enable cost efficiencies in the operability and maintainability of the broader SN.

  19. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...... discussion to the potential value of grounded theory research to the field of entrepreneurship and thus the need in this field of further grounded theory....

  20. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  1. PEPS as ground states: Degeneracy and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, Ignacio; Pérez-García, David

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a framework for characterizing Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) in terms of symmetries. This allows us to understand how PEPS appear as ground states of local Hamiltonians with finitely degenerate ground states and to characterize the ground state subspace. Subsequently, we apply our framework to show how the topological properties of these ground states can be explained solely from the symmetry: We prove that ground states are locally indistinguishable and can be transformed into each other by acting on a restricted region, we explain the origin of the topological entropy, and we discuss how to renormalize these states based on their symmetries. Finally, we show how the anyonic character of excitations can be understood as a consequence of the underlying symmetries.

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  3. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  4. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  5. Examining Rotational Ground Motion Induced by Tornados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Elijah; Dunn, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Ring lasers are well known for their ability to detect rotation and to serve as replacements for mechanical gyroscopes. The sensitivity of large ring lasers to various forms of ground motion is less familiar. Since ring lasers preferentially measure rotational ground motion and a standard seismograph is designed to measure translational and vertical ground motion, each device responds to different aspects of ground movement. Therefore, the two instruments will be used to explore responses to microseisms, earthquake generated shear waves, and in particular tornado generated ground movement. On April 27, 2014 an EF4 tornado devastated Vilonia, AR a small town ~ 21 km from the Hendrix College ring laser. The proximity of the tornado's path to the ring laser interferometer and to a seismograph located in Vilonia provided the opportunity to examine the response of these instruments to tornadic generated ground motion. Our measurements suggest tornadic weather systems can produce both rotational and lateral ground motion. This contention is supported by an after the fact damage survey which found that the tornado flattened a forest in which trees were uprooted and laid down in a pair of converging arcs with the centerline pointed in the direction of the tornado's path.

  6. Grounding Headphones for Protection Against ESD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    A simple alternative technique has been devised protecting delicate equipment against electrostatic discharge (ESD) in settings in which workers wear communication headsets. In the original setting in which the technique was devised, the workers who wear the headsets also wear anti-ESD grounding straps on their wrists. The alternative technique eliminates the need for the wrist grounding straps by providing for grounding through the headsets. In place of the electrically insulating foam pads on the headsets, one installs pads made of electrically conductive foam like that commonly used to protect electronic components. Grounding wires are attached to the conductive foam pads, then possibly to the shielding cable which may be grounded to the backshell on the connector. The efficacy of this technique in protecting against ESD has been verified in experiments. The electrical resistance of the pads is a few megohms - about the same as that of a human body between the fingers of opposite hands and, hence, low enough for grounding. The only drawback of the technique is that care must be taken to place the foam pads in contact with the user s skin: any hair that comes between the foam pads and the skin must be pushed aside because hair is electrically insulating and thus prevents adequate grounding.

  7. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  8. Ground roll attenuation by synchrosqueezed curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Chen, Yangkang; Ma, Jianwei

    2018-04-01

    Ground roll is a type of coherent noise in land seismic data that has low frequency, low velocity and high amplitude. It damages reflection events that contain important information about subsurface structures, hence the removal of ground roll is a crucial step in seismic data processing. A suitable transform is needed for removal of ground roll. Curvelet transform is an effective sparse transform that optimally represents seismic events. In addition, the curvelets can provide a multiscale and multidirectional decomposition of the input data in time-frequency and angular domain, which can help distinguish between ground roll and useful signals. In this paper, we apply synchrosqueezed curvelet transform (SSCT) for ground roll attenuation. The synchrosqueezing technique in SSCT is used to precisely reallocate the energy of local wave vectors in order to separate ground roll from the original data with higher resolution and higher fidelity. Examples of synthetic and field seismic data reveal that SSCT performs well in the suppression of aliased and non-aliased ground roll while preserving reflection waves, in comparison with high-pass filtering, wavelet and curvelet methods.

  9. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present notes outline a method for evaluation of the probability...... of ship-ship collisions, ship-platform collisions, and ship groundings. The main benefit of the method is that it allows comparisons of various navigation routes and procedures by assessing the relative frequencies of collisions and groundings....

  10. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  12. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  13. 30 CFR 75.703-2 - Approved grounding mediums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved grounding mediums. 75.703-2 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703-2 Approved grounding mediums. For purposes of grounding offtrack direct-current machines, the following grounding mediums are...

  14. 30 CFR 77.701-4 - Use of grounding connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounding connectors. 77.701-4 Section 77.701-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701-4 Use of grounding connectors. If ground wires are attached to grounded...

  15. 46 CFR 111.05-13 - Grounding connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding connection. 111.05-13 Section 111.05-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-13 Grounding...

  16. 30 CFR 77.703-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.703-1 Section... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in § 77.701-1 will be approved with respect to the grounding of frames of high-voltage equipment referred to...

  17. 30 CFR 75.701-5 - Use of grounding connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounding connectors. 75.701-5 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-5 Use of grounding connectors. The attachment of grounding wires to a mine track or other grounded power conductor will be...

  18. 46 CFR 111.05-15 - Neutral grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Neutral grounding. 111.05-15 Section 111.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-15 Neutral grounding. (a) Each...

  19. 30 CFR 57.3360 - Ground support use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground support use. 57.3360 Section 57.3360... and Support-Underground Only § 57.3360 Ground support use. Ground support shall be used where ground conditions, or mining experience in similar ground conditions in the mine, indicate that it is necessary...

  20. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) analysis : Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    "The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of expanding the MDT's Ground Penetrating : Radar (GPR) program to a broader range of pavement evaluation activities. Currently, MDT uses GPR in : conjunction with its Falling Weight Deflecto...

  1. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  2. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-06-01

    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    of energy transmission can be obtained within the medium and high frequency ranges, barriers are a poor solution at low frequencies. As an alternative, a periodic change in the properties of the soil can be introduced—to the geometry and/or to the material. Periodic structures are known to act as filters...... for wave propagation, effectively reducing the transmission of energy in certain frequency bands known as stop bands or band gaps, thus only allowing propagation in the so-called pass bands. In this paper, a stratified ground with two soil layers is considered and two types of periodicity is analysed......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  4. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  5. 49 CFR 236.2 - Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuit, except circuits which include any track rail and except the common return wires of single-wire, single-break, signal control circuits using a grounded common, and alternating current power distribution...

  6. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  7. Ground Moving Target Engagement by Cooperative UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schumacher, Corey

    2005-01-01

    .... MultiUAV has been used to simulate a Cooperative Moving Target Engagement (CMTE) scenario, with a team of UAVs acting as a sensor and communication network to cooperatively track and attack moving ground targets...

  8. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  9. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  10. Ground penetrating radar evaluation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Six commercial ground penetrating radar (GPR) : systems were evaluated to determine the state-of-the-art of GPR technologies for railroad track : substructure inspection. : Phase 1 evaluated GPR ballast inspection : techniques by performing testing a...

  11. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.

    2017-06-01

    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  12. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  13. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  14. Ground temperatures, Liefdefjord, northwest Svalbard, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes ground temperature data from coarse morainal (till) soil in a tundra area, on a 2-degree slope with rapid drainage, 45 m asl, at an undisturbed...

  15. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  16. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  17. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  18. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  19. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  20. Traditional behaviour and fidelity to caribou calving grounds by barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the fidelity of female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. of each herd to specific calving grounds is convincing. Involvement of learned behaviour in the annual return of those cows to the same calving grounds implies such actions are a form of «traditional» behaviour. Even wide variations in population size have not yet knowingly led to marked changes in size or location of calving grounds or prolonged abandonment of established ones. Rarely is the adoption of new calving grounds reported and emigration to another herd's calving ground or interchange between calving grounds has not yet been unequivocally documented. The calving experience of individual caribou and environmental pressures may modify the cow's use patterns of her calving grounds. The current definition of herds based on traditional calving grounds may require modification, if increasing caribou numbers result in changes in traditions. However, current data do not contradict either the fidelity to traditional calving grounds or the concept of herd identity based on that fidelity.

  1. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents are developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences can be analysed and assessed. The presnt paper outlines a method for evaluation of the probability of ship......-ship collisions, ship-platform collisions, and ship groundings. The main benefit of the method is that it allows comparisons of various navigation routes....

  2. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  3. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Blinová Lenka; Bartošová Alica; Sirotiak Maroš

    2017-01-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from ...

  4. Search for the QCD ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.

    1994-05-01

    Within the Euclidean effective action approach we propose criteria for the ground state of QCD. Despite a nonvanishing field strength the ground state should be invariant with respect to modified Poincare transformations consisting of a combination of translations and rotations with suitable gauge transformations. We have found candidate states for QCD with four or more colours. The formation of gluon condensates shows similarities with the Higgs phenomenon. (orig.)

  5. Understanding grounded theory: principles and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K; Biley, F

    1997-05-01

    Grounded theory was developed initially by Glaser and Strauss as a means to enable the 'systematic discovery of theory from the data of social research' and was first presented in The Discovery of Grounded Theory'( 1 ). The methodology was developed in response to the overwhelming belief held by positivist thinkers that qualitative research was unscientific because it rejected controlled experiments and appeared to embrace interpretation.

  6. An Interdigitated Coupler with Defect Ground Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    power dividing and combining, sampling, signal injection and power monitoring in microwave communication sub-systems and radar [1]. The branch-line...in the ground plane cause of the defect in the ground. This disturbance will change characteristics of a transmission line such as line capacitance ...and inductance . As high performance, compact size and low cost often meet the stringent requirements of modern microwave communication systems, new

  7. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  8. Ground-motion prediction from tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  9. Eliminating Ground Current in a Transformerless Photovoltaic Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Ocar; Freijedo, Francisco D.; Yepes, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    additional ground currents due to the ground parasitic capacitance. These currents increase conducted and radiated electromagnetic emissions, harmonics injected in the utility grid, and losses. Amplitude and spectrum of the ground current depend on the converter topology, the switching strategy...

  10. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AUTONOMOUS PARSIVEL UNIT (APU) LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Autonomous Parsivel Unit (APU) LPVEx dataset provides rainfall data for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Misson Ground Validation...

  12. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  13. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated

  14. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  15. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  16. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  17. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  18. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  19. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  20. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  1. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  2. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  3. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  4. Entropy of the Bose-Einstein-condensate ground state: Correlation versus ground-state entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moochan B.; Svidzinsky, Anatoly; Agarwal, Girish S.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2018-01-01

    Calculation of the entropy of an ideal Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a three-dimensional trap reveals unusual, previously unrecognized, features of the canonical ensemble. It is found that, for any temperature, the entropy of the Bose gas is equal to the entropy of the excited particles although the entropy of the particles in the ground state is nonzero. We explain this by considering the correlations between the ground-state particles and particles in the excited states. These correlations lead to a correlation entropy which is exactly equal to the contribution from the ground state. The correlations themselves arise from the fact that we have a fixed number of particles obeying quantum statistics. We present results for correlation functions between the ground and excited states in a Bose gas, so as to clarify the role of fluctuations in the system. We also report the sub-Poissonian nature of the ground-state fluctuations.

  5. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  6. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkhead...... the damage of four large scale tests and an accidental grounding with errors less than 10%. Moreover, it is illustrated by an example that the model evaluation of a grounding scenario is sufficientlty fast to be used in a probabilistic framework in a Formal safety Assessment....

  7. Factorized ground state in dimerized spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Gian Luca, E-mail: gianluca@ifisc.uib-csic.e [Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    The possibility of observing factorized ground states in dimerized spin systems is studied. A set of sufficient conditions is derived which allows one to establish whether or not it is possible to have factorization both in nearest-neighbour and long-range Hamiltonians. These conditions can be derived by forcing factorization for each of the pairwise terms of the total Hamiltonian. Due to the peculiar structure of a dimerized chain, an antiferromagnetic factorized ground state of the kind |nearr), |nearr), |nwarr), |nwarr) (forbidden in regular chains) is possible.

  8. Process for storing radioactive waste in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gouvenot, D.; Pagny, P.

    1983-01-01

    A process for storing radioactive waste in a cavity in the ground is claimed. The waste is conditioned and isolated from the ground by at least one retention barrier. A grout consisting of 1000 parts by weight of water, 40 to 400 parts by weight of cement, 80 to 1000 parts by weight of at least one clay chosen from the group including montmorillonite, illite and vermiculite, as well as 25 to 1200 parts by weight of kieselguhr and/or natural or artificial pozzuolanas is introduced into gaps in the soil areas surrounding the cavity

  9. Trapped Antihydrogen in Its Ground State

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W.S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.W.; George, M.C.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Weel, M.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.

    2012-03-16

    Antihydrogen atoms are confined in an Ioffe trap for 15 to 1000 seconds -- long enough to ensure that they reach their ground state. Though reproducibility challenges remain in making large numbers of cold antiprotons and positrons interact, 5 +/- 1 simultaneously-confined ground state atoms are produced and observed on average, substantially more than previously reported. Increases in the number of simultaneously trapped antithydrogen atoms H are critical if laser-cooling of trapped antihydrogen is to be demonstrated, and spectroscopic studies at interesting levels of precision are to be carried out.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  11. A. facialis in ground squirrel (Citellus itellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ground squirrel is a hibernator, which hibernation lasts, depending on the age and sex, since the end of the summer until the spring. During this period in the body of ground squirrel, as well as in other hibernators, starts lowering of all vital functions, what has been proven by numerous physiological, biochemical and histological examinations of some organ systems of this animal. The objective of our work was to investigate a part of cardiovascular system of ground squirrel so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 ground squirrels, of both gender, body weight 200-300 grams. For obtaining head and neck arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into thoracic aorta (Aorta thoracica. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. For obtaining the corrosive preparations of head and neck arterial blood vessels, after exsanguination of the animal, Biocryl (a mixture of liquid biocryl - methil - methacrylate monomer and biocryl in powder - methil - methacrylate polymer was injected into thoracic aorta (Aorta thoracica. After injecting the preparations were placed into 5% NaOH, for 96 hours or into 10% NaOH for 48 hours. After that they were rinsed in hot water and photographed. A. facialis in ground squirrel is an extension of A. maxillaris. The branches of A. facialis are: A. labialis inferior, A. bursae buccalis dorsalis, A. labialis superior, A. dorsalis nasi and A. angularis oculi. The obtained results regarding A. facialis in ground squirrel (Citellus citellus were compared to the same ones in rats. In rats, A. facialis is the biggest branch separating from A. carotis externa. The branches of A. facialis in rats are: Ramus glandularis, A. submentalis, A. masseterica ventralis, A. labialis inferior, A. angularis oris, A

  12. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    Minorsky's well-known empirical formula, which relates the absorbed energy to the destroyed material volume, has been widely used in analyses of high energy collision and grounding accidents for nearly 40 years. The advantage of the method is its apparent simplcity. Obviously, its drawback...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  13. Investigation of the relationship between ground and engineering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to investigate possible ground motion amplification in earthquake resistant building design, relationship between the ground and engineering bedrock must be ensured. In order to provide this relation, structure, basic characteristics, and thickness of the ground are investigated. In this context, calculating ground ...

  14. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  15. 46 CFR 183.370 - General grounding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General grounding requirements. 183.370 Section 183.370... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.370 General grounding... more, must have a grounding pole and a grounding conductor in the portable cord. (c) Each nonmetallic...

  16. 30 CFR 75.702 - Protection other than grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection other than grounding. 75.702 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.702 Protection other than grounding. [Statutory Provisions] Methods other than grounding which provide no less effective protection...

  17. 30 CFR 75.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 75.700-1 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors and conduits in resistance grounded systems where the enclosed...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.954 - Grounding for protection of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding for protection of employees. 1926.954 Section... Distribution § 1926.954 Grounding for protection of employees. (a) General. All conductors and equipment shall... grounds, the grounding device shall first be removed fromt the line or equipment using insulating tools or...

  19. 30 CFR 77.702 - Protection other than grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection other than grounding. 77.702 Section 77.702 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Grounding § 77.702 Protection other than grounding. Methods other than grounding which provide no...

  20. 30 CFR 77.700-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.700-1 Section... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700-1 Approved methods of grounding. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits... methods of grounding will be approved: (a) A solid connection to metal waterlines having low resistance to...

  1. 46 CFR 120.370 - General grounding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General grounding requirements. 120.370 Section 120.370... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.370 General grounding requirements. (a) A vessel's... grounding pole and a grounding conductor in the portable cord. (c) Each nonmetallic mast and top mast must...

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger... grounding the neutral of an alternating-current system must meet Table 111.05-31(b). Table 111.05-31(b...

  3. 30 CFR 75.704-1 - Approved methods of grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 75.704-1 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in § 75.701-1 will also be approved with respect to the...

  4. CENTRAL NIGERIA: DEDUCTIONS FROM GROUND MAGNETIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnetic field data of the K uri River basin were obtained from a ground magnetic survey using an MP-2 proton precision magnetometer. The data were obtained randomly at 425 statioris at an average spacing of(). 5km. A regional - residual separation was performed on the data, by fitting a first degree polynomial.

  5. Grounded Contextual Reasoning enabling Innovative Mobile Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.; Salden, Alfons; Broens, T.H.F.; Koolwaaij, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reflects our findings on the technological feasibility of a mobile service scenario. We will show that despite the scenario being quite ordinary for endusers, the required service support functionality is rather complex. The realisation hinges on intricate grounded contextual reasoning

  6. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  7. central nigeria: deductions from ground magnetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-30

    Sep 30, 2007 ... Magnetic field data of the Kuri River basin were obtained from a ground magnetic survey using an MP-Z proton precision magnetometer. The data were obtained randomly at 425 statioris at an average spacing of0. 5km. A regional - residual separation was performed on the data, by fitting a first degree ...

  8. GRACAT, Software for grounding and collision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2002-01-01

    From 1998 to 2001 an integrated software package for grounding and collision analysis was developed at the Technical University of Denmark within the ISESO project at the cost of six man years (0.75M US$). The software provides a toolbox for a multitude of analyses related to collision...

  9. Ground-Based Observattions of IO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.

    1986-06-01

    Io is the most geologically active of all the planets or satellites in the solar system. Most of what is known about it has been discovered in the past decade. This paper reviews recent advances in the knowledge of Io's surface, with emphasis placed on facts obtained using astronomical instruments on the ground and in Earth-orbit.

  10. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  11. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  12. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  13. Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... tos Nor-teamericanosy Japoneses; Revista DEL IDIEM 8,. Chile. Kalkan E and Gülkan P 2004 Site-dependent spectra derived from ground motion records in Turkey; Earthq. Spectra. 20(4) 853–882. Newmark N M and Hall W J 1982 Earthquake spectra and design; EERI Monograph Series, Earthquake ...

  14. Allometric Equations for Estimating Above Ground Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allometric Equations for Estimating Above Ground Biomass of Rhl'zophom mucronata Lamk. (Rhizophoraceae). Mangroves at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Kirui, B.,1 Kairo, 1.6.2 and Karachi, M.1. 'Egerton University. P. O. Box 536, Njoro. Kenya; 2Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. PO. Box 8165], Mombasa, Kenya.

  15. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation involving the electrical resistivity and gravity methods was carried out within the premises of a Beverage Factory in Edo State. The investigation was to enable the determination of the cause(s) of a ground subsidence within the premises of the boilers. The vertical electrical sounding interpretation ...

  16. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study. 1. ... Ground motion; source mechanism models; empirical Green's functions; seismological models; Kutch earthquake. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ..... hybrid global search method which is a combi- nation of simulated annealing and ...

  17. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  18. Intelligent systems for KSC ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1992-01-01

    The ground processing and launch of Shuttle vehicles and their payloads is the primary task of Kennedy Space Center. It is a process which is largely manual and contains little inherent automation. Business is conducted today much as it was during previous NASA programs such as Apollo. In light of new programs and decreasing budgets, NASA must find more cost effective ways in which to do business while retaining the quality and safety of activities. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence could cut manpower and processing time. This paper is an overview of the research and development in Al technology at KSC with descriptions of the systems which have been implemented, as well as a few under development which are promising additions to ground processing software. Projects discussed cover many facets of ground processing activities, including computer sustaining engineering, subsystem monitor and diagnosis tools and launch team assistants. The deployed Al applications have proven an effectiveness which has helped to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing intelligent software in the ground processing task.

  19. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  20. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  1. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  2. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  3. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  4. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  5. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  6. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...

  7. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...

  8. Grounding compositional symbols: no composition without discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Carrea, Elena

    2012-05-01

    The classical computational conception of meaning has been challenged by the idea that symbols must be grounded on sensorimotor processes. A difficult question arises from the fact that grounding representations cannot be symbolic themselves but, in order to support compositionality, should work as primitives. This implies that they should be precisely identifiable and strictly connected with discriminable perceptual features. Ideally, each representation should correspond to a single discriminable feature. The present study was aimed at exploring whether feature discrimination is a fundamental requisite for grounding compositional symbols. We studied this problem by using Integral stimuli, composed of two interacting and not separable features. Such stimuli were selected in Experiment 1 as pictures whose component features are easily or barely discriminable (Separable or Integral) on the basis of psychological distance metrics (City-block or Euclidean) computed from similarity judgments. In Experiment 2, either each feature was associated with one word of a two-word expression, or the whole stimulus with a single word. In Experiment 3, the procedure was reversed and words or expressions were associated with whole pictures or separate features. Results support the hypothesis that single words are best grounded by Integral stimuli and composite expressions by Separable stimuli, where a strict association of single words with discriminated features is possible.

  9. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  10. Thermodynamic Ground States of Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunkel, F.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Heinen, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at heterointerfaces between nominally insulating oxides is addressed with a thermodynamical approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the thermodynamic ground states of various 2DEG systems directly probed in high temperature...

  11. Center for Ground Vehicle Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    advanced technology into current and future ground systems • Laser and waterjet cutting machines, CNC machining and forming and ballistic-certified...Deburring/Metal Cleaning •Hardware/Tooling •Machining •Packaging •Painting •Raw Materials •Sheet Metal Fabrication •Total Integration Shops • Waterjet

  12. Grounds and limits : Reichenbach and foundationalist epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Atkinson, David

    From 1929 onwards, C. I. Lewis defended the foundationalist claim that judgements of the form 'x is probable' only make sense if one assumes there to be a ground y that is certain (where x and y may be beliefs, propositions, or events). Without this assumption, Lewis argues, the probability of x

  13. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David H.

    2001-05-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  14. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  15. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  16. The 15th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Ground Robots Created by Intelligent Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theisen, Bernard L

    2007-01-01

    ..., and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities...

  17. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  18. CLPX-Ground: Ground-based L and Ku band polarimetric scatterometry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ground-based radar observations carried out at the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters, Colorado, USA (39.95 N, 105.9 W), between 17-26...

  19. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  20. The 15th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Ground Robots Created by Intelligent Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theisen, Bernard L

    2007-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s...

  1. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  2. Performance Analysis of Slinky Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the thermal performance of reclined (parallel to ground surface and standing (perpendicular to ground surface slinky horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs with different water mass flow rates in the heating mode of continuous and intermittent operations. A copper tube with an outer surface protected with low-density polyethylene was selected as the tube material of the ground heat exchanger. Effects on ground temperature around the reclined slinky HGHE due to heat extraction and the effect of variation of ground temperatures on reclined HGHE performance are discussed. A higher heat exchange rate was experienced in standing HGHE than in reclined HGHE. The standing HGHE was affected by deeper ground temperature and also a greater amount of backfilled sand in standing HGHE (4.20 m3 than reclined HGHE (1.58 m3, which has higher thermal conductivity than site soil. For mass flow rate of 1 L/min with inlet water temperature 7 °C, the 4-day average heat extraction rates increased 45.3% and 127.3%, respectively, when the initial average ground temperatures at 1.5 m depth around reclined HGHE increased from 10.4 °C to 11.7 °C and 10.4 °C to 13.7 °C. In the case of intermittent operation, which boosted the thermal performance, a short time interval of intermittent operation is better than a long time interval of intermittent operation. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of power consumption by the circulating pump, the intermittent operation is more efficient than continuous operation.

  3. Molecular decay of the tooth gene Enamelin (ENAM mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.

  4. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  5. Grounding the Innovation of Future Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Oulasvirta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile and ubiquitous technologies can potentially change the role of information and communication technology in human lives. Empirical, human-centered approaches are emerging as an alternative to technology-driven approaches in the innovation of these technologies. Three necessary empirical stages, intertwined with analytical ones and with each informing and grounding the succeeding stages, are analyzed. First, needfinding is utilized to discover societal and individual demands for technology. Second, observational and experimental studies examine the social and cognitive preconditions for interaction. From these two steps, a hypothesis is formulated regarding how technology will change existing practices. Finally, this hypothesis, embodied in the design of a prototype, is tested in a field trial. Four design cases illustrate the value of empirical grounding.

  6. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  7. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  8. Thermal Ground State and Nonthermal Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Grandou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Euclidean formulation of SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics admits periodic, (antiself-dual solutions to the fundamental, classical equation of motion which possess one unit of topological charge: (anticalorons. A spatial coarse graining over the central region in a pair of such localised field configurations with trivial holonomy generates an inert adjoint scalar field ϕ, effectively describing the pure quantum part of the thermal ground state in the induced quantum field theory. Here we show for the limit of zero holonomy how (anticalorons associate a temperature independent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to the thermal ground state of SU2CMB, the Yang-Mills theory conjectured to underlie the fundamental description of thermal photon gases.

  9. Ground Coordination with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyeung

    The objective of this paper is to encircle the ground agents' contribution for multiple airplanes. A collision-free landing algorithm is proposed to perform minimization of the energy spent while hovering. The minimization is to find the largest fully-connected subgraph in an undirected cyclic graph. It is found by Mixed Integer Linear Programming followed by Dynamic Programming. Incoming airplanes are assigned to each node of the subgraph and guided without collision. A simulation is presented to show the minimized energy. For airplanes whose guidance is completed, their mission may be delivering a package. A holonomic vehicle is developed for automatic package receiving purpose. It is equipped with stereo-vision and 4 omnidirectional wheels. On top of the on-board vision algorithm, locating the target, estimating the state of the target, controlling the Unmanned Ground Vehicle are performed. Test results are shown to confirm that it is able to receive package.

  10. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  11. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  12. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  13. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  14. Reliability and Assessment Techniques on Ground Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanga Tangchawal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning and assessment on the excavation of the brittle materials (soil or rock can be done by using the machinery and/or explosives. The reliability assessment has been proposed to predict the failure of ground during excavation process. The stability planning on cutting soil (rock face by machinery can be compared between the deterministic and the statistical method. The risk of using explosives for rock excavation has to concern on the damage and environmental impacts after blasting events.

  15. University management nurse: a grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamylla Santos da Cunha; Selma Regina de Andrade; Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. Method: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sampl...

  16. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  17. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  18. Compression of ground-motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested

  19. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  20. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  1. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  2. Grounding and shielding in the accelerator environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.

    1991-01-01

    Everyday features of the accelerator environment include long cable runs, high power and low level equipment sharing building space, stray electromagnetic fields and ground voltage differences between the sending and receiving ends of an installation. This paper pictures some Fermilab installations chosen to highlight significant features and presents practices, test methods and equipment that have been helpful in achieving successful shielding. Throughout the report are numbered statements aimed at summarizing good practices and avoiding pitfalls

  3. Compression of ground-motion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  4. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;

  5. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  6. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed

  7. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  8. T/S World Prodigy grounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.J.; O'Malley, M.P.; Krug, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that on June 23, 1989, the Greek tank ship World Prodigy grounded on Brenton Reef, near Newport Rhode Island. As a result of the damage sustained by the vessel, a quantity of approximately 289,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil was spilled in the waters of lower Narragansett Bay. A major response effort was mounted over the next nine days by Coast Guard, Federal, State and local organizations

  9. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  10. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  11. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/DEE/ENG/12-17 Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation DISSERTATION Presented to...or groundwater content due to “deep subsurface fractures” [8]. Volcanoes and even man-made occurrences such as filling a large reservoir after a dam...Gradient Data from Effigy Mounds National Park, Iowa ”, 2005. URL http://www.archaeology-geophysics.com/Publications.html. 168 24. Judd, T. and T. Vu. “Use

  12. Ground-State of Hydrogen Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Samuel P.; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Celi, Christina; Mancini, Jay D.

    2001-03-01

    The study of the ground-state properties of molecular systems has long been the focus of both quantum chemists as well as physicists. In general, most of the calculational methods are dependent on the use of high-power computers to generate large basis states. Such schemes as the full-configuration-interaction method, coupled-pair functionals and its modification, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as well as both the restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock schemes have been used not only for ground-state calculations but also to calculate electron correlation energies. In general such schemes are limited to those bases which are constructed from single Slatter determinant. Here we wish to study the ground-state of hydrogen fluoride(HF) using the recently developed canonical sequence scheme which is a calculational cousin of the Connected Moments Expansion of Cioslowski. Comparisons are then made with other methods [for example P.J. Knowles Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 512 (1987)].

  13. A Potential Ground Calibration Target for SMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Rudiger, C.

    2009-04-01

    It has long been hypothesised that arid areas such as the Simpson Desert would make an ideal ground calibration target for passive microwave missions, due to their supposed temporally and spatially consistent microwave emission characteristics. With the imminent launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, it is important to answer this question now so that such targets can be included in the planning for initial post-launch calibration activities. A recent airborne campaign to the Australian arid zone has assessed i) the Simpson Desert, ii) Lake Eyre and iii) some gibber plains for this purpose. SMOS sized pixels of approximately 50x50km have been mapped in entirety at 1km resolution during the scheduled 6am SMOS overpass time, using thermal infrared sensors and the Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) which operates at the same frequency as SMOS. Such observations were supplemented by high resolution (50m) PLMR measurements and coincident ground observations over targeted areas identified from an initial reconnaissance flight. Despite unanticipated rainfall events in the area, it was found that the gibber plains showed the greatest potential for use as a ground calibration target, with a 1km brightness temperature standard deviation of less than 4K across the 50km pixel. The Simpson Desert showed a standard deviation in brightness temperature of around 10k while Lake Eyre showed more than 250k variation across the 50km pixel.

  14. 66Ga ground state β spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state branch of the β decay of 66Ga is an allowed Fermi (0+ → 0+) transition with a relatively high f t value. The large f t and the isospin-forbidden nature of the transition indicates that the shape of the β spectrum of this branch may be sensitive to higher order contributions...... to the decay. Two previous measurements of the shape have revealed deviations from an allowed spectrum but disagree about whether the shape factor has a positive or negative slope. As a test of a new iron-free superconducting β spectrometer, we have measured the shape of the ground state branch of the 66Ga β...... spectrum above a positron energy of 1.9 MeV. The spectrum is consistent with an allowed shape, with the slope of the shape factor being zero to within ±3 × 10−3 per MeV. We have also determined the endpoint energy for the ground state branch to be 4.1535 ± 0.0003 (stat.) ±0.0007 (syst.) MeV, in good...

  15. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DC-8 CAMERA NADIR GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation DC-8 Camera Nadir GCPEx dataset contains geo-located visible-wavelength imagery of the ground obtained from the nadir camera aboard the...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DC-8 CAMERA NADIR GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation DC-8 Camera Nadir GCPEx dataset contains geo-located, visible-wavelength imagery of the ground obtained from the nadir camera aboard the...

  18. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CAMPAIGN REPORTS IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Campaign Reports IFloodS dataset consists of various reports filed by the scientists during the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies...

  20. 14 CFR 23.726 - Ground load dynamic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.726 Ground load dynamic tests. (a) If compliance with the ground load requirements of...

  1. The ground surface energy balance in modelling horizontal ground heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Su, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) is strongly dependent on climatic conditions, due to the low installation depth. In numerical modelling of HGHEs, the estimation of shallow soil temperature distribution is a key issue, therefore the boundary condition (BC) at the ground surface should be assigned carefully. With this in mind, a model of the energy balance at the ground surface (GSEB), based on weather variables, was developed. The model was tested as the 3rd kind BC at ground surface in modelling HGHEs by means of the FEM code Comsol Multiphysics, solving the unsteady heat transfer problem in a 2D domain. The GSEB model was calibrated and validated with the observed soil temperature at different depths. In addition, the effect on numerical solutions of different BCs, when assigned at the ground surface, was analysed. Three different simulations were carried out applying the GSEB model, the equivalent surface heat flux and temperature as boundary conditions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the use of the GSEB model is a preferable approach to the problem and that the use of the equivalent surface temperature can be considered as a reasonable simplification.

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of Dane County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of the ground-water investigation of Dane County, Wis., was to determine the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and availability of ground water in the unconsolidated deposits and the underlying bedrock. The relationships between ground water and surface water were studied in general in Dane County and in detail in the Madison metropolitan area. An analysis was made of the hydrologic system of the Yahara River valley and of the effects of ground-water pumpage on that system.

  3. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  4. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C Anthony; Ropella, Glen E P; Lam, Tai ning; Gewitz, Andrew D

    2011-09-27

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  5. Estimating ground water yield in small research basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water recharge in 32 small research watersheds shows the average flow of ground water out of the watershed (deep seepage) is 45% of streamflow and ranges from 8 to 350 mm/year when apportioned over the watershed area. It is time to meld ground water and small watershed science. The use of we11 networks and the evaluation of ground water well...

  6. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  7. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  10. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... establish this ground-water protection standard in the facility permit when hazardous constituents have been...

  11. 14 CFR 135.153 - Ground proximity warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground proximity warning system. 135.153... Equipment § 135.153 Ground proximity warning system. (a) No person may operate a turbine-powered airplane... equipped with an approved ground proximity warning system. (b) [Reserved] (c) For a system required by this...

  12. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  13. System Requirements for Satellite Video Relays Supporting Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Randorf, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Joint Project Office (UGV/JPO) has identified communications and control as the single most important issue concerning unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) deployment. This paper outlines needed capabilities for potential small satellite data relays for unmanned ground vehicle operations. Satellites could offer a solution to the inherent non-line-of-sight (NLOS), wide bandwidth dilemma.

  14. The INTEGRAL ground segment and its science operations centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, R.; Barr, P.; Hansson, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Maldari, P.; Nolan, J.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Parmar, A. N.; Schmidt, M.; Sternberg, J.; Williams, O. R.; Winkler, C.

    2003-11-01

    The INTEGRAL ground segment is divided into operational and scientific components. The operational component consists of the Mission Operations Centre, the ground stations and communications lines while the scientific component comprises of a Science Operations Centre and Science Data Centre. The overall architecture of the ground segment is described paying particular attention to the tasks and functionalities of the INTEGRAL Science Operations Centre.

  15. 30 CFR 57.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 57.12028 Section 57.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 56.12028 Section 56.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding systems shall be tested...

  17. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  18. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... grounding conductors must be sized in accordance with Section 250-95 of the NEC (NFPA 70), or other standard...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12027 - Grounding mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding mobile equipment. 56.12027 Section 56.12027 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12027 Grounding mobile equipment. Frame grounding or equivalent protection shall be provided for mobile...

  20. 46 CFR 105.30-5 - Grounding of electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding of electrical equipment. 105.30-5 Section 105.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Grounding of electrical equipment. (a) All electrical equipment shall be grounded to the vessel's common...

  1. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or more must have a grounding pole. ...

  2. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded. ...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12027 - Grounding mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding mobile equipment. 57.12027 Section 57.12027 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12027 Grounding mobile equipment. Frame grounding or equivalent protection...

  4. 30 CFR 75.703-1 - Approved method of grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding. 75.703-1 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703-1 Approved method of grounding. In instances where the metal frames both of an offtrack direct-current machine and of...

  5. Ground water and small research basins: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    2003-01-01

    Scientists have been studying hydrological processes within a watershed context for hundreds of years. Throughout much of that history, little attention was paid to the significance of ground water; in nearly all early studies, ground water was never considered. In many recent studies, ground water fluxes are assumed to be insignificantly small. The following is a...

  6. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  7. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    in literature. Through the calculation of the ground loop impedance for cable lines, it has been found that, for long EHV cable lines, the reliable operation of the ground distance relay is possible with a typical relay setting. Effects of parameters, such as substation grounding, cable layouts...

  8. 21 CFR 225.120 - Buildings and grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buildings and grounds. 225.120 Section 225.120... Buildings and grounds. Buildings used for production of medicated feed shall provide adequate space for... routine maintenance and cleaning of equipment. Buildings and grounds shall be constructed and maintained...

  9. Unstable ground in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Unstable ground in western North Dakota is mainly the result of mass-wasting processes. The units most affected are mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Fort Union Formation. Ground instability generally is indicated by landslides, soil slides, or subsidence. Landslides are mostly of the slump-earthflow type and are localized along the flanks of the high buttes in southwestern North Dakota, including HT (Black) Butte, Chalky Buttes, Sentinel Butte, and East and West Rainy Buttes, and along parts of the valleys of the Des Lacs, Missouri, Little Missouri, and Heart Rivers. Landslides are sparse elsewhere. Soil slides are common in the areas south and southwest of the maximum position of the Pleistocene glacial ice margin on slopes of 15 degrees or more, and have taken place on some slopes as gentle as five degrees. The weathered, exposed surface of the Fort Union Formation seems to be especially susceptible to soil slides. Soil slides constitute the major type of ground instability in southwestern North Dakota. Subsidence is of two types: (1) subsidence over old underground mine workings, and (2) subsidence over naturally ignited and burned underground coal beds. Major subsidence has taken place over old, underground workings near Beulah, Wilton, Lehigh, Haynes, and Belfield, and lesser subsidence near Scranton, and west and north of Bowman. Thickness of overburden above the coal in all these areas is believed to be less than 30 m (100 ft). Subsidence has not taken place over old underground workings along the Des Lacs and-Souris valleys northwest of Minot, where the thickness of overburden is more than 60 m (200 ft). Spectacular subsidence has occurred over a burning underground coal bed at Burning Coal Vein Park near the Little Missouri River, northwest of Amidon.

  10. The grounded theory of "trust building".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.

  11. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Jerolmack, Douglas; Lancaster, Nicholas; Nikolich, George; Reverdy, Paul; Roberts, Sonia; Shipley, Thomas; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Zobeck, Ted M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists' efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science

  12. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  13. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  14. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.

  15. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    During test and verification planning for the Altair lunar lander project, a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team identified several ground transportation and test issues related to the large payload diameter. Although the entire Constellation Program-including Altair-has since been canceled, issues identified by the Altair project serve as important lessons learned for payloads greater than 7 m diameter being considered for NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS). A transportation feasibility study found that Altair's 8.97 m diameter Descent Module would not fit inside available aircraft. Although the Ascent Module cabin was only 2.35 m diameter, the long reaction control system booms extended nearly to the Descent Module diameter, making it equally unsuitable for air transportation without removing the booms and invalidating assembly workmanship screens or acceptance testing that had already been performed. Ground transportation of very large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted by most states, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 66 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA's Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  16. LARC database for Ground-Level Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storini, Marisa

    Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs) are enhancements observed in the counting rate of groundbased detectors related to the terrestrial incoming of solar relativistic particles, emitted during energetic activity phenomena on the Sun. LARC (acronym for Laboratorio Antartico per i Raggi Cosmici or Laboratorio Antartico para Rayos Cosmicos) neutron monitor is operating on King George Island since January 1991. The effective vertical rigidity cutoff for LARC location is about 3 GV, but it varies with time (actually, it decreases because of the secular variation of the geomagnetic field). We describe the solar particle event imprints on LARC records obtained from 1991 to 2007 by the Chile/Italy international collaboration.

  17. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  18. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  19. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  20. Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

  1. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  2. Conceptual design of shallow ground repository (SGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehl, J.L.; Franzen, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design to guide the development of the preliminary and final designs of a shallow ground waste disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, complying with the Brazilian necessities, interpreted by Brazilian CNEN, is discussed. The general and specific criteria for the design of such installations, considering the reposing period, the isolation of personnel and environment, the operational activities, the characteristics of the site and of the subsoil and the set of necessary installations and services, are presented. An aboveground landfill, with concrete monoliths and concrete packages arranged in stacks disposed on an impermeable soil layer, is proposed. The disposed elements are covered by another impermeable soil stratum. (Author) [pt

  3. Grounding the Translation: Intertwining analysis and translation in cross-language grounded theory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shklarov, MD, RSW, PhD Candidate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research in cross-language, cross-cultural context is associated with the challenges of linguistic sensitivity of conceptualization. The author, a bilingual researcher, offers reflection on her experience of doing grounded theory research, assuming a dual role of a theorist and a translator. The reflection is based on self-observations. Grounding the translation is shown to be acheived through the strategy of intertwining the activities of translation and conceptual analysis, performed by one person. The two activities are inseparable in time and take place along with constant comparison across language boundaries. Intertwining requires that theoretical sensitivity of the researcher be enriched with the sensitivity to linguistic and cultural meanings. Intertwining, through revealing differences between linguistic meanings or language structures, facilitates the emergence of concepts and theoretical categories from the very act of translation. Combining the functions of translation and analysis and using the strategy of intertwining worked effectively for this researcher.

  4. Ground-Ground Data Communication-Assisted Planning and Coordination: Shorter Verbal Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, Angela Mary; Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Lee, Hwasoo Eric

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to investigate the operational feasibility, technical requirements, and potential improvement in airspace efficiency of adding a Multi-Sector Planner position. A subset of the data from that simulation is analyzed here to determine the impact, if any, of ground-ground data communication (Data Comm) on verbal communication and coordination for multi-sector air traffic management. The results suggest that the use of Data Comm significantly decreases the duration of individual verbal communications. The results also suggest that the use of Data Comm, as instantiated in the current simulation, does not obviate the need for accompanying voice calls.

  5. Heat transfer characteristics of various kinds of ground heat exchangers for ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyara, A.; Kariya, K.; Ali, Md. H.; Selamat, S. B.; Jalaluddin

    2017-01-01

    Three kinds of vertical-type ground heat exchangers, U-tube; double-tube; multi-tube, and two kinds of horizontal-type ground heat exchangers, standing Slinky; reclined Slinky, were experimentally and numerically investigated in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics. Experiments and simulations were carried out under two operation conditions which are continuous operation mode and discontinuous operation mode and effects of temperature recovery and thermal storage on the heat transfer rate were shown. Differences of the heat transfer rate between standing Slinky and reclined Slinky were also indicated.

  6. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me...

  7. Celebrating 50 Years of Grounded Theory: Onward and Forward Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to this very special issue of the Grounded Theory Review. In this issue we celebrate 50 amazing years of grounded theory during which it has become one of the fastest growing methods in the global research world. Five decades after The Discovery of Grounded Theory was first published, the seminal work of founders Barney G. Glaser and Anselm Strauss is cited more than 94,000 times on Google Scholar alone. We celebrate that after 50 years of researching, teaching, defending, explicating and clarifying grounded theory as a principally inductive approach to theorizing, co-founder Barney G. Glaser still produces books on grounded theory at an incredible pace.

  8. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  9. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  10. Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technoloty, Multimedia University, Melaca Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.

  11. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  12. Multicultural Ground Teams in Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early years of space flight only two countries had access to space. In the last twenty years, there have been major changes in how we conduct space business. With the fall of the iron curtain and the growing of the European Union, more and more players were able to join the space business and space science. By end of the last century, numerous countries, agencies and companies earned the right to be equal partners in space projects. This paper investigates the impact of multicultural teams in the space arena. Fortunately, in manned spaceflight, especially for long duration missions, there are several studies and simulations reporting on multicultural team impact. These data have not been as well explored on the team interactions within the ground crews. The focus of this paper are the teams working on the ISS project. Hypotheses will be drawn from the results of space crew research to determine parallels and differences for this vital segment of success in space missions. The key source of the data will be drawn from structured interviews with managers and other ground crews on the ISS project.

  13. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  14. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  15. Acoustic Resonance between Ground and Thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Matsumura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.

  16. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  17. The effect of grounding the human body on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaétan

    2015-04-01

    Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the body in contact with the Earth. Health benefits were previously reported, but no study exists about mood. This study was conducted to assess if Earthing improves mood. 40 adult participants were either grounded or sham-grounded (no grounding) for 1 hr. while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. This pilot project was double-blinded and the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (comprising 4 mood scales) was used. Pleasant and positive moods statistically significantly improved among grounded-but not sham-grounded-participants. It is concluded that the 1-hr. contact with the Earth improved mood more than expected by relaxation alone. More extensive studies are, therefore, warranted.

  18. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  19. Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Chevalier, Gaétan; Hill, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Grounding a human to the earth has resulted in changes in the physiology of the body. A pilot study on grounding and eccentric contractions demonstrated shortened duration of pain, reduced creatine kinase (CK), and differences in blood parameters. This follow-up study was conducted to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, CK, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into grounded (n=16) and sham-grounded (n=16) groups. On days 1 through 4, visual analog scale for pain evaluations and blood draws were accomplished. On day 1, the participants performed eccentric contractions of 200 half-knee bends. They were then grounded or sham-grounded to the earth for 4 hours on days 1 and 2. Both groups experienced pain on all posttest days. On day 2, the sham-grounded group experienced significant CK increase (Pgrounded group did not increase significantly; the between-group difference was significant (P=0.04). There was also an increase in the neutrophils of the grounded group on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. There was a significant increase in platelets in the grounded group on days 2 through 4. Grounding produced changes in CK and complete blood counts that were not shared by the sham-grounded group. Grounding significantly reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscles indicating reduced muscle damage. These results warrant further study on the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage.

  20. Diagnosing ice sheet grounding line stability from landform morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, S. L.; Simkins, L. M.; Anderson, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Marine-based ice sheet stability is largely dictated by processes at or near the grounding line, where marine processes, glacial processes and configuration, and the topographic setting govern the duration of grounding line occupation and sensitivity to buoyancy and retreat. Few and short-term observations of processes at modern grounding lines limit the assessment of the spatial and, particularly, temporal stability of ice sheet grounding. In contrast, landforms that are built at the grounding line, such as grounding zone wedges and recessional moraines, are inscribed extensively on formerly glaciated continental margins. These landforms directly mark former grounding line positions over a prolonged period of retreat (thousands of years) and represent the history of sedimentation during the occupation of each position. Beyond being essential for ice sheet reconstructions, there is high potential for extracting information about grounding line dynamics from these morphological products. Here we characterise the morphological traits and spatial distribution of thousands of grounding line landforms from the western Ross Sea continental shelf, which mark East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. Recessional moraines indicate a consistency of grounding line processes/setting and regularly forced retreat, while grounding zone wedges are highly variable in size and shape, developing both asymmetry and sinuosity during landform growth. We attribute growth of sinuosity to lateral variability in sediment delivery along the grounding line, linked in part to basal meltwater drainage. We find that this development of sinuosity over time is commonly associated with widely-spaced (i.e. larger-magnitude) retreat events. A `stable' grounding line position of relatively long duration may thus be linked with a more `unstable' retreat event. While landforms vary widely in morphology, landform construction is surprisingly insensitive to the local topographic

  1. Study of Ground Heat Exchangers in the Form of Parallel Horizontal Pipes Embedded in the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Neupauer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict long-term changes in the temperature of the ground in which a horizontal ground heat exchanger has been installed, it is beneficial to implement simplified mathematical models of heat transfer. The possibility of using a one-dimensional equation of heat conduction while modelling heat transfer in a ground heat exchanger with horizontal pipes has been demonstrated in the work. A theoretical analysis based on the linear heat source model as well as experimental research works have been carried out. It has been concluded that the temperature profiles of the ground in which parallel pipes of the heat exchanger are placed do not significantly differ from the profiles for the heat exchanger in the form of a plate; in particular, this refers to large distances from the level in which the pipes are positioned, small distances between pipes axes and the long duration of the process. Discrepancies between the calculated temperature increases for pipe and plate exchangers varied significantly in the individual time intervals, and were approx. 20–30%. The conducted experiments have demonstrated that the temperature field around parallel pipes of the heat exchanger may be described by the linear heat source model. The compatibility of temperature maps that were determined theoretically and experimentally was satisfactory with a good degree of accuracy.

  2. Above-ground and below-ground plant responses to fertilization in two subarctic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Metcalfe, D.; Wilson, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Soil nutrient supply is likely to change in the Arctic due to altered process rates associated with climate change. Here, we compare the responses of herbaceous tundra and birch forest understory to fertilization, considering both above- and below-ground responses. We added nitrogen and phosphorus

  3. Where Are the Grounds for Grounded Theory? A Troubled Empirical Methodology Meets Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a critical exposition of the epistemological underpinnings of a recent redevelopment of Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, "Constructivist" GT. Although proffered as freed from the "objectivist" tenets of the original version, critical examination exposes the essentialism threaded through its integral…

  4. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  5. Influence of strike object grounding on close lightning electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2008-06-01

    Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have calculated vertical electric field Ez, horizontal (radial) electric field Eh, and azimuthal magnetic field Hϕ produced on the ground surface by lightning strikes to 160-m- and a 553-m-high conical strike objects representing the Peissenberg tower (Germany) and the CN Tower (Canada), respectively. The fields were computed for a typical subsequent stroke at distances d' from the bottom of the object ranging from 5 to 100 m for the 160-m tower and from 10 to 300 m for the 553-m tower. Grounding of the 160-m object was assumed to be accomplished by its underground basement represented by a 10-m-radius and 8-m-long perfectly conducting cylinder with or without a reference ground plane located 2 m below. The reference ground plane simulates, to some extent, a higher-conducting ground layer that is expected to exist below the water table. The configuration without reference ground plane actually means that this plane is present, but is located at an infinitely large depth. Grounding of the 553-m object was modeled in a similar manner but in the absence of reference ground plane only. In all cases considered, waveforms of Eh and Hϕ are not much influenced by the presence of strike object, while waveforms of Ez are. Waveforms of Ez are essentially unipolar (as they are in the absence of strike object) when the ground conductivity σ is 10 mS/m (the equivalent transient grounding impedance is several ohms) or greater. Thus, for the CN Tower, for which σ ≥ 10 mS/m, the occurrence of Ez polarity change is highly unlikely. For the 160-m tower and for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m, waveforms of Ez become bipolar (exhibit polarity change) at d' ≤ 10 m and d' ≤ 50 m, respectively, regardless of the presence of the reference ground plane. The corresponding equivalent transient grounding impedances are about 30 and 50 Ω in the absence of the reference ground plane and smaller than 10 Ω in the presence of the reference

  6. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  7. Removal of Sr-90 from ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, P.; Hobig, J.; Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Results of a preliminary study for clean-up of the water from a ground water contaminated by Sr-90 using two different ion-exchange resins and co-precipitation are presented. The analytical data for the studied water is shown. The measured Sr-90 content is higher than the limit for water in Germany. Three methods of removal of Sr-90 from ground-water have been compared. DOWEX C-75 NG, H-form is a strong acid cation exchange resin and highly selective for Cs and Co. Our experiments have demonstrated that these resins is also selective for Sr. It was possible to clean-up 550 ml of contaminated ground water with only 1 g of these resins. The concentration of Sr-90 after clean-up is below 0.02 Bq/l. Disadvantage of these procedure was the change of pH of water to 2.5 after clean-up and high price (if the resin is not regenerated). CARBION is a product manufactured by careful phosphorylation and carabamidation of cellulose fibre according to a patented process with ion-exchanging characteristics. In opposite to DOWEX C-75 NG (H) this product is biodegradable. Obtained results have demonstrated that using CARBION it is also possible to clean-up the water sample from Sr-90 below the detection limit of 0.02 Bq/l. The ion-exchange process is not so quick and need significant more time than in case of the use of DOWEX C-75 NG. CARBION does not change the natural pH of water. The calculated price needed for the amount of these resin necessary for cleanup the same volume of contaminated water was about 2 times higher than in case of DOWEX C-75 NG. In the third method the natural high pH level of the studied water sample (pH = 7.88) and the high natural concentration of Ca, Mg and Sr ions make it also possible to co-participate Sr-90 with phosphates. After addition of appropriate amounts of Na 2 HPO 4 it was possible to reduce the Sr-90 content to about 1.3 Bq/l which is below the required limit. The advantages of these methods are simplicity, short time and low

  8. Discussion on the mechanism of ground improvement method at the excavation of shallow overburden tunnel in difficult ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kishida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel construction opportunities involving shallow overburdens under difficult (e.g., soft, unconsolidated grounds have been increasing in Japan. Various auxiliary methods for excavating mountain tunnels have been developed and can satisfy stringent construction requirements. The ground improvement method, which is one of the auxiliary methods for shallow overburden tunnels, has demonstrated its ability to effectively control the amount of settlement under soft ground. However, the mechanism of the ground improvement method has not been clarified, nor has a suitable design code been established for it. Therefore, because the strength of the improved ground and the suitable length and width of the improved area have not been fully understood, an empirical design has been applied in every case. In this paper, the mechanical behavior during the excavation, including that of the stabilized ground, is evaluated through trapdoor experiments and numerical analyses. In addition, the enhancement of tunnel stability resulting from the application of the ground improvement method is discussed.

  9. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  10. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  11. Commissioning of the Ground Test Accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Connolly, R.; Garnett, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohson, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Saadatmand, K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35 key H - injector, the 2.5 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), the Intertank Matching Section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2βγ Drift Tube Linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7 MeV 2βγ DTL (modules 1--5), and the 24 MeV GTA; all 10 DTL modules. Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments will be presented along with comparisons to simulations

  12. Commissioning of the ground test accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Garnott, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Sandoval, D.P.; Saadatmand, K.; Stevens, R.R.Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connolly, R.; Weiss, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on line. The commissioning stages are the 35-keV H - injector, the 2.5-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), the intertank matching section (IMS), the 3.2-MeV first 2-βλ drift tube linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7-MeV 2-βλDTL (modules 1-5), and the 24-MeV GTA (all 10 DTL modules). Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments are presented along with comparisons with simulations. (Author) 8 refs., 9 figs

  13. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T.; Minty, M.G.; Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y.; Teng, L.; Tepikian, S.

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 ∼ 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c

  14. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States); Minty, M.G. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Teng, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approximately} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  15. Experimental Simulation of Ground Motion Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-07-11

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approx} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  16. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  17. Ground reaction forces during the power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aaron L; Shimada, Sean D; Koontz, Alicia

    2002-08-01

    Identifying and understanding the key biomechanical factors that exemplify the power clean can provide athletes the proper tools needed to prevail at a competitive event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize and describe ground reaction forces (Fz) during the power clean lift. Three 60-Hz motion-detecting cameras and an AMTI force plate were used to collect data from 10 collegiate weightlifting men who performed a power clean at 60 and 70% of their last competitive maximum clean. The results revealed that a greater peak force (Fz) was produced during the second pull compared with the first pull and unweighted phases in both percentage lifts. As the system weight increased from 60 to 70%, the peak force (Fz) increased for the first pull and unweighted phases and decreased during the second pull phase. Learning the proper technique of the power clean may provide athletes the basic understanding needed to be competitive in a weightlifting or sporting event.

  18. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  19. Quantum computing from the ground up

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Riley Tipton

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computing - the application of quantum mechanics to information - represents a fundamental break from classical information and promises to dramatically increase a computer's power. Many difficult problems, such as the factorization of large numbers, have so far resisted attack by classical computers yet are easily solved with quantum computers. If they become feasible, quantum computers will end standard practices such as RSA encryption. Most of the books or papers on quantum computing require (or assume) prior knowledge of certain areas such as linear algebra or quantum mechanics. The majority of the currently-available literature is hard to understand for the average computer enthusiast or interested layman. This text attempts to teach quantum computing from the ground up in an easily readable way, providing a comprehensive tutorial that includes all the necessary mathematics, computer science and physics.

  20. Surgery for Pulmonary Multiple Ground Glass Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pulmonary ground glass opacity (GGO has been increasing in recent years, with a great number of patients having multiple GGOs. Unfortunately, the management of multiple GGOs is still controversial. Pulmonary GGO is a radiological term, consisting of different pathological types. Some of the GGOs are early-staged lung cancer. GGO is an indolent nodule, only a small proportion of GGOs change during observation, which does not influence the efficacy of surgery. . The timing of surgery for multiple GGOs mainly depends on the predominant nodule and surgery is recommended if the solid component of the predominant nodule >5 mm. Either lobectomy or sub-lobectomy is feasible. GGOs other than the predominant nodule can be left unresected. Multiple GGOs with high risk factors need mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling.

  1. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities

  2. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities.

  3. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  4. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  5. Modeling Weather Impact on Ground Delay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Scheduled arriving aircraft demand may exceed airport arrival capacity when there is abnormal weather at an airport. In such situations, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) institutes ground-delay programs (GDP) to delay flights before they depart from their originating airports. Efficient GDP planning depends on the accuracy of prediction of airport capacity and demand in the presence of uncertainties in weather forecast. This paper presents a study of the impact of dynamic airport surface weather on GDPs. Using the National Traffic Management Log, effect of weather conditions on the characteristics of GDP events at selected busy airports is investigated. Two machine learning methods are used to generate models that map the airport operational conditions and weather information to issued GDP parameters and results of validation tests are described.

  6. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  7. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  8. Ground-source heat pump barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe the ground-source heat pump market contracted for the second year running by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010. Around 103.000 units were sold in 2010, taking the number of installed units over one million. The 3 European countries with the most sales are Sweden (31953 units, +16%), Germany (25516 units, -13%) and France (12250 units, -21%). The drop in sales is generally due to market contraction on the current recession but some specificities exist: for instance the insufficient training of the installers has led to under-performance and to a bad image of this energy in France. The Swedish and German manufacturers are in a very strong position and are increasing their market share in the main European markets. (A.C.)

  9. The NTS Ground Motion Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N.

    1994-04-01

    The NTS (Nevada Test Site) Ground Motion Data Base is composed of strong motion data recorded during the normal execution of the US underground test program. It contains surface, subsurface, and structure motion data as digitized waveforms. Currently the data base contains information from 148 underground explosions This represents about 4200 measurements and nearly 12,000 individual digitized waveforms. Most of the data was acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in connection with LANL sponsored underground tests. Some was acquired by Los Alamos on tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and there are some measurements which were acquired by the other test sponsors on their events and provided to us for inclusion in this data base. Included in the data set is the Los Alamos motion data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE).

  10. Evaluation of Grounding Impedance of a Complex Lightning Protective System Using Earth Ground Clamp Measurements and ATP Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, Angel G.

    2010-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. A total of nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long, on average) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each of the nine downconductors is connected to a 7.62-meter radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced 6-meter long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bounded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple direction around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall of potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the downconductors grounding impedance, an Earth Ground Clamp (a stakeless grounding resistance measuring device) and a LPS Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model are used. The Earth Ground Clamp is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding impedance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the Earth Ground Clamp measurements.

  11. Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ji-Gang; Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Liang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Liu, Wei-Yue; Cai, Wen-Qi; Yang, Meng; Li, Li; Yang, Kui-Xing; Han, Xuan; Yao, Yong-Qiang; Li, Ji; Wu, Hai-Yan; Wan, Song; Liu, Lei; Liu, Ding-Quan; Kuang, Yao-Wu; He, Zhi-Ping; Shang, Peng; Guo, Cheng; Zheng, Ru-Hua; Tian, Kai; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-09-07

    An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be measured precisely or replicated perfectly. However, quantum teleportation enables unknown quantum states to be transferred reliably from one object to another over long distances, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation is a fundamental element of protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. But the distances over which transmission was achieved in previous teleportation experiments, which used optical fibres and terrestrial free-space channels, were limited to about 100 kilometres, owing to the photon loss of these channels. To realize a global-scale 'quantum internet' the range of quantum teleportation needs to be greatly extended. A promising way of doing so involves using satellite platforms and space-based links, which can connect two remote points on Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the propagation path of the photons is in empty space. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low-Earth-orbit satellite, through an uplink channel, over distances of up to 1,400 kilometres. To optimize the efficiency of the link and to counter the atmospheric turbulence in the uplink, we use a compact ultra-bright source of entangled photons, a narrow beam divergence and high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking. We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation of six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80 ± 0.01, well above the optimal state-estimation fidelity on a single copy of a qubit (the classical limit). Our demonstration of a ground-to-satellite uplink for reliable and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation is an essential step towards a global-scale quantum internet.

  12. A conception of ecological providing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshkina, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ecological proving ground is a multifunctional intersectoral and interterritorial complex. The proving ground is created to organize the work of the Regional System of Ecological Safety, its structure and elements, and their unification and conversion into national system. It's also created for the working out of some questions of technical policy and normative-legal regulation in the field of ecology. The main task is the elaboration of mechanisms for the co-operation of the legislative executive bodies and their regional structure in the process of creation adoption and working of the Complex Regional System of Ecological Safety. The directions of polygon's activity: 1. Sanitary-epidemic protection of population. 2. Radiational Safety. 3. Chemical Safety. 4. Monitoring of Ecological situation and normalization of the environment. 4.1. Control of contamination of the waters. 4.2. Control of contamination of the air. 4.3. Ecological monitoring of soil. 4.4. State and protection of flora and fauna. 5. Ecologically pure agricultural production on the territory of the polygon. 5.1. Radiational and chemical control of agricultural areas and production. 5.2. Production of pure products. 6. The creation of normative, legal, informational, methodical and metrological supply of polygon's activity. 7. Optimization of the models of ecological situation. 8. Ecological informational-educational activity. The choice of territory for the polygon is based on the following statements: the intensity of ecological situation; the topography of the environment; the density of population; the availability of scientific base; the intensity of social movements. Some experience, that would allow to improve existing ecological legislation and spread some tried methods of supply of ecological safety on the territory of Russia, will be gained as a result. (author)

  13. Automated Cloud Observation for Ground Telescope Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B.; Jeffries, M. W., Jr.; Therien, W.; Nguyen, H.

    As the number of man-made objects placed in space each year increases with advancements in commercial, academic and industry, the number of objects required to be detected, tracked, and characterized continues to grow at an exponential rate. Commercial companies, such as ExoAnalytic Solutions, have deployed ground based sensors to maintain track custody of these objects. For the ExoAnalytic Global Telescope Network (EGTN), observation of such objects are collected at the rate of over 10 million unique observations per month (as of September 2017). Currently, the EGTN does not optimally collect data on nights with significant cloud levels. However, a majority of these nights prove to be partially cloudy providing clear portions in the sky for EGTN sensors to observe. It proves useful for a telescope to utilize these clear areas to continue resident space object (RSO) observation. By dynamically updating the tasking with the varying cloud positions, the number of observations could potentially increase dramatically due to increased persistence, cadence, and revisit. This paper will discuss the recent algorithms being implemented within the EGTN, including the motivation, need, and general design. The use of automated image processing as well as various edge detection methods, including Canny, Sobel, and Marching Squares, on real-time large FOV images of the sky enhance the tasking and scheduling of a ground based telescope is discussed in Section 2. Implementations of these algorithms on single and expanding to multiple telescopes, will be explored. Results of applying these algorithms to the EGTN in real-time and comparison to non-optimized EGTN tasking is presented in Section 3. Finally, in Section 4 we explore future work in applying these throughout the EGTN as well as other optical telescopes.

  14. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  15. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  16. Recent ground fissures in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Kuan; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Ground fissures are a geological hazard with complex formation mechanisms. Increasing amounts of human activity have created more ground fissures, which can destroy buildings and threaten human security. Some ground fissures indicate potentially devastating earthquakes, so we must pay attention to these hazards. This paper documents recently discovered ground fissures in the Hetao basin. These ground fissures are located along the frontal margins of the terraces of the Sertengshan piedmont fault. These fissures are 600-1600 m long, 5-50 cm wide, and at most 1 m deep. These ground fissures emerged after 2010 and ruptured newly constructed roads and field ridges. The deep geodynamic mechanisms within this extensional environment, which is dominated by NE-SW principal compressive shear, involve N-S tensile stress, which has produced continuous subsidence in the Hetao basin and continuous activity along the Sertengshan piedmont fault since the late Quaternary. Trenches across the ground fissures reveal that the fissures are the latest manifestation of the activity of preexisting faults and are the result of creep-slip movement along the faults. The groundwater level in the Hetao basin has been dropping since the 1960s because of overexploitation, resulting in subsidence. When the tensile stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength of the strata, the strata rupture along preexisting faults, producing ground fissures. Thus, the Sertengshan piedmont fault planes are the structural foundation of the ground fissures, and groundwater extraction induces the development of ground fissures.

  17. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  18. Adaptive relaying for ground fault protection of a distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, M.S.; Sidhu, T.S.; Talukdar, B.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Adaptive protection was used for designing a protection system for the City of Saskatoon`s distribution network. The software and hardware were developed and the protection system was implemented in the laboratory at the University of Saskatchewan. In the first phase of the project, phase overcurrent relays were coordinated on the basis of three-phase faults. Most faults in distribution networks were single-phase to ground faults. Ground fault currents varied due to different grounding practices, changes in operating conditions and system topology. In the second phase of the project, adaptive capabilities for ground overcurrent and directional ground overcurrent protection were added. Software modules developed for achieving adaptive ground fault protection were described. Results from system studies carried out using the City of Saskatoon`s distribution network were also analyzed. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Effect of electrode shape on grounding resistances - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    Although electric resistivity tomography (ERT) is now regarded as a standard tool in permafrost monitoring, high grounding resistances continue to limit the acquisition of time series over complete freeze-thaw cycles. In an attempt to alleviate the grounding resistance problem, we have tested three...... electrode designs featuring increasing sizes and surface area, in the laboratory and at three different field sites in Greenland. Grounding resistance measurements showed that changing the electrode shape (using plates instead of rods) reduced the grounding resistances at all sites by 28%-69% during...... unfrozen and frozen ground conditions. Using meshes instead of plates (the same rectangular shape and a larger effective surface area) further improved the grounding resistances by 29%-37% in winter. Replacement of rod electrodes of one entire permanent permafrost monitoring array by meshes resulted...

  20. The Selection of Ground Stations for IGS Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Jung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection of ground stations is one of the essential process of IGS (International GNSS Service products. High quality GPS data should be collected from the globally distributed ground stations. In this study, we investigated an effect of ground station network selection on GPS satellite ephemeris. The GPS satellite ephemeris obtained from the twelve ground station networks were analyzed to investigate the effect of selection of ground stations. For data quality check, the observations, the number of cycle slips, and multipath of pseudoranges for L1 and L2 were considered. The ideal network defined by Taylor-Karman structure and SOD (Second Order Design were used to obtain the optimal ground station network.

  1. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  2. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  3. Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) abruptly terminated by negative cloud-to-ground lightnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Khanikyanc, G.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of lightnings and particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements – TGEs) generated in the lower part of clouds by the strong electric fields as a probe, we investigate the characteristics of the related atmospheric discharges. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux. We demonstrate that among 12 atmospheric discharges that abruptly terminated TGE all are the negative cloud-to-ground lightnings. The flux termination and lightning occurred at one and the same second. With new precise electronics on millisecond time scales we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with abrupt increase of electrostatic field after the return stroke of the lightning. Therefore, the declining of particle flux is connected with rearranging of charge centers in the cloud involving removal of the Lower Positive Charged Region (LPCR). (author)

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  5. MANAGING GROUND WATER QUALITY IN RELATION TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Magette, W. L.; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Lessley, Billy V.; et al.

    1989-01-01

    Ground water quality is an environmental issue of national concern. Agricultural activities, because they involve large land areas, often are cited as a major contributor of ground water contamination. It appears that some degree of ground water contamination from agricultural land use is inevitable, especially where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. For this reason, and because agriculture differs significantly from point sources of pollution, farmers, policymakers, and scientists ne...

  6. Jefferson Proving Ground Site-Specific Sampling Design Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to outline field sampling and laboratory analyses that are to be conducted as part of the Jefferson Proving Ground...Site-Specific Sampling and Analysis (SSSA) program. Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) is a U.S. Army facility located in Madison, Indiana. The SSSA at JPG...will then be analyzed to determine if past activities at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) have caused contaminants to enter the groundwater, stream water

  7. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  8. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  9. DEVS Models of Palletized Ground Stacking in Storeyed Grain Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processed grain stored in storeyed warehouse is generally stacked on the ground without pallets. However, in order to improve the storing way, we developed a new stacking method, palletized ground stacking. Simulation should be used to present this new storing way. DEVS provides a formalized way to describe the system model. In this paper, DEVS models of palletized ground stacking in storeyed grain warehouse are given and a simulation model is developed by AutoMod.

  10. Cyber Security Awareness for SmallSat Ground Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Satellite ground networks are exposed to an increasing number of targeted cyber threats. Successful cyber-attacks have resulted in substantial data leaks and billions of dollars in material damages. SmallSat ground networks have distinct cyber security challenges associated with mission-unique equipment; specialized protocols; untimely patching due to configuration freezes and high regression test costs; and tight budgetary constraints. Recognizing that SmallSat ground network operators ma...

  11. Optimizing Communication in Air Ground Robot Networks using Decentralized Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-08

    on a team of AscTec Hum- mingbird flying quadrotor robots providing network coverage for ground vehicles, using xBee -PRO modules for wireless...an ARM micro-processor and 2.4 GHz xBee mod- ules for wireless communication, and three ground vehicles. We conducted the experiments in a room... xBee -XSC wireless modules. The tests were conducted on four ground vehicles, and three aerial communication vehicles with control param- eters λ = 1

  12. Celebrating 50 Years of Grounded Theory: Onward and Forward Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild

    2017-01-01

    Welcome to this very special issue of the Grounded Theory Review. In this issue we celebrate 50 amazing years of grounded theory during which it has become one of the fastest growing methods in the global research world. Five decades after The Discovery of Grounded Theory was first published, the seminal work of founders Barney G. Glaser and Anselm Strauss is cited more than 94,000 times on Google Scholar alone. We celebrate that after 50 years of researching, teaching, defending, explic...

  13. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  14. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  15. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  16. Grounded Eyes on Distant Watery Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    What can we learn about exoplanets from high-resolution, ground-based observations? A new view of the nearby upsilon Andromedae system has revealed a great deal about the systems closest-in exoplanet including the presence of water vapor in its atmosphere.Search for WobblesIllustration of how spectral lines shift when observing two objects that orbit each other. Click here to see a simulation of this process. [R. Pogge, OSU]The upsilon Andromedae system is located roughly 44 light-years from Earth. In 1997, a hot Jupiter exoplanet was discovered orbiting the primary star, and more planets were found not long after making this the first multiple-planet system discovered around a main-sequence star.These planets, however, were not discovered due to transits; their orbital planes are not aligned with our line of sight to the star. Instead, the hiddenplanets were first detected via the stars spectrum. The radial velocity method of detecting exoplanets searches for telltale periodic shifts of a stars spectral lines, which are induced by the orbiting planets gravitational tugs.In recent years, ground-based spectroscopy has become ever more powerful; thus revisiting old systems with higher resolution instruments can often open a whole new world of data to us. In the case of a recent study, a team of astronomers led by Danielle Piskorz (California Institute of Technology) revisited upsilon Andromedae with the high-resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. Their goal: to gather data about upsilon Andromedae b, the closest-in planet in the system.Top-down schematic of the orbit of upsilon Andromedae b around its star and the location in the orbit of the authors observations. [Piskorz et al. 2017]An Unusual ArchitecturePiskorz and collaborators obtained 13 different sets of observations of upsilon Andromedae with NIRSPEC across three different wavelength bands. By treating the starplanet system as though it were a spectroscopic binary

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of below ground cassava storage root bulking by ground penetrating radar technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Larson, T. H.; Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Grennan, A. K.; Souza, A. P.; Ort, D. R.; Balikian, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture needs a new technological revolution to be able to meet the food demands, to overcome weather and natural hazards events, and to monitor better crop productivity. Advanced technologies used in other fields have recently been applied in agriculture. Thus, imagine instrumentation has been applied to phenotype above-ground biomass and predict yield. However, the capability to monitor belowground biomass is still limited. There are some existing technologies available, for example the ground penetrating radar (GPR) which has been used widely in the area of geology and civil engineering to detect different kind of formations under the ground without the disruption of the soil. GPR technology has been used also to monitor tree roots but as yet not crop roots. Some limitation are that the GPR cannot discern roots smaller than 2 cm in diameter, but it make it feasible for application in tuber crops like Cassava since harvest diameter is greater than 4 cm. The objective of this research is to test the availability to use GPR technology to monitor the growth of cassava roots by testing this technique in the greenhouse and in the field. So far, results from the greenhouse suggest that GPR can detect mature roots of cassava and this data could be used to predict biomass.

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10m winds, pressure and solar radiation data...

  19. Great Moravian burial grounds in Rajhrad and Rajhradice

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrychová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis presented deals with an overall assessment of the Great Moravian burial ground in Rajhrad (Brno- venkov), which was excavated in the years 1972 to 1976. The work is based on a catalogue of this burial ground and the neighbouring one in Rajhradice published by Čeněk Staňa. It follows individual aspects of funeral rites at a necropolis and evaluates the inventory of the graves. Based on the findings, the work dates the burial ground, compares with burial ground in Rajhradice ...

  20. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....