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Sample records for ground sloths xenarthra

  1. Muzzle of South American Pleistocene ground sloths (Xenarthra, Tardigrada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargo, M Susana; Toledo, Néstor; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2006-02-01

    Sloths are among the most characteristic elements of the Cainozoic of South America and are represented, during the Pleistocene, by approximately nine genera of gigantic ground sloths (Megatheriidae and Mylodontidae). A few contributions have described their masticatory apparatus, but almost no attention has been paid to the reconstruction of the muzzle, an important feature to consider in relation to food intake, and particularly relevant in sloths because of the edentulous nature of the muzzle and its varied morphology. The relationship between dietary habits and shape and width of the muzzle is well documented in living herbivores and has been considered an important feature for the inference of alimentary styles in fossils, providing an interesting methodological tool that deserves to be considered for xenarthrans. The goal of this study was to examine models of food intake by reconstructing the appearance and shape of the muzzle in five species of Pleistocene ground sloths (Megatherium americanum, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus, Mylodon darwini, and Scelidotherium leptocephalum) using reconstructions of the nasal cartilages and facial muscles involved in food intake. The preservation of the nasal septum, and the scars for muscular attachment in the rostral part of the skulls, allow making a conservative reconstruction of muzzle anatomy in fossil sloths. Wide-muzzled ground sloths (Glossotherium and Lestodon) had a square, nonprehensile upper lip and were mostly bulk-feeders. The lips, coupled with the tongue, were used to pull out grass and herbaceous plants. Narrow-muzzled sloths (Mylodon, Scelidotherium, and Megatherium) had a cone-shaped and prehensile lip and were mixed or selective feeders. The prehensile lip was used to select particular plants or plant parts. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Youngest radiocarbon age for Jefferson's ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory McDonald, H.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Gnidovec, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    A partial skeleton of the extinct ground sloth, Megalonyx jeffersonii, recovered from a farm near Millersburg, Ohio in 1890, was radiocarbon dated for the first time. The ungual dated is part of a skeleton mounted for exhibit at the Orton Geological Museum at Ohio State University and was the fir...

  3. Social behavior between mothers ´ young of sloths Bradypus variegatus SCHINZ, 1825 (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae

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    SOARES C. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the ex situ and in situ conservation and preservation of Sloths. The behavioral records of the social interaction between mothers and offspring allow the detection of important learning interactions and psychomotor development. The results provide valuable information that may assist in improving management conditions of captive orphan progeny. They also favor a more effective monitoring of released or transferred specimens. Age is of fundamental importance in deciding what is important during the release, transfer, or reintroduction of the species.

  4. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S.; Foppe, Theresa; Long, Austin

    1980-11-01

    Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dung balls provided radiocarbon ages of 11,330, 12,330 and 12,430 yr B.P. Packrat ( Neotoma) middens disclose a xeric juniper woodland at Shelter Cave during the sloth's occupation. Plant cuticles from the dung indicate that the ground sloth had a diet dominated by mormon tea ( Ephedra) and other xerophytic shrubs. Pollen spectra from the coprolites have high representations of anemophilous plants and low representations of the dietary items shown in the cuticle analysis. Fifteen radiocarbon dates of sloth dung obtained since 1974 strengthen the hypothesis that sloth extinction occurred about 11,000 yr B.P. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that ground sloths lived in juniper woodlands and montane conifer communities. Nothrotheriops commonly dined on shrubs that are still present in these habitats. It is difficult to explain the demise of the Shasta ground sloth by climatic change or dietary stress. Human predation remains as a possible explanation; ground sloth extinction appears to coincide with the time of Clovis mammoth hunters.

  6. Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium.

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    Michael Buckley

    Full Text Available For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologically and ecologically very different representatives (anteaters, armadillos and sloths, which has been proposed to be one of the four main eutherian clades. Recently, proteomics analyses of bone collagen have recently been used to yield a molecular phylogeny for a range of mammals including the unusual 'Malagasy aardvark' shown to be most closely related to the afrotherian tenrecs, and the south American ungulates supporting their morphological association with condylarths. However, proteomics results generate partial sequence information that could impact upon the phylogenetic placement that has not been appropriately tested. For comparison, this paper examines the phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium. The ground sloths were placed as sister taxa to extant sloths, but with a closer relationship between Lestodon and the extant sloths than the basal Megatherium. These results highlight that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival.

  7. Potential suitable areas of giant ground sloths dropped before its extinction in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Varela, Sara; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    of the climate preferences through time for the two species and modeled their potential distributions at last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 ky BP) and mid-Holocene (6 ky BP) using Bioclimatic Envelope Modeling (BEM), fossil records and paleoclimatic simulations. The model predictions showed a drastic reduction......Here we analyze the effects that climatic changes through last ice age had on the potential distributions and extinction risk dynamics of two extinct species of South American giant ground sloths, Eremotherium laurillardi and Megatherium americanum. We tested the assumption of stability...

  8. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?

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    Jessica R Glass

    Full Text Available Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium, not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims.

  9. Phylogenetic and functional implications of the ear region anatomy of Glossotherium robustum (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Iurino, Dawid A.; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Sardella, Raffaele; Tirao, German; Gaudin, Timothy J.; Pujos, François

    2018-04-01

    Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were conducted historically, but these are increasing in number in recent years, in both the extinct and extant representatives, due to wider access to CT-scanning facilities, which allow non-destructive access to internal morphologies. In the present study, we analyze the extinct ground sloth Glossotherium robustum and provide a description of the external features of the ear region and the endocranial side of the petrosal bone, coupled with the first data on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth. Some features observable in the ear region of G. robustum (e.g., the shape and size of the entotympanic bone and the morphology of the posteromedial surface of the petrosal) are highly variable, both intraspecifically and intraindividually. The form of the bony labyrinth of G. robustum is also described, providing the first data from this anatomical region for the family Mylodontidae. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the genus Glossotherium is here compared at the level of the superorder Xenarthra, including all available extant and extinct representatives, using geometric morphometric methods. In light of the new data, we discuss the evolution of inner ear anatomy in the xenarthran clade, and most particularly in sloths, considering the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and physiology on the shape of this highly informative region of the skull. These analyses show that the inner ear of Glossotherium more closely resembles that of the extant anteaters, and to a lesser extent those of the giant ground sloth Megatherium and euphractine armadillos, than those of the extant sloths Bradypus and Choloepus, further demonstrating the striking

  10. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense). Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates

  11. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

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    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  12. Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Curá, Neuquén Province, southwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Betancourt, Julio L.; Sbriller, Alicia Pelliza; Markgraf, Vera; McDonald, H. Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Advancements in ancient DNA analyses now permit comparative molecular and morphological studies of extinct animal dung commonly preserved in caves of semiarid regions. These new techniques are showcased using a unique dung deposit preserved in a late glacial vizcacha (Lagidium sp.) midden from a limestone cave in southwestern Argentina (38.5° S). Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial DNA show that the dung originated from a small ground sloth species not yet represented by skeletal material in the region, and not closely related to any of the four previously sequenced extinct and extant sloth species. Analyses of pollen and plant cuticles, as well as analyses of the chloroplast DNA, show that the Cuchillo Curá ground sloth browsed on many of the same herb, grass, and shrub genera common at the site today, and that its habitat was treeless Patagonian scrub-steppe. We envision a day when molecular analyses are used routinely to supplement morphological identifications and possibly to provide a time-lapse view of molecular diversification.

  13. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

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    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  14. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  15. Morphology of the tongue of Vermilingua (Xenarthra: Pilosa) and evolutionary considerations.

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    Casali, Daniel M; Martins-Santos, Elisângela; Santos, André L Q; Miranda, Flávia R; Mahecha, Germán A B; Perini, Fernando A

    2017-10-01

    The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent. The filiform papillae of Myrmecophaga tridactyla are simple all over the tongue, differing from Tamandua tetradactyla and Cyclopes didactylus, which present composed filiform papillae in the rostral and middle regions. Histologically, the tongue has a peculiar organization of muscular and neurovascular tissues, differing from the usual mammalian pattern. However, the tongue structure is less divergent in Cyclopes. The presence of two circumvallate papillae is common to the three major clades of Xenarthra (Cingulata, Folivora and Vermilingua). In each group, the tongue may reflect functional features related to myrmecophagous (anteaters and some armadillos), omnivorous (remaining armadillos) and folivorous (sloths) feeding habits. The similarities between the tongues of Vermiligua and other non-xenarthran eutherian myrmecophagous mammals are somewhat general and, under close inspection, superficial, being an example of different lineages achieving the same morphofunctional adaptations through distinct evolutionary pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    OpenAIRE

    Delsuc , Frédéric; Catzeflis , François ,; Stanhope , Michael ,; Douzery , Emmanuel ,

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the...

  17. Xenarthra (Mammalia) from a new late Neogene fossiliferous locality in Northwestern Argentina

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    Zurita, Alfredo E.; Camacho, María; Miño-Boilini, Angel R.; Candela, Adriana M.; Cuadrelli, Francisco; Krmpotic, Cecilia M.; Solís, Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Northwestern Argentina contains one of the most complete continental late Neogene (ca. 9-2.58 Ma) fossiliferous sequences in South America, especially in the current territories of the Catamarca, Tucumán and Jujuy provinces. More precisely in Jujuy Province several localities bearing mainly fossil mammals have been reported at the Quebrada de Humahuaca in the Uquía, Maimará and Tilcara formations, in which the clade Xenarthra (Mammalia) is well-represented. In this scenario, the fossiliferous potential of other localities of Jujuy Province are less known, especially in those areas located at the northwest end of Argentina, bordering Bolivia in the Northern Puna. A new late Neogene fossiliferous locality near Calahoyo (3639 m.a.s.l), Jujuy Province, is here reported. The materials, belonging to Xenarthra, were exhumed from the base of the Tafna Formation which was deposited in a sedimentary basin by alluvial and/or fluvial currents, undergoing transitions of various lacustrine episodes. The taxa include the Tardigrada Pyramiodontherium bergi (Megatheriidae) and the Cingulata Eosclerocalyptus sp. (Glyptodontidae) and Macrochorobates chapalmalensis (Dasypodidae). From a biostratigraphic viewpoint, this assemblage suggests a Late Miocene-Pliocene age for the base of the Tafna Formation, and partially contradicts the supposed Plio-Pleistocene age of this unit. Finally, the new specimens here described indicate that Xenarthra were taxonomically and ecologically diverse during the late Neogene in the northwest end of Argentina, since they are represented by at least three main lineages (sloths, glyptodontids and armadillos).

  18. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsuc, F; Catzeflis, F M; Stanhope, M J; Douzery, E J

    2001-08-07

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the controversial fossil Eurotamandua. Sequences of three genes (nuclear exon 28 of the Von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNAs) are compared for eight of the 13 living genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: armadillos (Cingulata), anteaters (Vermilingua) and sloths ('Tardigrada', renamed in 'Folivora'), and our results strongly support the grouping of hairy xenarthrans (anteaters and sloths) into Pilosa. Within placentals, Afrotheria might be the first lineage to branch off, followed by Xenarthra. The morphological adaptative convergence between New World xenarthrans and Old World pangolins is confirmed. Molecular datings place the early emergence of armadillos around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, followed by the divergence between anteaters and sloths in the Early Eocene era. These Tertiary dates contradict the concept of a very ancient origin of modern xenarthran lineages. They also question the placement of the purported fossil anteater (Eurotamandua) from the Middle Eocene period of Europe with the Vermilingua and instead suggest the independent and convergent evolution of this enigmatic taxon.

  19. Urban Sloths: Public Knowledge, Opinions, and Interactions

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    Kissia Ferreira Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-range sloths living in an urban environment are rare. In this study, the opinions, attitudes, and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus were investigated through short, structured interviews of people in the pubic square where the sloths live, in addition to informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% liked their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned as to whether the square was an appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequences of a lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has avoided interactions with humans and, consequently, mitigated any negative impacts of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that, while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.

  20. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2pu

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    Virginia L. Naples

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication.

  1. Julia Sloth-Nielsen and Jacqui Gallinetti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    juliasn

    The history of the development and passage through Parliament of the Child Justice ... Sloth-Nielsen J The Role of International law in Juvenile Justice Reform in .... rehabilitation and reintegration of children; balancing the interests of children and ... African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (African Children's ...

  2. Neocortical neuron types in Xenarthra and Afrotheria: implications for brain evolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Butti, Camilla; Bonar, Christopher J; Newton, Alisa L; Allman, John M; Hof, Patrick R

    2009-02-01

    Interpreting the evolution of neuronal types in the cerebral cortex of mammals requires information from a diversity of species. However, there is currently a paucity of data from the Xenarthra and Afrotheria, two major phylogenetic groups that diverged close to the base of the eutherian mammal adaptive radiation. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution and morphology of neocortical neurons stained for nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y in three xenarthran species-the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla), and the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus)-and two afrotherian species-the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and the black and rufous giant elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi). We also studied the distribution and morphology of astrocytes using glial fibrillary acidic protein as a marker. In all of these species, nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive neurons predominated in layer V. These neurons exhibited diverse morphologies with regional variation. Specifically, high proportions of atypical neurofilament-enriched neuron classes were observed, including extraverted neurons, inverted pyramidal neurons, fusiform neurons, and other multipolar types. In addition, many projection neurons in layers II-III were found to contain calbindin. Among interneurons, parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing cells were generally denser compared to calretinin-immunoreactive cells. We traced the evolution of certain cortical architectural traits using phylogenetic analysis. Based on our reconstruction of character evolution, we found that the living xenarthrans and afrotherians show many similarities to the stem eutherian mammal, whereas other eutherian lineages display a greater number of derived traits.

  3. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Cliffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2. Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  4. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  5. A systematic reassessment and paleogeographic review of fossil xenarthra from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    coast region. Pleistocene nothrotheres are found only in the Amazonian forest region (Nothropus priscus in Río Acre. Megatheriidae are well diversified and have an extended geographic range. The tropical genus Eremotherium (E. laurillardi is present on the northern coast and is possibly represented in Amazonia by a gigantic form. The temperate genus Megatherium is represented in Peru by a small-sized, quadrupedal, and browser of the Andean linage of the subgenus M. (Pseudomegatherium, which includes M. (P. tarijense, M. (P. elenense, M. (P. urbinai, and new species from the northern Andes. Large species of sloths such as Megatherium (Megatherium americanum, Lestodon sp., and Scelidotherium leptocephalum that are typical of the Argentinian Pampas are absent in Peru. A peculiar new megalonychid was discovered in the north coast region (Cupisnique desert and in the Andes near Lake Titicaca at Casa del Diablo cave. 14C dating indicates that most of fossil mammals in Peru are Lujanian in age. Along the coast and probably in Amazonia, Xenarthra are found in open localities, in contrast to the Andean region in which most specimens are preserved in caves. In Peru, and all over South America, large Xenarthra did not survive beyond the beginning of the Holocene.

  6. Chromosome study of Anteaters (Myrmecophagideae, Xenarthra: a preliminary report

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    Hélio Rubens Jacintho Pereira Júnior

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteaters belong to the Order Xenarthra / Family Myrmecophagidae and are the only members without teeth. There are three genera with four living species in the family Myrmecophagidae: Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (southern lesser anteater, Tamandua mexicana (northern lesser anteater, and Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater. The karyotypes of M. tridactyla (2n = 60, T. tetradactyla (2n = 54 and C. didactylus (2n = 64 have already been described. In the present paper, three female and two male specimens of giant anteater and one lesser anteater male were analyzed. The results indicate the existence of a new karyotype in the genus Tamandua, with 2n = 56 chromosomes, which can represent a new lesser anteater species. The karyotype of M. tridactyla was also described, supporting previous reports.

  7. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Pia Martin, Maria; Weaver, Scott C.; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths. PMID:27479900

  8. Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) in a Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Sarah; Rooker, Leah; Nobrega-Lee, Michelle; Guthrie, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    A 22-yr-old, captive-born, presumed female Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) presented in respiratory distress with severe dehydration and symptoms of hypotension. During treatment, dysphagia was noted and oral examination revealed enlarged palatine tonsils and mucosal plaques. Bloodwork showed a decreased sodium:potassium ratio, a low baseline cortisol, a decreased adrenocorticotropin response test, and a blunted aldosterone stimulation test. All values were compared to a healthy male Hoffmann's two-toed sloth at the same facility. Despite aggressive medical management and treatment for hypoadrenocorticism, the sloth was found deceased. Necropsy revealed abdominal effusion, multifocal plaques throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract, and testes. Histopathology showed marked adrenal cortical atrophy and intranuclear mucosal inclusions in the gastrointestinal tract; advanced molecular techniques did not uncover any viral etiologies. This is the first reported case of hypoadrenocorticism in a sloth.

  9. An update on the physiology of two- and three-toed sloths

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    D.P. Gilmore

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and pharmacological research undertaken on sloths during the past 30 years is comprehensively reviewed. This includes the numerous studies carried out upon the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, anesthesia, blood chemistry, neuromuscular responses, the brain and spinal cord, vision, sleeping and waking, water balance and kidney function and reproduction. Similarities and differences between the physiology of sloths and that of other mammals are discussed in detail.

  10. Molecular prevalence and characterization of Hepatozoon ursi infection in Indian sloth bears (Melursus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Arun, Attur Shanmugam; Manikandan, Santhanam; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2011-12-15

    Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of the study was to detect the occurrence of Hepatozoon ursi in Indian sloth bears and to characterize the parasite based on phylogenetic analysis of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence. Hepatozoon infection could be detected in 38 (70%) out of fifty-four blood samples of Indian sloth bears (captive and wild), suggestive of high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection in Indian sloth bears. Sequencing of partial 18S rRNA gene of the positive samples and BLAST analysis indicated that the nearest phylogenetic neighbour was H. ursi with which they exhibited 99-100% similarity. Additionally, Hepatozoon sp. isolated from wild sloth bears of India were identical to those in captive sloth bears and phylogenetically related to H. ursi reported from Japanese black bears from Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of H. ursi infection in Indian sloth bears. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns of morphological variation of extant sloth skulls and their implication for future conservation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Billet, Guillaume; Eastwood, Bethany; Lane, Jemima

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown an increased morphological variability of sloths from mammalian norms, affecting varied phenotypic traits from skeletal parts to soft tissues. We present here the first descriptive comparison of the whole skull morphology within the two extant sloth genera, combining geometric morphometric approaches with comparative anatomy. We used these methods to explore the patterns of the intra- and interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as phylogeny, geography, allometry, or sexual dimorphism. Our study first revealed strong phylogenetic and geographical imprints on the cranial and mandibular morphological traits. This result demonstrates the importance of accurate knowledge of species and their geographical distributions; here we show from an example pertaining to Bradypus variegatus populations the implications this has on conservation management. Moreover, in order to control the amount of this detected variation, we tentatively compared sloths to a wide range of mammalian species. Our analysis found no significant increase in the average deviation of skull shape within each investigated sloth species compared to other mammals. This suggests that the intraspecific cranial variation in sloths does not depart significantly from the variation observed in other mammals. This result has positive implications for the demarcation of anatomical regions that maintain high levels of morphological variation in sloths. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

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    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  13. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

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    M. Mühlbauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  15. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  16. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae

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    Chiarello Adriano G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sloths are slow-moving arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical rainforests in Central and South America. The six living species of sloths are occasionally reported to display a greenish discoloration of their pelage. Trichophilus welckeri, a green algal species first described more than a century ago, is widely believed to discolor the animals fur and provide the sloth with effective camouflage. However, this phenomenon has not been explored in any detail and there is little evidence to substantiate this widely held opinion. Results Here we investigate the genetic diversity of the eukaryotic community present in fur of all six extant species of sloth. Analysis of 71 sloth hair samples yielding 426 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences demonstrates a diverse eukaryotic microbial assemblage. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that sloth fur hosts a number of green algal species and suggests that acquisition of these organisms from the surrounding rainforest plays an important role in the discoloration of sloth fur. However, an alga corresponding to the morphological description of Trichophilus welckeri was found to be frequent and abundant on sloth fur. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the retention of this alga on the fur of sloths independent of geographic location. Conclusions These results demonstrate a unique diverse microbial eukaryotic community in the fur of sloths from Central and South America. Our analysis streghtens the case for symbiosis between sloths and Trichophilus welckeri.

  17. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  18. Tundmatud kohad ja asjade loomus / Katrine Gram Sloth, Johna Hansen ; intervjueerinud Laura Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gram Sloth, Katrine, 1983-

    2016-01-01

    Taani kunstnik Katrine Gram Sloth ja Rootsi arhitekt Johna Hansen räägivad oma lapsepõlvest, kunstnikuteest, loomingust. Johna Hanseni jaapanipärasest einelaua installatsioonist "Laud" (2015-2016), Katrine Gram Slothi Islandil loodud teosest "Vista Revisited" (2015)

  19. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H.; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring ...

  20. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  1. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  2. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  3. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua suggest a true case of long branch attraction

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    Maria Claudene Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences observed between the two non-Atlantic forest forms of sloths. These results have important implications for the taxonomy of sloths and anteaters and strongly suggest the placement of pigmy anteaters in their own family (Cyclopidae and raising the taxonomic status of Bradypus torquatus to a genus.

  4. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus.

  5. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mess, Andrea M; Favaron, Phelipe O; Pfarrer, Christiane; Osmann, Christine; Melo, Allan P F; Rodrigues, Rosangela F; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Bevilacqua, Estela; Miglino, Maria A

    2012-11-30

    Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occurred near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  6. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates.

  7. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra

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    Mess Andrea M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Methods Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occured near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Conclusions Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  8. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Methods Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occured near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Conclusions Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans. PMID:23199198

  9. Genomics meets applied ecology: Characterizing habitat quality for sloths in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Emily D; Kang, Jung Koo; Tempel, Douglas J; Palsbøll, Per J; Pauli, Jonathan N; Zachariah Peery, M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes governs the distribution and fitness of individuals is a fundamental aspect of ecology. While mean individual fitness is generally considered a key to assessing habitat quality, a comprehensive understanding of habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes requires estimates of dispersal rates among habitat types. The increasing accessibility of genomic approaches, combined with field-based demographic methods, provides novel opportunities for incorporating dispersal estimation into assessments of habitat quality. In this study, we integrated genomic kinship approaches with field-based estimates of fitness components and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) procedures to estimate habitat-specific dispersal rates and characterize habitat quality in two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) occurring in a Costa Rican agricultural ecosystem. Field-based observations indicated that birth and survival rates were similar in a sparsely shaded cacao farm and adjacent cattle pasture-forest mosaic. Sloth density was threefold higher in pasture compared with cacao, whereas home range size and overlap were greater in cacao compared with pasture. Dispersal rates were similar between the two habitats, as estimated using ABC procedures applied to the spatial distribution of pairs of related individuals identified using 3,431 single nucleotide polymorphism and 11 microsatellite locus genotypes. Our results indicate that crops produced under a sparse overstorey can, in some cases, constitute lower-quality habitat than pasture-forest mosaics for sloths, perhaps because of differences in food resources or predator communities. Finally, our study demonstrates that integrating field-based demographic approaches with genomic methods can provide a powerful means for characterizing habitat quality for animal populations occurring in heterogeneous landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting

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    MORAES N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 ± 0.07 to 0.87 ± 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations.

  11. Tongue papillae morphology of brown-throated sloth Bradypus variegatus (SCHINZ, 1825

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    D.M. Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bradypus variegatus inhabits the forests of South America and feeds from leaves, branches and sprouts from different plants. Due to its diet and the lack of literature on the morphological aspect of Xenarthras, five Bradypus variegatus tongues from animals which died from natural causes were evaluated, and they came from Pará State Museum Emílio Goeldi and were donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphological Research (LaPMA from UFRA, for revealing the different types of papillae and epithelial-connective tissue. Macroscopically, the tongues presented elongated shape, rounded apex, body, root, median sulcus in the root's apex, and two vallate papillae. The mucous membrane of the tongue revealed a keratinized stratified pavement epithelium, while the ventral surface of the tongue was thin and smooth, not provided with any type of papillae. However, the dorsal surface of the tongue was irregular with the presence of three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The filiform papillae found were of a simple type, presenting a rounded base, irregularly distributed with a larger concentration and development on the tongue's apex and body. The fungiform papilla showed a practically smooth surface with irregular format, with the presence of gustatory pores; these were found all over the dorsal surface, with larger concentration at the rostral part of the apex. Only two vallate papillae were observed disposed in the root of the tongue, surrounded by a deep groove, and revealing several taste buds. The tongues from Bradypus variegatus presented gustatory papillae similar to the ones described for other Xenarthras species and wild mammals.

  12. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora) and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua) suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Maria Claudene; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences...

  13. Unexpected strong polygyny in the brown-throated three-toed sloth.

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    Jonathan N Pauli

    Full Text Available Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the "rule" rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the "polygyny potential" of the environment and promote other mating strategies like promiscuity in females. We explored the social and genetic mating system for one of the most sedentary extant mammals, the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus, within a highly fragmented Neotropical habitat. Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong reproductive skew. Indeed, only 25% of all resident adult males sired offspring and one individual sired half of all sampled juveniles. Paradoxically, a sedentary life-history strategy seems to facilitate polygyny in fragmented landscapes because multiple females can persist within small patches of habitat, and be monopolized by a single male. Our work demonstrates that strong polygyny can arise in systems in which the polygyny potential should be extremely low, and other strategies, including promiscuity, would be favoured. Mating systems can be influenced by a multitude of factor and are dynamic, varying among taxa, over time, and across habitats; consequently, mating systems remain difficult to predict based on general ecological principles.

  14. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus

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    Duarte D.P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24ºC with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean ± SD were obtained for SBP (121 ± 22 mmHg, DBP (86 ± 17 mmHg, mean BP (MBP, 98 ± 18 mmHg and heart rate (73 ± 16 bpm. The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test during the light period (125 ± 21, 88 ± 15 and 100 ± 17 mmHg, respectively than during the dark period (120 ± 21, 85 ± 17 and 97 ± 17 mmHg, respectively and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 ± 19 to 90 ± 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h. Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively. The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  16. Caracterização comparativa do intestino das espécies da Ordem Xenarthra

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    Marina M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O sucesso na manutenção de uma espécie depende de vários fatores entre eles a eficiência digestiva, sendo assim parâmetros morfométricos do tubo digestório são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestivos dos alimentos no organismo animal além de indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Este trabalho visou descrever morfologicamente os intestinos delgado e grosso, órgãos do sistema digestório de representantes da ordem Xenarthra a fim de fornecer subsídios para a avaliação da dieta e realização de procedimentos clínicos nestes animais, sejam eles de vida livre ou de cativeiro. Foram utilizados 7 espécimes entre preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, tatu-verdadeiro (Dasypus novemcinctus e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Todos as amostras foram processadas seguindo procedimentos de rotina efetuados nos laboratórios de Anatomia Animal e Histologia da FZEA/USP. Os intestinos de B. torquatus se apresentaram curtos e simples, enquanto que nos exemplares de D. novemcintus e M. tridactyla o intestino era longo e com algumas peculiaridades. No duodeno de todos os espécimes notamos a presença das glândulas de Brünner e estruturas para aumentar a superfície de absorção. Apenas em preguiças, o mesentério mantém o jejuno preso à parede dorsal da cavidade abdominal. O íleo representou a menor porção nas preguiças e tatus, exceto em tamanduáque apresentava o íleo como a maior parte depois do jejuno. O ceco em tatus e tamanduás apresentavam tamanho considerável e a presença de glândulas na mucosa, nestas espécies destacamos a funcionalidade do ceco, uma vez que este se apresentou repleto de restos alimentares. Na mucosa do cólon de todos os espécimes, haviam criptas de Lieberkühn, sendo mais numerosas em D. novemcinctus e M. tridactyla. Apenas em B. torquatus, o reto apresentou maior diâmetro e rigidez em relação ao cólon. No reto de todas as espécies estudadas, a

  17. Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid Region

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    Tana P. MEWADA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterisations of the Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus diet during three distinguished seasons (monsoon, winter and summer in the semi-arid region of western India was under study. Diet was estimated using scat analysis, based on the calculation of Index of Relative Importance (IRI in order to determine the contribution of different food items in the Sloth bear diet. Sloth bears were observed to feed on a wide variety of prey items. They are specialized on insect prey, particularly termites or ants, and are considered as myrmecophagous. The myrmecophagousis character was confirmed by the highest score of insect part (IRI = 21.37 from the samples (n = 566, which was followed by Diospyros melanoxylon (IRI Score 13.51, Ficus spp. (IRI score 12.69 and Cassia fistula (IRI Score 10.13. Sloth bear dietary proportions varied among the three seasons under the study interval. Data suggested that the Sloth bear is essentially behaving as an omnivore, having similar diet (in terms of high incidence of wild fruits and insects with the bears inhabiting semi-arid regions. The opportunistic and generalist strategy of selecting diet ingredients has probably helped the species to survive in semi-arid habitat across the North Gujarat.

  18. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

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    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  19. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

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    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  20. Trend Toward Individualization of the Endocrine and Exocrine Portions of the Giant Anteater Pancreas (Myrmecophaga Tridactyla, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Luciana Pedrosa; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Borghesi, Jéssica; Oliveira Carreira, Ana Claudia; Miglino, Maria Angelica; de Melo, Alan Perez Ferraz

    2017-06-01

    Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum. The corpus pancreatis was elongated and showed a caudal curvature of 45°. The pancreas exhibited a facies dorsalis (related to the spleen and stomach) and a facies ventralis (related to the renal capsule and intestine). Macroscopically, a craniodorsal, medial, and caudoventral regions were identified, in addition to the left lobe. Structurally, the organ exhibited two distinct parts: the first had exocrine characteristics, consisting of acini and ducts; the second, which was the endocrine portion, consisted of the pancreatic islets, which were located in the medial, caudoventral and left lobe regions. Ultrastructural analysis identified secretory vesicles containing zymogen granules, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic centroacinar cells. Morphological data on the anatomy of members of the Xenarthra have revealed important peculiarities of several organs and systems, adding great biological value to the representatives of this group. In addition, these studies significantly contribute not only to knowledge of the biology, taxonomy and, consequently, preservation of these animals but also to the discovery of new experimental models. Anat Rec, 300:1104-1113, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. ON THE PRESENCE OF PYRAMIODONTHERIUM (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, MEGATHERIIDAE IN THE LATE MIOCENE OF NORTHEASTERN ARGENTINA AND ITS BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS

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    DIEGO BRANDONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  2. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%), most occurring when person(s) were working in fields (7%), defecating (5%), or engaged in construction work (3%). Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57%) and most (54%) were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40%) followed by monsoon (35%) and winter (25%). Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15%) of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  3. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Aniruddha H Dhamorikar

    Full Text Available Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%, with the greatest number of those (42% occurring during the collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP, 15% during the collection of fuelwood and 13% during grazing of livestock. The remainder took place at forest edges or in agricultural fields (19%, most occurring when person(s were working in fields (7%, defecating (5%, or engaged in construction work (3%. Most victims were between the ages of 31 to 50 (57% and most (54% were members of the Gond tribe. The majority of attacks occurred in summer (40% followed by monsoon (35% and winter (25%. Forty-four percent of victims were rescued by people, while 43% of the time bears retreated by themselves. In 60% of attacks, a single bear was involved, whereas 25% involved adult females with dependent cubs and the remainder (15% of the cases involved a pair of bears. We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities.

  4. Differentiation of Xenarthra (Mammalia species through the identification of their fecal bile acid patterns: An ecological tool Diferenciación de especies de Xenarthra (Mammalia a través de la identificación de sus patrones de ácidos biliares fecales: Una herramienta ecológica

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    M. SOLEDAD ARAUJO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of feces is a fundamental tool for field work, especially to identify the presence of certain species in an area. Fecal bile acids and their relative concentration follow patterns that are species-specific, and can be characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. This technique has been used for differentiating feces of several mammal species; however it has never been used for Xenarthra species. In this work, 96 feces of Xenarthra species were analyzed by TLC to determine the bile acid pattern. The species were: Zaedyus pichiy (n = 10, Chaetophractus vellerosus (n = 5, Chaetophractus villosus (n = 57, Dasypus kybridus (n = 4, Priodontes maximus (n = 2, Tamanduá tetradactyla (n = 14 and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (n = 4. There were differences between the bile acid patterns of all the species, but not between males and females, nor between wild and captive animals of the same species. We found seven known bile acids, cholesterol and seven unidentified compounds (X1-X7. All the species had taurocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and cholesterol. Only C. villosus had deoxycholic acid (Rf: 0.30 ± 0.01. Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C. villosus had two or three bands of dehydrocholic acid (Rf between 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.45 ± 0.02, while the other species had one or two. Z. pichiy had two unidentified bile acids, X6 (Rf: 0.85 ± 0.06 and X7 (Rf 0.93 ± 0.03, that were almost indistinguishable in other species. D. hybridus differed from Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C villosus because it did not have chenodeoxycholic acid and X7. T. tetradactyla was the only species without cholic acid and it differed from M. tridactyla because it had dehydrocholic acid. D. hybridus was the species with the lowest number of compounds (seven, and differed from the others because it did not have the X1 and X5 unidentified compounds. These results are the first for Xenarthra and would be very important for fu ture studies about the

  5. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

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    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  6. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  9. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  10. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  11. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  12. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  13. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  14. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  16. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  17. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  18. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  19. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  20. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  1. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  2. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  3. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  6. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  8. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  9. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  10. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  11. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  12. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  13. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  14. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  15. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  16. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  17. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  18. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  19. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  1. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  2. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  3. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  4. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  5. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  6. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  7. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  8. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  9. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  10. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  11. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  12. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  13. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  14. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  15. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  16. First record of giant anteater (xenarthra, myrmecophagidae) in north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G

    1987-04-10

    A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.

  17. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  18. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  19. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  20. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  1. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  2. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  3. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.

  4. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  5. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  6. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  7. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  8. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  9. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-05-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  12. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  13. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  14. On LHCb muon MWPC grounding

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A

    2006-01-01

    My goal is to study how a big MWPC system, in particular the LHCb muon system, can be protected against unstable operation and multiple spurious hits, produced by incorrect or imperfect grounding in the severe EM environment of the LHCb experiment. A mechanism of penetration of parasitic current from the ground loop to the input of the front-end amplifier is discussed. A new model of the detector cell as the electrical bridge is considered. As shown, unbalance of the bridge makes detector to be sensitive to the noise in ground loop. Resonances in ground loop are specified. Tests of multiple-point and single-point grounding conceptions made on mock-up are presented.

  15. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  16. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  17. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  18. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  19. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  20. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  1. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  2. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  3. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  4. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  5. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  6. Stupidity, Sloth and Public Policy: Social Darwinism Rides Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernard C.

    This paper identifies and analyzes some of the arguments employed by those who feel that "we have done enough" for the less fortunate members of society, who wish to curtail or end Federal involvement in social change, and who have lost sight of the dual goals of individualism and equality of opportunity. These arguments fall roughly into three…

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  9. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  10. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  11. The automated ground network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  12. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  13. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  14. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  15. The Mirror in the Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick

    An important and original contribution to the study of the archive, The Mirror in the Ground approaches the discipline of archaeology in South Africa from the perspective of an interest in visualities. Author Nick Shepherd argues that it makes sense to talk about an archaeological aesthetics...... at the University of Cape Town, where he convenes a graduate programme on Public Culture and Heritage. The Mirror in the Ground is the first volume in the relaunched Series in Visual Histories, produced by the Centre for Curating the Archive (CCA) at the University of Cape Town....

  16. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  17. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, e...

  18. The Steksovo II burial ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martianov Vladimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the results of many-years’ (1990-2010 excavations on the ancient Mordovian Steksovo II burial ground site. The burial ground had functioned in the 3rd to 13th centuries AD. The investigations revealed hundreds of burials, which enabled the researchers to judge upon the wealth of material items found and the variety of burial rites of the population that had formed the burial ground. The 1st millennium AD is characterized by bi-ritualism, while inhumation is characteristic of the 11-13th-century period; horses’ burials were also discovered. The data of the burial ground make it possible to modify the concept of the stages in ancient Mordovians ethnogenesis. It is generally attributed to the Erzya Mordvins, but in early burials the combination of the Erzya and Moksha ancientries is traced. Complexes of the items of crucial importance for the chronology of the burial are discussed in the article with a representation of statistical data characterizing funeral rites and traditions.

  19. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  20. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  1. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  2. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  3. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  4. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  5. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  6. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  7. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  8. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  9. 33 CFR 183.415 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.415 Grounding. If a boat has more than one gasoline engine, grounded cranking motor circuits must be connected to...

  10. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  11. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  12. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis

    2006-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...

  13. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  14. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground lamb. 65.170 Section 65.170 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.170 Ground lamb. Ground lamb means comminuted...

  15. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  16. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  18. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the...

  19. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  20. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  1. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  2. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  3. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    Collection of papers produced by tutors involved in a master´s degree course for teacher in Ethiopia offers an important challenge to the dominant neo-liberal agenda that has taken over educational reform throughtout the world. The project was based on the practice of critical practitioner inquiry...... and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  4. Ground cross-modal impedance as a tool for analyzing ground/plate interaction and ground wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, L; Laulagnet, B

    2015-05-01

    An analytical approach is investigated to model ground-plate interaction based on modal decomposition and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. A finite rectangular plate subjected to flexural vibration is coupled with the ground and modeled with the Kirchhoff hypothesis. A Navier equation represents the stratified ground, assumed infinite in the x- and y-directions and free at the top surface. To obtain an analytical solution, modal decomposition is applied to the structure and a Fourier Transform is applied to the ground. The result is a new tool for analyzing ground-plate interaction to resolve this problem: ground cross-modal impedance. It allows quantifying the added-stiffness, added-mass, and added-damping from the ground to the structure. Similarity with the parallel acoustic problem is highlighted. A comparison between the theory and the experiment shows good matching. Finally, specific cases are investigated, notably the influence of layer depth on plate vibration.

  5. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  6. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dunnivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  7. Ground penetrating radar system and method for detecting an object on or below a ground surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jongth, R.; Yarovoy, A.; Schukin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar system for detecting objects (17) on or below a ground surface (18), comprising at least one transmit antenna (13) having a first foot print (14) at the ground surface, at least one receive antenna (15) having a second foot print (16) at the ground surface, and processing

  8. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  9. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  10. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  11. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.

  12. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  13. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  14. 46 CFR 111.05-13 - Grounding connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-13 Grounding... power sources operating in parallel in the system. ...

  15. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  16. Ground Motion Models for Future Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2000-01-01

    Optimization of the parameters of a future linear collider requires comprehensive models of ground motion. Both general models of ground motion and specific models of the particular site and local conditions are essential. Existing models are not completely adequate, either because they are too general, or because they omit important peculiarities of ground motion. The model considered in this paper is based on recent ground motion measurements performed at SLAC and at other accelerator laboratories, as well as on historical data. The issues to be studied for the models to become more predictive are also discussed

  17. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  18. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  19. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-01

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  20. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  1. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  2. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  3. Infrasound from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  4. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  5. Molecular decay of the tooth gene Enamelin (ENAM mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vestigial structures occur at both the anatomical and molecular levels, but studies documenting the co-occurrence of morphological degeneration in the fossil record and molecular decay in the genome are rare. Here, we use morphology, the fossil record, and phylogenetics to predict the occurrence of "molecular fossils" of the enamelin (ENAM gene in four different orders of placental mammals (Tubulidentata, Pholidota, Cetacea, Xenarthra with toothless and/or enamelless taxa. Our results support the "molecular fossil" hypothesis and demonstrate the occurrence of frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in all toothless and enamelless taxa. We then use a novel method based on selection intensity estimates for codons (omega to calculate the timing of iterated enamel loss in the fossil record of aardvarks and pangolins, and further show that the molecular evolutionary history of ENAM predicts the occurrence of enamel in basal representatives of Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, armadillos even though frameshift mutations are ubiquitous in ENAM sequences of living xenarthrans. The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory.

  6. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  7. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety review...

  8. 49 CFR 234.213 - Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance Standards § 234.213 Grounds. Each circuit that affects the proper functioning of a highway-rail... in the circuit. This requirement does not apply to: circuits that include track rail; alternating current power distribution circuits that are grounded in the interest of safety; and common return wires...

  9. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  10. Puzzling the Picture Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…

  11. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  12. River as a part of ground battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  13. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  14. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  15. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Liedtke, Christian; Droog, Ed

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  16. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed.

  17. ECRB ALCOVE AND NICHE GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Keifer

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to provide design bases for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) alcove and niche ground support drawings. The objective is to evaluate the ESF Alcove Ground Support Analysis (Ref 5.1) to determine if the calculations technically bound the ECRB alcoves and to address specific differences in the conditions and constraints

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  19. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  20. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.801 Grounding...

  1. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared either on figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region’s color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments show that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as grounds are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  2. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  3. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  4. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  5. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  6. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  7. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  8. Competition-strength-dependent ground suppression in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagio, Elizabeth; Cacciamani, Laura; Peterson, Mary A

    2012-07-01

    Figure-ground segregation is modeled as inhibitory competition between objects that might be perceived on opposite sides of borders. The winner is the figure; the loser is suppressed, and its location is perceived as shapeless ground. Evidence of ground suppression would support inhibitory competition models and would contribute to explaining why grounds are shapeless near borders shared with figures, yet such evidence is scarce. We manipulated whether competition from potential objects on the ground side of figures was high (i.e., portions of familiar objects were potentially present there) or low (novel objects were potentially present). We predicted that greater competition would produce more ground suppression. The results of two experiments in which suppression was assessed via judgments of the orientation of target bars confirmed this prediction; a third experiment showed that ground suppression is short-lived. Our findings support inhibitory competition models of figure assignment, in particular, and models of visual perception entailing feedback, in general.

  9. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  10. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  11. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  13. 30 CFR 57.3360 - Ground support use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground support use. 57.3360 Section 57.3360... and Support-Underground Only § 57.3360 Ground support use. Ground support shall be used where ground conditions, or mining experience in similar ground conditions in the mine, indicate that it is necessary...

  14. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-06-01

    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  16. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  17. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  18. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  19. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  20. 49 CFR 236.2 - Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuit, except circuits which include any track rail and except the common return wires of single-wire, single-break, signal control circuits using a grounded common, and alternating current power distribution...

  1. (ajst) effects of ground insulation and greenhouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    and quality of biogas generation from dairy cattle dung. The effects ... Therefore ground insulation of plastic biogas digester under greenhouse conditions significantly enhances ..... The low values obtained did not suggest failure of the system ...

  2. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  3. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  4. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  5. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification

  6. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  7. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  8. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  9. Traditional behaviour and fidelity to caribou calving grounds by barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the fidelity of female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. of each herd to specific calving grounds is convincing. Involvement of learned behaviour in the annual return of those cows to the same calving grounds implies such actions are a form of «traditional» behaviour. Even wide variations in population size have not yet knowingly led to marked changes in size or location of calving grounds or prolonged abandonment of established ones. Rarely is the adoption of new calving grounds reported and emigration to another herd's calving ground or interchange between calving grounds has not yet been unequivocally documented. The calving experience of individual caribou and environmental pressures may modify the cow's use patterns of her calving grounds. The current definition of herds based on traditional calving grounds may require modification, if increasing caribou numbers result in changes in traditions. However, current data do not contradict either the fidelity to traditional calving grounds or the concept of herd identity based on that fidelity.

  10. Seven methods to measure ground moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The correct irrigation methods are of great importance to the deciduous fruit grower. The article discusses seven methods for the measuring of ground humidity. These methods are based on gravimetry, electric resistance, gamma attenuation, neutron humidity measurement, tensiometers and a study of the correlation between ground humidity and water evaporation. At this stage, the last technique is regarded as the most practicle method. Neutron moisture gages might be used if adhered to the regulations of NUCOR

  11. Resistorless Electronically Tunable Grounded Inductance Simulator Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herencsár, Norbert; Kartci, Aslihan

    2017-01-01

    A new realization of grounded lossless positive inductance simulator (PIS) using simple inverting voltage buffer and unity-gain current follower/inverter (CF±) is reported. Considering the input intrinsic resistance of CF± as useful active parameter, the proposed PIS can be considered as resistorless circuit and it only employs in total 16 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors and a grounded capacitor. The resulting equivalent inductance value of the proposed simulator can be adjusted v...

  12. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  13. Optimizing Engineering Tools Using Modern Ground Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ENGINEERING TOOLS USING MODERN GROUND ARCHITECTURES by Ryan P. McArdle December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Marc Peters Co-Advisor: I.M. Ross...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZING ENGINEERING TOOLS USING MODERN GROUND ARCHITECTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan P. McArdle 7... engineering tools. First, the effectiveness of MathWorks’ Parallel Computing Toolkit is assessed when performing somewhat basic computations in

  14. Search for the QCD ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.

    1994-05-01

    Within the Euclidean effective action approach we propose criteria for the ground state of QCD. Despite a nonvanishing field strength the ground state should be invariant with respect to modified Poincare transformations consisting of a combination of translations and rotations with suitable gauge transformations. We have found candidate states for QCD with four or more colours. The formation of gluon condensates shows similarities with the Higgs phenomenon. (orig.)

  15. Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming literacy field hockey woman player ground. Objectives: To obtain and analyze data on the level ground swimming literacy field hockey woman player. Their perception swimming literacy for life, the use of non-specific regeneration and as a training resource. Methods: Analysis of scientific literature, survey, case study, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results of the work: field hockey player as swimming literate, benefits swimming but not used as a means of...

  16. Shielding and grounding in large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    1998-09-01

    Prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI), or ''noise pickup,'' is an important design aspect in large detectors in accelerator environments. Shielding effectiveness as a function of shield thickness and conductivity vs the type and frequency of the interference field is described. Noise induced in transmission lines by ground loop driven currents in the shield is evaluated and the importance of low shield resistance is emphasized. Some measures for prevention of ground loops and isolation of detector-readout systems are discussed

  17. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  18. Deflection of electron beams by ground planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well

  19. Ground-motion prediction from tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  20. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  1. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  2. Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report develops and applies a method for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Specifically considered are ground motions resulting from earthquakes with magnitudes from 5 to 8, fault distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz. The two main objectives were: (1) to develop generic relations for estimating ground motion appropriate for site screening; and (2) to develop a guideline for conducting a thorough site investigation needed to define the seismic design basis. For the first objective, an engineering model was developed to predict the expected ground motion on rock sites, with an additional set of amplification factors to account for the response of the soil column over rock at soil sites. The results incorporate best estimates of ground motion as well as the randomness and uncertainty associated with those estimates. For the second objective, guidelines were developed for gathering geotechnical information at a site and using this information in calculating site response. As a part of this development, an extensive set of geotechnical and seismic investigations was conducted at three reference sites. Together, the engineering model and guidelines provide the means to select and assess the seismic suitability of a site

  3. Jung's equation of the ground of being with the ground of psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourley, John

    2011-09-01

    The paper amplifies Jung's psychology of ground associated with the culmination of the alchemical process in the unus mundus. It argues that Jung and Dorn identify the experience of the ground with the experience of divinity as the common originary source of individual and totality. It notes the monistic and pantheistic implications of the experience and goes on to amplify the experience through Eckhart's mediaeval mysticism of ground and Paul Tillich's modern philosophical/theological understanding of ground. It concludes that the Jung/Dorn psychological understanding of ground supersedes monotheistic consciousness. Their vision supports the emergence of a societal myth based on the identification of the ground as the source of all divinities and faith in them. This source currently urges a mythic consciousness that would surpass its past and current concretions and so alleviate the threat that monotheistic consciousness in any domain now poses to human survival. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  5. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  6. Grounding line processes on the Totten Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.; Watson, C. S.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Peters, L. E.; Coleman, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Totten Glacier has been an area of recent interest due to its large drainage basin, much of which is grounded below sea level and has a history of large scale grounding line movement. Reports that warm water reaches the sub-ice shelf cavity have led to speculation that it could be vulnerable to future grounding line retreat. Over the Antarctic summer 2016/17 an array of 6 GPS and autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) units were deployed in the grounding zone of the Totten Glacier. These instruments measure changes in ice velocity and thickness which can be used to investigate both ice dynamics across the grounding line, and the interaction between ice and ocean in the subglacial cavity. Basal melt rates calculated from the ApRES units on floating ice range from 1 to 17 m/a. These values are significantly lower than previous estimates of basal melt rate produced by ocean modelling of the subglacial cavity. Meanwhile, GPS-derived velocity and elevation on the surface of the ice show a strong tidal signal, as does the vertical strain rate within the ice derived from internal layering from the ApRES instruments. These results demonstrate the significance of the complex grounding pattern of the Totten Glacier. The presence of re-grounding points has significant implications for the dynamics of the glacier and the ocean circulation within the subglacial cavity. We discuss what can be learned from our in situ measurements, and how they can be used to improve models of the glacier's future behaviour.

  7. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated

  8. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  9. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  10. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  11. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  12. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  13. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  14. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  15. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  16. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  17. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  18. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  19. El registro más antiguo de Panochthus (Xenarthra, Glyptodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorano, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Panochthus is one of the largest sized and most frequently recorded genera of Pleistocene South American Glyptodontidae. A recent taxonomic revision shows that the genus includes six species: P. intermedius>/i> and P. subintermedius (early Pleistocene-middle Pleistocene, P. tuberculatus and P. frenzelianus (middle Pleistocene-late Pleistocene, whereas P. greslebini and P. jaguaribensis only can be referred to the Pleistocene sensu lato. In this contribution the oldest record of the genus Panochthus (MMP 5171 is presented and described. The remains came from the late Pliocene (Playa Los lobos Aloformation, Chapadmalal Formation; Chapadmalalan; Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis Biozone of the Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The material is represented by a considerable fragment of dorsal carapace and some associated osteoderms, which are assignable to an indeterminate species of Panochthus. One of the most significant characters in the exposed surface of the osteoderms is the presence of a clear “reticular” pattern, a character only observed in Panochthus. From a biostratigraphic viewpoint, it is remarkable the absence of records of Panochthus in the Marplatan Age/Stage (late Pliocene-early Pleistocene.Panochthus es uno de los géneros de gliptodóntidos de mayores dimensiones y más ampliamente registrado en el Pleistoceno del sur de América del Sur. Una reciente revisión demostró que alberga seis especies distribuidas cronológicamente de la siguiente manera: P. Intermedius y P. Subintermedius (Pleistoceno temprano-Pleistoceno medio, Ensenadense; P. Tuberculatus y P. Frenzelianus tienen sus biocrones limitados al Pleistoceno medio-Pleistoceno tardío (Bonaerense-Lujanense, mientras que P. Greslebini y P. Jaguaribensis solo pueden referirse al Pleistoceno sensu lato. En la presente contribución se da a conocer el registro más antiguo de Panochthus, representado por el material MMP 5171, procedente del Plioceno tardío (Aloformación Playa Los Lobos, Formación Chapadmalal; Chapadmalalense; Biozona de Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis de la localidad de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. El material consiste en un gran fragmento de coraza dorsal y en varios trozos de osteodermos asociados, asignables a una especie indeterminada de Panochthus. Uno de los caracteres más significativos es la presencia, a nivel de la superficie expuesta de los osteodermos, de figuritas que siguen un evidente patrón reticular, solo observable en Panochthus. Desde el punto de vista bioestratigráfico, es llamativa la ausencia de registros de Panochthus en la Edad Marplatense (Plioceno tardío-Pleistoceno temprano.

  20. Modelling man-made ground to link the above- and below- ground urban domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, J.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of STSM TU1206-36204. During a visit to GEUS (DK) between 23 and 27 January 2017, Jeroen Schokker (TNO-GSN, NL) has focussed on the modelling of man-made ground as a linking pin between the above- and below-ground urban domains. Key results include: • Man-made

  1. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  2. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  3. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  4. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  5. A Mixed Prediction Model of Ground Subsidence for Civil Infrastructures on Soft Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ground subsidence processes is an important subject for the asset management of civil infrastructures on soft ground, such as airport facilities. In the planning and design stage, there exist many uncertainties in geotechnical conditions, and it is impossible to estimate the ground subsidence process by deterministic methods. In this paper, the sets of sample paths designating ground subsidence processes are generated by use of a one-dimensional consolidation model incorporating inhomogeneous ground subsidence. Given the sample paths, the mixed subsidence model is presented to describe the probabilistic structure behind the sample paths. The mixed model can be updated by the Bayesian methods based upon the newly obtained monitoring data. Concretely speaking, in order to estimate the updating models, Markov Chain Monte Calro method, which is the frontier technique in Bayesian statistics, is applied. Through a case study, this paper discussed the applicability of the proposed method and illustrated its possible application and future works.

  6. Ground-atmosphere interactions at Gale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.; Ramos, M.; Hallet, B.; Gómez, F. G.; Jun, I.; Fisk, M. R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martin-Torres, J.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano, M.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze variations in environmental parameters and regolith properties along Curiosity's track to determine the possible causes of an abrupt change in the thermal properties of the ground and the atmosphere observed around Sol 120, as the rover transitioned from an area of sandy soil (Rocknest) to an area of fractured bedrock terrain (Yellowknife). Curiosity is instrumented with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) sensors to measure the air temperature, the ground temperature, and the hydrogen content of the shallow subsurface along Curiosity's track. Analysis of the REMS data is used to estimate the regolith's heat budget. This analysis suggests that the abrupt decrease in the ground and atmosphere temperature and the difference between ground and air temperatures observed around Sol 120 is likely caused by an increase in the soil thermal inertia. The changes in thermal inertia have been known for some time so confirming this by the REMS package provides ground truthing. A new unexpected finding is that the regolith water content, as indicated by DAN's detection of hydrogen content, is higher in the Yellowknife soil. Another interesting finding at this site are the holes and other signs of recent geological activity in the area of fractured terrain that may reflect large volumetric variations and facilitate gas exchange between the ground and atmosphere. Near-surface volumetric changes in soil and bedrock could reflect changes in the volume of subsurface H2O, or in the partitioning of H2O among its three phases. Volume increases could also result from salt crystal growth in rock pores and soil pores associated with the adsorption of water vapor. Crystallization in pores is a significant weathering process on Earth; it could well be active on Mars. Salts also inhibits the exchange of moisture between the ground and the atmosphere, and cements the soils of arid places such as in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in

  7. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2000-01-01

    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k 0 =0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the

  8. Process for storing radioactive waste in ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gouvenot, D.; Pagny, P.

    1983-01-01

    A process for storing radioactive waste in a cavity in the ground is claimed. The waste is conditioned and isolated from the ground by at least one retention barrier. A grout consisting of 1000 parts by weight of water, 40 to 400 parts by weight of cement, 80 to 1000 parts by weight of at least one clay chosen from the group including montmorillonite, illite and vermiculite, as well as 25 to 1200 parts by weight of kieselguhr and/or natural or artificial pozzuolanas is introduced into gaps in the soil areas surrounding the cavity

  9. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  11. Creating Space Plasma from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0179 CREATING SPACE PLASMA FROM THE GROUND Herbert C Carlson UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY Final Report 05/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05/14/2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 08/14/2012-05/14/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Creating space plasma from...Report (2016) Creating Space Plasma from the Ground Grant FA9550-11-1-0236 AFOSR Program Manager Dr. Kent Miller PI: Herbert C. Carlson Center for

  12. Prospects of protected ground in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mamedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state and prospects of  protected  ground development in the Russian Federation based on the data of the Ministry  of Agriculture and  the Federal State Statistics Service. The indexes of production of vegetable crops in different regions of the  Russian Federation are given. The problems, which  are  holding back the greenhouse business, are  discussed. The possibilities of increasing the  area of protected ground and vegetable production are shown.

  13. Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Victoria Jane; Eakins, John; Austin, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who produced an initial ground truth database. Human subjects were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative images. These rankings were then used to score the perceptions, identify the preferred human breakdowns and thus allow us to induce perceptual rules for h...

  14. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  15. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  16. Investigation of the relationship between ground and engineering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to investigate possible ground motion amplification in earthquake resistant building design, relationship between the ground and engineering bedrock must be ensured. In order to provide this relation, structure, basic characteristics, and thickness of the ground are investigated. In this context, calculating ground ...

  17. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  18. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  19. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  20. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  1. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents are developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences can be analysed and assessed. The presnt paper outlines a method for evaluation of the probability of ship...

  2. Probability of Grounding and Collision Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in ship traffic, rational criteria for collision and grounding accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present notes outline a method for evaluation of the probability...

  3. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  4. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  5. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  6. CENTRAL NIGERIA: DEDUCTIONS FROM GROUND MAGNETIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnetic field data of the K uri River basin were obtained from a ground magnetic survey using an MP-2 proton ... These shapes conform to the concept of the ... Granite Complex in the South west (Fig. 1). ..... Cross-section: It's Properties and.

  7. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  8. GRACAT, Software for grounding and collision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2002-01-01

    and grounding accidents. The software consists of three basic analysis modules and one risk mitigation module: 1) frequency, 2) damage, and 3) consequence. These modules can be used individually or in series and the analyses can be performed in deterministic or probabilistic mode. Finally, in the mitigation...

  9. Ground Robotics Capabilities Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-06

    SALON A... SALON B SALON C C O R R ID O R CROCKETT A CROCKETT B CROCKETT C CROCKETT D CROCKETT E CROCKETT F CROCKETT G CROCKETT H CROCKETT I ENTRANCE 2008 Ground...analysis for “ game changing” robotic technologies – “UGVs are significantly more complicated than UAVs, and will require much more

  10. Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  11. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  12. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  13. Satellite-to-ground radiowave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Allnutt, JE

    2011-01-01

    This book is a follow up to the award winning first edition and is written as a comprehensive guide for those who need to obtain a working knowledge of radiowave propagation on satellite-to-ground links at frequencies above 1 GHz, and as a reference book for experts in the field.

  14. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  15. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  16. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  17. Thermodynamic Ground States of Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunkel, F.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Heinen, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at heterointerfaces between nominally insulating oxides is addressed with a thermodynamical approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the thermodynamic ground states of various 2DEG systems directly probed in high temperature...

  18. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  19. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  20. Intelligent systems for KSC ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1992-01-01

    The ground processing and launch of Shuttle vehicles and their payloads is the primary task of Kennedy Space Center. It is a process which is largely manual and contains little inherent automation. Business is conducted today much as it was during previous NASA programs such as Apollo. In light of new programs and decreasing budgets, NASA must find more cost effective ways in which to do business while retaining the quality and safety of activities. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence could cut manpower and processing time. This paper is an overview of the research and development in Al technology at KSC with descriptions of the systems which have been implemented, as well as a few under development which are promising additions to ground processing software. Projects discussed cover many facets of ground processing activities, including computer sustaining engineering, subsystem monitor and diagnosis tools and launch team assistants. The deployed Al applications have proven an effectiveness which has helped to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing intelligent software in the ground processing task.

  1. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  2. Grounded Theory for Creating Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacy, Cheryl Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to discover the impact on adolescent reading motivation as students were given an opportunity to select recreational reading material and read consistently during class time. This study also explored the motivational impact of student engagement from dialogue with peers about their reading…

  3. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  4. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.H.Tang

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4

  5. Monitoring of arched sched ground layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listjak, M.; Slaninka, A.; Rau, L.; Pajersky, P.

    2015-01-01

    Arched Shed was a part of controlled area of NPP A1 site in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). It had been used for temporary storage of loose radioactive waste (RAW) which has been characterized within the BIDSF project C13, Characterisation of Loose Radioactive Waste'. Stored RAW has been treated and sorted within the project ',Realization of the 2 nd stage of Decommissioning Project of NPP A1'. Area of Arched Shed represents approximately 270 m 2 (45 m x 6 m). Ground layer of the AS consists mostly of soil with solid elements (stones and gravel). The aim of monitoring was to remove the contaminated soil up to 1 m below ground level. Requirement for detail monitoring of the Arched Shed ground layer resulted from conclusions of the BIDSF project C13 which has proved that massic activity 137 Cs of soil was up to few thousands Bq·kg -1 in underground layer. Dominant easy to measure radionuclide in the soil is 137 Cs which has been used as a key radionuclide for methodology of in-situ soil monitoring. Following methods has been applied during characterization: dose rate survey, sampling from defined ground layer followed by laboratory gamma spectrometry analysis by the accredited testing laboratory of radiation dosimetry VUJE (S-219) and in-situ scintillation gamma spectrometry by 1.5''x1.5'' LaBr detector. Massic activity of the remaining soil (not excavated) comply the criteria for free release into the environment (Government Regulation of Slovak Republic 345/2006 Coll.). Area was filled up by non-contaminated soil up to the ground level of surroundings. Afterward the area was covered with geotextile and concrete panels and nowadays it is ready for further usage within the NPP A1 decommissioning project as a place for treatment, conditioning and disposal of contaminated soil and concrete. (authors)

  6. Artillery localization using networked wireless ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an installation of four acoustic/seismic ground sensors built using COTS computers and networking gear and operating on a continuous basis at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. A description of the design can be found as well, which is essentially a Windows 2000 PC with 24-bit data acquisition, GPS timing, and environmental sensors for wind and temperature. A 4-element square acoustic array 1.8m on a side can be used to detect the time and angle of arrival of the muzzle blast and the impact explosion. A 3-component geophone allows the seismic wave direction to be estimated. The 8th channel of the 24-bit data acquisition system has a 1-pulse-per-second time signal from the GPS. This allows acoustic/seismic 'snapshots' to be coherently related from multiple disconnected ground sensor nodes. COTS 2.4 GHz frequency hopping radios (802.11 standard) are used with either omni or yagi antennas depending on the location on the range. Localization of the artillery or impact can be done by using the time and angle of arrival of the waves at 2 or more ground sensor locations. However, this straightforward analysis can be significantly complicated by weather and wind noise and is also the subject of another research contract. This work will present a general description of the COTS ground sensor installation, show example data autonomously collected including agent-based atmospheric data, and share some of the lessons learned from operating a Windows 2000 based system continuously outdoors.

  7. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  8. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. [Statutory Provisions] On and after September 30, 1970, high-voltage, resistance grounded systems... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage...

  9. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  10. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  11. The 15th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Ground Robots Created by Intelligent Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theisen, Bernard L

    2007-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s...

  12. The 15th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Ground Robots Created by Intelligent Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theisen, Bernard L

    2007-01-01

    ..., and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities...

  13. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  14. Performance Analysis of Slinky Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers for a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the thermal performance of reclined (parallel to ground surface and standing (perpendicular to ground surface slinky horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs with different water mass flow rates in the heating mode of continuous and intermittent operations. A copper tube with an outer surface protected with low-density polyethylene was selected as the tube material of the ground heat exchanger. Effects on ground temperature around the reclined slinky HGHE due to heat extraction and the effect of variation of ground temperatures on reclined HGHE performance are discussed. A higher heat exchange rate was experienced in standing HGHE than in reclined HGHE. The standing HGHE was affected by deeper ground temperature and also a greater amount of backfilled sand in standing HGHE (4.20 m3 than reclined HGHE (1.58 m3, which has higher thermal conductivity than site soil. For mass flow rate of 1 L/min with inlet water temperature 7 °C, the 4-day average heat extraction rates increased 45.3% and 127.3%, respectively, when the initial average ground temperatures at 1.5 m depth around reclined HGHE increased from 10.4 °C to 11.7 °C and 10.4 °C to 13.7 °C. In the case of intermittent operation, which boosted the thermal performance, a short time interval of intermittent operation is better than a long time interval of intermittent operation. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of power consumption by the circulating pump, the intermittent operation is more efficient than continuous operation.

  15. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  16. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers

  17. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  18. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  19. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  20. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  1. Grounding the Innovation of Future Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Oulasvirta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile and ubiquitous technologies can potentially change the role of information and communication technology in human lives. Empirical, human-centered approaches are emerging as an alternative to technology-driven approaches in the innovation of these technologies. Three necessary empirical stages, intertwined with analytical ones and with each informing and grounding the succeeding stages, are analyzed. First, needfinding is utilized to discover societal and individual demands for technology. Second, observational and experimental studies examine the social and cognitive preconditions for interaction. From these two steps, a hypothesis is formulated regarding how technology will change existing practices. Finally, this hypothesis, embodied in the design of a prototype, is tested in a field trial. Four design cases illustrate the value of empirical grounding.

  2. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  3. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  4. Single-event effect ground test issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based single event effect (SEE) testing of microcircuits permits characterization of device susceptibility to various radiation induced disturbances, including: (1) single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) in digital microcircuits; (2) single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event burnout (SEB) in power transistors; and (3) bit errors in photonic devices. These characterizations can then be used to generate predictions of device performance in the space radiation environment. This paper provides a general overview of ground-based SEE testing and examines in critical depth several underlying conceptual constructs relevant to the conduct of such tests and to the proper interpretation of results. These more traditional issues are contrasted with emerging concerns related to the testing of modern, advanced microcircuits

  5. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  6. Trampoline effect in extreme ground motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-31

    In earthquake hazard assessment studies, the focus is usually on horizontal ground motion. However, records from the 14 June 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake in Japan, a crustal event with a moment magnitude of 6.9, revealed an unprecedented vertical surface acceleration of nearly four times gravity, more than twice its horizontal counterpart. The vertical acceleration was distinctly asymmetric; the waveform envelope was about 1.6 times as large in the upward direction as in the downward direction, which is not explained by existing models of the soil response. We present a simple model of a mass bouncing on a trampoline to account for this asymmetry and the large vertical amplitude. The finding of a hitherto-unknown mode of strong ground motion may prompt major progress in near-source shaking assessments.

  7. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  8. TARDEC Overview: Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Fuel & Water Distribution • Force Sustainment • Construction Equipment • Bridging • Assured Mobility Systems Robotics • TALON • PackBot • MARCbot...Equipment • Mechanical Countermine Equipment • Tactical Bridging Intelligent Ground Systems • Autonomous Robotics Systems • Safe Operations...Test Cell • Hybrid Electric Reconfigurable Moveable Integration Testbed (HERMIT) • Electro-chemical Analysis and Research Lab (EARL) • Battery Lab • Air

  9. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  10. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  11. Grounding and shielding in the accelerator environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.

    1991-01-01

    Everyday features of the accelerator environment include long cable runs, high power and low level equipment sharing building space, stray electromagnetic fields and ground voltage differences between the sending and receiving ends of an installation. This paper pictures some Fermilab installations chosen to highlight significant features and presents practices, test methods and equipment that have been helpful in achieving successful shielding. Throughout the report are numbered statements aimed at summarizing good practices and avoiding pitfalls

  12. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  13. Ground/Flight Test Techniques and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    dihedral. The photogrammetric analysis system developed at AEDC 6 uses 70-mm Hasselblad cameras and a Keffel & Esser DSC-3/80® analytical stereocompiler...model transmits data to a ground receiver by telemetry and is tracked by accurate radar scanners and/or kinetheodolite cameras as required. The required...Materials Panel Meeting, Ottawa/Canada Sept. 25-27, 1967; also Jahrbuch 1967 der Wissenschaftlichen Gesell - schaft fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, pp. 211

  14. Compression of ground-motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested

  15. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed

  16. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  17. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  18. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;

  19. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  20. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  1. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  2. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  3. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.

  4. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  5. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  6. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  7. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  8. Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Dreysse, H.

    1991-12-01

    A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration

  9. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  10. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  11. 66Ga ground state β spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state branch of the β decay of 66Ga is an allowed Fermi (0+ → 0+) transition with a relatively high f t value. The large f t and the isospin-forbidden nature of the transition indicates that the shape of the β spectrum of this branch may be sensitive to higher order contributions...... to the decay. Two previous measurements of the shape have revealed deviations from an allowed spectrum but disagree about whether the shape factor has a positive or negative slope. As a test of a new iron-free superconducting β spectrometer, we have measured the shape of the ground state branch of the 66Ga β...... spectrum above a positron energy of 1.9 MeV. The spectrum is consistent with an allowed shape, with the slope of the shape factor being zero to within ±3 × 10−3 per MeV. We have also determined the endpoint energy for the ground state branch to be 4.1535 ± 0.0003 (stat.) ±0.0007 (syst.) MeV, in good...

  12. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  13. Ground states of a spin-boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, A.

    1991-01-01

    Phase transition with respect to ground states of a spin-boson Hamiltonian are investigated. The spin-boson model under discussion consists of one spin and infinitely many bosons with a dipole-type coupling. It is shown that the order parameter of the model vanishes with respect to arbitrary ground states if it vanishes with respect to ground states obtained as (biased) temperature to zero limits of thermic equilibrium states. The ground states of the latter special type have been investigated by H. Spohn. Spohn's respective phase diagrams are therefore valid for arbitrary ground states. Furthermore, disjointness of ground states in the broken symmetry regime is examined

  14. Synthesis of High-Frequency Ground Motion Using Information Extracted from Low-Frequency Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.

    2012-12-01

    Broadband ground motion computations of scenario earthquakes are often based on hybrid methods that are the combinations of deterministic approach in lower frequency band and stochastic approach in higher frequency band. Typical computation methods for low-frequency and high-frequency (LF and HF, respectively) ground motions are the numerical simulations, such as finite-difference and finite-element methods based on three-dimensional velocity structure model, and the stochastic Green's function method, respectively. In such hybrid methods, LF and HF wave fields are generated through two different methods that are completely independent of each other, and are combined at the matching frequency. However, LF and HF wave fields are essentially not independent as long as they are from the same event. In this study, we focus on the relation among acceleration envelopes at different frequency bands, and attempt to synthesize HF ground motion using the information extracted from LF ground motion, aiming to propose a new method for broad-band strong motion prediction. Our study area is Kanto area, Japan. We use the K-NET and KiK-net surface acceleration data and compute RMS envelope at four frequency bands: 0.5-1.0 Hz, 1.0-2.0 Hz, 2.0-4.0 Hz, .0-8.0 Hz, and 8.0-16.0 Hz. Taking the ratio of the envelopes of adjacent bands, we find that the envelope ratios have stable shapes at each site. The empirical envelope-ratio characteristics are combined with low-frequency envelope of the target earthquake to synthesize HF ground motion. We have applied the method to M5-class earthquakes and a M7 target earthquake that occurred in the vicinity of Kanto area, and successfully reproduced the observed HF ground motion of the target earthquake. The method can be applied to a broad band ground motion simulation for a scenario earthquake by combining numerically-computed low-frequency (~1 Hz) ground motion with the empirical envelope ratio characteristics to generate broadband ground motion

  15. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  16. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  17. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The distance protection scheme without communication is often applied to the backup protection of EHV cable lines. For a reliable operation of a ground distance relay, the ground loop impedance of EHV cable lines needs to have a linear relationship to the distance from the relay location...... to the fault location. The discontinuity of the ground loop impedance at cross-bonding points may have an ill effect on the reliable operation of the ground distance relay. However, the cause and parameters of the discontinuity and its effects on the ground distance relay protection have not been discussed...... in literature. Through the calculation of the ground loop impedance for cable lines, it has been found that, for long EHV cable lines, the reliable operation of the ground distance relay is possible with a typical relay setting. Effects of parameters, such as substation grounding, cable layouts...

  18. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  19. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  20. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CAMPAIGN REPORTS IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Campaign Reports IFloodS dataset consists of various reports filed by the scientists during the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies...

  1. Artificial ground motion compatible with specified peak ground displacement and target multi-damping response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yushan; Zhao Fengxin

    2010-01-01

    With respect to the design ground motion of nuclear power plant (NPP), the Regular Guide 1.60 of the US not only defined the standard multi-damping response spectra, i.e. the RG1.60 spectra, but also definitely prescribed the peak ground displacement (PGD) value corresponding to the standard spectra. However, in the engineering practice of generating multi-damping-spectra-compatible artificial ground motion for the seismic design of NPP, the PGD value had been neglected. Addressing this issue, this paper proposed a synthesizing method which generates the artificial ground motion compatible with not only the target multi-damping response spectra but also the specified PGD value. Firstly, by the transfer formula between the power spectrum and the response spectrum, an initial uniformly modulated acceleration time history is synthesized by multiplying the stationary Gaussian process with the prescribed intensity envelope to simulate the amplitude-non-stationarity of earthquake ground motion. And then by superimposing a series of narrow-band time histories in the time domain, the initial time history is modified in the iterative manner to match the target PGD as well as the target multi-damping spectra with the pre-specified matching precisions. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the matching precisions of the proposed method to the target values.

  2. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  3. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  4. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  5. Design basis ground motion (Ss) required on new regulatory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    New regulatory guide is enforced on July 8. Here, it is introduced how the design basis ground motion (Ss) for seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was revised on the new guide. Ss is formulated as two types of earthquake ground motions, earthquake ground motions with site specific earthquake source and with no such specific source locations. The latter is going to be revised based on the recent observed near source ground motions. (author)

  6. Figure-ground mechanisms provide structure for selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Fangtu T.; Sugihara, Tadashi; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Attention depends on figure-ground organization: figures draw attention, while shapes of the ground tend to be ignored. Recent research has demonstrated mechanisms of figure-ground organization in the visual cortex, but how they relate to the attention process remains unclear. Here we show that the influences of figure-ground organization and volitional (top-down) attention converge in single neurons of area V2. While assignment of border ownership was found for attended as well as for ignore...

  7. Grounded theory methodology - has it become a movement?

    OpenAIRE

    Berterö, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of grounded theory, and an examination of many studies claiming to follow grounded theory indicates a wide range of approaches. In 1967 Glaser and Strauss’s ‘‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research’’ was published and represented a breakthrough in qualitative research; it offered methodological consensus and systematic strategies for qualitative research practice. The defining characteristics of grounded theory inc...

  8. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  9. Optical studies in the holographic ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The Holographic Group System (HGS) Facility in rooms 22 & 123, Building 4708 has been developed to provide for ground based research in determining pre-flight parameters and analyzing the results from space experiments. The University of Alabama, Huntsville (UAH) has researched the analysis aspects of the HGS and reports their findings here. Some of the results presented here also occur in the Facility Operating Procedure (FOP), which contains instructions for power up, operation, and powerdown of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) Holographic Ground System (HGS) Test Facility for the purpose of optically recording fluid and/or crystal behavior in a test article during ground based testing through the construction of holograms and recording of videotape. The alignment of the optical bench components, holographic reconstruction and and microscopy alignment sections were also included in the document for continuity even though they are not used until after optical recording of the test article) setup of support subsystems and the Automated Holography System (AHS) computer. The HGS provides optical recording and monitoring during GCEL runs or development testing of potential FES flight hardware or software. This recording/monitoring can be via 70mm holographic film, standard videotape, or digitized images on computer disk. All optical bench functions necessary to construct holograms will be under the control of the AHS personal computer (PC). These include type of exposure, time intervals between exposures, exposure length, film frame identification, film advancement, film platen evacuation and repressurization, light source diffuser introduction, and control of realtime video monitoring. The completed sequence of hologram types (single exposure, diffuse double exposure, etc.) and their time of occurrence can be displayed, printed, or stored on floppy disk posttest for the user.

  10. The grounded theory of "trust building".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.

  11. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  12. A Model Ground State of Polyampholytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wofling, S.; Kantor, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The ground state of randomly charged polyampholytes (polymers with positive and negatively charged groups along their backbone) is conjectured to have a structure similar to a necklace, made of weakly charged parts of the chain, compacting into globules, connected by highly charged stretched 'strings' attempted to quantify the qualitative necklace model, by suggesting a zero approximation model, in which the longest neutral segment of the polyampholyte forms a globule, while the remaining part will form a tail. Expanding this approximation, we suggest a specific necklace-type structure for the ground state of randomly charged polyampholyte's, where all the neutral parts of the chain compact into globules: The longest neutral segment compacts into a globule; in the remaining part of the chain, the longest neutral segment (the second longest neutral segment) compacts into a globule, then the third, and so on. A random sequence of charges is equivalent to a random walk, and a neutral segment is equivalent to a loop inside the random walk. We use analytical and Monte Carlo methods to investigate the size distribution of loops in a one-dimensional random walk. We show that the length of the nth longest neutral segment in a sequence of N monomers (or equivalently, the nth longest loop in a random walk of N steps) is proportional to N/n 2 , while the mean number of neutral segments increases as √N. The polyampholytes in the ground state within our model is found to have an average linear size proportional to dN, and an average surface area proportional to N 2/3

  13. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Jerolmack, Douglas; Lancaster, Nicholas; Nikolich, George; Reverdy, Paul; Roberts, Sonia; Shipley, Thomas; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Zobeck, Ted M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists' efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  15. 21 CFR 225.120 - Buildings and grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buildings and grounds. 225.120 Section 225.120... Buildings and grounds. Buildings used for production of medicated feed shall provide adequate space for... routine maintenance and cleaning of equipment. Buildings and grounds shall be constructed and maintained...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded. ...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded. ...

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  19. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  20. 48 CFR 252.228-7001 - Ground and flight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground and flight risk... of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7001 Ground and flight risk. As prescribed in 228.370(b), use the following clause: Ground and Flight Risk (JUN 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Aircraft...

  1. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded. ...

  2. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  3. Conceptual design of shallow ground repository (SGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehl, J.L.; Franzen, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design to guide the development of the preliminary and final designs of a shallow ground waste disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, complying with the Brazilian necessities, interpreted by Brazilian CNEN, is discussed. The general and specific criteria for the design of such installations, considering the reposing period, the isolation of personnel and environment, the operational activities, the characteristics of the site and of the subsoil and the set of necessary installations and services, are presented. An aboveground landfill, with concrete monoliths and concrete packages arranged in stacks disposed on an impermeable soil layer, is proposed. The disposed elements are covered by another impermeable soil stratum. (Author) [pt

  4. RPA ground state correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenske, H.

    1990-01-01

    Overcounting in the RPA theory of ground state correlations is shown to be avoided if exact rather than quasiboson commutators are used. Single particle occupation probabilities are formulated in a compact way by the RPA Green function. Calculations with large configuration spaces and realistic interactions are performed with 1p1h RPA and second RPA (SRPA) including 2p2h mixing in excited states. In 41 Ca valence hole states are found to be quenched by about 10% in RPA and up to 18% in SRPA. Contributions from low and high lying excitations and their relation to long and short range correlations in finite nuclei are investigated. (orig.)

  5. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  6. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  7. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Gaylard; Essam F Abo-Serie; Nor Elyana Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE) method to be able to work in a...

  8. Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

  9. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  10. Ground Shock Effects from Accidental Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    1,200 P0 A = V P cp 8 Horizontal Dh = Dv tannin " 1 (cp/U)] Vh = Vv tan [sin" 1 (cp/U)] \\ - \\ tanfainŕ (cp/U)] For tan sin (c /U...explosive are not included in the present analysis . This effect will limit the credibility of the direct- induced ground shock predictions, but if the... analysis . Dr. D. R. Richmond of Lovelace Foundation provided data on human shock tolerances. 26 REFERENCES 1. "Structures to Resist the Effects of

  11. Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Anstis, S

    1986-01-01

    We explored the relationship between figure-ground segmentation and apparent motion. Results suggest that: static elements in the surround can eliminate apparent motion of a cluster of dots in the centre, but only if the cluster and surround have similar "grain" or texture; outlines that define occluding surfaces are taken into account by the motion mechanism; the brain uses a hierarchy of precedence rules in attributing motion to different segments of the visual scene. Being designated as "figure" confers a high rank in this scheme of priorities.

  12. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  13. Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Estimating Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles (Presentation) David M. Tate Stanley...gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimating Hedonic Price

  14. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10−35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  15. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  16. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  17. Uranium: do leave it in the ground!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous author has argued that it would be best in the long run to consume uranium as much as possible in reactors rather than leave it in the ground in order to save the earth and generations into the far distant future from the evils of radiation. The argument is based on a comparison between the radioactive decay processes of fissioned uranium and uranium left in the earth to decay in its own time. It can be shown that from 300 days after reactor shut down onwards, the spent fuel will generate barely 1% of the radioactive energy that it would were it left untouched in the ground. Counter arguments are presented based largely on the risks to human health and life presented by uranium mining and disasters at nuclear plants such as that at Chernobyl. Illustrations are given of the suffering of people living near uranium mines arising from soil contamination by uranium tailings; the widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area and increased cancer mortality rates due to the Chernobyl accident are described. Finally, it is pointed out that uranium serves as a radioactive heat source in the gigantic recycling of rocks and the regeneration of the planet. All these arguments lead to the conclusion that uranium is best left in the earth. (UK)

  18. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  19. Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technoloty, Multimedia University, Melaca Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.

  20. Acoustic Resonance between Ground and Thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Matsumura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.

  1. KSC ground operations planning for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J. R.; Revesz, W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, processing facilities are being built and activated to support the processing, checkout, and launch of Space Station elements. The generic capability of these facilities will be utilized to support resupply missions for payloads, life support services, and propellants for the 30-year life of the program. Special Ground Support Equipment (GSE) is being designed for Space Station hardware special handling requirements, and a Test, Checkout, and Monitoring System (TCMS) is under development to verify that the flight elements are ready for launch. The facilities and equipment used at KSC, along with the testing required to accomplish the mission, are described in detail to provide an understanding of the complexity of operations at the launch site. Assessments of hardware processing flows through KSC are being conducted to minimize the processing flow times for each hardware element. Baseline operations plans and the changes made to improve operations and reduce costs are described, recognizing that efficient ground operations are a major key to success of the Space Station.

  2. Multicultural Ground Teams in Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early years of space flight only two countries had access to space. In the last twenty years, there have been major changes in how we conduct space business. With the fall of the iron curtain and the growing of the European Union, more and more players were able to join the space business and space science. By end of the last century, numerous countries, agencies and companies earned the right to be equal partners in space projects. This paper investigates the impact of multicultural teams in the space arena. Fortunately, in manned spaceflight, especially for long duration missions, there are several studies and simulations reporting on multicultural team impact. These data have not been as well explored on the team interactions within the ground crews. The focus of this paper are the teams working on the ISS project. Hypotheses will be drawn from the results of space crew research to determine parallels and differences for this vital segment of success in space missions. The key source of the data will be drawn from structured interviews with managers and other ground crews on the ISS project.

  3. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  4. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  5. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  6. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  7. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  8. 30 CFR 77.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. On and after September 30, 1971, all high-voltage... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. 77.803 Section 77.803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  9. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  10. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  11. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDING RESISTANCE VALUE IN SOIL AND SEPTICTANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of grounding system to protect of electrical equipment and instrumentation system and peopletogether. The lightning stroke near the strucutre of building can damage of equipment and instrumentationsystem. Therefore, it is very important to protect theese electrical and electronic equipment from lightningstrike uses lightning protection system and grounding system.This paper presents kind of grounding system at type of soil and place. The measurement of groundingresistance in soil and septictank have done. Types of soil for grounding resistance measuring aremarshland, clay and rockland.The measurement results of grounding resistance show that value of grounding resistance depend ondeepness of electrode and kind of soil and septictank. Grounding resistance value in septictank is morelower than soil.

  13. Characteristics of near-field earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Choi, I. G.; Jeon, Y. S.; Seo, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The near-field ground motions exhibit special response characteristics that are different from those of ordinary ground motions in the velocity and displacement response. This study first examines the characteristics of near-field ground motion depending on fault directivity and fault normal and parallel component. And the response spectra of the near field ground motion are statistically processed, and are compared with the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum that is present design spectrum of the nuclear power plant. The response spectrum of the near filed ground motions shows large spectral velocity and displacement in the low frequency range. The spectral accelerations of near field ground motion are greatly amplified in the high frequency range for the rock site motions, and in the low frequency range for the soil site motions. As a result, the near field ground motion effects should be considered in the seismic design and seismic safety evaluation of the nuclear power plant structures and equipment

  14. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  15. Where Are the Grounds for Grounded Theory? A Troubled Empirical Methodology Meets Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a critical exposition of the epistemological underpinnings of a recent redevelopment of Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, "Constructivist" GT. Although proffered as freed from the "objectivist" tenets of the original version, critical examination exposes the essentialism threaded through its integral…

  16. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  17. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  18. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  19. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  20. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  1. The 1981 Argentina ground data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, R.; Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D.; Sellman, B.; Sheffner, E.; Thomas, G.; Wood, B.

    1981-01-01

    Over 600 fields in the corn, soybean and wheat growing regions of the Argentine pampa were categorized by crop or cover type and ancillary data including crop calendars, historical crop production statistics and certain cropping practices were also gathered. A summary of the field work undertaken is included along with a country overview, a chronology of field trip planning and field work events, and the field work inventory of selected sample segments. LANDSAT images were annotated and used as the field work base and several hundred ground and aerial photographs were taken. These items along with segment descriptions are presented. Meetings were held with officials of the State Secretariat of Agriculture (SEAG) and the National Commission on Space Investigations (CNIE), and their support to the program are described.

  2. Surgery for Pulmonary Multiple Ground Glass Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pulmonary ground glass opacity (GGO has been increasing in recent years, with a great number of patients having multiple GGOs. Unfortunately, the management of multiple GGOs is still controversial. Pulmonary GGO is a radiological term, consisting of different pathological types. Some of the GGOs are early-staged lung cancer. GGO is an indolent nodule, only a small proportion of GGOs change during observation, which does not influence the efficacy of surgery. . The timing of surgery for multiple GGOs mainly depends on the predominant nodule and surgery is recommended if the solid component of the predominant nodule >5 mm. Either lobectomy or sub-lobectomy is feasible. GGOs other than the predominant nodule can be left unresected. Multiple GGOs with high risk factors need mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling.

  3. Quantum computing from the ground up

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Riley Tipton

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computing - the application of quantum mechanics to information - represents a fundamental break from classical information and promises to dramatically increase a computer's power. Many difficult problems, such as the factorization of large numbers, have so far resisted attack by classical computers yet are easily solved with quantum computers. If they become feasible, quantum computers will end standard practices such as RSA encryption. Most of the books or papers on quantum computing require (or assume) prior knowledge of certain areas such as linear algebra or quantum mechanics. The majority of the currently-available literature is hard to understand for the average computer enthusiast or interested layman. This text attempts to teach quantum computing from the ground up in an easily readable way, providing a comprehensive tutorial that includes all the necessary mathematics, computer science and physics.

  4. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  5. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  6. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T.; Minty, M.G.; Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y.; Teng, L.; Tepikian, S.

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 ∼ 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c

  7. Experimental simulation of ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M.J.; Chao, A.W.; Dutt, S.; Yan, Y.T.; Zhang, P.L. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Budnick, J.; Caussyn, D.D.; Collins, J.; Derenchuk, V.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Huang, H.; Jones, W.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Nagaitsev, S.; Pei, X.; Rondeau, G.; Sloan, T. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States); Minty, M.G. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gabella, W.; Ng, K.Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Teng, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approximately} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  8. Experimental Simulation of Ground Motion Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-07-11

    Synchro-betatron coupling in a proton storage ring with electron cooling was studied by modulating a transverse dipole field close to the synchrotron frequency. The combination of the electron cooling and transverse field modulation on the synchrotron oscillation is equivalent to a dissipative parametric resonant system. The proton bunch was observed to split longitudinally into two pieces, or beamlets, converging toward strange attractors of the dissipative system. These phenomena might be important to understanding the effect of ground vibration on the SSC beam, where the synchrotron frequency is about 4 {approx} 7 Hz, and the effect of power supply ripple on the RHIC beam, where the synchrotron frequency ramps through 60 Hz at 17 GeV/c.

  9. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  10. The Methodological Dynamism of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations in grounded theory (GT interpretation are the subject of ongoing debate. Divergences of opinion, genres, approaches, methodologies, and methods exist, resulting in disagreement on what GT methodology is and how it comes to be. From the postpositivism of Glaser and Strauss, to the symbolic interactionist roots of Strauss and Corbin, through to the constructivism of Charmaz, the field of GT methodology is distinctive in the sense that those using it offer new ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives at specific moments in time. We explore the unusual dynamism attached to GT’s underpinnings. Our view is that through a process of symbolic interactionism, in which generations of researchers interact with their context, moments are formed and philosophical perspectives are interpreted in a manner congruent with GT’s essential methods. We call this methodological dynamism, a process characterized by contextual awareness and moment formation, contemporaneous translation, generational methodology, and methodological consumerism.

  11. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  12. Commissioning of the Ground Test Accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Connolly, R.; Garnett, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohson, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Saadatmand, K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35 key H - injector, the 2.5 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), the Intertank Matching Section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2βγ Drift Tube Linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7 MeV 2βγ DTL (modules 1--5), and the 24 MeV GTA; all 10 DTL modules. Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments will be presented along with comparisons to simulations

  13. Commissioning of the ground test accelerator RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Garnott, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lloyd, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Power, J.; Sandoval, D.P.; Saadatmand, K.; Stevens, R.R.Jr.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Yuan, V.; Connolly, R.; Weiss, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on line. The commissioning stages are the 35-keV H - injector, the 2.5-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), the intertank matching section (IMS), the 3.2-MeV first 2-βλ drift tube linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7-MeV 2-βλDTL (modules 1-5), and the 24-MeV GTA (all 10 DTL modules). Commissioning results from the RFQ beam experiments are presented along with comparisons with simulations. (Author) 8 refs., 9 figs

  14. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  15. Ground state of high-density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  16. Ground-source heat pump barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe the ground-source heat pump market contracted for the second year running by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010. Around 103.000 units were sold in 2010, taking the number of installed units over one million. The 3 European countries with the most sales are Sweden (31953 units, +16%), Germany (25516 units, -13%) and France (12250 units, -21%). The drop in sales is generally due to market contraction on the current recession but some specificities exist: for instance the insufficient training of the installers has led to under-performance and to a bad image of this energy in France. The Swedish and German manufacturers are in a very strong position and are increasing their market share in the main European markets. (A.C.)

  17. Statistical analysis of earthquake ground motion parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Several earthquake ground response parameters that define the strength, duration, and frequency content of the motions are investigated using regression analyses techniques; these techniques incorporate statistical significance testing to establish the terms in the regression equations. The parameters investigated are the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement; Arias intensity; spectrum intensity; bracketed duration; Trifunac-Brady duration; and response spectral amplitudes. The study provides insight into how these parameters are affected by magnitude, epicentral distance, local site conditions, direction of motion (i.e., whether horizontal or vertical), and earthquake event type. The results are presented in a form so as to facilitate their use in the development of seismic input criteria for nuclear plants and other major structures. They are also compared with results from prior investigations that have been used in the past in the criteria development for such facilities

  18. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  19. Ground-based measurements of ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Daniel; Chum, Jaroslav

    2018-05-01

    Different methods are used to research and monitor the ionospheric dynamics using ground measurements: Digisonde Drift Measurements (DDM) and Continuous Doppler Sounding (CDS). For the first time, we present comparison between both methods on specific examples. Both methods provide information about the vertical drift velocity component. The DDM provides more information about the drift velocity vector and detected reflection points. However, the method is limited by the relatively low time resolution. In contrast, the strength of CDS is its high time resolution. The discussed methods can be used for real-time monitoring of medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances. We conclude that it is advantageous to use both methods simultaneously if possible. The CDS is then applied for the disturbance detection and analysis, and the DDM is applied for the reflection height control.

  20. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  1. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  2. Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ji-Gang; Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Liang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Liu, Wei-Yue; Cai, Wen-Qi; Yang, Meng; Li, Li; Yang, Kui-Xing; Han, Xuan; Yao, Yong-Qiang; Li, Ji; Wu, Hai-Yan; Wan, Song; Liu, Lei; Liu, Ding-Quan; Kuang, Yao-Wu; He, Zhi-Ping; Shang, Peng; Guo, Cheng; Zheng, Ru-Hua; Tian, Kai; Zhu, Zhen-Cai; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-09-07

    An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be measured precisely or replicated perfectly. However, quantum teleportation enables unknown quantum states to be transferred reliably from one object to another over long distances, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation is a fundamental element of protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. But the distances over which transmission was achieved in previous teleportation experiments, which used optical fibres and terrestrial free-space channels, were limited to about 100 kilometres, owing to the photon loss of these channels. To realize a global-scale 'quantum internet' the range of quantum teleportation needs to be greatly extended. A promising way of doing so involves using satellite platforms and space-based links, which can connect two remote points on Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the propagation path of the photons is in empty space. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low-Earth-orbit satellite, through an uplink channel, over distances of up to 1,400 kilometres. To optimize the efficiency of the link and to counter the atmospheric turbulence in the uplink, we use a compact ultra-bright source of entangled photons, a narrow beam divergence and high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking. We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation of six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80 ± 0.01, well above the optimal state-estimation fidelity on a single copy of a qubit (the classical limit). Our demonstration of a ground-to-satellite uplink for reliable and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation is an essential step towards a global-scale quantum internet.

  3. A conception of ecological providing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshkina, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ecological proving ground is a multifunctional intersectoral and interterritorial complex. The proving ground is created to organize the work of the Regional System of Ecological Safety, its structure and elements, and their unification and conversion into national system. It's also created for the working out of some questions of technical policy and normative-legal regulation in the field of ecology. The main task is the elaboration of mechanisms for the co-operation of the legislative executive bodies and their regional structure in the process of creation adoption and working of the Complex Regional System of Ecological Safety. The directions of polygon's activity: 1. Sanitary-epidemic protection of population. 2. Radiational Safety. 3. Chemical Safety. 4. Monitoring of Ecological situation and normalization of the environment. 4.1. Control of contamination of the waters. 4.2. Control of contamination of the air. 4.3. Ecological monitoring of soil. 4.4. State and protection of flora and fauna. 5. Ecologically pure agricultural production on the territory of the polygon. 5.1. Radiational and chemical control of agricultural areas and production. 5.2. Production of pure products. 6. The creation of normative, legal, informational, methodical and metrological supply of polygon's activity. 7. Optimization of the models of ecological situation. 8. Ecological informational-educational activity. The choice of territory for the polygon is based on the following statements: the intensity of ecological situation; the topography of the environment; the density of population; the availability of scientific base; the intensity of social movements. Some experience, that would allow to improve existing ecological legislation and spread some tried methods of supply of ecological safety on the territory of Russia, will be gained as a result. (author)

  4. A Study on the Improvement Effect and Field Applicability of the Deep Soft Ground by Ground Heating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincheol Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soft ground in coastal areas should be treated when it needs to be used for the sustainably developed of urban or industrial complex constructions. The ground heating method for soft ground improvement was applied in Eastern Europe in the 1960s, but it was not widely used due to economic and environmental problems. The author developed a device for improving soft ground using an electric heating pipe. This paper investigates the improvement effect and field application of deep soft ground by the ground heating method using the electric heating pipe. Ground heating increases the temperature of the deep soft ground and increases the tip resistance of the static electronic piezo-cone penetration test. Additionally, the pressure of the pore water decreases because the pore water is evaporated due to the ground heating. As a result of the experiment, it was verified that there was an improvement in the effect of deep soft ground by the ground heating method. With ground heating for 96 h, the tip resistance was increased by 61% at a point 0.35 m horizontally away from the electric heat pipe, 22% at 0.97 m, and 2% at 1.31 m. As a result of the field test, it was found that there were no problems in the power supply of the diesel generator and the control panel. It was easy to install the electric heating pipes in the deep soft ground. However, due to boring, the ground was disturbed and water vapor was discharged through this gap. To minimize the discharge of water vapor, it is necessary to drive the electric heating pipe.

  5. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1. The slender- horned spine flower is a federally-listed endangered species. Because of the highly disturbed nature of the proposed sites, none of...deposit include deer, antelope, gazelle, horse, pig, camel, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, rabbit, beaver, mole, shrew, ground sloth, hedgehog

  6. The snout of Paulocnus petrifactus (Mammalia, Edentata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    A specimen of the ground sloth discovered by Mr. P. Stuiver in Curaçao, Paulocnus petrifactus Hooijer (1962), recently dressed from the matrix by Mr. P. H. de Buisonjé, comprises the front part of the mandible and the left half of the rostrum of the skull. It holds the left upper and right lower

  7. Ground Motion Prediction Equations Empowered by Stress Drop Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, H.; Oth, A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant variation of stress drop is a crucial issue for ground motion prediction equations and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, since only a few ground motion prediction equations take into account stress drop. In addition to average and sigma studies of stress drop and ground motion prediction equations (e.g., Cotton et al., 2013; Baltay and Hanks, 2014), we explore 1-to-1 relationship for each earthquake between stress drop and between-event residual of a ground motion prediction equation. We used the stress drop dataset of Oth (2013) for Japanese crustal earthquakes ranging 0.1 to 100 MPa and K-NET/KiK-net ground motion dataset against for several ground motion prediction equations with volcanic front treatment. Between-event residuals for ground accelerations and velocities are generally coincident with stress drop, as investigated by seismic intensity measures of Oth et al. (2015). Moreover, we found faster attenuation of ground acceleration and velocities for large stress drop events for the similar fault distance range and focal depth. It may suggest an alternative parameterization of stress drop to control attenuation distance rate for ground motion prediction equations. We also investigate 1-to-1 relationship and sigma for regional/national-scale stress drop variation and current national-scale ground motion equations.

  8. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  9. Genomics meets applied ecology : Characterizing habitat quality for sloths in a tropical agro-ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, Emily D; Kang, Jung Koo; Tempel, Douglas J; Palsbøll, Per J; Pauli, Jonathan N; Peery, M Zachariah

    Understanding how habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes governs the distribution and fitness of individuals is a fundamental aspect of ecology. While mean individual fitness is generally considered a key to assessing habitat quality, a comprehensive understanding of habitat quality in

  10. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  11. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  12. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  13. Effect of electrode shape on grounding resistances - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    Although electric resistivity tomography (ERT) is now regarded as a standard tool in permafrost monitoring, high grounding resistances continue to limit the acquisition of time series over complete freeze-thaw cycles. In an attempt to alleviate the grounding resistance problem, we have tested three...... electrode designs featuring increasing sizes and surface area, in the laboratory and at three different field sites in Greenland. Grounding resistance measurements showed that changing the electrode shape (using plates instead of rods) reduced the grounding resistances at all sites by 28%-69% during...... unfrozen and frozen ground conditions. Using meshes instead of plates (the same rectangular shape and a larger effective surface area) further improved the grounding resistances by 29%-37% in winter. Replacement of rod electrodes of one entire permanent permafrost monitoring array by meshes resulted...

  14. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.

  15. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  16. Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) abruptly terminated by negative cloud-to-ground lightnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Khanikyanc, G.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of lightnings and particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements – TGEs) generated in the lower part of clouds by the strong electric fields as a probe, we investigate the characteristics of the related atmospheric discharges. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux. We demonstrate that among 12 atmospheric discharges that abruptly terminated TGE all are the negative cloud-to-ground lightnings. The flux termination and lightning occurred at one and the same second. With new precise electronics on millisecond time scales we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with abrupt increase of electrostatic field after the return stroke of the lightning. Therefore, the declining of particle flux is connected with rearranging of charge centers in the cloud involving removal of the Lower Positive Charged Region (LPCR). (author)

  17. Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Seli, Paul; Cheng, Vivian O Y; Solman, Grayden J F; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image depicted a meaningful object, whereas the other half constituted a less meaningful shape. The colours of the meaningful regions of the targets and distractors were either the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). We found that incongruent targets took longer to locate than congruent targets (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and that this segmentation-congruency effect decreased when the number of search items was reduced (Experiment 2). Furthermore, an analysis of eye movements revealed that participants spent more time scrutinising the target before confirming its identity on incongruent trials than on congruent trials (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the distractor context influences target segmentation and detection during visual search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Grounded Eyes on Distant Watery Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    What can we learn about exoplanets from high-resolution, ground-based observations? A new view of the nearby upsilon Andromedae system has revealed a great deal about the systems closest-in exoplanet including the presence of water vapor in its atmosphere.Search for WobblesIllustration of how spectral lines shift when observing two objects that orbit each other. Click here to see a simulation of this process. [R. Pogge, OSU]The upsilon Andromedae system is located roughly 44 light-years from Earth. In 1997, a hot Jupiter exoplanet was discovered orbiting the primary star, and more planets were found not long after making this the first multiple-planet system discovered around a main-sequence star.These planets, however, were not discovered due to transits; their orbital planes are not aligned with our line of sight to the star. Instead, the hiddenplanets were first detected via the stars spectrum. The radial velocity method of detecting exoplanets searches for telltale periodic shifts of a stars spectral lines, which are induced by the orbiting planets gravitational tugs.In recent years, ground-based spectroscopy has become ever more powerful; thus revisiting old systems with higher resolution instruments can often open a whole new world of data to us. In the case of a recent study, a team of astronomers led by Danielle Piskorz (California Institute of Technology) revisited upsilon Andromedae with the high-resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. Their goal: to gather data about upsilon Andromedae b, the closest-in planet in the system.Top-down schematic of the orbit of upsilon Andromedae b around its star and the location in the orbit of the authors observations. [Piskorz et al. 2017]An Unusual ArchitecturePiskorz and collaborators obtained 13 different sets of observations of upsilon Andromedae with NIRSPEC across three different wavelength bands. By treating the starplanet system as though it were a spectroscopic binary

  19. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  20. Dynamically adjustable foot-ground contact model to estimate ground reaction force during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yihwan; Jung, Moonki; Ryu, Jiseon; Yoon, Sukhoon; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Koo, Seungbum

    2016-03-01

    Human dynamic models have been used to estimate joint kinetics during various activities. Kinetics estimation is in demand in sports and clinical applications where data on external forces, such as the ground reaction force (GRF), are not available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the GRF during gait by utilizing distance- and velocity-dependent force models between the foot and ground in an inverse-dynamics-based optimization. Ten males were tested as they walked at four different speeds on a force plate-embedded treadmill system. The full-GRF model whose foot-ground reaction elements were dynamically adjusted according to vertical displacement and anterior-posterior speed between the foot and ground was implemented in a full-body skeletal model. The model estimated the vertical and shear forces of the GRF from body kinematics. The shear-GRF model with dynamically adjustable shear reaction elements according to the input vertical force was also implemented in the foot of a full-body skeletal model. Shear forces of the GRF were estimated from body kinematics, vertical GRF, and center of pressure. The estimated full GRF had the lowest root mean square (RMS) errors at the slow walking speed (1.0m/s) with 4.2, 1.3, and 5.7% BW for anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical forces, respectively. The estimated shear forces were not significantly different between the full-GRF and shear-GRF models, but the RMS errors of the estimated knee joint kinetics were significantly lower for the shear-GRF model. Providing COP and vertical GRF with sensors, such as an insole-type pressure mat, can help estimate shear forces of the GRF and increase accuracy for estimation of joint kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ON ELLIPTICALLY POLARIZED ANTENNAS IN THE PRESENCE OF GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ground reflections upon the far field of an elliptically polarized antenna of ar itrary orientation with r spect to ground is...investigated. The equation of the polarization ellipse produced by an elliptically polarized antenna in the presence of ground is derived, AND SEVERAL...EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATE THE VARIATION IN THE AXIS RATIO OF THE POLARIZATION ELLIPSE AS A FUNCTION OF THE GEOMETRY OF THE MEASURING SETUP. A method is presented

  2. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  5. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  7. Celebrating 50 Years of Grounded Theory: Onward and Forward Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild

    2017-01-01

    Welcome to this very special issue of the Grounded Theory Review. In this issue we celebrate 50 amazing years of grounded theory during which it has become one of the fastest growing methods in the global research world. Five decades after The Discovery of Grounded Theory was first published, the seminal work of founders Barney G. Glaser and Anselm Strauss is cited more than 94,000 times on Google Scholar alone. We celebrate that after 50 years of researching, teaching, defending, explic...

  8. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  9. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state ...

  10. Adaptive attenuation of aliased ground roll using the shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hassani, Hossien; Torabi, Siyavash; Sadri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Attenuation of ground roll is an essential step in seismic data processing. Spatial aliasing of the ground roll may cause the overlap of the ground roll with reflections in the f-k domain. The shearlet transform is a directional and multidimensional transform that separates the events with different dips and generates subimages in different scales and directions. In this study, the shearlet transform was used adaptively to attenuate aliased and non-aliased ground roll. After defining a filtering zone, an input shot record is divided into segments. Each segment overlaps adjacent segments. To apply the shearlet transform on each segment, the subimages containing aliased and non-aliased ground roll, the locations of these events on each subimage are selected adaptively. Based on these locations, mute is applied on the selected subimages. The filtered segments are merged together, using the Hanning function, after applying the inverse shearlet transform. This adaptive process of ground roll attenuation was tested on synthetic data, and field shot records from west of Iran. Analysis of the results using the f-k spectra revealed that the non-aliased and most of the aliased ground roll were attenuated using the proposed adaptive attenuation procedure. Also, we applied this method on shot records of a 2D land survey, and the data sets before and after ground roll attenuation were stacked and compared. The stacked section after ground roll attenuation contained less linear ground roll noise and more continuous reflections in comparison with the stacked section before the ground roll attenuation. The proposed method has some drawbacks such as more run time in comparison with traditional methods such as f-k filtering and reduced performance when the dip and frequency content of aliased ground roll are the same as those of the reflections.

  11. Ground collectors for heat pumps; Grondcollectoren voor warmtepompen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Krevel, A. [Techneco, Leidschendam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    The dimensioning and cost optimisation of a closed vertical ground collector system has been studied. The so-called Earth Energy Designer (EED) computer software, specially developed for the calculations involved in such systems, proved to be a particularly useful tool. The most significant findings from the first part of the study, 'Heat extraction from the ground', are presented and some common misconceptions about ground collector systems are clarified. 2 refs.

  12. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  13. SEA ICE THICKNESS MEASUREMENT BY GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR GROUND TRUTH OF MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsumoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of below ground cassava storage root bulking by ground penetrating radar technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Larson, T. H.; Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Grennan, A. K.; Souza, A. P.; Ort, D. R.; Balikian, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture needs a new technological revolution to be able to meet the food demands, to overcome weather and natural hazards events, and to monitor better crop productivity. Advanced technologies used in other fields have recently been applied in agriculture. Thus, imagine instrumentation has been applied to phenotype above-ground biomass and predict yield. However, the capability to monitor belowground biomass is still limited. There are some existing technologies available, for example the ground penetrating radar (GPR) which has been used widely in the area of geology and civil engineering to detect different kind of formations under the ground without the disruption of the soil. GPR technology has been used also to monitor tree roots but as yet not crop roots. Some limitation are that the GPR cannot discern roots smaller than 2 cm in diameter, but it make it feasible for application in tuber crops like Cassava since harvest diameter is greater than 4 cm. The objective of this research is to test the availability to use GPR technology to monitor the growth of cassava roots by testing this technique in the greenhouse and in the field. So far, results from the greenhouse suggest that GPR can detect mature roots of cassava and this data could be used to predict biomass.

  15. Sea Ice Thickness Measurement by Ground Penetrating Radar for Ground Truth of Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2018-04-01

    Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately) aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CITATION VIDEOS IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Citation Videos IPHEx data were collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) in the Southern...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PRECIPITATION VIDEO IMAGER (PVI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOSONDE GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiosonde GCPEx dataset provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds collected by Vaisala...

  20. Study on parameter identification and control of ground temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Keiichi; Suzuki, Seiichi; Kawahara, Mutsuto.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical thermal management system for ground structure is presented. The system consists of two parts, i.e. the identification analysis of the thermal conductivity and the thermal control analysis for the ground. The former is carried out by using the nonlinear least squares method and the latter is based on the optimal control theory. The formulations of these methods are presented and they are applied to an laboratory test. A reasonable thermal conductivity of the ground is identified by parameter estimation method and the ground temperature is actually controled as illustrated by numerical and experimental study. (author)