WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground sensor information

  1. Information-based sensor management for the intelligent tasking of ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors in landmine detection pre-screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has introduced a framework for information-based sensor management that is capable of tasking multiple sensors searching for targets among a set of discrete objects or in a cell grid. However, in many real-world scenarios-- such as detecting landmines along a lane or road--an unknown number of targets are present in a continuous spatial region of interest. Consequently, this paper introduces a grid-free sensor management approach that allows multiple sensors to be managed in a sequential search for targets in a grid-free spatial region. Simple yet expressive Gaussian target models are introduced to model the spatial target responses that are observed by the sensors. The sensor manager is then formulated using a Bayesian approach, and sensors are directed to make new observations that maximize the expected information gain between the posterior density on the target parameters after a new observation and the current posterior target parameter density. The grid-free sensor manager is applied to a set of real landmine detection data collected with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors at a U.S. government test site. Results are presented that compare the performance of the sensor manager with the performance of an unmanaged joint pre-screener that fuses individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The sensor manager is demonstrated to provide improved detection performance while requiring substantially fewer sensor observations than are made with the unmanaged joint pre-screening approach.

  2. Production Rule Systems as an Approach to Interpretation of Ground Sensor Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    the MYCIN production system [11] . which operates in the area of clinical medicine. A diagram representation of backward chaining may be found in...sirplest caso . is a set of literals) and the control ,tructure (In the simplest case, no control structure at all) are also likely candidates fir... clinical medicine, the domain in which MYCIN operates. The sum total of information, both factual and Judgemental, about clinical medicine seems to be

  3. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles

    2003-09-01

    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  4. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  5. Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    2001-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

  6. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  7. Ground strain measuring system using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadanobu; Honda, Riki; Shibata, Shunjiro; Takegawa, Naoki

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a device to measure the dynamic horizontal shear strain of the ground during earthquake. The proposed device consists of a bronze plate with fiber Bragg grating sensors attached on it. The device is vertically installed in the ground, and horizontal shear strain of the ground is measured as deflection angle of the plate. Employment of optical fiber sensors makes the proposed device simple in mechanism and highly durable, which makes it easy to install our device in the ground. We conducted shaking table tests using ground model to verify applicability of the proposed device.

  8. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  9. Development of Mine Explosion Ground Truth Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF MINE EXPLOSION GROUND TRUTH SMART SENSORS Steven R. Taylor1, Phillip E. Harben1, Steve Jarpe2, and David B. Harris3 Rocky...improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the...National Laboratories and seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location

  10. Sensor management based on fisher information gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Kangsheng; Zhu Guangxi

    2006-01-01

    Multi-sensor system is becoming increasingly important in a variety of military and civilian applications. In general, single sensor system can only provide partial information about environment while multi-sensor system provides a synergistic effect, which improves the quality and availability of information. Data fusion techniques can effectively combine this environmental information from similar and/or dissimilar sensors. Sensor management, aiming at improving data fusion performance by controlling sensor behavior, plays an important role in a data fusion process. This paper presents a method using fisher information gain based sensor effectiveness metric for sensor assignment in multi-sensor and multi-target tracking applications. The fisher information gain is computed for every sensor-target pairing on each scan. The advantage for this metric over other ones is that the fisher information gain for the target obtained by multi-sensors is equal to the sum of ones obtained by the individual sensor, so standard transportation problem formulation can be used to solve this problem without importing the concept of pseudo sensor. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Applications of FBG-based sensors to ground stability monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Bin Huang; Chien-Chih Wang; Jui-Ting Lee; Yen-Te Ho

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many optical fiber sensing techniques have been developed. Among these available sensing methods, optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is probably the most popular one. With its unique capabilities, FBG-based geotechnical sensors can be used as a sensor array for distributive (profile) measurements, deployed under water (submersible), for localized high resolution and/or dif-ferential measurements. The authors have developed a series of FBG-based transducers that include inclination, linear displacement and gauge/differential pore pressure sensors. Techniques that involve the field deployment of FBG inclination, extension and pore-pressure sensor arrays for automated slope stability and ground subsidence monitoring have been developed. The paper provides a background of FBG and the design concepts behind the FBG-based field monitoring sensors. Cases of field monitoring using the FBG sensor arrays are presented, and their practical implications are discussed.

  12. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  13. Passive localization processing for tactical unattended ground sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Breitfeller, E.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes our preliminary results of a development effort to assess the potential capability of a system of unattended ground sensors to detect, classify, and localize underground sources. This report also discusses the pertinent signal processing methodologies, demonstrates the approach with computer simulations, and validates the simulations with experimental data. Specific localization methods discussed include triangulation and measurement of time difference of arrival from multiple sensor arrays.

  14. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  15. Grounding institutions through informal practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels; Allotey, Albert N.M.; Kalvig, Per

    2017-01-01

    demand from individual house-owners. We identify complex but relatively stable endogenous ways of organising artisanal production and marketing in five quarries at different stages of consolidation and liquidation: sites are initially exploited but then gradually transformed into waste dumps or new...... residential areas by landowners as part of an expanding urbanization process. Artisanal miners are evicted, but as demand continues and alternative supplies are not present, new sites are opened, only to go through a similar sequence. However, practices are replicated, and credible (informal) institutions...

  16. Compact networked radars for Army unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, David A.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Wellman, Ronald; Clark, John; Kurtz, Jim; Pulskamp, Jeff; Proie, Robert; Ivanov, Tony; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Adler, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is in partnership with the University of Florida - Electronics Communications Laboratory to develop compact radar technology and demonstrate that it is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight platforms (<10 lbs.) to meet Army mission needs in persistent surveillance, unattended ground sensor (UGS), unmanned systems, and man-portable sensor applications. The advantage of this compact radar is its steerable beam technology and relatively long-range capability compared to other small, battery-powered radar concepts. This paper will review the ongoing development of the sensor and presents a sample of the collected data thus far.

  17. Environmental Perception and Sensor Data Fusion for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs that can drive autonomously in cross-country environment have received a good deal of attention in recent years. They must have the ability to determine whether the current terrain is traversable or not by using onboard sensors. This paper explores new methods related to environment perception based on computer image processing, pattern recognition, multisensors data fusion, and multidisciplinary theory. Kalman filter is used for low-level fusion of physical level, thus using the D-S evidence theory for high-level data fusion. Probability Test and Gaussian Mixture Model are proposed to obtain the traversable region in the forward-facing camera view for UGV. One feature set including color and texture information is extracted from areas of interest and combined with a classifier approach to resolve two types of terrain (traversable or not. Also, three-dimension data are employed; the feature set contains components such as distance contrast of three-dimension data, edge chain-code curvature of camera image, and covariance matrix based on the principal component method. This paper puts forward one new method that is suitable for distributing basic probability assignment (BPA, based on which D-S theory of evidence is employed to integrate sensors information and recognize the obstacle. The subordination obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation is applied to calculate the basic probability assignment. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. More accurate results of object identification are achieved by using the D-S theory of evidence. Control on motion behavior or autonomous navigation for UGV is based on the method, which is necessary for UGV high speed driving in cross-country environment. The experiment results have demonstrated the viability of the new method.

  18. An information-based approach to decentralized multiplatform sensor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreucher, Christopher M.; Kastella, Keith D.; Wegrzyn, John W.; Rickenbach, Brent L.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a decentralized low communication approach to multi-platform sensor management. The method is based on a physicomimetic relaxation to a joint information theoretic optimization, which inherits the benefits of information theoretic scheduling while maintaining tractability. The method uses only limited message passing, only neighboring nodes communicate, and each node makes its own sensor management decisions. We show by simulation that the method allows a network of sensor nodes to automatically self organize and perform a global task. In the model problem, a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hover above a ground surveillance region. An initially unknown number of moving ground targets inhabit the region. Each UAV is capable of making noisy measurements of the patch of ground directly below, which provide evidence as to the presence or absence of targets in that sub-region. The goal of the network is to determine the number of targets and their individual states (positions and velocities) in the entire surveillance region through repeated interrogation by the individual nodes. As the individual nodes can only see a small portion of the ground, they must move in a manner that is both responsive to measurements and coordinated with other nodes.

  19. OPART: an intelligent sensor dedicated to ground robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Luzeaux, Dominique; Hoffmann, Patrik W.

    2001-09-01

    We present an intelligent sensor, consisting in 2 CCDs with different field of view sharing the same optical motion, which can be controlled independently or not in their horizontal, vertical and rotational axis, and are connected in a closed loop to image processing resources. The goal of such a sensor is to be a testbed of image processing algorithms in real conditions. It illustrates the active perception paradigm and is used for autonomous navigation and target detection/tracking missions. Such a sensor has to meet many requirements : it is designed to be easily mounted on a standard tracked or wheeled military vehicle evolving in offroad conditions. Due to the rather wide range of missions UGVs may be involved in and to the computing cost of image processing, its computing resources have to be reprogrammable, of great power (real-time constraints), modular at the software level as well as at the hardware level and able to communicate with other systems. First, the paper details the mechanical, electronical and software design of the whole sensor. Then, we explain its functioning, the constraints due to its parallel processing architecture, the image processing algorithms that have been implemented for it and their current uses and performances. Finally, we describe experiments conducted on tracked and wheeled vehicles and conclude on the future development and use of this sensor for unmanned ground vehicles.

  20. Convolutional neural network based sensor fusion for forward looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn; Crosskey, Miles; Chen, David; Walenz, Brett; Morton, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Forward looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is an alternative buried threat sensing technology designed to offer additional standoff compared to downward looking GPR systems. Due to additional flexibility in antenna configurations, FLGPR systems can accommodate multiple sensor modalities on the same platform that can provide complimentary information. The different sensor modalities present challenges in both developing informative feature extraction methods, and fusing sensor information in order to obtain the best discrimination performance. This work uses convolutional neural networks in order to jointly learn features across two sensor modalities and fuse the information in order to distinguish between target and non-target regions. This joint optimization is possible by modifying the traditional image-based convolutional neural network configuration to extract data from multiple sources. The filters generated by this process create a learned feature extraction method that is optimized to provide the best discrimination performance when fused. This paper presents the results of applying convolutional neural networks and compares these results to the use of fusion performed with a linear classifier. This paper also compares performance between convolutional neural networks architectures to show the benefit of fusing the sensor information in different ways.

  1. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  2. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  3. The fiber optic gyroscope - a portable rotational ground motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, J. M.; Bernauer, F.; Guattari, F.; Igel, H.

    2016-12-01

    It was already shown that a portable broadband rotational ground motion sensor will have large impact on several fields of seismological research such as volcanology, marine geophysics, seismic tomography and planetary seismology. Here, we present results of tests and experiments with one of the first broadband rotational motion sensors available. BlueSeis-3A, is a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology, developed by iXBlue, France, in close collaboration with researchers financed by the European Research council project ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). We first present the instrument characteristics which were estimated by different standard laboratory tests, e.g. self noise using operational range diagrams or Allan deviation. Next we present the results of a field experiment which was designed to demonstrate the value of a 6C measurement (3 components of translation and 3 components of rotation). This field test took place at Mt. Stromboli volcano, Italy, and is accompanied by seismic array installation to proof the FOG output against more commonly known array derived rotation. As already shown with synthetic data an additional direct measurement of three components of rotation can reduce the ambiguity in source mechanism estimation and can be taken to correct for dynamic tilt of the translational sensors (i.e. seismometers). We can therefore demonstrate that the deployment of a weak motion broadband rotational motion sensor is in fact producing superior results by a reduction of the number of deployed instruments.

  4. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Teresa H.; Berry, Nina M.

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  5. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  6. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  7. Battery-free power for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Vera A.

    2003-09-01

    In our current military environment, many operations are fought with small, highly mobile reconnaissance and strike forces that must move in and out of hostile terrain, setting up temporary bases and perimeters. As such, today's warfighter has to be well equipped to insure independent operation and survival of small, deployed groups. The use of unattended ground sensors in reconfigurable sensor networks can provide portable perimeter security for such special operations. Since all of the equipment for the missions must be carried by the warfighter, weight is a critical issue. Currently, batteries constitute much of that weight, as batteries are short-lived and unreliable. An alternative power source is required to eliminate the need for carrying multiple replacement batteries to support special operations. Such a battery-free, replenishable, energy management technology has been developed by Ambient Control Systems. Ambient has developed an advanced mid-door photovoltaic technology, which converts light to energy over a wide range of lighting conditions. The energy is then stored in supercapacitors, a highly robust, long-term storage medium. Ambient's advanced energy management technology will power remote sensor and control systems 24 hours/day, 7 days/week for over 20 years, without batteries, providing for ongoing detection, surveillance and other remote operations.

  8. Changing requirements and solutions for unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gervasio; Johnson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) were first used to monitor Viet Cong activity along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the 1960's. In the 1980's, significant improvement in the capabilities of UGS became possible with the development of digital signal processors; this led to their use as fire control devices for smart munitions (for example: the Wide Area Mine) and later to monitor the movements of mobile missile launchers. In these applications, the targets of interest were large military vehicles with strong acoustic, seismic and magnetic signatures. Currently, the requirements imposed by new terrorist threats and illegal border crossings have changed the emphasis to the monitoring of light vehicles and foot traffic. These new requirements have changed the way UGS are used. To improve performance against targets with lower emissions, sensors are used in multi-modal arrangements. Non-imaging sensors (acoustic, seismic, magnetic and passive infrared) are now being used principally as activity sensors to cue imagers and remote cameras. The availability of better imaging technology has made imagers the preferred source of "actionable intelligence". Infrared cameras are now based on un-cooled detector-arrays that have made their application in UGS possible in terms of their cost and power consumption. Visible light imagers are also more sensitive extending their utility well beyond twilight. The imagers are equipped with sophisticated image processing capabilities (image enhancement, moving target detection and tracking, image compression). Various commercial satellite services now provide relatively inexpensive long-range communications and the Internet provides fast worldwide access to the data.

  9. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  10. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  11. Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

  12. On Solving the Problem of Identifying Unreliable Sensors Without a Knowledge of the Ground Truth: The Case of Stochastic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Anis; Oommen, B John; Goodwin, Morten

    2016-04-28

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox. Legacy work and the reported literature (for example, in the so-called weighted majority algorithm) have merely addressed assessing the reliability of a sensor by comparing its reading to the ground truth either in an online or an offline manner. Unfortunately, the fundamental assumption of revealing the ground truth cannot be always guaranteed (or even expected) in many real life scenarios. While some extensions of the Condorcet jury theorem [9] can lead to a probabilistic guarantee on the quality of the fused process, they do not provide a solution to the unreliable sensor identification problem. The essence of our approach involves studying the agreement of each sensor with the rest of the sensors, and not comparing the reading of the individual sensors with the ground truth-as advocated in the literature. Under some mild conditions on the reliability of the sensors, we can prove that we can, indeed, filter out the unreliable ones. Our approach leverages the power of the theory of learning automata (LA) so as to gradually learn the identity of the reliable and unreliable sensors. To achieve this, we resort to a team of LA, where a distinct automaton is associated with each sensor. The solution provided here has been subjected to rigorous experimental tests, and the results presented are, in our opinion, both novel and

  13. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  14. Realization to Extend the Orientation Estimation Range of Moving Target on the Ground by a Single Vector Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The DOA (direction of arrival estimation of seismic signals from the moving target on the ground bears great significance for unattended ground systems. The traditional DOA estimation of seismic signals is achieved by a sensor array and its corresponding algorithms. MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems vector vibration sensor, however, gets the vector information over the propagation of seismic signals and therefore can get a DOA estimation within a certain range through a single vector sensor. This paper proposes a new method to extend the orientation range through the rotation of the MEMS vector vibration axis. The experiment shows that this method shares the merits with simple systematic structure, high sensitivity and less than 5 degrees of error on average, which has an extensive wide application prospect.

  15. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  16. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  17. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guyu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…

  18. The Android smartphone as an inexpensive sentry ground sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamm, Riqui; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    A key challenge of sentry and monitoring duties is detection of approaching people in areas of little human traffic. We are exploring smartphones as easily available, easily portable, and less expensive alternatives to traditional military sensors for this task, where the sensors are already integrated into the package. We developed an application program for the Android smartphone that uses its sensors to detect people passing nearby; it takes their pictures for subsequent transmission to a central monitoring station. We experimented with the microphone, light sensor, vibration sensor, proximity sensor, orientation sensor, and magnetic sensor of the Android. We got best results with the microphone (looking for footsteps) and light sensor (looking for abrupt changes in light), and sometimes good results with the vibration sensor. We ran a variety of tests with subjects walking at various distances from the phone under different environmental conditions to measure limits on acceptable detection. We got best results by combining average loudness over a 200 millisecond period with a brightness threshold adjusted to the background brightness, and we set our phones to trigger pictures no more than twice a second. Subjects needed to be within ten feet of the phone for reliable triggering, and some surfaces gave poorer results. We primarily tested using the Motorola Atrix 4G (Android 2.3.4) and HTC Evo 4G (Android 2.3.3) and found only a few differences in performance running the same program, which we attribute to differences in the hardware. We also tested two older Android phones that had problems with crashing when running our program. Our results provide good guidance for when and where to use this approach to inexpensive sensing.

  19. Smart Sensors Gather Information for Machine Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Stennis Space Center was interested in using smart sensors to monitor components on test stands and avert equipment failures. Partnering with St. Paul, Minnesota-based Lion Precision through a Cooperative Agreement, the team developed a smart sensor and the associated communication protocols. The same sensor is now commercially available for manufacturing.

  20. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  1. Information Fusion of Online Oil Monitoring System Using Multiple Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧良; 周新聪; 程海明; 赵春华; 严新平

    2004-01-01

    Machine lubrication contains abundant information on the equipment operation.Nowadays, most measuring methods are based on offline sampling or on online measuring with a single sensor.An online oil monitoring system with multiple sensors was designed.The measurement data was processed with a fuzzy intelligence system.Information from integrated sensors in an oil online monitoring system was evaluated using fuzzy logic.The analyses show that the multiple sensors evaluation results are more reliable than online monitoring systems with single sensors.

  2. General database for ground water site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  3. Thermophysical properties along Curiosity's traverse in Gale crater, Mars, derived from the REMS ground temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael D.

    2017-03-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface-atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rover's traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock-dominated surfaces (∼350-550 J m-2 K-1 s-½) are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for mudstone sites and ∼700 J m-2 K-1 s-½ for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  4. 78 FR 60319 - Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... in the NNI have identified focused areas of national importance that may be more rapidly advanced... enzymatic sensors 1.2. Support development of integrated and portable sensor devices, including information systems support for collection, analysis, and transfer of large amounts of sensor data 1.3....

  5. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  6. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...... information access mechanism and show how trade-off between energy consumption and information reliability can be achieved....

  7. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Asadoor, M.; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; O'Toole, A.; Peña Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Shaner, M.; Sobacchi, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of {1}{ × 10^{-11}}textrm { m}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}}. We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of {5.7}{ × 10^{-9}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 10 mHz and {6.4}{ × 10^{-10}}textrm { rad}/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  8. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, V., E-mail: volodya@caltech.edu [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); DeSalvo, R. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); University of Sannio, C.so Garibaldi 107, Benevento 82100 (Italy); Asadoor, M. [Mayfield Senior School, 500 Bellefontaine Street, Pasadena, California 91105 (United States); Oklahoma State University, 219 Student Union, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States); Bhawal, A. [Arcadia High School, 180 Campus Drive, Arcadia, California 91007 (United States); Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Gong, P. [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Industrial and System Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0205 (United States); Kim, C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lottarini, A. [Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Minenkov, Y. [Sezione INFN Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica  1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Murphy, C. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); University of Melbourne Grattan Street, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); O' Toole, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Peña Arellano, F. E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  9. Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

    2010-04-01

    A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

  10. Solid state magnetic field sensors for micro unattended ground networks using spin dependent tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondra, Mark; Nordman, Catherine A.; Lange, Erik H.; Reed, Daniel; Jander, Albrect; Akou, Seraphin; Daughton, James

    2001-09-01

    Micro Unattended Ground Sensor Networks will likely employ magnetic sensors, primarily for discrimination of objects as opposed to initial detection. These magnetic sensors, then, must fit within very small cost, size, and power budgets to be compatible with the envisioned sensor suites. Also, a high degree of sensitivity is required to minimize the number of sensor cells required to survey a given area in the field. Solid state magnetoresistive sensors, with their low cost, small size, and ease of integration, are excellent candidates for these applications assuming that their power and sensitivity performance are acceptable. SDT devices have been fabricated into prototype magnetic field sensors suitable for use in micro unattended ground sensor networks. They are housed in tiny SOIC 8-pin packages and mounted on a circuit board with required voltage regulation, signal amplification and conditioning, and sensor control and communications functions. The best sensitivity results to date are 289 pT/rt. Hz at 1 Hz, and and 7 pT/rt. Hz at f > 10 kHz. Expected near term improvements in performance would bring these levels to approximately 10 pT/rt Hz at 1 Hz and approximately 1 pT/rt. Hz at > 1 kHz.

  11. Tomographic Imaging on Distributed Unattended Ground Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    around the next corner, what is upstairs, where is the person in a red jacket , or even what was the person in the red jacket doing 5 minutes ago...cameras and detectors to seismic , acoustic, magnetic, smoke, toxin, and temperature sensors. A working example of just such a network was developed at

  12. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  13. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  14. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  15. Potential use of ground-based sensor technologies for weed detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteinatos, Gerassimos G; Weis, Martin; Andújar, Dionisio; Rueda Ayala, Victor; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Site-specific weed management is the part of precision agriculture (PA) that tries to effectively control weed infestations with the least economical and environmental burdens. This can be achieved with the aid of ground-based or near-range sensors in combination with decision rules and precise application technologies. Near-range sensor technologies, developed for mounting on a vehicle, have been emerging for PA applications during the last three decades. These technologies focus on identifying plants and measuring their physiological status with the aid of their spectral and morphological characteristics. Cameras, spectrometers, fluorometers and distance sensors are the most prominent sensors for PA applications. The objective of this article is to describe-ground based sensors that have the potential to be used for weed detection and measurement of weed infestation level. An overview of current sensor systems is presented, describing their concepts, results that have been achieved, already utilized commercial systems and problems that persist. A perspective for the development of these sensors is given. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  17. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information sources based on their preferences and requirement. In addition, the user can also switch from one information source to another when the current information source either becomes unavailable or the users requirement changes. In this paper, based on above argument, we develop a reliable...

  18. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  19. Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Rajesh, R

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes with energy harvesting sources are gaining popularity due to their ability to improve the network life time and are becoming a preferred choice supporting 'green communication'. We study such a sensor node with an energy harvesting source and compare various architectures by which the harvested energy is used. We find its Shannon capacity when it is transmitting its observations over an AWGN channel and show that the capacity achieving energy management policy is the same as the throughput optimal policy. We also obtain the capacity for the system with energy inefficiencies in storage and an achievable rate when energy conserving sleep-wake modes are supported.

  20. Enviro-Net: From Networks of Ground-Based Sensor Systems to a Web Platform for Sensor Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Nascimento

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis.

  1. Information transfer during contingency operations: Emergency air-ground communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Safety related problems are reported which occur as a consequence of information transfer deficiencies that arise when air/ground communications are (or should be) used as a resource in inflight emergency situations. The system factors, the human errors, and the associated causes of these problem are defined.

  2. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  3. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  4. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Wearable Sensors in Healthcare and Sensor-Enhanced Health Information Systems: All Our Tomorrows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Kohlmann, Martin; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Wearable sensor systems which allow for remote or self-monitoring of health-related parameters are regarded as one means to alleviate the consequences of demographic change. This paper aims to summarize current research in wearable sensors as well as in sensor-enhanced health information systems. Wearable sensor technologies are already advanced in terms of their technical capabilities and are frequently used for cardio-vascular monitoring. Epidemiologic predictions suggest that neuropsychiatric diseases will have a growing impact on our health systems and thus should be addressed more intensively. Two current project examples demonstrate the benefit of wearable sensor technologies: long-term, objective measurement under daily-life, unsupervised conditions. Finally, up-to-date approaches for the implementation of sensor-enhanced health information systems are outlined. Wearable sensors are an integral part of future pervasive, ubiquitous and person-centered health care delivery. Future challenges include their integration into sensor-enhanced health information systems and sound evaluation studies involving measures of workload reduction and costs. PMID:22844645

  6. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  7. Commercial off the Shelf Ground Control Supports Calibration and Conflation from Ground to Space Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielová, M.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    The need for rapid deployment of aerial and satellite imagery in support of GIS and engineering integration projects require new sources of geodetic control to ensure the accuracy for geospatial projects. In the past, teams of surveyors would need to deploy to project areas to provide targeted or photo identifiable points that are used to provide data for orthorecificaion, QA/QC and calibration for multi-platform sensors. The challenge of integrating street view, UAS, airborne and Space based sensors to produce the common operational picture requires control to tie multiple sources together. Today commercial off the shelf delivery of existing photo identifiable control is increasing the speed of deployment of this data without having to revisit sites over and over again. The presentation will discuss the processes developed by CompassData to build a global library of 40,000 control points available today. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) based processes and initiatives ensure consistent quality of survey data, photo identifiable features selected and meta data to support photogrammetrist, engineers and GIS professionals to quickly deliver projects with better accuracy.

  8. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  9. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Sarma, Dhrubajyoti; Nath, Pabitra

    2015-05-01

    We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  10. Wrestling with Social Media on Information Systems’ Home Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While there are many possible approaches and areas of research for the study of social media, a review shows that only a few of these are used in extant information systems literature. The paper therefore suggests that increased awareness of the possibilities can strengthen research in social media...... that includes conceptual framing and methodology as well as research areas in the information systems discipline. First, the framework guides a review of extant literature about external social media. Going forward, the framework facilitates the development of a future research agenda about social media....... It is also suggested that information systems scholars can strengthen their interdisciplinary position by making the information systems discipline itself the home ground for research about social media. To address the issue of possible approaches and areas of research, the paper develops a framework...

  11. Application of Road Information in Ground Moving Target Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Xinyan; Zhao Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed to achieve accurate state estimation in ground moving target tracking by means of using road information. It is an adaptive variable structure interacting multiple model estimator with dynamic models modification (DMM VS-IMM for short). Firstly, road information is employed to modify the target dynamic models used by filter, including modification of state transition matrix and process noise. Secondly, road information is applied to update the model set of a VS-IMM estimator. Predicted state estimation and road information are used to locate the target in the road network on which the model set is updated and finally IMM filtering is implemented. As compared with traditional methods, the accuracy of state estimation is improved for target moving not only on a single road, but also through an intersection. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm with moderate computational loads.

  12. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  13. New Research on MEMS Acoustic Vector Sensors Used in Pipeline Ground Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands of current pipeline detection systems, the above-ground marker (AGM system based on sound detection principle has been a major development trend in pipeline technology. A novel MEMS acoustic vector sensor for AGM systems which has advantages of high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and good low frequency performance has been put forward. Firstly, it is presented that the frequency of the detected sound signal is concentrated in a lower frequency range, and the sound attenuation is relatively low in soil. Secondly, the MEMS acoustic vector sensor structure and basic principles are introduced. Finally, experimental tests are conducted and the results show that in the range of 0°~90°, when r = 5 m, the proposed MEMS acoustic vector sensor can effectively detect sound signals in soil. The measurement errors of all angles are less than 5°.

  14. Torsion pendulum facility for ground testing of gravitational sensors for LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Hüller, M; Dolesi, R; Vitale, S; Weber, W J

    2002-01-01

    We report here on a torsion pendulum facility for ground-based testing of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational sensors. We aim to measure weak forces exerted by a capacitive position sensor on a lightweight version of the LISA test mass, suspended from a thin torsion fibre. This facility will permit measurement of the residual, springlike coupling between the test mass and the sensor and characterization of other stray forces relevant to LISA drag-free control. The expected force sensitivity of the proposed torsion pendulum is limited by the intrinsic thermal noise at approx 3x10 sup - sup 1 sup 3 N Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 at 1 mHz. We briefly describe the design and implementation of the apparatus, its expected performance and preliminary experimental data.

  15. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Las Fargeas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles’ paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders’ locations and selects the vehicles’ paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm’s completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  16. Ground penetrating detection using miniaturized radar system based on solid state microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B M; Fu, L; Chen, X S; Lu, W; Guo, H; Gui, Y S; Hu, C-M

    2013-12-01

    We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.

  17. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  18. Grey systems for intelligent sensors and information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chunlin; Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai; Wang Haibo

    2008-01-01

    In a measurement system,new representation methods are necessary to maintain the uncertainty and to supply more powerful ability for reasoning and transformation between numerical system and symbolic system.A grey measurement system is discussed from the point of view of intelligent sensors and incomplete information processing compared with a numerical and symbolized mea8urement system.The methods of grey representation and information processing are proposed for data collection and reasoning.As a case study,multi-ultrasonic sensor systems are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Real-time phasing and co-phasing of a ground-based interferometer with a pyramid wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérinaud, Christophe; Esposito, Simone

    The feasibility and remarkable performances of pyramid wavefront sensing in adaptive optics have already been demonstrated. In this paper, we investigate another potential of the pyramid wavefront sensor which is differential piston sensing in interferometry: this can be done by using a glass pyramid placed in a combined focal plane of the interferometer, and a CCD sampling the usual four diffracted images of the pupil, composed here by the interferometer apertures. From a purely geometrical point of view, no information about the differential phase between two pupils could be retrieved. However, as the sensor main component, the pyramid, is located directly in the interference pattern of the interferometer, the piston information present in the electric field of the combined focal plane modifies, after diffraction by the pyramid, the intensity distribution in the pupil plane. Thus, with only one sensor, the differential piston can be measured, in addition to the classical local tilts determination. In this paper we present the concept and give some simulation results showing the performances of a closed-loop adaptive optics correction for a ground-based two-telescope interferometer like the Large Binocular Telescope.

  20. Scanning The Business Environment For Information: a Grounded Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the principal findings of research that sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process. The methodology used was of major importance in obtaining data that are grounded largely in the personal experience of managers, but also in documentary evidence and in direct observation by the researcher. The purpose of the study was to investigate how managers in the Portuguese chemical industry scan their environment for information, what are the contextual factors that affect this activity, and also how managers' perceptions of environmental change affect the strategic change they implement.

  1. Grounded theory for radiotherapy practitioners: Informing clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, N.A., E-mail: Nadia.Walsh@gstt.nhs.u [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Radiotherapy practitioners may be best placed to undertake qualitative research within the context of cancer, due to specialist knowledge of radiation treatment and sensitivity to radiotherapy patient's needs. The grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis is a unique method of identifying a theory directly based on data collected within a clinical context. Research for radiotherapy practitioners is integral to role expansion within the government's directive for evidence-based practice. Due to the paucity of information on qualitative research undertaken by radiotherapy radiographers, this article aims to assess the potential impact of qualitative research on radiotherapy patient and service outcomes.

  2. Crosstalk suppression in networked resistive sensor arrays using virtual ground technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai Saxena, Raghvendra; Semwal, Sushil Kumar; Singh Rana, Pratap; Bhan, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    In 2D resistive sensor arrays, the interconnections are reduced considerably by sharing rows and columns among various sensor elements in such a way that one end of each sensor is connected to a row node and other end connected to a column node. This scheme results in total N + M interconnections for N × M array of sensors. Thus, it simplifies the interconnect complexity but suffers from the crosstalk problem among its elements. We experimentally demonstrate that this problem can be overcome by putting all the row nodes at virtually equal potential using virtual ground of high gain operational amplifiers in negative feedback. Although it requires large number of opamps, it solves the crosstalk problem to a large extent. Additionally, we get the response of all the sensors lying in a column simultaneously, resulting in a faster scanning capability. By performing lock-in-amplifier based measurements on a light dependent resistor at a randomly selected location in a 4 × 4 array of otherwise fixed valued resistors, we have shown that the technique can provide 86 dB crosstalk suppression even with a simple opamp. Finally, we demonstrate the circuit implementation of this technique for a 16 × 16 imaging array of light dependent resistors.

  3. Evaluation of SAR Data as Source of Ground Control Information: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilaki, D. I.; Ioannidis, C.; Stamos, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high resolution imaging modes of modern SAR sensors has made SAR data compatible with optical images. SAR data offers various capabilities which can enhance the geometric correction process of optical images (accurate, direct and ground-independent georeferencing capabilities and global DEM products). In this paper the first results of an on-going study on the evaluation of SAR data as source of ground control information for the georeferencing of optical images are presented. The georeferencing of optical images using SAR data is in fact a co-registration problem which involves multimodal, mutitemporal, and multiresolution data. And although 2D transformations have proved to be insufficient for the georeferencing process, as they can not account for the distortions due to terrain, quite a few approaches on the registration of optical to SAR data using 2D-2D transformations can still be found in the literature. In this paper the performance of 2D-2D transformations is compared to the 3D-2D projective transformation over a greater area of Earth's surface with arbitrary terrain type. Two alternative forms of ground control information are used: points and FFLFs. The accuracy of the computed results is obtained using independent CPs and it is compared to the geolocation accuracy specification of the optical image, as well as to the accuracy of exhaustive georeferencing done by third parties.

  4. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor to advance ground collision avoidance for UAS platforms by providing real-time height maps for hazard anomaly...

  5. Localization with Imprecise Distance Information in Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Anderson, B.D.O.; Morse, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach to formulate geometric relations among distances between nodes as equality constraints is introduced in this paper to study the localization problem with imprecise distance information in sensor networks. These constraints can be further used to formulate optimization problems for distan

  6. Spatial anomaly detection in sensor networks using neighborhood information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.H.W.J.; Iacca, G.; Tejada, A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    The field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), embedded systems with sensing and networking capabil- ity, has now matured after a decade-long research effort and technological advances in electronics and networked systems. An important remaining challenge now is to extract meaningful information from

  7. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  8. Acoustic detection and localization of weapons fire by unattended ground sensors and aerostat-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Marty, Ch.; Hengy, S.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection and localization of artillery guns on the battlefield is envisaged by means of acoustic and seismic waves. The main objective of this work is to examine the different frequency ranges usable for the detection of small arms, mortars, and artillery guns on the same hardware platform. The main stages of this study have consisted of: data acquisition of the acoustic signals of the different weapons used, signal processing and evaluation of the localization performance for various types of individual arrays, and modeling of the wave propagation in the atmosphere. The study of the propagation effects on the signatures of these weapons is done by comparing the acoustic signals measured during various days, at ground level and at the altitude of our aerostat (typically 200 m). Numerical modeling has also been performed to reinforce the interpretation of the experimental results.

  9. Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m−2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

  10. Information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2006-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art cross-layer optimization techniques for energy-efficient information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks. Besides providing a survey on this important research area, three specific topics are discussed in detail - information processing in a collocated cluster, information transport over a tree substrate, and information routing for computationally intensive applications. The book covers several important system knobs for cross-layer optimization, including voltage scaling, rate adaptation, and tunable compression. By exploring tradeoffs of en

  11. Revisiting the comparison between the Shack-Hartmann and the pyramid wavefront sensors via the Fisher information matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, C; Meimon, S; Conan, J-M; Fusco, T

    2015-11-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging with large ground based telescopes requires eXtreme Adaptive Optics that couples high-order adaptive optics and coronagraphy. A key element of such systems is the high-order wavefront sensor. We study here several high-order wavefront sensing approaches, and more precisely compare their sensitivity to noise. Three techniques are considered: the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the recently proposed LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor. They are compared in a unified framework based on precise diffractive models and on the Fisher information matrix, which conveys the information present in the data whatever the estimation method. The diagonal elements of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, which we use as a figure of merit, are similar to noise propagation coefficients. With these diagonal elements, so called "Fisher coefficients", we show that the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors outperform the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. In photon noise regime, the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and modulated pyramid sensors obtain a similar overall noise propagation. The LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor however provides attractive noise properties on high orders.

  12. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  13. Multiplatform information-based sensor management: an inverted UAV demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreucher, Chris; Wegrzyn, John; Beauvais, Michel; Conti, Ralph

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an experimental demonstration of a distributed, decentralized, low communication sensor management algorithm. We first review the mathematics surrounding the method, which includes a novel combination of particle filtering for predictive density estimation and information theory for maximizing information flow. Earlier work has shown the utility via Monte Carlo simulations. Here we present a laboratory demonstration to illustrate the utility and to provide a stepping stone toward full-up implementation. To that end, we describe an inverted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) test-bed developed by The General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS) Michigan Research and Development Center (MRDC) to facilitate and promote the maturation of the research algorithm into an operational, field-able system. Using a modular design with wheeled robots as surrogates to UAVs, we illustrate how the method is able to detect and track moving targets over a large surveillance region by tasking a collection of limited field of view sensors.

  14. Agriculture Information Service Built on Interoperable Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Ines, A.; Han, E.; Seshimo, T.

    2015-12-01

    We are developing an agricultural information service platform called FieldTouch, that is built on an interoperable geospatial data infrastructure. More than 300 farmers in Hokkaido, Japan, are participating on this development and they are utilizing our services for optimizing their daily agricultural practices. FieldTouch integrates multi-scale sensor data for field monitoring, provides functionality for recording agricultural practices, then supports farmers in decision making. The platform has two layers. The base layer is interoperable geospatial data infrastructure for sensor networks, that provides updated sensor data to upper application layer via OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium) standard API. We are updating RapidEye satellite images every two weeks, and field sensor data from 50 nodes. Agro-Weather data generated by NIAES using national weather observation network; AMeDAS is also a data source at daily basis. We use "cloudSense" sensor backend service as the infrastructure that serves meta-data and data to the application layer via standard web service; SOS (Sensor Observation Service). SOS provides unified procedure to applications when they access different type of sensor platform, which brought us a great flexibility and automation in operating the system. We developed a crop simulation application in FieldTouch so that farmers are able to see the impact of different planting data on yield. Cultivar data of local wheat variety for DSSAT crop model was calibrated by data assimilation. We generate 100 of weather scenario by a weather generator to present the obtain distribution of yield in different planting options. We update the weather scenario day by day in order to reduce the uncertain of the prediction towards harvesting. Visualizing expected yield as distributions help farmers to understand the risks by weather variability as well as to optimize their works and investment.

  15. FORMATION OF INFORMATION SENSOR IMAGES OF INTELLIGENT VITA-MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a generalized approach to procedures of control and analysis of vita-medium properties when «the subjective sensor system» is used. The state of vita-medium is determined on the basis of the applied sources of expert assessments which reflect its properties in the natural language by means of aggregation of quantitative and qualitative features. Being so, a totality of information sensor images of vita-medium is formed, which represent a certain informational coherence and characterize vita-medium as a specific coherence.It is shown that the creation of information images is carried out according to the known principles of formalized subjective description of complex systems. Accordingly, the technology of formalized presentation of information flows and sensor images is considered in the process of vita-medium modeling with the use of categorical variables. Possible vita-medium structuring is shown at practically any complexity level with the aid of the following components: need; idea; resources; results; construction.Organization of data structures has been analyzed for formation of the intelligent vita-medium, and external, systematic and physical levels in the intelligent model base have been provided. A peculiarity of data is that in the vita-medium model it is relevant to certain material objects of the real world, to physical or informational processes. This provide data filling with the distinctive contents having the principal meaning for a set of functional tasks resolved in the intelligent model volume.

  16. Height Compensation Using Ground Inclination Estimation in Inertial Sensor-Based Pedestrian Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyeong Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In an inertial sensor-based pedestrian navigation system, the position is estimated by double integrating external acceleration. A new algorithm is proposed to reduce z axis position (height error. When a foot is on the ground, a foot angle is estimated using accelerometer output. Using a foot angle, the inclination angle of a road is estimated. Using this road inclination angle, height difference of one walking step is estimated and this estimation is used to reduce height error. Through walking experiments on roads with different inclination angles, the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  17. Information transmission using UEP turbo codes in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Xu, Chao

    2005-11-01

    Wireless sensing is prevalent quickly in these years, and it has many advantages, such as fewer catastrophic failures, conservation of natural resources, improved emergency response, etc. Wireless sensors can be deployed in extremely hostile environment. Since the wireless sensors are energy constrained, many researches have been in progress to solve these problems. In this paper, we proposed a joint source-channel coding scheme to solve energy efficiency of wireless sensors. Firstly, we decomposition information in wavelet domain, then compress it by using multi-scale embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm, and generate a bit stream that can be decompressed in a scalable bit rate. Then, we transmit the bit stream after encoding them with unequal error protection turbo codes to achieve error robust transmission. We transmit multiple bit streams according to some energy strategy, and redundancies to base stations are reduced by only transmitting coarse scale information. Due to the scalability of multi-scale EZW, we can adopt diversified bit rate strategy to save energy of battery powered sensors.

  18. High-stability temperature control for ST-7/LISA Pathfinder gravitational reference sensor ground verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, S.; Allen, G.; Bencze, W.; Byer, R.; Dang, A.; DeBra, D. B.; Lauben, D.; Dorlybounxou, S.; Hanson, J.; Ho, L.; Huffman, G.; Sabur, F.; Sun, K.; Tavernetti, R.; Rolih, L.; Van Patten, R.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.

    2006-03-01

    This article demonstrates experimental results of a thermal control system developed for ST-7 gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability δT control of the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiate 1/f fluctuations. Although for ground testing these specifications can be met fairly readily with sufficient insulation and thermal mass, in contrast, for spacecraft the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can simultaneously meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements in the presence of long time delay; a considerable design challenge. Simple control laws presently provide ~ 1mK/surdHz for >24 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feedforward control algorithm will extend performance to <1 mK/surdHz at f < 0.01 mHz and possibly lower, extending LISA coverage of super massive black hole mergers.

  19. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  20. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  1. The processing of information from sensors in intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokovin, V. A.; Sytin, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the processing of information obtained from sensors in intelligent systems. The paper analyzes the need of advanced treatment for a paralleling operation calculator which reduces the time of response to input events. A realization of a speculative processing algorithm in the FPGA by streaming control is based on a data flow model. This solution can be used in applications related to telecommunications networks of distributed control systems.

  2. Distributed Fusion in Sensor Networks with Information Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    1 llh International Conference on Information fusion. [2] KC Chang, CY Chong , and Shozo Mori, "On Scalable Distributed Sensor fusion," in Proc. 11...2011. [8] KC Chang, Chee-Yee Chong , and Shozo Mori, "Analytical and Computational Evaluation of Scalable Distributed Fusion Algorithms," IEEE Trans...Zhejiang University, Hang/. hou , China. He received the M.S. and Ph.D. in operations research from George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, in 2003 and

  3. Fiber-optic ground settlement sensor based on low-coherent interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sun, Changsen

    2014-05-20

    Ground settlement (GS) monitoring is a basic prerequisite in civil engineering. A commercialized instrument to meet this requirement has been available with millimeter accuracy. Major difficulties to improve this to micrometer scale, which are needed in special cases such as in high-speed railways, are challenged by the long stability of the sensor in the condition of the extremely slow settlement. A fiber-optic GS methodology was proposed by using a scanning low-coherent Michelson interferometer. One of the paths of the interferometer is formed by the liquid surface, and therefore the readout of the interferometer can make the measurement of the surface approach a micrometer scale. The liquid-contained chambers are hydraulically connected together at the bottom by using a water-filled tube. The liquid surface inside each chamber is at the same level initially. One of the chambers is located on stable ground or at a point that can be easily surveyed, too. The others are located at the points where settlement or heave is to be measured. Differential settlement, or heave, between the chambers will result in an apparent rise or fall of the liquid level, which biased the initial equal status. The experimental results demonstrated that the best accuracy of ±20  μm for GS monitoring was obtained with a reference compensation sensor.

  4. Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plumes from Combined Ground-Airborne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Taylor; Honeycutt, Wes; Materer, Nicholas; Ley, Tyler; Clark, Peter

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid ground-airborne sensing network for real-time plume monitoring of CO2 and CH4 for carbon sequestration is investigated. Conventional soil gas monitoring has difficulty in distinguishing gas flux signals from leakage with those associated with meteorologically driven changes. A low-cost, lightweight sensor system has been developed and implemented onboard a small unmanned aircraft and is combined with a large-scale ground network that measures gas concentration. These are combined with other atmospheric diagnostics, including thermodynamic data and velocity from ultrasonic anemometers and multi-hole probes. To characterize the system behavior and verify its effectiveness, field tests have been conducted with simulated discharges of CO2 and CH4 from compressed gas tanks to mimic leaks and generate gaseous plumes, as well as field tests over the Farnsworth CO2-EOR site in the Anadarko Basin. Since the sensor response time is a function of vehicle airspeed, dynamic calibration models are required to determine accurate location of gas concentration in space and time. Comparisons are made between the two tests and results compared with historical models combining both flight and atmospheric dynamics. Supported by Department of Energy Award DE-FE0012173.

  5. Multi-band sensor-fused explosive hazards detection in forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Becker, John; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    Explosive hazard detection and remediation is a pertinent area of interest for the U.S. Army. There are many types of detection methods that the Army has or is currently investigating, including ground-penetrating radar, thermal and visible spectrum cameras, acoustic arrays, laser vibrometers, etc. Since standoff range is an important characteristic for sensor performance, forward-looking ground-penetrating radar has been investigated for some time. Recently, the Army has begun testing a forward-looking system that combines L-band and X-band radar arrays. Our work focuses on developing imaging and detection methods for this sensor-fused system. In this paper, we investigate approaches that fuse L-band radar and X-band radar for explosive hazard detection and false alarm rejection. We use multiple kernel learning with support vector machines as the classification method and histogram of gradients (HOG) and local statistics as the main feature descriptors. We also perform preliminary testing on a context aware approach for detection. Results on government furnished data show that our false alarm rejection method improves area-under-ROC by up to 158%.

  6. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.

  7. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-08-23

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  8. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Imawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information system—a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  9. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  10. Anomaly Detection for Data Reduction in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    information (shown with solid lines in the diagram). Typically, this would be a mobile ad-hoc network ( MANET ). The clusters are connected to other nodes...the detection algorithms be able to coordinate observations over the local MANET that interconnects UGSs within the cluster. Extrapolating from that...interquartile ranges MANET mobile ad-hoc network OSUS Open Standards for Unattended Sensors TOC tactical operations center UAVs unmanned aerial vehicles

  11. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  12. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  13. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-05-11

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  14. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  15. AN INFORMATION FUSION METHOD FOR SENSOR DATA RECTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhen; Xu Lizhong; Harry Hua Li; Shi Aiye; Han Hua; Wang Huibin

    2012-01-01

    In the applications of water regime monitoring,incompleteness,and inaccuracy of sensor data may directly affect the reliability of acquired monitoring information.Based on the spatial and temporal correlation of water regime monitoring information,this paper addresses this issue and proposes an information fusion method to implement data rectification.An improved Back Propagation (BP) neural network is used to perform data fusion on the hardware platform of a stantion unit,which takes Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the core component.In order to verify the effectiveness,five measurements including water level,discharge and velocity are selected from three different points in a water regime monitoring station.The simulation results show that this method can recitify random errors as well as gross errors significantly.

  16. Energy Harvesting and Information Transmission Protocol in Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the design of transmission protocol for energy harvesting wireless sensors. The sensors can harvest the energy from the environment, but they cannot charge and discharge at the same time. We propose a protocol for energy harvesting and wireless transmission, which contains two steps. In the first step, the sensor harvests the energy from environment, and the energy harvesting rate is controlled by the harvested energy power of the energy saving device (ESD. In the second step, some data should be transmitted to the receiver in a certain time. Considering one slot time, the first part of the time is devoted exclusively to energy harvesting, and the remaining time of the slot is for transmitting the information data. Assume that Q bits are transmitted to the receiver within one time slot; we establish the relationship between the harvesting energy time and the transmit data time. In addition, we analyze the system outage probability performance over the Rayleigh fading channel.

  17. A Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach for Railway Corridor Ground Hazard Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Ryan; Hutchinson, Jean; Lato, Matt; Gauthier, Dave; Edwards, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing and monitoring ground hazard processes is a difficult endeavor along mountainous transportation corridors. This is primarily due to the quantity of hazard sites, complex topography, limited and sometimes hazardous access to sites, and obstructed views. The current hazard assessment approach for Canadian railways partly relies on the ability of inspection employees to assess hazard from track level, which isn't practical in complex slope environments. Various remote sensing sensors, implemented on numerous platforms have the potential to be used in these environments. They are frequently found to be complementary in their use, however, an optimum combination of these approaches has not yet been found for an operational rail setting. In this study, we investigate various cases where remote sensing technologies have been used to characterize and monitor ground hazards along railway corridors across the Canadian network, in order to better understand failure mechanisms, identify hazard source zones and to provide early warning. Since early 2012, a series of high resolution gigapixel images, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial laser scanning (ALS), ground based photogrammetry, oblique aerial photogrammetry (from helicopter and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms), have been collected at ground hazard sites throughout the Canadian rail network. On a network level scale, comparison of sequential ALS scanning data has been found to be an ideal methodology for observing large-scale change and prioritizing high hazard sites for more detailed monitoring with terrestrial methods. The combination of TLS and high resolution gigapixel imagery at various temporal scales has allowed for a detailed characterization of the hazard level posed by the slopes, the identification of the main failure modes, an analysis of hazard activity, and the observation failure precursors such as deformation, rockfall and tension crack opening. At sites not feasible for ground

  18. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  19. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  20. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground... migratory bird populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey is an essential part of the... Woodcock Singing Ground Survey. Service Form Number(s): 3-156. Type of Request: Extension of currently...

  1. Fusion of ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction sensors for landmine detection and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors provide complementary capabilities in detecting buried targets such as landmines, suggesting that the fusion of GPR and EMI modalities may provide improved detection performance over that obtained using only a single modality. This paper considers both pre-screening and the discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using real landmine data collected from a U.S. government test site as part of the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) landmine program. GPR and EMI pre-screeners are first reviewed and then a fusion pre-screener is presented that combines the GPR and EMI prescreeners using a distance-based likelihood ratio test (DLRT) classifier to produce a fused confidence for each pre-screener alarm. The fused pre-screener is demonstrated to provide substantially improved performance over the individual GPR and EMI pre-screeners. The discrimination of landmines from non-landmine objects using feature-based classifiers is also considered. The GPR feature utilized is a pre-processed, spatially filtered normalized energy metric. Features used for the EMI sensor include model-based features generated from the AETC model and a dipole model as well as features from a matched subspace detector. The EMI and GPR features are then fused using a random forest classifier. The fused classifier performance is superior to the performance of classifiers using GPR or EMI features alone, again indicating that performance improvements may be obtained through the fusion of GPR and EMI sensors. The performance improvements obtained both for pre-screening and for discrimination have been verified by blind test results scored by an independent U.S. government contractor.

  2. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  3. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  4. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  5. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  6. Sensor fusion by pseudo information measure: a mobile robot application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharif, Mohammad Reza; Moshiri, Behzad; HoseinNezhad, Reza

    2002-07-01

    In any autonomous mobile robot, one of the most important issues to be designed and implemented is environment perception. In this paper, a new approach is formulated in order to perform sensory data integration for generation of an occupancy grid map of the environment. This method is an extended version of the Bayesian fusion method for independent sources of information. The performance of the proposed method of fusion and its sensitivity are discussed. Map building simulation for a cylindrical robot with eight ultrasonic sensors and mapping implementation for a Khepera robot have been separately tried in simulation and experimental works. A new neural structure is introduced for conversion of proximity data that are given by Khepera IR sensors to occupancy probabilities. Path planning experiments have also been applied to the resulting maps. For each map, two factors are considered and calculated: the fitness and the augmented occupancy of the map with respect to the ideal map. The length and the least distance to obstacles were the other two factors that were calculated for the routes that are resulted by path planning experiments. Experimental and simulation results show that by using the new fusion formulas, more informative maps of the environment are obtained. By these maps more appropriate routes could be achieved. Actually, there is a tradeoff between the length of the resulting routes and their safety and by choosing the proper fusion function, this tradeoff is suitably tuned for different map building applications.

  7. Building Principles for a Quality of Information Specification for Sensor Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Appi needs information items: α, β, γ, and δ; it receives: α’, γ’, and δ’ Networks of information sources Networks of fusion, processing and...intermediary decision centers CommNets ? Networks of end- users α β γ δ δ‘γ’α’ appi Figure 1: The end-to-end information flow path Traditionally, sensors...networks that are deployed for missions not specifically designed for) and information processing centers. The example shows an application appi

  8. Wireless multimedia sensor networks on reconfigurable hardware information reduction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Li-minn; Chew, Li Wern; Yeong, Lee Seng; Chia, Wai Chong

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) capture scalar data such as temperature, vibration, pressure, or humidity. Motivated by the success of WSNs and also with the emergence of new technology in the form of low-cost image sensors, researchers have proposed combining image and audio sensors with WSNs to form wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs).

  9. Fault diagnosis in neutral point indirectly grounded system based on information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞; 鞠丽叶; 刘喜梅; 崔平远; 钟秋海

    2003-01-01

    In neutral point indirectly grounded systems, phase-to-ground fault is putting new demands on fault diagnosis technology. Information fusion is applied to detect the phase-to-ground fault, which integrates several sources of information, including line current, line voltage, zero sequence current and voltage, and quintic harmonic wave component. This method is testified through the simulation of Matlab. Simulation results show that the precision and reliability of the detection has been greatly increased.

  10. Fast obstacle detection based on multi-sensor information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linli; Ying, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Obstacle detection is one of the key problems in areas such as driving assistance and mobile robot navigation, which cannot meet the actual demand by using a single sensor. A method is proposed to realize the real-time access to the information of the obstacle in front of the robot and calculating the real size of the obstacle area according to the mechanism of the triangle similarity in process of imaging by fusing datum from a camera and an ultrasonic sensor, which supports the local path planning decision. In the part of image analyzing, the obstacle detection region is limited according to complementary principle. We chose ultrasonic detection range as the region for obstacle detection when the obstacle is relatively near the robot, and the travelling road area in front of the robot is the region for a relatively-long-distance detection. The obstacle detection algorithm is adapted from a powerful background subtraction algorithm ViBe: Visual Background Extractor. We extracted an obstacle free region in front of the robot in the initial frame, this region provided a reference sample set of gray scale value for obstacle detection. Experiments of detecting different obstacles at different distances respectively, give the accuracy of the obstacle detection and the error percentage between the calculated size and the actual size of the detected obstacle. Experimental results show that the detection scheme can effectively detect obstacles in front of the robot and provide size of the obstacle with relatively high dimensional accuracy.

  11. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  12. Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xu; Li, Haijian; Qin, Lingqiao; Xu, Dongwei; Ran, Bin; Rong, Jian

    2016-10-27

    To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads.

  13. Tilt performance of the ground settlement sensor configured in a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pinglei; Wei, Heming; Guo, Jingjing; Sun, Changsen

    2016-10-01

    Ground settlement (GS) is one of the causes that destroy the durability of reinforced concrete structures. It could lead to a deterioration in the structural basement and increase the risk of collapse. The methods used for GS monitoring were mostly electronic-based sensors for reading the changes in resistance, resonant frequencies, etc. These sensors often bear low accuracy in the long term. Our published work demonstrated that a fiber-optic low-coherent interferometer configured in a Michelson interferometer was designed as a GS sensor, and a micro-meter resolution in the room environment was approached. However, the designed GS sensor, which in principle is based on a hydraulic connecting vessel, has to suffer from a tilt degeneration problem due to a strictly vertical requirement in practical installment. Here, we made a design for the GS sensor based on its robust tilt performance. The experimental tests show that the sensor can work well within a ±5° tilt. This could meet the requirements in most designed GS sensor installment applications.

  14. Cross-Characterization of Aerosol Properties from Multiple Spaceborne Sensors Facilitated by Regional Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol observations from space have become a standard source for retrieval of aerosol properties on both regional and global scales. Indeed, the large number of currently operational spaceborne sensors provides for unprecedented access to the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever to be available. Nonetheless, this resource remains under-utilized, largely due to the discrepancies and differences existing between the sensors and their aerosol products. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have designed and implemented an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) that facilitates the joint sampling of aerosol data from multiple sensors. MAPSS consistently samples aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors using a unified spatial and temporal resolution, where each dataset is sampled over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations together with coincident AERONET data samples. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between aerosol products from multiple sensors. Moreover, the well-characterized co-located ground-based AERONET data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products.

  15. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  16. Wrestling with Social Media on Information Systems’ Home Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars

    2014-01-01

    that includes conceptual framing and methodology as well as research areas in the information systems discipline. First, the framework guides a review of extant literature about external social media. Going forward, the framework facilitates the development of a future research agenda about social media......While there are many possible approaches and areas of research for the study of social media, a review shows that only a few of these are used in extant information systems literature. The paper therefore suggests that increased awareness of the possibilities can strengthen research in social media...

  17. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-07-19

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  18. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  19. Ground characterization and roof mapping:Online sensor signal-based change detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahrampour Soheil; Rostami Jamal; Ray Asok; Naeimipour Ali; Collins Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measurement while drilling systems are becoming an important part of excavation operations for rock characterization and ground support design that require reliable information on rock strength and loca-tion&frequency of joints or voids. This paper focuses on improving rock characterization algorithms for instrumented roof-bolter systems. For this purpose, an improved void detection algorithm is proposed, where the underlying theory is built upon the concept of mean change detection based on the feed pressure signals. In addition, the application of acoustic sensing for void detection is examined and it is shown that the variance of the filtered acoustic signal is correlated to the strength of the material being drilled. The proposed algorithm has been validated on the data collected from full-scale drilling tests in various concrete and rock samples at the J. H. Fletcher facility.

  20. Adaptive Information Access in Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, due to wide applicability of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) added by the low cost sensor devices, its popularity among the researchers and industrialists are very much visible. A substantial amount of works can be seen in the literature on WSN which are mainly focused on application...

  1. Correlating Multimodal Physical Sensor Information with Biological Analysis in Ultra Endurance Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles D.Warrington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The sporting domain has traditionally been used as a testing ground for new technologies which subsequently make their way into the public domain. This includes sensors. In this article a range of physical and biological sensors deployed in a 64 hour ultra-endurance non-stop cycling race are described. A novel algorithm to estimate the energy expenditure while cycling and resting during the event are outlined. Initial analysis in this noisy domain of “sensors in the field” are very encouraging and represent a first with respect to cycling.

  2. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  3. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05). As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS) differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05). PMID:22163468

  4. A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Shibata

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05. As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05.

  5. On the sensitivity, selectivity, sensory information and optimal size of resistive chemical sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, L B; Heszler, P; Smulko, J; Granqvist, Claes-Goran; Heszler, Peter; Kish, Laszlo B.; Smulko, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Information theoretical tools are applied for the study of the sensitivity and selectivity enhancements of resistive fluctuation-enhanced sensors. General considerations are given for the upper limit of selectivity enhancement. The signal-to-noise ratio and information channel capacity of fluctuation-enhanced chemical sensors is compared to that of classical sensors providing a single output. The considerations are done at the generic level with a few concrete examples and include the estimation of scaling relations between the sensor size, the signal power, the noise power and the speed of measurements versus the size, sampling rate and measurement time.

  6. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  7. Battlefield De-Confliction Sensor And Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.

    1997-01-01

    A battlefield de-confliction and assessment sensor system architecture is described that uses a hyper-spectral imaging spectomerer instrument onboard a robitc aerial vehicle (UAV) to identify, characterize,and track missiles and aircraft.

  8. Efficient Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks using Mobile Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    a large number of mobile sinks. They describe the SEAD (Scalable Energy-efficient Asynchronous Dissemination) protocol to build and maintain an...the most loaded sensor node ( Emax ) can be approximated as follows. Sensors that are only one hop away from the sink towards the event location (i.e...is proportional to the ratio of A1/A0, i.e., (12) where (13) (14) Thus, Emax is a linear function of the distance d between the sink

  9. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  10. Application of wireless sensor network technology in logistics information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xuhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Wenwen

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts of active RFID (WSN-ARFID) based on wireless sensor networks and analyzes the shortcomings of the existing RFID-based logistics monitoring system. Integrated wireless sensor network technology and the scrambling point of RFID technology. A new real-time logistics detection system based on WSN and RFID, a model of logistics system based on WSN-ARFID is proposed, and the feasibility of this technology applied to logistics field is analyzed.

  11. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  12. Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest Information grounds, Information behaviour, Behavior, Washington, Immigrants, Information habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants are generally perceived to be information poor, meaning they face major challenges with finding and using greatly needed everyday information. However, little research exists from an information behaviour perspective as differences in language, culture, and other factors such as access make immigrants a difficult population to study. We explored the everyday information behaviour and information grounds of migrant Hispanic farm workers through field observation and interviews with users, non-users, and staff of community technology centres in a major agricultural area. Findings suggest that personal networks having various levels of credibility were used more readily than any other type of information source. Credibility and use of various sources seemed to relate to personal status as well as interest in information.

  13. Performance Optimization of Multiple Interconnected Heterogeneous Sensor Networks via Collaborative Information Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sougata; Bellalta, Boris; Oliver, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Interconnecting multiple sensor networks is a relatively new research field which has emerged in the Wireless Sensor Network domain. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have typically been seen as logically separate, and few works have considered interconnection and interaction between them. Interconnecting multiple heterogeneous sensor networks therefore opens up a new field besides more traditional research on, e.g., routing, self organization, or MAC layer development. Up to now, some approaches have been proposed for interconnecting multiple sensor networks with goals like information sharing or monitoring multiple sensor networks. In this paper, we propose to utilize inter-WSN communication to enable Collaborative Performance Optimization, i.e., our approach aims to optimize the performance of individual WSNs by taking into account measured information from others. The parameters to be optimized are energy consumption on the one hand and sensing quality on the other.

  14. Application of Multi-Sensors Information Fusion for Self-protection System of Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a kind of robot self-protection system using the multi-sensors information fusion technology. This system used five groups of photoelectric sensor and ultrasonic sensor which were installed in different direction of the robot. In this study, signals were gathered by using the complement of ranging of photoelectric sensor and ultrasonic sensor. Then the signals were sent to MCU to achieve multi-sensors information fusion.Core fusion technology was the adaptive weighted fusion estimation algorithm, which can make measurement data more accurate. With such technology, an accurate robot self-protection command was made as to avoid obstacles, to judge narrow highland and to prevent dropping. The experiment results validated its good self-protection function.

  15. Absolute Position Sensing Based on a Robust Differential Capacitive Sensor with a Grounded Shield Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jinxin; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhengkun; Zhang, Zhonghua; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-05-11

    A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF) movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10(-4) pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.

  16. Mutual trust method for forwarding information in wireless sensor networks using random secret pre-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsueh Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensing information must be transmitted from sensor nodes to the base station by multiple hopping. Every sensor node is a sender and a relay node that forwards the sensing information that is sent by other nodes. Under an attack, the sensing information may be intercepted, modified, interrupted, or fabricated during transmission. Accordingly, the development of mutual trust to enable a secure path to be established for forwarding information is an important issue. Random key pre-distribution has been proposed to establish mutual trust among sensor nodes. This article modifies the random key pre-distribution to a random secret pre-distribution and incorporates identity-based cryptography to establish an effective method of establishing mutual trust for a wireless sensor network. In the proposed method, base station assigns an identity and embeds n secrets into the private secret keys for every sensor node. Based on the identity and private secret keys, the mutual trust method is utilized to explore the types of trust among neighboring sensor nodes. The novel method can resist malicious attacks and satisfy the requirements of wireless sensor network, which are resistance to compromising attacks, masquerading attacks, forger attacks, replying attacks, authentication of forwarding messages, and security of sensing information.

  17. Integration of multi-sensor manipulator actuator information for robust robot control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Minoru; PAUL, Richard P.; ハシモト, ミノル; 橋本, 稔

    1989-01-01

    Robot manipulator joints with only a single state sensor (either in position or in velocity) are limited in their ability to determine both state variables (in position and in velocity). Also, if the single sensor fails, the robot becomes uncontrollable. In the present paper, we propose a method which efficiently uses multi-sensor information to obtain a more precise description of joint position and velocity, and such a method allows for a robust control system free from the affects of spuri...

  18. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nengcheng Chen; Changjiang Xiao; Fangling Pu; Xiaolei Wang; Chao Wang; Zhili Wang; Jianya Gong

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical informatio...

  19. Information-Driven Blind Doppler Shift Estimation and Compensation Methods for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...reviewed journals: Final Report: Information-Driven Blind Doppler Shift Estimation and Compensation Methods for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks ...Report Title We investigated different methods for blind Doppler shift estimation and compensation in underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks

  20. Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-23

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control.

  1. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control.

  2. CONDITION MONITOR OF DEEP-HOLE DRILLING BASED ON MULTI-SENSOR INFORMATION FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A condition monitoring method of deep-hole drilling based on multi-sensor information fusion is discussed. The signal of vibration and cutting force are collected when the condition of deep-hole drilling on stainless steel 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb is normal or abnormal. Four eigenvectors are extracted on time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of the signals. Then the four eigenvectors are combined and sent to neural networks to dispose. The fusion results indicate that multi-sensor information fusion is superior to single-sensor information, and that cutting force signal can reflect the condition of cutting tool better than vibration signal.

  3. Integrating soil information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop canopy sensors have proven effective at determining site-specific nitrogen (N) needs, but several Midwest states use different algorithms to predict site-specific N need. The objective of this research was to determine if soil information can be used to improve the Missouri canopy sensor algori...

  4. Social spaces, casual interactions, meaningful exchanges: 'information ground' characteristics based on the college student experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the late 1990s Fisher (writing as Pettigrew proposed information grounds to describe social settings in which people share everyday information while attending to a focal activity. Method. This study was conducted at a major research university, home to 45,000 students. Data were collected by seventy-two Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS students as part of an information behaviour class. Trained in interviewing techniques, each MLIS student interviewed ten students in public places, including the campus and the university commercial district. The survey, comprising twenty-seven primarily open-ended questions, was conducted from October 14-21, 2004. Data were collected from 729 college students and entered, along with extensive field notes, into an in-house Web form. Analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were supplemented by mini-reports prepared by the student researchers along with full-team debriefings. Results. Using a 'people, place, information-related trichotomy', characteristics are discussed in terms of how they can be manipulated to optimize information flow in social settings. Conclusion. . By understanding better the characteristics of information grounds and the interactions among these characteristics, we may be able to develop social spaces in support of information flow and human interaction. Our college student and other studies suggest that information grounds play an intrinsic role in facilitating communication among people and that by building an in-depth typology, beginning with basic categorical characteristics, we may develop new methods for facilitating information exchange.

  5. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing Space-Based SSA Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND...Propagation (Both sensor and target) Sensor/Target State Vectors & Target Radiometric Properties Millennium Space Systems Tasker/Scheduler...capability of converting visual magnitudes to radiometric quantities. However, since the model covers the full range of light (from UV through VLWIR) a

  6. The Wireless Sensor Networks Base Layout and Density Optimization Oriented towards Traffic Information Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are applied in Intelligent Transport System for data collection. For the low redundancy rate of the wireless sensor networks nodes of traffic information collection, the senor nodes should be deployed reasonably for the WSN nodes to work effectively, and, thus, the base network structure and the density optimization of the sensor network are one of the main problems of WSN application. This paper establishes the wireless sensor networks design optimization model oriented to the traffic information collection, solving the design optimization model with the chemical reaction optimization (CRO algorithm. The experimental results show that CRO algorithm outperforms the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO in solving the wireless sensor network design optimization oriented to the traffic information collection, capable of optimizing the wireless sensor network deployment of traffic information collection to contribute to the great improvement of the comprehensive value of the network performance. The reasonable design of the wireless sensor network nodes has great significance for the information collection, post-maintenance-and-extension, and cost saving of a monitoring system.

  7. Adaptation of Dubins Paths for UAV Ground Obstacle Avoidance When Using a Low Cost On-Board GNSS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs shows a lot of interest in autonomous UAV navigation. This interest is mainly driven by the necessity to meet the rules and restrictions for small UAV flights that are issued by various international and national legal organizations. In order to lower these restrictions, new levels of automation and flight safety must be reached. In this paper, a new method for ground obstacle avoidance derived by using UAV navigation based on the Dubins paths algorithm is presented. The accuracy of the proposed method has been tested, and research results have been obtained by using Software-in-the-Loop (SITL simulation and real UAV flights, with the measurements done with a low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS sensor. All tests were carried out in a three-dimensional space, but the height accuracy was not assessed. The GNSS navigation data for the ground obstacle avoidance algorithm is evaluated statistically.

  8. A Geographic Information System Framework for the Management of Sensor Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, David J.; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors’ underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  9. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid

    2017-07-01

    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R (2) 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  10. Self-Organizing Architecture for Information Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bajo, Javier; De Paz, Juan F; Villarrubia, Gabriel; Corchado, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    The management of heterogeneous distributed sensor networks requires new solutions that can address the problem of automatically fusing the information coming from different sources in an efficient and effective manner...

  11. An integrative solution for managing, tracing and citing sensor-related information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Roland; Gerchow, Peter; Macario, Ana; Schewe, Ingo; Rehmcke, Steven; Düde, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    In a data-driven scientific world, the need to capture information on sensors used in the data acquisition process has become increasingly important. Following the recommendations of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), we started by adopting the SensorML standard for describing platforms, devices and sensors. However, it soon became obvious to us that understanding, implementing and filling such standards costs significant effort and cannot be expected from every scientist individually. So we developed a web-based sensor management solution (https://sensor.awi.de) for describing platforms, devices and sensors as hierarchy of systems which supports tracing changes to a system whereas hiding complexity. Each platform contains devices where each device can have sensors associated with specific identifiers, contacts, events, related online resources (e.g. manufacturer factsheets, calibration documentation, data processing documentation), sensor output parameters and geo-location. In order to better understand and address real world requirements, we have closely interacted with field-going scientists in the context of the key national infrastructure project "FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring ocean observatory" (FRAM) during the software development. We learned that not only the lineage of observations is crucial for scientists but also alert services using value ranges, flexible output formats and information on data providers (e.g. FTP sources) for example. Mostly important, persistent and citable versions of sensor descriptions are required for traceability and reproducibility allowing seamless integration with existing information systems, e.g. PANGAEA. Within the context of the EU-funded Ocean Data Interoperability Platform project (ODIP II) and in cooperation with 52north we are proving near real-time data via Sensor Observation Services (SOS) along with sensor descriptions based on our sensor management solution. ODIP II also aims to develop a harmonized

  12. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  13. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  14. Development and investigation of MOEMS type displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Karolis; Janusas, Giedrius; Palevicius, Arvydas; Cekas, Elingas

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and investigate MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring. Developing computational periodical microstructure models using COMSOL Multiphysics modeling software for modal and shape analysis and implementation of these results for design MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring was performed. The micro manufacturing technology of periodical microstructure having good diffraction efficiency was proposed. Experimental setup for characterisation of optical properties of periodical microstructure used for design of displacement-pressure sensor was created. Pulsating human artery dynamic characteristics in this paper were analysed.

  15. Information Submanifold Based on SPD Matrices and Its Applications to Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, firstly, manifoldPD(nconsisting of alln×nsymmetric positive-definite matrices is introduced based on matrix information geometry; Secondly, the geometrical structures of information submanifold ofPD(nare presented including metric, geodesic and geodesic distance; Thirdly, the information resolution with sensor networks is presented by three classical measurement models based on information submanifold; Finally, the bearing-only tracking by single sensor is introduced by the Fisher information matrix. The preliminary analysis results introduced in this paper indicate that information submanifold is able to offer consistent and more comprehensive means to understand and solve sensor network problems for targets resolution and tracking, which are not easily handled by some conventional analysis methods.

  16. Accuracy of PARTwear Inertial Sensor and Optojump Optical Measurement System for Measuring Ground Contact Time During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Rahel; Taube, Wolfgang; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ammann, R, Taube, W, and Wyss, T. Accuracy of PARTwear inertial sensor and Optojump optical measurement system for measuring ground contact time during running. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2057-2063, 2016-The aim of this study was to validate the detection of ground contact time (GCT) during running in 2 differently working systems: a small inertial measurement sensor, PARTwear (PW), worn on the shoe laces, and the optical measurement system, Optojump (OJ), placed on the track. Twelve well-trained subjects performed 12 runs each on an indoor track at speeds ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 m·s. GCT of one step per run (total 144) was simultaneously obtained by the PW, the OJ, and a high-speed video camera (HSC), whereby the latter served as reference system. The sampling rate was 1,000 Hz for all methods. Compared with the HSC, the PW and the OJ systems underestimated GCT by -1.3 ± 6.1% and -16.5 ± 6.7% (p-values ≤ 0.05), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients between PW and HSC and between OJ and HSC were 0.984 and 0.853 (p-values measurement systems.

  17. Energy-efficient vertical transportation with sensor information in smart green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, H.

    2016-08-01

    In modern smart green buildings, sensors can detect various physical status of a building such as temperature, humidity, motion, and light, which can be used for smart living services. This paper presents an energy-efficient vertical transportation by making use of indoor sensor technologies. Specifically, sensors detect elevator users before they push the call button, and then inform to the elevator control system through building networks. By using this information, our system generates a reservation call and controls the moving time and direction of each elevator efficiently. Simulation experiments with a variety of traffic situations show that our elevator control system exhibits significantly better performance than the conventional system that does not use sensor information with respect to passengers’ waiting time and energy consumption.

  18. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  19. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegyu Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo. In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services SC (special committee-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  20. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  1. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  2. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  3. Sensor scheduling in mobile robots using incomplete information via Min-Conflict with Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Aaron; Murphy, Robin Roberson

    2004-02-01

    This paper develops and applies a variant of the Min-Conflict algorithm to the problem of sensor allocation with incomplete information for mobile robots. A categorization of the types of contention over sensing resources is provided, as well as a taxonomy of available information for the sensor scheduling task. The Min-Conflict with Happiness (MCH) heuristic algorithm, which performs sensor scheduling for situations in which no information is known about future assignments, is then described. The primary contribution of this modification to Min-Conflict is that it permits the optimization of sensor certainty over the set of all active behaviors, thereby producing the best sensing state for the robot at any given time. Data are taken from simulation experiments and runs from a pair of Nomad200 robots using the SFX hybrid deliberative/reactive architecture. Results from these experiments demonstrate that MCH is able to satisfy more sensor assignments (up to 142%) and maintain a higher overall utility of sensing than greedy or random assignments (a 7-24% increase), even in the presence of sensor failures. In addition, MCH supports behavioral sensor fusion allocations. The practical advantages of MCH include fast, dynamic repair of broken schedules allowing it to be used on computationally constrained systems, compatibility with the dominant hybrid robot architectural style, and least-disturbance of prior assignments minimizing interruptions to reactive behaviors.

  4. Aspects of sensor data fusion in interoperable ISR systems of systems for wide-area ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wolfgang; Ulmke, Martin; Biermann, Joachim; Sielemann, Marion

    2010-04-01

    Within the context of C4ISTAR information "systems of systems", we discuss sensor data fusion aspects that are aiming at the generation of higher-level in-formation according to the JDL model of data fusion. In particular, two issues are addressed: (1) Tracking-derived Situation Elements: Standard target tracking applications gain information related to 'Level 1 Fusion' according to the well-established terminology of the JDL model. Kinematic data of this type, however, are by no means the only information to be derived from tar-get tracks. In many cases, reliable and quantitative higher level information according to the JDL terminology can be obtained. (2) Anomaly Detection in Tracking Data Bases: Anomaly detection can be regarded as a process of information fusion that aims at focusing the attention of human decision makers or decision making systems is focused on particular events that are "irregular" or may cause harm and thus require special actions.

  5. Geographic Information System technology applications to Ground-Water Management Program, EPA Region 3. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clibanoff, A.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. GIS technology is a computer informational system that stores, analyzes, and manipulates both spatial and non-spatial data. Base map information for the GIS has come primarily from the USGS. Data for the entire Region at the 1:2,000,000 scale and for some of the Region at the 1:100,000 scale is currently being used. Data from GIRAS, a land use Database, at the 1:250,000 also exists for much of the Region. Information is contributed to the GIS from various sources including but not limited to RCRA, CERCLA, UIC, and UST programs. The WHP program is also being tapped to identify locations of public water supply wells. Region III is interested in any data that accurately describes the ground water condition in a given area. In Regional pilot studies being conducted, GIS is being employed at both the regional and county level. The goals of the pilot studies include the identification of areas of ground water susceptibility and major sources of ground water contamination, and prioritizing the Region's ground water supplies in terms of vulnerability to pollution and risk to the population.

  6. Development of a biomimetic roughness sensor for tactile information with an elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung Joon; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon

    2016-04-01

    Human uses various sensational information for identifying an object. When contacting an unidentified object with no vision, tactile sensation provides a variety of information to perceive. Tactile sensation plays an important role to recognize a shape of surfaces from touching. In robotic fields, tactile sensation is especially meaningful. Robots can perform more accurate job using comprehensive tactile information. And in case of using sensors made by soft material like silicone, sensors can be used in various situations. So we are developing a tactile sensor with soft materials. As the conventional robot operates in a controlled environment, it is a good model to make robots more available at any circumstance that sensory systems of living things. For example, there are lots of mechanoreceptors that each of them has different roles detecting simulation in side of human skin tissue. By mimicking the mechanoreceptor, a sensory system can be realized more closely to human being. It is known that human obtains roughness information through scanning the surface with fingertips. During that times, subcutaneous mechanoreceptors detect vibration. In the same way, while a robot is scanning a surface of object, a roughness sensor developed detects vibrations generated between contacting two surfaces. In this research, a roughness sensor made by an elastomer was developed and experiment for perception of objects was conducted. We describe means to compare the roughness of objects with a newly developed sensor.

  7. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  8. Fusing Sensor Paradigms to Acquire Chemical Information: An Integrative Role for Smart Biopolymeric Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E; Yan, Kun; Shi, Xiaowen; Shen, Jana; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2016-10-01

    The Information Age transformed our lives but it has had surprisingly little impact on the way chemical information (e.g., from our biological world) is acquired, analyzed and communicated. Sensor systems are poised to change this situation by providing rapid access to chemical information. This access will be enabled by technological advances from various fields: biology enables the synthesis, design and discovery of molecular recognition elements as well as the generation of cell-based signal processors; physics and chemistry are providing nano-components that facilitate the transmission and transduction of signals rich with chemical information; microfabrication is yielding sensors capable of receiving these signals through various modalities; and signal processing analysis enhances the extraction of chemical information. The authors contend that integral to the development of functional sensor systems will be materials that (i) enable the integrative and hierarchical assembly of various sensing components (for chemical recognition and signal transduction) and (ii) facilitate meaningful communication across modalities. It is suggested that stimuli-responsive self-assembling biopolymers can perform such integrative functions, and redox provides modality-spanning communication capabilities. Recent progress toward the development of electrochemical sensors to manage schizophrenia is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges for enlisting sensors for chemical information processing.

  9. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  10. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies Study (SGOE/T). Volume 5: Technical Information Sheets (TIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Technology Information Sheet was assembled in database format during Phase I. This document was designed to provide a repository for information pertaining to 144 Operations and Maintenance Instructions (OMI) controlled operations in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and PAD. It provides a way to accumulate information about required crew sizes, operations task time duration (serial and/or parallel), special Ground Support Equipment (GSE). required, and identification of a potential application of existing technology or the need for the development of a new technolgoy item.

  11. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  12. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  13. Multi-sensor Information Processing using Prediction Market-based Belief Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumadinova, Janyl

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of information fusion from multiple sensors of different types with the objective of improving the confidence of inference tasks, such as object classification, performed from the data collected by the sensors. We propose a novel technique based on distributed belief aggregation using a multi-agent prediction market to solve this information fusion problem. To monitor the improvement in the confidence of the object classification as well as to dis-incentivize agents from misreporting information, we have introduced a market maker that rewards the agents instantaneously as well as at the end of the inference task, based on the quality of the submitted reports. We have implemented the market maker's reward calculation in the form of a scoring rule and have shown analytically that it incentivizes truthful revelation or accurate reporting by each agent. We have experimentally verified our technique for multi-sensor information fusion for an automated landmine detection scenario. Our experi...

  14. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  15. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  16. Key management schemes using routing information frames in secure wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaev, V. A.; Finogeev, A. G.; Finogeev, A. A.; Parygin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problems and objectives of key management for data encryption in wireless sensor networks (WSN) of SCADA systems. The structure of the key information in the ZigBee network and methods of keys obtaining are discussed. The use of a hybrid key management schemes is most suitable for WSN. The session symmetric key is used to encrypt the sensor data, asymmetric keys are used to encrypt the session key transmitted from the routing information. Three algorithms of hybrid key management using routing information frames determined by routing methods and the WSN topology are presented.

  17. Step Characterization using Sensor Information Fusion and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Anacleto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian inertial navigation system is typically used to suppress the Global Navigation Satellite System limitation to track persons in indoor or in dense environments. However, low- cost inertial systems provide huge location estimation errors due to sensors and pedestrian dead reckoning inherent characteristics. To suppress some of these errors we propose a system that uses two inertial measurement units spread in person’s body, which measurements are aggregated using learning algorithms that learn the gait behaviors. In this work we present our results on using different machine learning algorithms which are used to characterize the step according to its direction and length. This characterization is then used to adapt the navigation algorithm according to the performed classifications.

  18. Low-complexity wireless communication modeling for information flow control in sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for shared awareness in multi-platform sensor systems requires advanced wireless information sharing techniques. The analysis of these techniques requires information about communication resources and latency to be available in models. The work presented here introduces generic

  19. Low-complexity wireless communication modeling for information flow control in sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for shared awareness in multi-platform sensor systems requires advanced wireless information sharing techniques. The analysis of these techniques requires information about communication resources and latency to be available in models. The work presented here introduces generic

  20. Efficient Aggregation of Multiple Classes of Information in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukherjee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN can lead to buffer overflow, resource waste and delay or loss of critical information from the sensors. In this paper, we propose the Priority-based Coverage-aware Congestion Control (PCC algorithm which is distributed, priority-distinct, and fair. PCC provides higher priority to packets with event information in which the sink is more interested. PCC employs a queue scheduler that can selectively drop any packet in the queue. PCC gives fair chance to all sensors to send packets to the sink, irrespective of their specific locations, and therefore enhances the coverage fidelity of theWSN. Based on a detailed simulation analysis, we show that PCC can efficiently relieve congestion and significantly improve the system performance based on multiple metrics such as event throughput and coverage fidelity. We generalize PCC to address data collection in a WSN in which the sensor nodes have multiple sensing devices and can generate multiple types of information. We propose a Pricing System that can under congestion effectively collect different types of data generated by the sensor nodes according to values that are placed on different information by the sink. Simulation analysis show that our Pricing System can achieve higher event throughput for packets with higher priority and achieve fairness among different categories. Moreover, given a fixed system capacity, our proposed Pricing System can collect more information of the type valued by the sink.

  1. Opportunistic Carrier Sensing for Energy-Efficient Information Retrieval in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider distributed information retrieval for sensor networks with cluster heads or mobile access points. The performance metric used in the design is energy efficiency defined as the ratio of the average number of bits reliably retrieved by the access point to the total amount of energy consumed. A distributed opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed using a combination of carrier sensing and backoff strategy that incorporates channel state information (CSI of individual sensors. By selecting a set of sensors with the best channel states to transmit, the proposed protocol achieves the upper bound on energy efficiency when the signal propagation delay is negligible. For networks with substantial propagation delays, a backoff function optimized for energy efficiency is proposed. The design of this backoff function utilizes properties of extreme statistics and is shown to have mild performance loss in practical scenarios. We also demonstrate that opportunistic strategies that use CSI may not be optimal when channel acquisition at individual sensors consumes substantial energy. We show further that there is an optimal sensor density for which the opportunistic information retrieval is the most energy efficient. This observation leads to the design of the optimal sensor duty cycle.

  2. A Portable Farmland Information Collection System with Multiple Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Hu, Jinyang; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian

    2016-10-22

    Precision agriculture is the trend of modern agriculture, and it is also one of the important ways to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to meet the production requirements of precision agriculture-efficient use of agricultural resources, and improving the crop yields and quality-some necessary field information in crop growth environment needs to be collected and monitored. In this paper, a farmland information collection system is developed, which includes a portable farmland information collection device based on STM32 (a 32-bit comprehensive range of microcontrollers based on ARM Crotex-M3), a remote server and a mobile phone APP. The device realizes the function of portable and mobile collecting of multiple parameters farmland information, such as chlorophyll content of crop leaves, air temperature, air humidity, and light intensity. UM220-III (Unicore Communication Inc., Beijing, China) is used to realize the positioning based on BDS/GPS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, BDS/Global Positioning System, GPS) dual-mode navigation and positioning system, and the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA) wireless communication module is adopted to realize the real-time remote transmission. The portable multi-function farmland information collection system is real-time, accurate, and easy to use to collect farmland information and multiple information parameters of crops.

  3. A Portable Farmland Information Collection System with Multiple Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is the trend of modern agriculture, and it is also one of the important ways to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to meet the production requirements of precision agriculture—efficient use of agricultural resources, and improving the crop yields and quality—some necessary field information in crop growth environment needs to be collected and monitored. In this paper, a farmland information collection system is developed, which includes a portable farmland information collection device based on STM32 (a 32-bit comprehensive range of microcontrollers based on ARM Crotex-M3, a remote server and a mobile phone APP. The device realizes the function of portable and mobile collecting of multiple parameters farmland information, such as chlorophyll content of crop leaves, air temperature, air humidity, and light intensity. UM220-III (Unicore Communication Inc., Beijing, China is used to realize the positioning based on BDS/GPS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, BDS/Global Positioning System, GPS dual-mode navigation and positioning system, and the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA wireless communication module is adopted to realize the real-time remote transmission. The portable multi-function farmland information collection system is real-time, accurate, and easy to use to collect farmland information and multiple information parameters of crops.

  4. Using acoustic sensor technologies to create a more terrain capable unmanned ground vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odedra, Sid; Prior, Stephen D.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Shen, Siu-Tsen; International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicle’s (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in ma...

  5. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests millions of dollars in spacecraft and ground system development, and in mission operations in the pursuit of scientific knowledge of the universe. In recent years, NASA sent a probe to Mars to study the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, obtained high resolution images of Pluto, and it is currently preparing to find new exoplanets, rendezvous with an asteroid, and bring a sample of the asteroid back to Earth for analysis. The success of these missions is enabled by mission assurance. In turn, mission assurance is backed by information assurance. The information systems supporting NASA missions must be reliable as well as secure. NASA - like every other U.S. Federal Government agency - is required to manage the security of its information systems according to federal mandates, the most prominent being the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 and the legislative updates that followed it. Like the management of enterprise information technology (IT), federal information security management takes a "one-size fits all" approach for protecting IT systems. While this approach works for most organizations, it does not effectively translate into security of highly specialized systems such as those supporting NASA missions. These systems include command and control (C&C) systems, spacecraft and instrument simulators, and other elements comprising the ground segment. They must be carefully configured, monitored and maintained, sometimes for several years past the missions' initially planned life expectancy, to ensure the ground system is protected and remains operational without any compromise of its confidentiality, integrity and availability. Enterprise policies, processes, procedures and products, if not effectively tailored to meet mission requirements, may not offer the needed security for protecting the information system, and they may even become disruptive to mission operations

  6. Satellite and ground-based sensors for the Urban Heat Island analysis in the city of Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrizi, Roberto; Bonafoni, Stefania; Biondi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the trend of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of Rome is analyzed by both ground-based weather stations and a satellite-based infrared sensor. First, we have developed a suitable algorithm employing satellite brightness temperatures for the estimation of the air temperature belonging...... to the layer of air closest to the surface. UHI spatial characteristics have been assessed using air temperatures measured by both weather stations and brightness temperature maps from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board ENVISAT polar-orbiting satellite. In total, 634 daytime...... and nighttime scenes taken between 2003 and 2006 have been processed. Analysis of the Canopy Layer Heat Island (CLHI) during summer months reveals a mean growth in magnitude of 3-4 K during nighttime and a negative or almost zero CLHI intensity during daytime, confirmed by the weather stations. © 2010...

  7. Contact-Less High Speed Measurement over Ground with 61 GHz Radar Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muneeb

    2016-01-01

    Conventional FMCW radar principle was implemented on Symeo 61 GHz LPR®-1DHP-R radar sensor system. There were few limitations of the FMCW implementation which needed to be removed. First, target separation in multi target environment was not possible for objects at same distance. For example, there are two targets, one is moving and one is static. When the moving target approaches the static target and becomes parallel to static target, which means they are at the same distance. At this point...

  8. A New Proxy Measurement Algorithm with Application to the Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhu Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles. The obtained model, which represents the connection between the proxy variable and the vGRF, is then used to predict the latter. The results have been validated using pressure insoles data collected from nine healthy individuals under two outdoor walking tasks in non-laboratory settings. The results show that the vGRFs can be reconstructed with high accuracy (with an average prediction error of less than 5.0% using only one wearable sensor mounted at the waist (L5, fifth lumbar vertebra. Proxy measures with different sensor positions are also discussed. Results show that the waist acceleration-based proxy measurement is more stable with less inter-task and inter-subject variability than the proxy measures based on forehead level accelerations. The proposed proxy measure provides a promising low-cost method for monitoring ground reaction forces in real-life settings and introduces a novel generic approach for replacing the direct determination of difficult to measure variables in many applications.

  9. 45 CFR 2505.4 - On what grounds may the Board close a meeting or withhold information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what grounds may the Board close a meeting or... ACT § 2505.4 On what grounds may the Board close a meeting or withhold information? The Board may close a meeting or withhold information that otherwise would be required to be disclosed under §§...

  10. Relay Selection with Partial Information in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Naveen, K P

    2011-01-01

    Our work is motivated by geographical forwarding of sporadic alarm packets to a base station in a wireless sensor network (WSN), where the nodes are sleep-wake cycling periodically and asynchronously. When a node (referred to as the source) gets a packet to forward, either by detecting an event or from an upstream node, it has to wait for its neighbors in a forwarding set (referred to as relays) to wake-up. Each of the relays is associated with a random reward (e.g., the progress made towards the sink) that is iid. To begin with, the source is uncertain about the number of relays, their wake-up times and the reward values, but knows their distributions. At each relay wake-up instant, when a relay reveals its reward value, the source's problem is to forward the packet or to wait for further relays to wake-up. In this setting, we seek to minimize the expected waiting time at the source subject to a lower bound on the average reward. In terms of the operations research literature, our work can be considered as a...

  11. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  12. An information potential approach for tracking and surveilling multiple moving targets using mobile sensor agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Zhang, G.; Ferrari, S.; Fierro, R.; Palunko, I.

    2011-05-01

    The problem of surveilling moving targets using mobile sensor agents (MSAs) is applicable to a variety of fields, including environmental monitoring, security, and manufacturing. Several authors have shown that the performance of a mobile sensor can be greatly improved by planning its motion and control strategies based on its sensing objectives. This paper presents an information potential approach for computing the MSAs' motion plans and control inputs based on the feedback from a modified particle filter used for tracking moving targets. The modified particle filter, as presented in this paper implements a new sampling method (based on supporting intervals of density functions), which accounts for the latest sensor measurements and adapts, accordingly, a mixture representation of the probability density functions (PDFs) for the target motion. It is assumed that the target motion can be modeled as a semi-Markov jump process, and that the PDFs of the Markov parameters can be updated based on real-time sensor measurements by a centralized processing unit or MSAs supervisor. Subsequently, the MSAs supervisor computes an information potential function that is communicated to the sensors, and used to determine their individual feedback control inputs, such that sensors with bounded field-of-view (FOV) can follow and surveil the target over time.

  13. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.

    1999-01-21

    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  14. Provenance Information Representation and Tracking for Remote Sensing Observations in a Sensor Web Enabled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqiang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The provenance of observations from a Sensor Web enabled remote sensing application represents a great challenge. There are currently no representations or tracking methods. We propose a provenance method that represents and tracks remote sensing observations in the Sensor Web enabled environment. The representation can be divided into the description model, encoding method, and service implementation. The description model uses a tuple to define four objects (sensor, data, processing, and service and their relationships at a time point or interval. The encoding method incorporates the description into the Observations & Measurements specification of the Sensor Web. The service implementation addresses the effects of the encoding method on the implementation of Sensor Web services. The tracking method abstracts a common provenance algorithm and four algorithms that track the four objects (sensor, data, processing, and service in a remote sensing observation application based on the representation. We conducted an experiment on the representation and tracking of provenance information for vegetation condition products, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI. Our experiments used raw Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data to produce daily NDVI, weekly NDVI, and weekly VCI for the 48 contiguous states of the United States, for May from 2000 to 2012. We also implemented inverse tracking. We evaluated the time and space requirements of the proposed method in this scenario. Our results show that this technique provides a solution for determining provenance information in remote sensing observations.

  15. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...... and computes power consumption and mismatch probability [1] in each of these access strategies. Based on our study, we make some recommendations when and where, which access strategy is suitable depending upon the application's requirements and network behavior. It also provides the model implementation...

  16. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  17. A Review on Sensor, Signal, and Information Processing Algorithms (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    exploration [1, 3]. With recent advances in hardware technology , it has been possible to deploy a large number of devices that are able to sense...University (United Kingdom), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), the University of Karlsruhe (Germany), the Interactive Institute (Sweden), and VTT Electronics... technology , it has been possible to deploy a large number of devices that are capable to sense, communicate, and infer information about physical phe- nomena

  18. Hi-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation based on Tactile Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Wataru; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Kojima, Fumio; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Tadashi; Imamura, Nobuaki; Shirasawa, Hidenori

    Recently, a robotic hand with tactile sensors is developed all over the world. We also have developed a universal robot hand with tactile sensors and other sensors. Tactile sensors are very important for manipulating objects dexterously. However, array-type tactile sensor has many I/O, thus require much processing time. In this paper, we propose a hi-speed tactile sensing based on the genetic algorithm in order to measure the tactile information rapidly. The validity of the proposed method shows through some experiments. Moreover, a multi-object manipulation according to the tactile information is proposed.

  19. Transmission of Multiple Emergency Information with the Coordination of Neighboring Routers in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Cherian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has been widely considered as one of the most important category of networks. One of the applications of WSN is in Emergency Management Systems. Environmental monitoring systems, especially nuclear plants require transmission of emergency information in a dynamic manner. A conventional centralized management system may not be able to cope with huge number of sensors, rapidly changing topology and cannot assure the real-time transmission of emergency information. Decentralized System is presented to solve these problems. In Decentralized System, emergency information is distributed to the neighboring routers where each router transmits the emergency information to the sink by mutual coordination. In this paper, Decentralized System is proposed for the transmission of multiple emergency information with the coordination of neighboring routers without transmission collision between the routers.

  20. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  1. Extracting Urban Ground Object Information from Images and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lina; Zhao, Xuesheng; Li, Luan; Zhang, Guifeng

    2016-06-01

    To deal with the problem of urban ground object information extraction, the paper proposes an object-oriented classification method using aerial image and LiDAR data. Firstly, we select the optimal segmentation scales of different ground objects and synthesize them to get accurate object boundaries. Then, this paper uses ReliefF algorithm to select the optimal feature combination and eliminate the Hughes phenomenon. Eventually, the multiple classifier combination method is applied to get the outcome of the classification. In order to validate the feasible of this method, this paper selects two experimental regions in Stuttgart and Germany (Region A and B, covers 0.21 km2 and 1.1 km2 respectively). The aim of the first experiment on the Region A is to get the optimal segmentation scales and classification features. The overall accuracy of the classification reaches to 93.3 %. The purpose of the experiment on region B is to validate the application-ability of this method for a large area, which is turned out to be reaches 88.4 % overall accuracy. In the end of this paper, the conclusion shows that the proposed method can be performed accurately and efficiently in terms of urban ground information extraction and be of high application value.

  2. Ground-based imaging remote sensing of ice clouds: uncertainties caused by sensor, method and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Tobias; Hausmann, Petra; Ewald, Florian; Bugliaro, Luca; Emde, Claudia; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    In this study a method is introduced for the retrieval of optical thickness and effective particle size of ice clouds over a wide range of optical thickness from ground-based transmitted radiance measurements. Low optical thickness of cirrus clouds and their complex microphysics present a challenge for cloud remote sensing. In transmittance, the relationship between optical depth and radiance is ambiguous. To resolve this ambiguity the retrieval utilizes the spectral slope of radiance between 485 and 560 nm in addition to the commonly employed combination of a visible and a short-wave infrared wavelength.An extensive test of retrieval sensitivity was conducted using synthetic test spectra in which all parameters introducing uncertainty into the retrieval were varied systematically: ice crystal habit and aerosol properties, instrument noise, calibration uncertainty and the interpolation in the lookup table required by the retrieval process. The most important source of errors identified are uncertainties due to habit assumption: Averaged over all test spectra, systematic biases in the effective radius retrieval of several micrometre can arise. The statistical uncertainties of any individual retrieval can easily exceed 10 µm. Optical thickness biases are mostly below 1, while statistical uncertainties are in the range of 1 to 2.5.For demonstration and comparison to satellite data the retrieval is applied to observations by the Munich hyperspectral imager specMACS (spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol and Cloud Scanner) at the Schneefernerhaus observatory (2650 m a.s.l.) during the ACRIDICON-Zugspitze campaign in September and October 2012. Results are compared to MODIS and SEVIRI satellite-based cirrus retrievals (ACRIDICON - Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems; MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; SEVIRI - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager). Considering the identified

  3. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 Exchanging Information for Patients’ Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2009-01-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach. PMID:20703604

  4. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 exchanging information for patients' sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2010-12-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.

  5. A comparison of information functions and search strategies for sensor planning in target classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxian; Ferrari, Silvia; Cai, Chenghui

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates the comparative performance of several information-driven search strategies and decision rules using a canonical target classification problem. Five sensor models are considered: one obtained from classical estimation theory and four obtained from Bernoulli, Poisson, binomial, and mixture-of-binomial distributions. A systematic approach is presented for deriving information functions that represent the expected utility of future sensor measurements from mutual information, Rènyi divergence, Kullback-Leibler divergence, information potential, quadratic entropy, and the Cauchy-Schwarz distance. The resulting information-driven strategies are compared to direct-search, alert-confirm, task-driven (TS), and log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) search strategies. Extensive numerical simulations show that quadratic entropy typically leads to the most effective search strategy with respect to correct-classification rates. In the presence of prior information, the quadratic-entropy-driven strategy also displays the lowest rate of false alarms. However, when prior information is absent or very noisy, TS and LLR strategies achieve the lowest false-alarm rates for the Bernoulli, mixture-of-binomial, and classical sensor models.

  6. IDMA-Based Compressed Sensing for Ocean Monitoring Information Acquisition with Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean monitoring sensor network is a typically energy-limited and bandwidth-limited system, and the technical bottleneck of which is the asymmetry between the demand for large-scale and high-resolution information acquisition and the limited network resources. The newly arising compressed sensing theory provides a chance for breaking through the bottleneck. In view of this and considering the potential advantages of the emerging interleave-division multiple access (IDMA technology in underwater channels, this paper proposes an IDMA-based compressed sensing scheme in underwater sensor networks with applications to environmental monitoring information acquisition. Exploiting the sparse property of the monitored objects, only a subset of sensors is required to measure and transmit the measurements to the monitoring center for accurate information reconstruction, reducing the requirements for channel bandwidth and energy consumption significantly. Furthermore, with the aid of the semianalytical technique of IDMA, the optimal sensing probability of each sensor is determined to minimize the reconstruction error of the information map. Simulation results with real oceanic monitoring data validate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  7. Botnet Detection Architecture Based on Heterogeneous Multi-sensor Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiLong Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As technology has been developed rapidly, botnet threats to the global cyber community are also increasing. And the botnet detection has recently become a major research topic in the field of network security. Most of the current detection approaches work only on the evidence from single information source, which can not hold all the traces of botnet and hardly achieve high accuracy. In this paper, a novel botnet detection architecture based on heterogeneous multi-sensor information fusion is proposed. The architecture is designed to carry out information integration in the three fusion levels of data, feature, and decision. As the core component, a feature extraction module is also elaborately designed. And an extended algorithm of the Dempster-Shafer (D-S theory is proved and adopted in decision fusion. Furthermore, a representative case is provided to illustrate that the detection architecture can effectively fuse the complicated information from various sensors, thus to achieve better detection effect.

  8. Coordinated Target Tracking by Distributed Unscented Information Filter in Sensor Networks with Measurement Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Wang

    2013-01-01

    measurements. Our method consists of two parts. In first phase, using the unscented sigma-point transformation techniques and information filter framework, a class of algorithms denoted as unscented information filters was developed to estimate the states of a target to be tracked. These techniques exhibit robustness and accuracy of sigma-point filters for nonlinear dynamic inference while being as easily fused as the information filters. In the second phase, we proposed a novel consensus protocol which allows each sensor node to find a consistent estimate of the value of the target. Under this protocol, the final estimate of the value of the target at each time step is iteratively updated only by fusing the neighbors’ measurements when one sensor node is out of the measurement scope of the target. Performance of the distributed unscented information filter is demonstrated and discussed on a target tracking task.

  9. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  10. Utilizing grounded theory to explore the information-seeking behavior of senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Vicky; Holtslander, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The ability to find and retrieve information efficiently is an important skill for undergraduate nursing students. Yet a number of studies reveal that nursing students are not confident in their library searching skills and encounter barriers to retrieving relevant information for assignments. This grounded theory study examined strategies used by students to locate information for class assignments and identified barriers to their success. Purposive sampling was used to recruit eleven students, who were asked to record their searching processes while completing a class assignment, and semi-structured, open-ended, audiotaped interviews took place to discuss the students' journals and solicit additional data. Methods of information seeking, strategies used to find information, and barriers to searching were identified. Students' main concern was frustration caused by the challenge of choosing appropriate words or phrases to query databases. The central theme that united all categories and explained most of the variation among the data was "discovering vocabulary." Teaching strategies to identify possible words and phrases to use when querying information sources should be emphasized more in the information literacy training of undergraduate nursing students.

  11. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  12. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu Cong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1 Dark Object Subtraction (DOS; (2 Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH and (3 the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  13. An Overview of Landslide Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Network and Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are natural disasters cause losses in many human lives and damage properties every year around the globe. Using of physical and electronic monitoring makes possible in prediction and prevention losses from landslide. Today, the wireless sensor network technology has been developed rapidly for landslide predictions. The primary object of this present paper is to overview the landslide prediction method using wireless sensor networks (WSN and geographical information systems (GIS. The paper focuses on various landslide conditioning factors, WSN design requirement, and small scale down slope model similar to study area (hazard location. Landslide prediction database to support warning system are also discussed

  14. (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    by using key point matching [13] to determine whether they are correct matches. As shown in [13], correct and incorrect matches have different... occlusions due to planes, and to determine whether two images can be considered neighbors for the mosaicing step [40]. 2) Alpha Blending...Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 14, pp. 462–467, 1968. [15] M. Carlberg, J. Andrews , P. Gao, and A. Zakhor, “Fast surface reconstruction and

  15. Exploring an informed decision-making framework using in-home sensors: older adults’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sensor technologies are designed to assist independent living of older adults. However, it is often difficult for older adults to make an informed decision about adopting sensor technologies.Objective To explore Bruce’s framework of informed decision making (IDM for in-home use of sensor technologies in community-dwelling elders.Method The IDM framework guided development of a semi-structured interview. A theory-driven coding approach was used for analysis.Results Participants supported most of the elements of the framework, but not all aspects of each element were addressed. Perceived usefulness of technologies was identified as an area for framework extension.Conclusion This paper provides useful information for health care professionals to consider how to enhance IDM of older adults regarding the use of sensor technologies. The results also illuminate elements of the IDM framework that may be critical to facilitating independent living for older adults.

  16. Fault tolerant multi-sensor fusion based on the information gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Joelle Al; El Najjar, Maan E.; Pomorski, Denis

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, multi-robot systems are used in several applications like for example, the army, the intervention areas presenting danger to human life, the management of natural disasters, the environmental monitoring, exploration and agriculture. The integrity of localization of the robots must be ensured in order to achieve their mission in the best conditions. Robots are equipped with proprioceptive (encoders, gyroscope) and exteroceptive sensors (Kinect). However, these sensors could be affected by various faults types that can be assimilated to erroneous measurements, bias, outliers, drifts,… In absence of a sensor fault diagnosis step, the integrity and the continuity of the localization are affected. In this work, we present a muti-sensors fusion approach with Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) based on the information theory. In this context, we are interested by the information gain given by an observation which may be relevant when dealing with the fault tolerance aspect. Moreover, threshold optimization based on the quantity of information given by a decision on the true hypothesis is highlighted.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these parameters are used integrat edly. The aim of this study is to assess the important oceanographic parameters detected from mu lti-sensor satellites (NO AA/AVHRR, Seawifs and Topex Poisedon for determining fishing ground of pelagic tunas in the North Papua waters at east season. The parameters include Sea Surface Temperature (STT, chlorophyl-a and currents. The ava ilability of data from optic sensor (Seawifs: chl-a and AVHRR: Thermal is limited by the presence of cloud cover. In that case, Topex Poseidon satellite data can be used to provide the currents data. The integration of data from multi-sensors increases the availability of the oceanographic parameters for prediction of the potential fishing zones in the study area.

  18. Distributed Information Compression for Target Tracking in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shi-Kuan; Lai, Kai-Jay; Tsai, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Chih-Yu

    2016-06-22

    Target tracking is a critical wireless sensor application, which involves signal and information processing technologies. In conventional target position estimation methods, an estimate is usually demonstrated by an average target position. In contrast, this work proposes a distributed information compression method to describe the measurement uncertainty of tracking problems in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The leader-based information processing scheme is applied to perform target positioning and energy conservation. A two-level hierarchical network topology is adopted for energy-efficient target tracking with information compression. A Level 1 network architecture is a cluster-based network topology for managing network operations. A Level 2 network architecture is an event-based and leader-based topology, utilizing the concept of information compression to process the estimates of sensor nodes. The simulation results show that compared to conventional schemes, the proposed data processing scheme has a balanced system performance in terms of tracking accuracy, data size for transmission and energy consumption.

  19. A target group tracking algorithm for wireless sensor networks using azimuthal angle of arrival information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chun; Fei Shu-Min; Zhou Xing-Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we explore the technology of tracking a group of targets with correlated motions in a wireless sensor network.Since a group of targets moves collectively and is restricted within a limited region,it is not worth consuming scarce resources of sensors in computing the trajectory of each single target.Hence,in this paper,the problem is modeled as tracking a geographical continuous region covered by all targets.A tracking algorithm is proposed to estimate the region covered by the target group in each sampling period.Based on the locations of sensors and the azimuthal angle of arrival (AOA) information,the estimated region covering all the group members is obtained.Algorithm analysis provides the fundamental limits to the accuracy of localizing a target group.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing hull algorithm due to the reduction in estimation crror,which is between 10% and 40% of the hull algorithm,with a similar density of sensors.And when the density of sensors increases,the localization accuracy of the proposed algorithm improves dramatically.

  20. Achieving Rigour and Relevance in Information Systems Studies: Using grounded theory to investigate organizational cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lehmann, Ph.D.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the belief that rigorous Information Systems (IS research can help practitioners to better understand and to adapt to emerging situations. Contrary to the view seeing rigour and relevance as a dichotomy, it is maintained that IS researchers have a third choice; namely, to be both relevant and rigorous. The paper proposes ways in which IS research can contribute to easing the practitioners’ burden of adapting to changes by providing timely, relevant, and rigorous research. It is argued that synergy between relevance and rigour is possible and that classic grounded theory methodology in combination with case-based data provides a good framework for rigorous and relevant research of emerging phenomena in information systems.

  1. Inertial measurement unit-camera calibration based on incomplete inertial sensor information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Yu-long ZHOU; Zhao-peng GU

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of estimating the relative orientation between an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera. Unlike most existing IMU-camera calibrations, the main challenge in this paper is that the information output from the IMU is incomplete. For example, only two tilt information can be read from the gravity sensor of a smart phone. Despite incomplete inertial information, there are strong restrictions between the IMU and camera coordinate systems. This paper addresses the incomplete information based IMU-camera calibration problem by exploiting the intrinsic restrictions among the coordinate transformations. First, the IMU transformation between two poses is formulated with the unknown IMU information. Then the defective IMU information is restored using the complementary visual information. Finally, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is applied to estimate the optimal calibration result in noisy environments. Experiments on both synthetic and real data show the validity and robustness of our algorithm.

  2. How do People Make Sense of Unfamiliar Visualizations?: A Grounded Model of Novice's Information Visualization Sensemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Sung-Hee; Hung, Ya-Hsin; Lam, Heidi; Kang, Youn-ah; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to investigate how people make sense of unfamiliar information visualizations. In order to achieve the research goal, we conducted a qualitative study by observing 13 participants when they endeavored to make sense of three unfamiliar visualizations (i.e., a parallel-coordinates plot, a chord diagram, and a treemap) that they encountered for the first time. We collected data including audio/video record of think-aloud sessions and semi-structured interview; and analyzed the data using the grounded theory method. The primary result of this study is a grounded model of NOvice's information Vlsualization Sensemaking (NOVIS model), which consists of the five major cognitive activities: 1 encountering visualization, 2 constructing a frame, 3 exploring visualization, 4 questioning the frame, and 5 floundering on visualization. We introduce the NOVIS model by explaining the five activities with representative quotes from our participants. We also explore the dynamics in the model. Lastly, we compare with other existing models and share further research directions that arose from our observations.

  3. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  4. Human Object Recognition Using Colour and Depth Information from an RGB-D Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Southwell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human object recognition and tracking is important in robotics and automation. The Kinect sensor and its SDK have provided a reliable human tracking solution where a constant line of sight is maintained. However, if the human object is lost from sight during the tracking, the existing method cannot recover and resume tracking the previous object correctly. In this paper, a human recognition method is developed based on colour and depth information that is provided from any RGB-D sensor. In particular, the method firstly introduces a mask based on the depth information of the sensor to segment the shirt from the image (shirt segmentation; it then extracts the colour information of the shirt for recognition (shirt recognition. As the shirt segmentation is only based on depth information, it is light invariant compared to colour-based segmentation methods. The proposed colour recognition method introduces a confidence-based ruling method to classify matches. The proposed shirt segmentation and colour recognition method is tested using a variety of shirts with the tracked human at standstill or moving in varying lighting conditions. Experiments show that the method can recognize shirts of varying colours and patterns robustly.

  5. Multiple sensor estimation using a high-degree cubature information filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Xin, Ming; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a high-degree cubature information filter (CIF) is proposed for multiple sensor estimation. Astatistical linear error propagation method incorporates the high-degree cubature integration rule into the extended information filtering (EIF) framework such that more accurate estimation can be achieved than the extended information filter as well as the unscented information filter (UIF). In addition, the high-degree CIF maintains close performance to the Gauss-Hermite Quadrature information filter (GHQIF) but uses significantly fewer quadrature points. As a result, the curse of dimensionality problem existing in the tensor product based GHQIF can be greatly alleviated. Besides the improved estimation accuracy and computational efficiency, the high-degree CIF also exhibits the desirable robustness under unknown noise statistics. The proposed CIF is compared with other information filters (e.g., EIF, UIF, GHQIF) via a target tracking problem and demonstrates the best performance.

  6. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  7. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-06-14

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network.

  8. A New Cellular Architecture for Information Retrieval from Sensor Networks through Embedded Service and Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Landry, René; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Naixue; Lee, Jongho; Lee, Changhoon

    2016-01-01

    Substantial changes have occurred in the Information Technology (IT) sectors and with these changes, the demand for remote access to field sensor information has increased. This allows visualization, monitoring, and control through various electronic devices, such as laptops, tablets, i-Pads, PCs, and cellular phones. The smart phone is considered as a more reliable, faster and efficient device to access and monitor industrial systems and their corresponding information interfaces anywhere and anytime. This study describes the deployment of a protocol whereby industrial system information can be securely accessed by cellular phones via a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) server. To achieve the study goals, proprietary protocol interconnectivity with non-proprietary protocols and the usage of interconnectivity services are considered in detail. They support the visualization of the SCADA system information, and the related operations through smart phones. The intelligent sensors are configured and designated to process real information via cellular phones by employing information exchange services between the proprietary protocol and non-proprietary protocols. SCADA cellular access raises the issue of security flaws. For these challenges, a cryptography-based security method is considered and deployed, and it could be considered as a part of a proprietary protocol. Subsequently, transmission flows from the smart phones through a cellular network. PMID:27314351

  9. Observability considerations for multi-sensor and product fusion: Bias, information content, and validation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Christopher, S. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    With the successful development of many aerosol products from the NASA A-train as well as new operational geostationary and polar orbiting sensors, the scientific community now has a host of new parameters to use in their analyses. The variety and quality of products has reached a point where the community has moved from basic observation-based science to sophisticated multi-component research that addresses the complex atmospheric environment. In order for these satellite data contribute to the science their uncertainty levels must move from semi-quantitative to quantitative. Initial attempts to quantify uncertainties have led to some recent debate in the community as to the efficacy of aerosol products from current and future NASA satellite sensors. In an effort to understand the state of satellite product fidelity, the Naval Research Laboratory and a newly reformed Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) aerosol panel have both initiated assessments of the nature of aerosol remote sensing uncertainty and bias. In this talk we go over areas of specific concern based on the authors’ experiences with the data, emphasizing the multi-sensor problem. We first enumerate potential biases, including retrieval, sampling/contextual, and cognitive bias. We show examples of how these biases can subsequently lead to the pitfalls of correlated/compensating errors, tautology, and confounding. The nature of bias is closely related to the information content of the sensor signal and its subsequent application to the derived aerosol quantity of interest (e.g., optical depth, flux, index of refraction, etc.). Consequently, purpose-specific validation methods must be employed, especially when generating multi-sensor products. Indeed, cloud and lower boundary condition biases in particular complicate the more typical methods of regressional bias elimination and histogram matching. We close with a discussion of sequestration of uncertainty in multi-sensor applications of

  10. Demultiplexing Visible and Near-Infrared Information in Single- Sensor Multispectral Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghipoor, Zahra; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a single-sensor imaging system that uses a multispectral filter array to spectrally sample the scene. Our system captures information in both visible and near-infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to manufacturing limitations, the visible filters in this system also transmit the NIR radiation. Similarly, visible light is transmitted by the NIR filter, leading to inaccurate mixed spectral measurements. We present an algorithm that resolves this issue by se...

  11. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  12. A Network Coverage Information-Based Sensor Registry System for IoT Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunjun; Jeong, Dongwon; Lee, Sukhoon; On, Byung-Won; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-07-25

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to provide better services through the interaction of physical objects via the Internet. However, its limitations cause an interoperability problem when the sensed data are exchanged between the sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which constitute the core infrastructure of the IoT. To address this problem, a Sensor Registry System (SRS) is used. By using a SRS, the information of the heterogeneous sensed data remains pure. If users move along a road, their mobile devices predict their next positions and obtain the sensed data for that position from the SRS. If the WSNs in the location in which the users move are unstable, the sensed data will be lost. Consider a situation where the user passes through dangerous areas. If the user's mobile device cannot receive information, they cannot be warned about the dangerous situation. To avoid this, two novel SRSs that use network coverage information have been proposed: one uses OpenSignal and the other uses the probabilistic distribution of the users accessing SRS. The empirical study showed that the proposed method can seamlessly provide services related to sensing data under any abnormal circumstance.

  13. Enhancing situational awareness by means of visualization and information integration of sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for information integration and sharing architecture, which is able to receive data simultaneously from multiple different sensor networks. Creating a Common Operational Picture (COP) object along with the base map of the building plays a key role in the research. The object is combined with desired map sources and then shared to the mobile devices worn by soldiers in the field. The sensor networks we used focus on location techniques indoors, and a simple set of symbols is created to present the information, as an addition to NATO APP6B symbols. A core element in this research is the MUSAS (Mobile Urban Situational Awareness System), a demonstration environment that implements central functionalities. Information integration of the system is handled by the Internet Connection Engine (Ice) middleware, as well as the server, which hosts COP information and maps. The entire system is closed, such that it does not need any external service, and the information transfer with the mobile devices is organized by a tactical 5 GHz WLAN solution. The demonstration environment is implemented using only commercial off-theshelf (COTS) products. We have presented a field experiment event in which the system was able to integrate and share real time information of a blue force tracking system, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) based intrusion detection system, and a robot using simultaneous location and mapping technology (SLAM), where all the inputs were based on real activities. The event was held in a training area on urban area warfare.

  14. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  15. Performing data analytics on information obtained from various sensors on an OSUS compliant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Kelly; Landoll, Darian; Klawon, Kevin; Powar, Nilesh

    2017-05-01

    The Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) was developed by DIA and ARL to provide a plug-n-play platform for sensor interoperability. Our objective is to use the standardized data produced by OSUS in performing data analytics on information obtained from various sensors. Data analytics can be integrated in one of three ways: within an asset itself; as an independent plug-in designed for one type of asset (i.e. camera or seismic sensor); or as an independent plug-in designed to incorporate data from multiple assets. As a proof-of-concept, we develop a model that can be used in the second of these types - an independent component for camera images. The dataset used was collected as part of a demonstration and test of OSUS capabilities. The image data includes images of empty outdoor scenes and scenes with human or vehicle activity. We design, test, and train a convolution neural network (CNN) to analyze these images and assess the presence of activity in the image. The resulting classifier labels input images as empty or activity with 86.93% accuracy, demonstrating the promising opportunities for deep learning, machine learning, and predictive analytics as an extension of OSUS's already robust suite of capabilities.

  16. Medical image reconstruction algorithm based on the geometric information between sensor detector and ROI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Roh, Seungkuk

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new image reconstruction algorithm considering the geometric information of acoustic sources and senor detector and review the two-step reconstruction algorithm which was previously proposed based on the geometrical information of ROI(region of interest) considering the finite size of acoustic sensor element. In a new image reconstruction algorithm, not only mathematical analysis is very simple but also its software implementation is very easy because we don't need to use the FFT. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm by showing the simulation results by using Matlab k-wave toolkit.

  17. Building a common ground on the clinical case: design, implementation and evaluation of an information model for a Handover EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Daniel; Paul, Mareike; Hübner, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Handovers need a common ground on the clinical cases between the members of the successive shifts to establish continuity of care. Conventional electronic patient record systems (EHR) proved to be only insufficiently suitable for supporting the grounding process. Against this background we proposed a basic concept for a handover EHR that extends general EHRs in particular openEHR based systems. The resulting handover information model was implemented in a database and evaluated based on 120 clinical cases. The information items of these cases could be mapped successfully to the model, however, the new class "anticipatory guidance" needed to be introduced. The evaluation also demonstrated the importance of highly aggregated information on the clinical case, opinions and meta-information such as the relevance of an item during handovers. Based on these findings, in particular the handover database, handover EHR applications are currently developed to support the grounding process.

  18. Fusion of Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Measurements and Map Information for Pedestrian Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shu-Di; Meng, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wendong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-02-10

    The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy. In the proposed method, a simple stance phase detector is designed to identify the stance phase of a gait cycle based on gyroscope measurements. For the non-stance phase during a gait cycle, an acceleration control variable derived from ZUPT information is introduced in the process model, while vector map information is taken as binary pseudo-measurements to further enhance position estimation accuracy and reduce uncertainty of walking trajectories. A particle filter is then designed to fuse ZUPT information and binary pseudo-measurements together. The proposed human position estimation method has been evaluated with closed-loop walking experiments in indoor and outdoor environments. Results of comparison study have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for application scenarios with useful map information.

  19. Fusion of Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Measurements and Map Information for Pedestrian Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shu-Di; Meng, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wendong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy. In the proposed method, a simple stance phase detector is designed to identify the stance phase of a gait cycle based on gyroscope measurements. For the non-stance phase during a gait cycle, an acceleration control variable derived from ZUPT information is introduced in the process model, while vector map information is taken as binary pseudo-measurements to further enhance position estimation accuracy and reduce uncertainty of walking trajectories. A particle filter is then designed to fuse ZUPT information and binary pseudo-measurements together. The proposed human position estimation method has been evaluated with closed-loop walking experiments in indoor and outdoor environments. Results of comparison study have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for application scenarios with useful map information. PMID:28208591

  20. A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Bai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches’ ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method’s rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.

  1. Geopositioning with a quadcopter: Extracted feature locations and predicted accuracy without a priori sensor attitude information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Edwards, David; Theiss, Henry; Braun, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Full Motion Video-Geopositioning Test Bed (FMV-GTB) developed to investigate algorithm performance and issues related to the registration of motion imagery and subsequent extraction of feature locations along with predicted accuracy. A case study is included corresponding to a video taken from a quadcopter. Registration of the corresponding video frames is performed without the benefit of a priori sensor attitude (pointing) information. In particular, tie points are automatically measured between adjacent frames using standard optical flow matching techniques from computer vision, an a priori estimate of sensor attitude is then computed based on supplied GPS sensor positions contained in the video metadata and a photogrammetric/search-based structure from motion algorithm, and then a Weighted Least Squares adjustment of all a priori metadata across the frames is performed. Extraction of absolute 3D feature locations, including their predicted accuracy based on the principles of rigorous error propagation, is then performed using a subset of the registered frames. Results are compared to known locations (check points) over a test site. Throughout this entire process, no external control information (e.g. surveyed points) is used other than for evaluation of solution errors and corresponding accuracy.

  2. The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Scheibert, J; Prevost, A; Debrégeas, G; 10.1126/science.1166467

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the tactile perception of fine textures (spatial scale <200 micrometers) is mediated by skin vibrations generated as the finger scans the surface. To establish the relationship between texture characteristics and subcutaneous vibrations, a biomimetic tactile sensor has been designed whose dimensions match those of the fingertip. When the sensor surface is patterned with parallel ridges mimicking the fingerprints, the spectrum of vibrations elicited by randomly textured substrates is dominated by one frequency set by the ratio of the scanning speed to the interridge distance. For human touch, this frequency falls within the optimal range of sensitivity of Pacinian afferents, which mediate the coding of fine textures. Thus, fingerprints may perform spectral selection and amplification of tactile information that facilitate its processing by specific mechanoreceptors.

  3. Optimizing placements of ground-based snow sensors for areal snow cover estimation using a machine-learning algorithm and melt-season snow-LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroza, C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a structured, analytical approach to optimize ground-sensor placements based on time-series remotely sensed (LiDAR) data and machine-learning algorithms. We focused on catchments within the Merced and Tuolumne river basins, covered by the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory LiDAR program. First, we used a Gaussian mixture model to identify representative sensor locations in the space of independent variables for each catchment. Multiple independent variables that govern the distribution of snow depth were used, including elevation, slope, and aspect. Second, we used a Gaussian process to estimate the areal distribution of snow depth from the initial set of measurements. This is a covariance-based model that also estimates the areal distribution of model uncertainty based on the independent variable weights and autocorrelation. The uncertainty raster was used to strategically add sensors to minimize model uncertainty. We assessed the temporal accuracy of the method using LiDAR-derived snow-depth rasters collected in water-year 2014. In each area, optimal sensor placements were determined using the first available snow raster for the year. The accuracy in the remaining LiDAR surveys was compared to 100 configurations of sensors selected at random. We found the accuracy of the model from the proposed placements to be higher and more consistent in each remaining survey than the average random configuration. We found that a relatively small number of sensors can be used to accurately reproduce the spatial patterns of snow depth across the basins, when placed using spatial snow data. Our approach also simplifies sensor placement. At present, field surveys are required to identify representative locations for such networks, a process that is labor intensive and provides limited guarantees on the networks' representation of catchment independent variables.

  4. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  5. Indoor Trajectory Tracking Scheme Based on Delaunay Triangulation and Heuristic Information in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junping; Sun, Shiwen; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Limin; Tian, Yonghong

    2017-06-02

    Object tracking and detection is one of the most significant research areas for wireless sensor networks. Existing indoor trajectory tracking schemes in wireless sensor networks are based on continuous localization and moving object data mining. Indoor trajectory tracking based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) has received increased attention because it has low cost and requires no special infrastructure. However, RSSI tracking introduces uncertainty because of the inaccuracies of measurement instruments and the irregularities (unstable, multipath, diffraction) of wireless signal transmissions in indoor environments. Heuristic information includes some key factors for trajectory tracking procedures. This paper proposes a novel trajectory tracking scheme based on Delaunay triangulation and heuristic information (TTDH). In this scheme, the entire field is divided into a series of triangular regions. The common side of adjacent triangular regions is regarded as a regional boundary. Our scheme detects heuristic information related to a moving object's trajectory, including boundaries and triangular regions. Then, the trajectory is formed by means of a dynamic time-warping position-fingerprint-matching algorithm with heuristic information constraints. Field experiments show that the average error distance of our scheme is less than 1.5 m, and that error does not accumulate among the regions.

  6. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  7. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DEMONSTRATION REPORT Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification – Former Southwestern...concentrations. A total of 11.23 acres of dynamic surveys were conducted using MetalMapper advanced electromagnetic induction ( EMI ) sensor. A total of...Order Navigation Points ................................................................................13 5.2.3 Initial EMI Survey

  8. Information Dominance or Information Overload? Unintended Consequences of ’Every Soldier and Platform a Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    Department Naval War College 686 Cushing Road Newport, RI 02841-1207 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...it‟s logical to say operational commanders already have access to much more data than their brains can process and analyze in a reasonable amount of...Ivanoff, “Capacity limits of information processing in the brain ,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9, no. 6 (June 2005): 296-305. 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid

  9. The Location Method of Battlefield Targets Based on Ground Sensors%基于地面传感器的战场目标定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍硕; 徐万里

    2016-01-01

    精确的网络节点定位是无线传感器网络各种应用和展开部署时自组网及网络管理的首要和基础条件,这就要求有很高的定位精度。战场侦察地面传感器系统中,大多使用声/震传感器结合时差定位法对地面目标进行定位,但其在近点定位效果较差,且若需在远点的测距精度达米级时,要求测时精度达纳秒级。无源红外传感器通过感知IR强度变化和方向对目标进行运动方向和数量的判别,它的测向误差在毫弧度级,理论上可采用多重采样相关定位法建立仿真模型,结果表明:基于红外传感器的地面目标定位算法对地面战场目标定位切实可行且定位精度较高。%Accurate network node localization is the most important and basic condition for the application and deployment of wireless sensor networks, which is the first and the basic condition of the network and the network management. Battlefield re-connaissance ground sensor system and are mainly used for acoustic/seismic sensors combined with TDOA location method to locate targets on the ground, but the in the near point positioning effect is poor, and if you need to in far ranging accuracy Damien level, measurement accuracy of Dana seconds level. Passive infrared sensor through perception about changes in the IR intensity and direction of target for discrimination of the direction and amount of the movement, the direction finding error in mrad level and theory using multiple sampling positioning method, the simulation model is established. The results show that:Based on infrared sensor ground target localization algorithm of ground battlefield target location is feasible and high positioning accuracy.

  10. Information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Susan Ward

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience educators use a variety of resources and resource formats in their classroom teaching to facilitate student understanding of concepts and processes that define subject areas considered in the realm of geoscience. In this study of information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators, the researcher found that participants preferred visual media such as personal photographic and digital images, as well as published figures, animations, and cartoons, and that participants bypassed their academic libraries to meet these information needs. In order to investigate the role of information in developing introductory geoscience course and instruction, a grounded theory study was conducted through a qualitative paradigm with an interpretive approach and naturalistic inquiry. The theoretical and methodological framework was constructivism and sense-making. Research questions were posited on the nature of geoscience subject areas and the resources and resource formats used in conveying geoscience topics to science and non-science majors, as well as educators' preferences and concerns with curriculum and instruction. The underlying framework was to investigate the place of the academic library and librarian in the sense-making, constructivist approach of geoscience educators. A purposive sample of seven geoscience educators from four universities located in mid-western United States was identified as exemplary teachers by department chairpersons. A triangulation of data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, document reviews, and classroom observations. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which included coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Contextual factors were identified and a simple model resulted showing the role of information in teaching for these participants. While participants developed lectures and demonstrations using intrapersonal knowledge and personal collections, one barrier

  11. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Energy-Efficient Collaborative Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arienzo Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collaborative tracking of mobile nodes in wireless sensor networks is addressed. By using a novel metric derived from the energy model in LEACH (W.B. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, in: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '00, 2000 and aiming at an efficient resource solution, the approach adopts a strategy of combining target tracking with node selection procedures in order to select informative sensors to minimize the energy consumption of the tracking task. We layout a cluster-based architecture to address the limitations in computational power, battery capacity and communication capacities of the sensor devices. The computation of the posterior Cramer-Rao bound (PCRB based on received signal strength measurements has been considered. To track mobile nodes two particle filters are used: the bootstrap particle filter and the unscented particle filter, both in the centralized and in the distributed manner. Their performances are compared with the theoretical lower bound PCRB. To save energy, a node selection procedure based on greedy algorithms is proposed. The node selection problem is formulated as a cross-layer optimization problem and it is solved using greedy algorithms.

  12. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS AND FUSION OF CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION FOR WEATHER OUTLIER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Weather stations are often expensive hence it may be difficult to obtain data with a high spatial coverage. A low cost alternative is wireless sensor network (WSN, which can be deployed as weather stations and address the aforementioned shortcoming. Due to imperfect sensors in WSNs context, provided raw data may be drawn in from of a low quality and reliability level, expectedly that is an emergence of applying outlier detection methods. Outliers may include errors or potentially useful information called events. In this research, forecast values as contextual information are utilized for weather outlier detection. In this paper, outliers are identified by comparing the patterns of WSN and forecasts. With that approach, temporal outliers are detected with respect to slopes of the WSNs and forecasts in the presence of pre-defined tolerance. The experimental results from the real data-set validate the applicability of using contextual information in the context of WSNs for outlier detection in terms of accuracy and energy efficiency.

  13. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  14. On the Mutual Information of Multi-hop Acoustic Sensors Network in Underwater Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Function In our thesis, we perform a serial data communication via serial port using RS-232 levels. The data are transmitted at 4800 baud and 8 data...Acoustic Communication Channel,” WUWNet, 2006, pp 41-47. [4] S. Ali, A. Fakoorian, G . R. Solat, H. Eidi, “Maximizing Capacity in Wireless Sensor...16] B. C. Geiger, G . Kubin, “On the Rate of Information Loss in Memoryless Systems,” IEE Signal Processing, April 2013. [17] F. Zhao, J. Shin

  15. Coal blending scheduling in coal preparation plant based on multi-sensor information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, L.; Yu, H.; Wang, Y. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    It is important to research on a reasonable blending schedule according to the customer requirement and the practice of products in coal preparation plant. In order to solve this problem, a mathematic model was set up on the basis of analysing coal blending schedule. Multi-sensors information fusion was used to monitor the density and the amount of coal. The genetic algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear function in the maths model. A satisfied result was obtained by simulating test. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions.

  17. Representing Geospatial Environment Observation Capability Information: A Case Study of Managing Flood Monitoring Sensors in the Jinsha River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuli; Guan, Qingfeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Chen, Nengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Sensor inquirers cannot understand comprehensive or accurate observation capability information because current observation capability modeling does not consider the union of multiple sensors nor the effect of geospatial environmental features on the observation capability of sensors. These limitations result in a failure to discover credible sensors or plan for their collaboration for environmental monitoring. The Geospatial Environmental Observation Capability (GEOC) is proposed in this study and can be used as an information basis for the reliable discovery and collaborative planning of multiple environmental sensors. A field-based GEOC (GEOCF) information representation model is built. Quintuple GEOCF feature components and two GEOCF operations are formulated based on the geospatial field conceptual framework. The proposed GEOCF markup language is used to formalize the proposed GEOCF. A prototype system called GEOCapabilityManager is developed, and a case study is conducted for flood observation in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River Basin. The applicability of the GEOCF is verified through the reliable discovery of flood monitoring sensors and planning for the collaboration of these sensors. PMID:27999247

  18. An improved DS acoustic-seismic modality fusion algorithm based on a new cascaded fuzzy classifier for ground-moving targets classification in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiang; Wei, Jianming; Cao, Hongbing; Li, Na; Liu, Haitao

    2007-04-01

    A new cascaded fuzzy classifier (CFC) is proposed to implement ground-moving targets classification tasks locally at sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN). The CFC is composed of three and two binary fuzzy classifiers (BFC) respectively in seismic and acoustic signal channel in order to classify person, Light-wheeled (LW) Vehicle, and Heavywheeled (HW) Vehicle in presence of environmental background noise. Base on the CFC, a new basic belief assignment (bba) function is defined for each component BFC to give out a piece of evidence instead of a hard decision label. An evidence generator is used to synthesize available evidences from BFCs into channel evidences and channel evidences are further temporal-fused. Finally, acoustic-seismic modality fusion using Dempster-Shafer method is performed. Our implementation gives significantly better performance than the implementation with majority-voting fusion method through leave-one-out experiments.

  19. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  20. Automatic publishing ISO 19115 metadata with PanMetaDocs using SensorML information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Schroeder, Matthias; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. A challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. Geographic sensor information and services are described using the ISO 19115 metadata schema. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also published data through DataCite. The necessary metadata are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to

  1. CROPCAST - A Review Of An Existing Remote Sensor-Based Agricultural Information System With A View Toward Future Remote Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Earl S.; Heitkemper, Lawrence; Marcus, Kevin

    1984-08-01

    Global agricultural production information is the key to many economic decisions. National level planners use it to plan imports or to assess balance of payments, farmers use it to make planting decisions, lending and aid institutions use it to plan loans and aid needs, commodity buyers use it to plan purchases. Traditional information systems are slow, offer little confidence and may be inaccurate; systems based on the use of space remote sensor systems are, on the other hand, fast, provide good confidence and are demonstrating improving accuracies. The system structure for remote sensor assisted agricultural information systems is centered on a geobased structure, mapped outputs pinpoint locations where plant stress is impacting yields. Meteorological satellite assessments pinpoint where rainfall and significant solar radiation is impacting the plant environment. The CROPCAST Agricultural Information System offers an opportunity to examine an operating system which contains characteristics essential to all future systems. CROPCAST's use of a grid/cell geobased structure provides a mechanism to effectively use remote-sensor derived data of all types, i.e., Landsats, metsats, aircraft and human eyeball derived data. Predictive models operating in CROPCAST provide updated agricultural assessments in the time intervals when no Landsat or other field observation data are available. Economic models provide the opportunity to merge CROPCAST diagnostic and predictive output with the market place at both the cash and futures level. This presentation will examine the CROPCAST structure as a model for future uses of remote sensing data from civil remote sensing systems in assessing global agricultural production. A review of the future direction to be taken by the CROPCAST System will be included to identify new avenues for remote sensor-based agricultural information system growth over the coming decade of change in remote sensor systems.

  2. Optimizing the configuration of precipitation stations in a space-ground integrated sensor network based on spatial-temporal coverage maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guan, Qingfeng; Chen, Nengcheng; Tong, Daoqin; Hu, Chuli; Peng, Yuling; Dong, Xianyong; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The two major rainfall observation techniques, ground-based measurements and remote sensing, have distinct coverage characteristics. Large-scale spatial coverage and long-term temporal coverage cannot be achieved simultaneously by using only ground-based precipitation stations or space-borne sensors. Given the temporal discontinuity of satellite coverage and limited ground-based observation resources, we propose a method for siting precipitation stations in conjunction with satellite-based rainfall sensors to maximize the total spatial-temporal coverage of weighted demand in a continuous observation period. Considering the special principles of deploying precipitation stations and the requirement for continuous coverage in space and time, a time-continuous maximal covering location problem (TMCLP) model is introduced. The maximal spatial coverage range of a precipitation station is determined based on the minimum density required and the site-specific terrain conditions. The coverage of a satellite sensor is calculated for each time period when it passes overhead. The polygon intersection point set (PIPS) is refined to identify finite candidate sites. By narrowing the continuous search space to a finite dominating set and discretizing the continuous observation period to sequential sub-periods, the siting problem is solved using the TMCLP model and refined PIPS. According to specific monitoring purposes, different weighting schemes can be used to evaluate the coverage priority of each demand object. The Jinsha River Basin is selected as the study region to test the proposed method. Satellite-borne precipitation radar is used to evaluate the satellite coverage. The results show that the proposed method is effective for precipitation station configuration optimization, and the model solution achieves higher coverage than the real-world deployment. The applicability of the proposed method, site selection criteria, deployment strategies in different observation modes

  3. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor concept for the mitigation of aircraft hazards due to reduced visibility in fog, drizzle and light rain and the...

  4. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  5. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  6. Using hybrid angle/distance information for distributed topology control in vehicular sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Chi; Chiu, Yang-Hung; Wen, Chih-Yu

    2014-10-27

    In a vehicular sensor network (VSN), the key design issue is how to organize vehicles effectively, such that the local network topology can be stabilized quickly. In this work, each vehicle with on-board sensors can be considered as a local controller associated with a group of communication members. In order to balance the load among the nodes and govern the local topology change, a group formation scheme using localized criteria is implemented. The proposed distributed topology control method focuses on reducing the rate of group member change and avoiding the unnecessary information exchange. Two major phases are sequentially applied to choose the group members of each vehicle using hybrid angle/distance information. The operation of Phase I is based on the concept of the cone-based method, which can select the desired vehicles quickly. Afterwards, the proposed time-slot method is further applied to stabilize the network topology. Given the network structure in Phase I, a routing scheme is presented in Phase II. The network behaviors are explored through simulation and analysis in a variety of scenarios. The results show that the proposed mechanism is a scalable and effective control framework for VSNs.

  7. STAND-ALONE COLLISION WARNING SYSTEMS BASED ON INFORMATION FROM ON-BOARD SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke TAKATORI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at stand-alone collision warning systems that are based on information from on-board sensors and evaluates their safety performance relative to system penetration rate. The authors developed an autonomous microscopic traffic simulator for collision warning systems, including both forward vehicle collision warning systems and side collision warning systems, then evaluated such systems through simulation. Safety performance from the perspective of drivers was evaluated using the average distance driven without an accident for both system-equipped and unequipped vehicles. Safety performance from the perspective of road administrators was evaluated using the average interval between accidents. The average distance driven without an accident for system-equipped vehicles, compared to that for a system in which no system-equipped vehicles exist, increases greatly beginning from a low rate of penetration, suggesting that increased rates of penetration are attended by even greater effectiveness. With regard to the average distance driven without an accident for unequipped vehicles, too, increased rates of penetration are attended by increased safety performance due to the collision avoidance effect of warnings produced by system-equipped vehicles. In terms of safety performance from the perspective of road administrators, that is, the average interval between accidents, evaluations indicated that safety performance increases dramatically when the penetration rate exceeds 60%. The above findings illustrate the effect of system penetration rate on the safety performance of stand-alone collision warning systems that are based on information from on-board sensors.

  8. A NOVEL INTELLIGENT MODEL FOR ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OUAIL ABROUN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN technologies became a leading solution in many significant fields, by offering the desired high accuracy in a large variety of control applications under rational cost. However, for the sake of generating optimal decisions and choosing adequate reactions, the current information systems used as enterprise service require more accurate and real-time data. In this work, we propose a novel model of Enterprise Information System (EIS, which integrates the WSN technologies benefits, to make an intelligent hardware and software architecture which is able to generate business managing decisions for several enterprise services with high accurateness. This paper explains the different elements treated to integrate WSN into the EIS, through presenting our suggested integration architecture, then the integration middleware layer, and finally the decisional model analysis and results.

  9. Defensive Information Operations in Support of the Marine Air Ground Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Report INFOSEC Information Security INFOSYS Information Systems IO Information Operations ISMO Information Systems Management Office...scanning software. “ Much of the success of the Information Systems Management Office ( ISMO ) team comes from educating the Marines on these dangers and

  10. 3D-information fusion from very high resolution satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, T.; d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Tian, J.; Partovi, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl'eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground objects are derived. Combining these elevation based data with a spectral classification allows detection and extraction of objects from the satellite scenes. Beside the object extraction also the DSM and DTM can directly be used for simulation and monitoring of environmental issues. Examples are the simulation of floodings, building-volume and people estimation, simulation of noise from roads, wave-propagation for cellphones, wind and light for estimating renewable energy sources, 3D change detection, earthquake preparedness and crisis relief, urban development and sprawl of informal settlements and much more. Also outside of urban areas volume information brings literally a new dimension to earth oberservation tasks like the volume estimations of forests and illegal logging, volume of (illegal) open pit mining activities, estimation of flooding or tsunami risks, dike planning, etc. In this paper we present the preprocessing from the original level-1 satellite data to digital surface models (DSMs), corresponding VHR ortho images and derived digital terrain models (DTMs). From these components we present how a monitoring and decision fusion based 3D change detection can be realized by using different acquisitions. The results are analyzed and assessed to derive quality parameters for the presented method. Finally the usability of 3D information fusion from VHR satellite imagery is discussed and evaluated.

  11. Towards a personalized environmental health information service using low-cost sensors and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Liu, Hai-Ying; Schneider, Philipp; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    Most European cities exceed the air quality guidelines established by the WHO to protect human health. As such, citizens are exposed to potentially harmful pollutant levels. Some cities have services (e.g., web pages, mobile apps, etc.) which provide timely air quality information to the public. However, air quality data at individual level is currently scarce or non-existent. Making this information directly useful to individuals poses a challenge. For instance, if a user is informed that the air quality is "poor", what does that mean for him/her, and how can this information be acted upon? Despite individuals having a unique relationship with their environment, the information on the state of atmospheric components and related hazards is currently mostly generic, and seldom personally relevant. This undermines citizens' interest in their environment, and consequently limits their ability to recognize and change both their contribution and their exposure to air pollution. In Oslo, two EU founded projects, CITI-SENSE (Engelken-Jorge et al., 2014) and Citi-Sense-MOB (Castell et al., 2014), are trying to establish a dialogue with citizens by providing them with the possibility of getting personalized air quality information on their smartphones. The users are able to check the air quality in their immediate surroundings and track their individual exposure while moving through the urban environment (Castell et al., 2014). In this way, they may be able to reduce their exposure such as by changing transport modes or routes, for example by selecting less polluted streets to walk or cycle through. Using a smartphone application, citizens are engaged in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception (turning citizens into sensors themselves). The highly spatially resolved data on air quality and perception is geo-located. This allows for simultaneous visualization of both kinds of the sensor

  12. Estimating Cotton Nitrogen Nutrition Status Using Leaf Greenness and Ground Cover Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Melissa Muharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing nitrogen (N status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describes and tests a novel method of utilizing physical characteristics of N-fertilized cotton and combining field spectral measurements made at different spatial scales as an approach to estimate in-season chlorophyll or leaf N content of field-grown cotton. In this study, leaf greenness estimated from spectral measurements made at the individual leaf, canopy and scene levels was combined with percent ground cover to produce three different indices, named TCCLeaf, TCCCanopy, and TCCScene. These indices worked best for estimating leaf N at early flowering, but not for chlorophyll content. Of the three indices, TCCLeaf showed the best ability to estimate leaf N (R2 = 0.89. These results suggest that the use of green and red-edge wavelengths derived at the leaf scale is best for estimating leaf greenness. TCCCanopy had a slightly lower R2 value than TCCLeaf (0.76, suggesting that the utilization of yellow and red-edge wavelengths obtained at the canopy level could be used as an alternative to estimate leaf N in the absence of leaf spectral information. The relationship between TCCScene and leaf N was the lowest (R2 = 0.50, indicating that the estimation of canopy greenness from scene measurements needs improvement. Results from this study confirmed the potential of these indices as efficient methods for estimating in-season leaf N status of cotton.

  13. Practical Performance Analysis for Multiple Information Fusion Based Scalable Localization System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In practical localization system design, researchers need to consider several aspects to make the positioning efficiently and effectively, e.g., the available auxiliary information, sensing devices, equipment deployment and the environment. Then, these practical concerns turn out to be the technical problems, e.g., the sequential position state propagation, the target-anchor geometry effect, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS identification and the related prior information. It is necessary to construct an efficient framework that can exploit multiple available information and guide the system design. In this paper, we propose a scalable method to analyze system performance based on the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB, which can fuse all of the information adaptively. Firstly, we use an abstract function to represent all of the wireless localization system model. Then, the unknown vector of the CRLB consists of two parts: the first part is the estimated vector, and the second part is the auxiliary vector, which helps improve the estimation accuracy. Accordingly, the Fisher information matrix is divided into two parts: the state matrix and the auxiliary matrix. Unlike the theoretical analysis, our CRLB can be a practical fundamental limit to denote the system that fuses multiple information in the complicated environment, e.g., recursive Bayesian estimation based on the hidden Markov model, the map matching method and the NLOS identification and mitigation methods. Thus, the theoretical results are approaching the real case more. In addition, our method is more adaptable than other CRLBs when considering more unknown important factors. We use the proposed method to analyze the wireless sensor network-based indoor localization system. The influence of the hybrid LOS/NLOS channels, the building layout information and the relative height differences between the target and anchors are analyzed. It is demonstrated that our method exploits all of the

  14. Practical Performance Analysis for Multiple Information Fusion Based Scalable Localization System Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubin; Li, Xiaofan; Zhang, Sha; Meng, Tianhui; Zhang, Yiwen

    2016-08-23

    In practical localization system design, researchers need to consider several aspects to make the positioning efficiently and effectively, e.g., the available auxiliary information, sensing devices, equipment deployment and the environment. Then, these practical concerns turn out to be the technical problems, e.g., the sequential position state propagation, the target-anchor geometry effect, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) identification and the related prior information. It is necessary to construct an efficient framework that can exploit multiple available information and guide the system design. In this paper, we propose a scalable method to analyze system performance based on the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), which can fuse all of the information adaptively. Firstly, we use an abstract function to represent all of the wireless localization system model. Then, the unknown vector of the CRLB consists of two parts: the first part is the estimated vector, and the second part is the auxiliary vector, which helps improve the estimation accuracy. Accordingly, the Fisher information matrix is divided into two parts: the state matrix and the auxiliary matrix. Unlike the theoretical analysis, our CRLB can be a practical fundamental limit to denote the system that fuses multiple information in the complicated environment, e.g., recursive Bayesian estimation based on the hidden Markov model, the map matching method and the NLOS identification and mitigation methods. Thus, the theoretical results are approaching the real case more. In addition, our method is more adaptable than other CRLBs when considering more unknown important factors. We use the proposed method to analyze the wireless sensor network-based indoor localization system. The influence of the hybrid LOS/NLOS channels, the building layout information and the relative height differences between the target and anchors are analyzed. It is demonstrated that our method exploits all of the available information for

  15. Practical Performance Analysis for Multiple Information Fusion Based Scalable Localization System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubin; Li, Xiaofan; Zhang, Sha; Meng, Tianhui; Zhang, Yiwen

    2016-01-01

    In practical localization system design, researchers need to consider several aspects to make the positioning efficiently and effectively, e.g., the available auxiliary information, sensing devices, equipment deployment and the environment. Then, these practical concerns turn out to be the technical problems, e.g., the sequential position state propagation, the target-anchor geometry effect, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) identification and the related prior information. It is necessary to construct an efficient framework that can exploit multiple available information and guide the system design. In this paper, we propose a scalable method to analyze system performance based on the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB), which can fuse all of the information adaptively. Firstly, we use an abstract function to represent all of the wireless localization system model. Then, the unknown vector of the CRLB consists of two parts: the first part is the estimated vector, and the second part is the auxiliary vector, which helps improve the estimation accuracy. Accordingly, the Fisher information matrix is divided into two parts: the state matrix and the auxiliary matrix. Unlike the theoretical analysis, our CRLB can be a practical fundamental limit to denote the system that fuses multiple information in the complicated environment, e.g., recursive Bayesian estimation based on the hidden Markov model, the map matching method and the NLOS identification and mitigation methods. Thus, the theoretical results are approaching the real case more. In addition, our method is more adaptable than other CRLBs when considering more unknown important factors. We use the proposed method to analyze the wireless sensor network-based indoor localization system. The influence of the hybrid LOS/NLOS channels, the building layout information and the relative height differences between the target and anchors are analyzed. It is demonstrated that our method exploits all of the available information for

  16. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the intercomparison of aerosol data - Part 4: Combined maximum covariance analysis to bridge the gap between multi-sensor satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Lacis, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques has greatly advanced our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols. Various satellite sensors and the associated retrieval algorithms all add to the information of global aerosol variability, while well-designed surface networks provide time series of highly accurate measurements at specific locations. In studying the variability of aerosol properties, aerosol climate effects, and constraining aerosol fields in climate models, it is essential to make the best use of all of the available information. In the previous three parts of this series, we demonstrated the usefulness of several spectral decomposition techniques in the analysis and comparison of temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth using satellite and ground-based measurements. Specifically, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) successfully captures and isolates seasonal and interannual variability from different aerosol source regions, Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) provides a means to verify the variability in one satellite dataset against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, and Combined Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) realized parallel comparison among multi-satellite, multi-sensor datasets. As the final part of the study, this paper introduces a novel technique that integrates both multi-sensor datasets and ground observations, and thus effectively bridges the gap between these two types of measurements. The Combined Maximum Covariance Analysis (CMCA) decomposes the cross covariance matrix between the combined multi-sensor satellite data field and AERONET station data. We show that this new method not only confirms the seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol optical depth, aerosol source regions and events represented by different satellite datasets, but also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in capturing the variability associated with sources, events or aerosol types. Furthermore, by examining the spread of

  17. Miscellaneous information regarding operation and inventory of 618-11 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a compilation of inventories and radiation surveys taken for the 618-11 Burial Ground at Hanford. This report deals with waste management activities at the facility during the early to mid-1960s.

  18. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between ...

  19. Rheticus Displacement: an Automatic Geo-Information Service Platform for Ground Instabilities Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Samarelli, S.; Agrimano, L.; Lorusso, A. P.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Morea, A.; Tijani, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rheticus® is an innovative cloud-based data and services hub able to deliver Earth Observation added-value products through automatic complex processes and a minimum interaction with human operators. This target is achieved by means of programmable components working as different software layers in a modern enterprise system which relies on SOA (service-oriented-architecture) model. Due to its architecture, where every functionality is well defined and encapsulated in a standalone component, Rheticus is potentially highly scalable and distributable allowing different configurations depending on the user needs. Rheticus offers a portfolio of services, ranging from the detection and monitoring of geohazards and infrastructural instabilities, to marine water quality monitoring, wildfires detection or land cover monitoring. In this work, we outline the overall cloud-based platform and focus on the "Rheticus Displacement" service, aimed at providing accurate information to monitor movements occurring across landslide features or structural instabilities that could affect buildings or infrastructures. Using Sentinel-1 (S1) open data images and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry techniques (i.e., SPINUA), the service is complementary to traditional survey methods, providing a long-term solution to slope instability monitoring. Rheticus automatically browses and accesses (on a weekly basis) the products of the rolling archive of ESA S1 Scientific Data Hub; S1 data are then handled by a mature running processing chain, which is responsible of producing displacement maps immediately usable to measure with sub-centimetric precision movements of coherent points. Examples are provided, concerning the automatic displacement map generation process, as well as the integration of point and distributed scatterers, the integration of multi-sensors displacement maps (e.g., Sentinel-1 IW and COSMO-SkyMed HIMAGE), the combination of displacement rate maps acquired along both ascending

  20. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  1. On-demand information retrieval in sensor networks with localised query and energy-balanced data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    On-demand information retrieval enables users to query and collect up-to-date sensing information from sensor nodes. Since high energy efficiency is required in a sensor network, it is desirable to disseminate query messages with small traffic overhead and to collect sensing data with low energy consumption. However, on-demand query messages are generally forwarded to sensor nodes in network-wide broadcasts, which create large traffic overhead. In addition, since on-demand information retrieval may introduce intermittent and spatial data collections, the construction and maintenance of conventional aggregation structures such as clusters and chains will be at high cost. In this paper, we propose an on-demand information retrieval approach that exploits the name resolution of data queries according to the attribute and location of each sensor node. The proposed approach localises each query dissemination and enable localised data collection with maximised aggregation. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an analytical model that describes the criteria of sink proxy selection is provided. The evaluation results reveal that the proposed scheme significantly reduces energy consumption and improves the balance of energy consumption among sensor nodes by alleviating heavy traffic near the sink.

  2. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  3. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  4. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  5. Multi-sensors data and information fusion algorithm for indoor localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Jun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The localization algorithm of based on IMU is one of autonomous localization methods while it possesses the disadvantage of drift error and accumulated error,so this paper proposes a multi-sensors including wearable multi-IMUs and IWSN data and information fusion algorithm for indoor localization.On the one hand,almost all indoor localization algorithms based on IMU use only one IMU while this single-IMU-based algorithm can′t judge the posture of person precisely,one appropriate solution is that we can utilize multi-IMUs to cooperate in localization process,besides,we can fuse position information of multi-IMUs by fuzzy voting scheme.On the other hand,in order to overcome the disadvantage of drift error and accumulate error,combining with IWSN in indoor and fusing the position information calculated by IWSN and multi-IMUs via Kalman Filter algorithm.Experiment results show that the proposed indoor localization algorithm possesses good property in judging posture of person and decreasing drift error and accumulate error comparing with traditional IMU-based indoor localization algorithm.

  6. Homeland situation awareness through mining and fusing heterogeneous information from intelligence databases and field sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digioia, Giusj; Panzieri, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    One of the most felt issues in the defence domain is that of having huge quantities of data stored in databases and acquired from field sensors, without being able to infer information from them. Usually databases are continuously updated with observations, and are related to heterogeneous data. Deep and continuous analysis on data could mine useful correlations, explain relations existing among data and cue searches for further evidences. The solution to the problem addressed before seems to deal both with the domain of Data Mining and with the domain of high level Data Fusion, that is Situation Assessment, Threat Assessment and Process Refinement, also synthesised as Situation Awareness. The focus of this paper is the definition of an architecture for a system adopting data mining techniques to adaptively discover clusters of information and relation among them, to classify observations acquired and to use the model of knowledge and the classification derived in order to assess situations, threats and refine the search for evidences. Sources of information taken into account are those related to the intelligence domain, as IMINT, HUMINT, ELINT, COMINT and other non-conventional sources. The algorithms applied refer to not supervised and supervised classification for rule exploitation, and adaptively built Hidden Markov Model for situation and threat assessment.

  7. Prediction of Driver's Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-06-10

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver's intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver's intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver's intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver's intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  8. 76 FR 58301 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Sensor and Warning Device Systems; Examination and Test Requirements ACTION: Notice of request for public... Coal Mining. OMB 1219-0145 has been renamed Automatic Fire Sensor and Warning Device Systems... to a task in July 2011; OMB 1219-0073 subsumed Sec. 75.1103-5(a)(2)(ii) Automatic fire sensor and...

  9. Recent progress in sensor-enhanced health information systems - slowly but sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschollek, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The use of health-enabling technologies is regarded as one important means to face some of the challenges which accompany the demographic change with an expected rise in multi-morbidity and an increased need of care. A precondition for the sensible use of these technologies is their integration in existing information system structures, and - preferably - the enhancement of these into sensor-enhanced health information systems (seHIS). The aim of this review is to report on recent progress in seHIS, and thus to identify relevant areas of research that have to be addressed to provide patient-centered services in a semantically interoperable environment. A literature search in PubMed/Medline was combined with a manual search of papers (n = 1004) in three prominent health/medical informatics journals and one biomedical engineering journal starting from the year 2007. Despite a multitude of papers that present advanced systems using health-enabling technologies, only few papers could be identified that explicitly describe the design of seHIS or the integration of health-enabling technologies into health information systems. Recurring statements emphasise the importance of the following areas of research: patient-centered care using all available sources of information, data security, the stringent use of data representation and device connectivity standards, and adequate methods for data fusion and diagnostic analysis. There is a broad range of research in health-enabling technologies, often focused on specific diseases. The transition from current institution-centered health information systems to person-centered seHIS will be gradual, yet unavoidable for tapping the full potential of health-enabling technologies. seHIS is a growing field of research, and many ambitious challenges are still open. This literature review gives a brief outline of the most frequently mentioned research foci.

  10. A BAYES LIKELIHOOD INFORMATION THEORETIC APPROACH FOR THE EXOGENOUS AGGREGATION OF REGIONAL GROUND WATER QUALITY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work addresses a potentially serious problem in analysis or synthesis of spatially explicit data on ground water quality from wells, known to geographers as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It results from the fact that in regional aggregation of spatial data, inves...

  11. The dynamics of international information systems anatomy of a grounded theory investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This work probes the efficacy of using the Grounded Theory method to study the factors that lead to failure or success in the creation and ongoing management of IIS within the global enterprises. It details case studies of three large transnational companies.

  12. Collaborative distributed sensor management and information exchange flow control for multitarget tracking using Markov decision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Dimitry; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative management of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. In addition to providing a solution to the problem of controlling individual UAVs, we present a method for controlling the information flow among them. The latter provides a solution to one of the main problems in decentralized tracking, namely, distributed information transfer and fusion among the participating platforms. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of UAVs, carrying out surveillance over a region, which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets with the goal to track confirmed targets and detects new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible, maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as an operation of a group of decision makers. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. A decision mechanism for collaborative distributed data fusion provides each UAV with the required data for the fusion process while substantially reducing redundancy in the information flow in the overall system. We consider a distributed data fusion system consisting of UAVs that are decentralized, heterogenous, and potentially unreliable. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  13. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Harbin, China, pp. 2784-2788. [10...military and commercial applications. Although earlier UGV platforms were typically exclusively small ground robots , recent efforts started...targeting passenger vehicle and larger size platforms. Due to their size and speed, these platforms have significantly different dynamics than small robots

  14. How human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing: the experience of the VENESAT-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Romina; Orihuela, Nuris; Blanco, Rafael; Varela, Francisco; Camacho, Enrique; Urbina, Marianela; Aponte, Luis Gabriel; Vallenilla, Leopoldo; Acuña, Liana; Becerra, Roberto; Tabare, Terepaima; Recaredo, Erica

    2009-12-01

    Built in cooperation with the P.R of China, in October 29th of 2008, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela launched its first Telecommunication Satellite, the so called VENESAT-1 (Simón Bolívar Satellite), which operates in C (covering Center America, The Caribbean Region and most of South America), Ku (Bolivia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela) and Ka bands (Venezuela). The launch of VENESAT-1 represents the starting point for Venezuela as an active player in the field of space science and technology. In order to fulfill mission requirements and to guarantee the satellite's health, local professionals must provide continuous monitoring, orbit calculation, maneuvers preparation and execution, data preparation and processing, as well as data base management at the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment, which includes both a primary and backup site. In summary, data processing and real time data management are part of the daily activities performed by the personnel at the ground segment. Using published and unpublished information, this paper presents how human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing, by analyzing the proposed organizational structure for the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment. We have found that the proposed units within the organizational structure reflect 3 key issues for mission management: Satellite Operations, Ground Operations, and Site Maintenance. The proposed organization is simple (3 hierarchical levels and 7 units), and communication channels seem efficient in terms of facilitating information acquisition, processing, storage, flow and exchange. Furthermore, the proposal includes a manual containing the full description of personnel responsibilities and profile, which efficiently allocates the management and operation of key software for satellite operation such as the Real-time Data Transaction Software (RDTS), Data Management Software (DMS), and Carrier Spectrum Monitoring Software (CSM

  15. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  16. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  17. BlueSeis3A - full characterization of a 3C broadband rotational ground motion sensor for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Frenois, Arnaud; Krissou, Rahma; Bigueur, Alexandre; Gaillot, Arnaud; de Toldi, Elliot; Ponceau, Damien; Guattari, Frederic; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present a full characterization of the first three component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology. The sensor is called BlueSeis3A and is manufactured by iXBlue, France. It is developed in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of volcanology, ocean bottom seismology and geophysical exploration, a portable rotational motion sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding dynamic range, portability, power consumption and sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and magnetic field. For BlueSeis3A, power consumption is in an acceptable range for a portable and field deployable instrument. We will quantify sensor self noise by means of operating range diagrams as well as Allan variance and show results from tests on thermal and magnetic sensitivity. Tests on orthogonality and sensitivity to linear motion complete our full characterization.

  18. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  19. Mobile Sensors in a CDMA System For Environmental Monitoring: An Information-Theoretic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Elaheh

    2011-01-01

    Use of sensors implanted on cell-phones to monitor environmental parameters such as air pollution, temperature, humidity, noise level, etc has been the subject of several studies. For instance, it has been demonstrated in \\cite{SteedMilton} that the use of cheap measurement devices installed on personal cell-phones allows for a fine reconstruction of geographic maps of environmental effects. In some applications one might be interested in certain statistics of the measurements, rather than the whole data. In fact, transmission of the whole data may compromise the privacy of cell-phone users. It is therefore desirable for the cell-phones to transmit just enough information about their measurements such that the desired statistics could be computed. Furthermore because the cell-phones have already the capability to transmit data to the base stations, it is desirable to use the \\emph{same} communication architecture to transmit the sensed data. To the best of our knowledge, information-theoretic limits of data t...

  20. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    parameter uncertainty decreased significantly when TLRG data was included in the inversion. The forced infiltration experiment caused changes in unsaturated zone storage, which were monitored using TLRG and ground-penetrating radar. A numerical unsaturated zone model was subsequently conditioned on both...... in gravity due to unmonitored non-hydrological effects, and the requirement of a gravitationally stable reference station. Application of TLRG in hydrology should be combined with other geophysical and/or traditional monitoring methods....

  1. AIRCRAFT MOTION PARAMETER ESTIMATION VIA MULTIPATH TIME-DELAY USING A SINGLE GROUND-BASED PASSIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hongyan; Zou Hongxing

    2007-01-01

    The time-frequency analysis of the signal acquired by a single ground-based microphone shows a two-dimensional interference pattern in the time-frequency plane,which is caused by the time delay of the received signal emitted from a low flying aircraft via the direct path and the ground-reflected path.A model is developed for estimating the motion parameters of an aircraft flying along a straight line at a constant height and with a constant speed.Monte Carlo simulation results and experimental results are presented to validate the model,and an error analysis of the model is presented to verify the effectiveness of the estimation scheme advocated.

  2. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Information Channels on the Understanding of Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    information, some of which may be relevant (Butcher, 1998). Klapp (1986) states that information presented at a rate too high for a receiver to...June 13–16. Klapp , O.E. (1986). In overload and boredom: Essays on the quality of life in the information society. Connecticut: Greenwood Press

  4. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  5. Node Deployment with k-Connectivity in Sensor Networks for Crop Information Full Coverage Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA. In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1 nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2 WSN must have k-connectivity; (3 WSN must have no communication silos; (4 the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change.

  6. Node Deployment with k-Connectivity in Sensor Networks for Crop Information Full Coverage Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Naisen; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Jingchao; Pang, Fangrong; Ni, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA). In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1) nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2) WSN must have k-connectivity; (3) WSN must have no communication silos; (4) the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d) to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change. PMID:27941704

  7. Node Deployment with k-Connectivity in Sensor Networks for Crop Information Full Coverage Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Naisen; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Jingchao; Pang, Fangrong; Ni, Jun

    2016-12-09

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA). In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1) nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2) WSN must have k-connectivity; (3) WSN must have no communication silos; (4) the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d) to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change.

  8. Gesture-Directed Sensor-Information Fusion for Communication in Hazardous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    sensors for gesture recognition [1], [2]. An important future step to enhance the effectiveness of the war fighter is to integrate CBRN and other...addition to the standard eGlove magnetic and motion gesture recognition sensors. War fighters progressing through a battlespace are now providing...a camera for gesture recognition is absolutely not an option for a CBRN war fighter in a battlefield scenario. Multi sensor fusion is commonly

  9. Mapping urban air quality in near real-time using observations from low-cost sensors and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R; Lahoz, William A; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-09-01

    The recent emergence of low-cost microsensors measuring various air pollutants has significant potential for carrying out high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment. However, the data obtained by such sensors are generally less reliable than that from standard equipment and they are subject to significant data gaps in both space and time. In order to overcome this issue, we present here a data fusion method based on geostatistics that allows for merging observations of air quality from a network of low-cost sensors with spatial information from an urban-scale air quality model. The performance of the methodology is evaluated for nitrogen dioxide in Oslo, Norway, using both simulated datasets and real-world measurements from a low-cost sensor network for January 2016. The results indicate that the method is capable of producing realistic hourly concentration fields of urban nitrogen dioxide that inherit the spatial patterns from the model and adjust the prior values using the information from the sensor network. The accuracy of the data fusion method is dependent on various factors including the total number of observations, their spatial distribution, their uncertainty (both in terms of systematic biases and random errors), as well as the ability of the model to provide realistic spatial patterns of urban air pollution. A validation against official data from air quality monitoring stations equipped with reference instrumentation indicates that the data fusion method is capable of reproducing city-wide averaged official values with an R(2) of 0.89 and a root mean squared error of 14.3 μg m(-3). It is further capable of reproducing the typical daily cycles of nitrogen dioxide. Overall, the results indicate that the method provides a robust way of extracting useful information from uncertain sensor data using only a time-invariant model dataset and the knowledge contained within an entire sensor network. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  10. Improving access to health information for older migrants by using grounded theory and social network analysis to understand their information behaviour and digital technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, K T; Newman, L A; Ward, P R

    2014-11-01

    Migrant well-being can be strongly influenced by the migration experience and subsequent degree of mainstream language acquisition. There is little research on how older Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD) migrants who have 'aged in place' find health information, and the role which digital technology plays in this. Although the research for this paper was not focused on cancer, we draw out implications for providing cancer-related information to this group. We interviewed 54 participants (14 men and 40 women) aged 63-94 years, who were born in Italy or Greece, and who migrated to Australia mostly as young adults after World War II. Constructivist grounded theory and social network analysis were used for data analysis. Participants identified doctors, adult children, local television, spouse, local newspaper and radio as the most important information sources. They did not generally use computers, the Internet or mobile phones to access information. Literacy in their birth language, and the degree of proficiency in understanding and using English, influenced the range of information sources accessed and the means used. The ways in which older CALD migrants seek and access information has important implications for how professionals and policymakers deliver relevant information to them about cancer prevention, screening, support and treatment, particularly as information and resources are moved online as part of e-health.

  11. Sentinel-1 and ground-based sensors for a continuous monitoring of the Corvara landslide kinematic (South Tirol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Kofler, Christian; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-1 mission allows us to have Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas every 6 days with spatial resolution of 20 m. This new open-source generation of satellites has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in Alpine environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in non-urban areas), atmospheric conditions or high ground surface velocity. In this study, kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tirol, Italy), are monitored by a network of 3 permanent and 13 monthly Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This analysis focuses on evaluating the limitations of Sentinel-1 imagery processed with Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in comparison to ground-based measurements for assessing the landslide kinematic linked to meteorological conditions. Selecting some particular acquisitions, coherence thresholds and unwrapping processes gives various results in terms of reliability and accuracy supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. The evolution of the coherence and phase signals are studied according to the changing field conditions and the monitored ground-based displacements. DInSAR deformation maps and residual topographic heights are finally compared with difference of high resolution Digital Elevation Models at local scale. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded

  12. Remote Sensing of Supercooled Cloud Layers in Cold Climate Using Ground Based Integrated Sensors System and Comparison with Pilot Reports and model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudala, Faisal; Wu, Di; Gultepe, Ismail; Anderson, Martha; turcotte, marie-france

    2017-04-01

    In-flight aircraft icing is one of the major weather hazards to aviation . It occurs when an aircraft passes through a cloud layer containing supercooled drops (SD). The SD in contact with the airframe freezes on the surface which degrades the performance of the aircraft.. Prediction of in-flight icing requires accurate prediction of SD sizes, liquid water content (LWC), and temperature. The current numerical weather predicting (NWP) models are not capable of making accurate prediction of SD sizes and associated LWC. Aircraft icing environment is normally studied by flying research aircraft, which is quite expensive. Thus, developing a ground based remote sensing system for detection of supercooled liquid clouds and characterization of their impact on severity of aircraft icing one of the important tasks for improving the NWPs based predictions and validations. In this respect, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) in cooperation with the Department of National Defense (DND) installed a number of specialized ground based remote sensing platforms and present weather sensors at Cold Lake, Alberta that includes a multi-channel microwave radiometer (MWR), K-band Micro Rain radar (MRR), Ceilometer, Parsivel distrometer and Vaisala PWD22 present weather sensor. In this study, a number of pilot reports confirming icing events and freezing precipitation that occurred at Cold Lake during the 2014-2016 winter periods and associated observation data for the same period are examined. The icing events are also examined using aircraft icing intensity estimated using ice accumulation model which is based on a cylindrical shape approximation of airfoil and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model predicted LWC, median volume diameter and temperature. The results related to vertical atmospheric profiling conditions, surface observations, and the Canadian High Resolution Regional Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) model

  13. Multi-Sensor Documentation of Metric and Qualitative Information of Historic Stone Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamopoulos, E.; Tsilimantou, E.; Keramidas, V.; Apostolopoulou, M.; Karoglou, M.; Tapinaki, S.; Ioannidis, C.; Georgopoulos, A.; Moropoulou, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of multi-sensor techniques regarding the acquisition, processing, visualisation and management of data regarding historic stone structures. The interdisciplinary methodology that is carried out here comprises of two parts. In the first part, the acquisition of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the geometry, the materials and the degradation of the tangible heritage asset each time, is discussed. The second part, refers to the analysis, management and visualization of the interrelated data by using spatial information technologies. Through the paradigm of the surveying of the ancient temple of Pythian Apollo at Acropolis of Rhodes, Rhodes Island, Greece, it is aimed to highlight the issues deriving from the separate application of documentation procedures and how the fusion of these methods can contribute effectively to ensure the completeness of the measurements for complex structures. The surveying results are further processed to be compatible and integrated with GIS. Also, the geometric documentation derivatives are combined with environmental data and the results of the application of non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques in situ and analytical techniques in lab after sampling. GIS operations are utilized to document the building materials but also to model and to analyse the decay extent and patterns. Detailed surface measurements and geo-processing analysis are executed. This integrated approach, helps the assessment of past interventions on the monument, identify main causes of damage and decay, and finally assist the decision making on the most compatible materials and techniques for protection and restoration works.

  14. From point to spatial information - integrating highly resolved sensor observations into crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallor, Evelyn; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Lorenz, Karsten; Gebbers, Robin

    2017-04-01

    High spatial variability of soil properties restricts the benefits of process-oriented modelling for management recommendations on field scale due to rare information about the soil inventory and its distribution. On the other hand, sensor measurements as geo-electrical mapping provide with a certain spatial pattern, but interpretation of the results is diverse and influenced by local conditions. In the present study, the model HERMES was applied to 60 soil sampling points of a well-documented field in North-Rhine Westphalia characterised by a wide range of soil texture. Validation of HERMES resulted in satisfactory root mean square errors (RMSE) for yield, water and nitrogen in soil. Values of conducted measurements (n = 5,000) of electrical conductivity (ECa) at the same field ranged from 20 to 90 mS/m and were assigned to the soil sampling points. Subsequent regression analyses resulted in a high correlation of clay and sand contents with measured ECa values and justified the calculation of soil texture at mapping points of ECa. Hence, an improved resolution of the key value soil texture was produced to initialize model simulation and to finally generate spatial patterns of simulated state variables (e.g. water and nitrogen content in soil).

  15. Design and implementation of information acquisition system architecture for multi-sensor robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Guoliang; Huang Xinhan; Wang Min

    2007-01-01

    A multi-layer controller architecture based on digital signal processor(DSP)and on-chip MCU was proposed for multi-sensor information acquisition system;it consisted of a data acquisition unit and a data fusion unit,and used a host controller to connect the two units into all integrated system.Compared with architectures of traditional acquisition system,this architecture had good openness and goad adaptability of algorithms in hardware.To validate its feasibility,a small-scale prototype was cleverly designed,which adopted ADuC812.tMS320F206 and 89C51 as controllers,and had 16-channel ADC and 12-channel DAC with high accuracy of 12-bit.The Interfaces between different controllers were introduced in detail.Some basic parameters of the prototype were presented by board-level tests and by comparison with other two systems.The prototype Was employed to provide on-line state measurement,parameter estimation and decision-making for trajectory tracking of wheeled mobile robot.Experimental results show that the prototype achieves the goals of data acquisition,fusion and control perfectly.

  16. Adaptive broadcasting method using neighbor type information in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyocheol; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoo, Younghwan

    2011-01-01

    Flooding is the simplest and most effective way to disseminate a packet to all nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, basic flooding makes all nodes transmit the packet at least once, resulting in the broadcast storm problem in a worst case, and in turn, network resources are severely wasted. Particularly, power is the most valuable resource of WSNs as nodes are powered by batteries, then the waste of energy by the basic flooding lessens the lifetime of WSNs. In order to solve the broadcast storm problem, this paper proposes a dynamic probabilistic flooding that utilizes the neighbor information like the numbers of child and sibling nodes. In general, the more sibling nodes there are, the higher is the probability that a broadcast packet may be sent by one of the sibling nodes. The packet is not retransmitted by itself, though. Meanwhile, if a node has many child nodes its retransmission probability should be high to achieve the high packet delivery ratio. Therefore, these two terms-the numbers of child and sibling nodes-are adopted in the proposed method in order to attain more reliable flooding. The proposed method also adopts the back-off delay scheme to avoid collisions between close neighbors. Simulation results prove that the proposed method outperforms previous flooding methods in respect of the number of duplicate packets and packet delivery ratio.

  17. MULTI-SENSOR DOCUMENTATION OF METRIC AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION OF HISTORIC STONE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adamopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the integration of multi-sensor techniques regarding the acquisition, processing, visualisation and management of data regarding historic stone structures. The interdisciplinary methodology that is carried out here comprises of two parts. In the first part, the acquisition of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the geometry, the materials and the degradation of the tangible heritage asset each time, is discussed. The second part, refers to the analysis, management and visualization of the interrelated data by using spatial information technologies. Through the paradigm of the surveying of the ancient temple of Pythian Apollo at Acropolis of Rhodes, Rhodes Island, Greece, it is aimed to highlight the issues deriving from the separate application of documentation procedures and how the fusion of these methods can contribute effectively to ensure the completeness of the measurements for complex structures. The surveying results are further processed to be compatible and integrated with GIS. Also, the geometric documentation derivatives are combined with environmental data and the results of the application of non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques in situ and analytical techniques in lab after sampling. GIS operations are utilized to document the building materials but also to model and to analyse the decay extent and patterns. Detailed surface measurements and geo-processing analysis are executed. This integrated approach, helps the assessment of past interventions on the monument, identify main causes of damage and decay, and finally assist the decision making on the most compatible materials and techniques for protection and restoration works.

  18. Online Sensor Information and Redundancy Resolution Based Obstacle Avoidance for High DOF Mobile Manipulator Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huatao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High degrees of freedom (DOF mobile manipulators provide more flexibility than conventional manipulators. They also provide manipulation operations with a mobility capacity and have potential in many applications. However, due to high redundancy, planning and control become more complicated and difficult, especially when obstacles occur. Most existing obstacle avoidance methods are based on off-line algorithms and most of them mainly focus on planning a new collision-free path, which is not appropriate for some applications, such as teleoperation and uses many system resources as well. Therefore, this paper presents an online planning and control method for obstacle avoidance in mobile manipulators using online sensor information and redundancy resolution. An obstacle contour reconstruction approach employing a mobile manipulator equipped with an active laser scanner system is also introduced in this paper. This method is implemented using a mobile manipulator with a seven-DOF manipulator and a four-wheel drive mobile base. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Optimal search: a practical interpretation of information-driven sensor management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsilieris, F.; Boers, Y.

    We consider the problem of scheduling an agile sensor for performing optimal search for a target. A probability density function is created for representing our knowledge about where the target might be and it is utilized by the proposed sensor management criteria for finding optimal search

  20. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  1. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  2. GNSS as a sea ice sensor - detecting coastal freeze states with ground-based GNSS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Joakim; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Based on the idea of using freely available signals for remote sensing, ground-based GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R) has found more and more applications in hydrology, oceanography, agriculture and other Earth sciences. GNSS-R is based on analysing the elevation dependent SNR patterns of GNSS signals, and traditionally only the oscillation frequency and phase have been studied to retrieve parameters from the reflecting surfaces. However, recently Strandberg et al. (2016) developed an inversion algorithm that has changed the paradigms of ground-based GNSS-R as it enables direct access to the radiometric properties of the reflector. Using the signal envelope and the rate at which the magnitude of the SNR oscillations are damped w.r.t. satellite elevation, the algorithm retrieves the roughness of the reflector surface amongst other parameters. Based on this idea, we demonstrate for the first time that a GNSS installation situated close to the coastline can detect the presence of sea-ice unambiguously. Using data from the GTGU antenna at the Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the time series of the derived damping parameter clearly matches the occurrence of ice in the bay where the antenna is situated. Our results were validated against visual inspection logs as well as with the help of ice charts from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Our method is even sensitive to partial and intermediate ice formation stages, with clear difference in response between frazil ice and both open and solidly frozen water surfaces. As the GTGU installation is entirely built with standard geodetic equipment, the method can be applied directly to any coastal GNSS site, allowing analysis of both new and historical data. One can use the method as an automatic way of retrieving independent ground truth data for ice extent measurements for use in hydrology, cryosphere studies, and even societal interest fields such as sea transportation. Finally, the new method opens up for

  3. Practitioner-Customizable Clinical Information Systems: A Case Study to Ground Further Research and Development Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily Morrison

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of electronic records and information technology support in intensive care medicine has been slower than many people predicted. One of the engineering challenges to overcome has been the subtle, but important, variation in clinical practice in different units. A relatively recent innovation that addresses this challenge is practitioner-customizable clinical information systems, allowing clinicians wide scope in adjusting their systems to suit their clinical practice. However, these systems present a significant design challenge, not only of added technical complexity, but in providing tools that support clinicians in doing many of the tasks of a software engineer. This paper reviews the use of a commercially available clinical information system that is intended to be practitioner-customizable, and considers the further design and development of tools to support healthcare practitioners doing end-user customization on their own clinical information systems.

  4. J. Stiglitz’s Contribution to the Grounding of Market Theory with Asymmetrical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Şimandan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a theme of actuality for the theory and practice of research from different fields of economical and social activities. In the first part, we present the phenomena associated to the asymmetrical distribution of information, with a focus on the contributions of G. Stigler, J. Mirrlees and W. Vickrey, as well as those of G. Akerlof and M. Spence. The second part of the paper insists on the theoretical evaluations involved by the functioning mechanisms of the market in the context of imperfect information, as they were theoretized by J. Stiglitz. The latter part of the paper highlights the possibilities of alternative information as opposed to the classical model of macro-economy and micro-economy, as well as the means of counteracting imperfect information form among the actors that operate on different segments of market economy.

  5. Resourcing the clinical complementary medicine information needs of Australian medical students: Results of a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Australian medical students' complementary medicine information needs. Thirty medical students from 10 medical education faculties across Australian universities were recruited. Data were generated using in-depth semi-structured interviews and constructivist grounded theory method was used to analyze and construct data. Students sought complementary medicine information from a range of inadequate sources, such as pharmacological texts, Internet searches, peer-reviewed medical journals, and drug databases. The students identified that many complementary medicine resources may not be regarded as objective, reliable, differentiated, or comprehensive, leaving much that medical education needs to address. Most students sought succinct, easily accessible, evidence-based information to inform safe and appropriate clinical decisions about complementary medicines. A number of preferred resources were identified that can be recommended and actively promoted to medical students. Therefore, specific, evidence-based complementary medicine databases and secondary resources should be subscribed and recommended to medical schools and students, to assist meeting professional responsibilities regarding complementary medicines. These findings may help inform the development of appropriate medical information resources regarding complementary medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. observation and analysis of the structure of winter precipitation-generating clouds using ground-based sensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez José Luis, Marcos; Gómez José Luis, Sánchez; Campano Laura, López; Ortega Eduardo, García; Suances Andrés, Merino; González Sergio, Fernández; Salvador Estíbaliz, Gascón; González Lucía, Hermida

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we used a 28-day database corresponding to December, January and February of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 campaigns to analyze cloud structure that produced precipitation in the Sierra Norte near Madrid, Spain. We used remote sensing measurements, both active type like the K-band Micro Rain Radar (MRR) and passive type like the Radiometrics MP-3000A multichannel microwave radiometer. Using reflectivity data from the MRR, we determined the important microphysical parameters of Ice Water Content (IWC) and its integrated value over the atmospheric column, or Ice Water Path (IWP). Among the measurements taken by the MP-3000A were Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV). By representing these data together, sharp declines in LWP and IWV were evident, coincident with IWP increases. This result indicates the ability of a K-band radar to measure the amount of ice in the atmospheric column, simultaneously revealing the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism. We also used a Present Weather Sensor (VPF-730; Biral Ltd., Bristol, UK) to determine the type and amount of precipitation at the surface. With these data, we used regression equations to establish the relationship between visibility and precipitation intensity. In addition, through theoretical precipitation visibility-intensity relationships, we estimated the type of crystal, degree of accretion (riming), and moisture content of fallen snow crystals.

  7. Fair Grounds, Located during MicroData field address collection 2004-2006. Kept in Spillman database for retrieval., Published in 2004, Vilas County Land Information/Mapping.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fair Grounds dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2004. It is described as 'Located during MicroData field address...

  8. Influence of proprioceptive information on space orientation on the ground and in orbital weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baumgarten, R.; Kass, J.; Vogel, H.; Wetzig, J.

    Conscious space orientation depends on afferent information from different sense organs including the labyrinth, the eyes, tactile cues from the skin, joint receptors, muscle spindles, tendon organs and possibly viscera. An important role is played by impulses from the cervical position receptors in interaction with concomitant information from the otolith system. In order to isolate the effect of cervical position receptors from that of the otolith system, space experiments in orbital weightlessness and in parabolic aircraft flight were performed. It was found that stimulation of the neck receptors in weightlessness markedly influences the perception of the subjective vertical and horizontal and in addition has a weak effect on ocular torsion.

  9. A sensor data format incorporating battery charge information for smartphone-based mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo; Akopian, David; Boppana, Rajendra

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring systems involve energy-constrained devices, such as sensors and mobile gateways. Current data formats for communication of health data, such as DICOM and HL7, were not designed for multi-sensor applications or to enable the management of power-constrained devices in health monitoring processes. In this paper, a data format suitable for collection of multiple sensor data, including readings and other operational parameters is presented. By using the data format, the system management can assess energy consumptions and plan realistic monitoring scenarios. The proposed data format not only outperforms other known data formats in terms of readability, flexibility, interoperability and validation of compliant documents, but also enables energy assessment capability for realistic data collection scenarios and maintains or even reduces the overhead introduced due to formatting. Additionally, we provide analytical methods to estimate incremental energy consumption by various sensors and experiments to measure the actual battery drain on smartphones.

  10. Building a Digital Library from the Ground Up: an Examination of Emergent Information Resources in the Machine Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sally Jo

    The current crop of digital libraries for the computing community are strongly grounded in the conventional library paradigm: they provide indexes to support searching of collections of research papers. As such, these digital libraries are relatively impoverished; the present computing digital libraries omit many of the documents and resources that are currently available to computing researchers, and offer few browsing structures. These computing digital libraries were built 'top down': the resources and collection contents are forced to fit an existing digital library architecture. A 'bottom up' approach to digital library development would begin with an investigation of a community's information needs and available documents, and then design a library to organize those documents in such a way as to fulfill the community's needs. The 'home grown', informal information resources developed by and for the machine learning community are examined as a case study, to determine the types of information and document organizations 'native' to this group of researchers. The insights gained in this type of case study can be used to inform construction of a digital library tailored to this community.

  11. Gesture-Directed Sensor-Information Fusion (GDSIF) for Protection and Communication in Hazardous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-20

    G. Rogers, R. Luna, and J. Ellen, “Wireless Communication Glove Apparatus for Motion Tracking, Gesture Recognition , Data Transmission, and Reception...and easier to deploy in a variety of ways. (See, for example, [1] and [3].) The current eGloves have magnetic and motion sensors for gesture ... recognition [5], [6]. An important future step to enhance the effectiveness of the war fighter is to integrate CBRN and other sensors into the eGloves

  12. Toward a Theory of Employee Compliance with Information Security Policies: A Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikolia, David Wafula

    2013-01-01

    User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…

  13. Toward a Theory of Employee Compliance with Information Security Policies: A Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikolia, David Wafula

    2013-01-01

    User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…

  14. An overview of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Sensor Information Testbed for Collaborative Research Environment (SITCORE) and Automated Online Data Repository (AODR) capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dennis W.; Bennett, Kelly W.

    2017-05-01

    The Sensor Information Testbed COllaberative Research Environment (SITCORE) and the Automated Online Data Repository (AODR) are significant enablers of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)'s Open Campus Initiative and together create a highly-collaborative research laboratory and testbed environment focused on sensor data and information fusion. SITCORE creates a virtual research development environment allowing collaboration from other locations, including DoD, industry, academia, and collation facilities. SITCORE combined with AODR provides end-toend algorithm development, experimentation, demonstration, and validation. The AODR enterprise allows the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as well as other government organizations, industry, and academia to store and disseminate multiple intelligence (Multi-INT) datasets collected at field exercises and demonstrations, and to facilitate research and development (R and D), and advancement of analytical tools and algorithms supporting the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) community. The AODR provides a potential central repository for standards compliant datasets to serve as the "go-to" location for lessons-learned and reference products. Many of the AODR datasets have associated ground truth and other metadata which provides a rich and robust data suite for researchers to develop, test, and refine their algorithms. Researchers download the test data to their own environments using a sophisticated web interface. The AODR allows researchers to request copies of stored datasets and for the government to process the requests and approvals in an automated fashion. Access to the AODR requires two-factor authentication in the form of a Common Access Card (CAC) or External Certificate Authority (ECA)

  15. 3D-Information Fusion from Very High Resolution Satellite Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, T; P. d'Angelo; G. Kuschk; Tian, J.; T. Partovi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl´eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground ...

  16. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  17. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith; Harris, Nick; Cranny, Andy; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the travel times, pathways and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor) potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for three stream reaches in Luxembourg. Sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters and allow spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical 'dead zones' in the study reaches.

  18. Competitiveness analysis on the grounds of information from the annual financial statements of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Rositsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is a category which is innate in every economic subject. It shows itself in the conditions of market competition. Between competition and competitiveness objectively exist mutual relations and dependence. The presence of competition is a prerequisite for rise of competitiveness and for its manifestation in the real business. In the scientific literature, there is no synonymous definition of the nature of competitiveness. This paper represents an attempt at systematization of the views on this scientific issue. The methodology and the methods of competitiveness analysis should be based on a system of methods. The purpose of this paper is to present possibilities for use of information from the annual financial statements of the enterprises for analysis of their competitiveness by taking into consideration the legislative decisions and the specific business conditions in the Republic of Bulgaria. .

  19. Classification of Horse Gaits Using FCM-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier from the Transformed Data Information of Inertial Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Neung; Lee, Myung-Won; Byeon, Yeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Sik; Kwak, Keun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we classify four horse gaits (walk, sitting trot, rising trot, canter) of three breeds of horse (Jeju, Warmblood, and Thoroughbred) using a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type from data information transformed by a wavelet packet (WP). The design of the NFC is accomplished by using a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm that can solve the problem of dimensionality increase due to the flexible scatter partitioning. For this purpose, we use the rider’s hip motion from the sensor information collected by inertial sensors as feature data for the classification of a horse’s gaits. Furthermore, we develop a coaching system under both real horse riding and simulator environments and propose a method for analyzing the rider’s motion. Using the results of the analysis, the rider can be coached in the correct motion corresponding to the classified gait. To construct a motion database, the data collected from 16 inertial sensors attached to a motion capture suit worn by one of the country’s top-level horse riding experts were used. Experiments using the original motion data and the transformed motion data were conducted to evaluate the classification performance using various classifiers. The experimental results revealed that the presented FCM-NFC showed a better accuracy performance (97.5%) than a neural network classifier (NNC), naive Bayesian classifier (NBC), and radial basis function network classifier (RBFNC) for the transformed motion data. PMID:27171098

  20. Modifying the University of Missouri corn canopy sensor algorithm using soil and weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn production across the U.S. Corn belt can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N ...

  1. Integrating soil and weather information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn production can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N uptake (V7-V11), reducing ...

  2. Online Detection of Change on Information Streams in Wireless Sensor Network Modeled Using Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Victoria Jancee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is deployed to monitor certain physical quantities in a region. This monitoring problem could be stated as the problem of detecting a change in the parameters of a static or dynamic stochastic system. A moving window procedure is proposed to detect the systematic error, which occurs at an unknown time. It can detect the deviation in the mean of sensor measurements keeping variance as constant. The performance measures, such as the average run length (ARL to detection delay and false alarms are computed for various window sizes. The performance comparison is done against traditional cumulative sum (CUSUM method. The detection of change in mean using CUSUM is done with smaller delay compared to the proposed moving window detection procedure. In order to calculate CUSUM statistics, the number of measurements to keep in sensor memory increases with time. However, in the proposed moving window detection procedure, the number of stored measurements is limited by the size of the window. Therefore, it is advantageous to use the moving window procedure for change detection in sensor nodes that have very limited memory. A high probability of detection is achieved at the cost of larger window size and higher detection delay. However, we are able to achieve the maximum probability of detection even at a window size of 11.

  3. Distributed Topological Convex Hull Estimation of Event Region in Wireless Sensor Networks without Location Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Cao, Jiannong; Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In critical event (e.g., fire or gas) monitoring applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), convex hull of the event region is an efficient tool in handling the usual tasks like event report, routes reconstruction and human motion planning. Existing works on estimating convex hull of event

  4. Distributed topological convex hull estimation of event region in wireless sensor networks without location information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Cao, Jiannong; Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In critical event (e.g., fire or gas) monitoring applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), convex hull of the event region is an efficient tool in handling the usual tasks like event report, routes reconstruction and human motion planning. Existing works on estimating convex hull of event reg

  5. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, e911 Towers layer contain weather tower information, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Edwards County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is...

  6. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hua; LIU Yin-ping; XIAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time,can only using the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring,the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed Information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectivenes.

  7. A Multi-Hop Energy Neutral Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Network Information Gathering in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy resource limitation is a severe problem in traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs because it restricts the lifetime of network. Recently, the emergence of energy harvesting techniques has brought with them the expectation to overcome this problem. In particular, it is possible for a sensor node with energy harvesting abilities to work perpetually in an Energy Neutral state. In this paper, a Multi-hop Energy Neutral Clustering (MENC algorithm is proposed to construct the optimal multi-hop clustering architecture in energy harvesting WSNs, with the goal of achieving perpetual network operation. All cluster heads (CHs in the network act as routers to transmit data to base station (BS cooperatively by a multi-hop communication method. In addition, by analyzing the energy consumption of intra- and inter-cluster data transmission, we give the energy neutrality constraints. Under these constraints, every sensor node can work in an energy neutral state, which in turn provides perpetual network operation. Furthermore, the minimum network data transmission cycle is mathematically derived using convex optimization techniques while the network information gathering is maximal. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve perpetual network operation, so that the consistent data delivery is guaranteed. In addition, substantial improvements on the performance of network throughput are also achieved as compared to the famous traditional clustering protocol LEACH and recent energy harvesting aware clustering protocols.

  8. A Multi-Hop Energy Neutral Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Network Information Gathering in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Zhong, Yuanchang; Wu, Xuegang; Yang, Simon X

    2015-12-26

    Energy resource limitation is a severe problem in traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because it restricts the lifetime of network. Recently, the emergence of energy harvesting techniques has brought with them the expectation to overcome this problem. In particular, it is possible for a sensor node with energy harvesting abilities to work perpetually in an Energy Neutral state. In this paper, a Multi-hop Energy Neutral Clustering (MENC) algorithm is proposed to construct the optimal multi-hop clustering architecture in energy harvesting WSNs, with the goal of achieving perpetual network operation. All cluster heads (CHs) in the network act as routers to transmit data to base station (BS) cooperatively by a multi-hop communication method. In addition, by analyzing the energy consumption of intra- and inter-cluster data transmission, we give the energy neutrality constraints. Under these constraints, every sensor node can work in an energy neutral state, which in turn provides perpetual network operation. Furthermore, the minimum network data transmission cycle is mathematically derived using convex optimization techniques while the network information gathering is maximal. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve perpetual network operation, so that the consistent data delivery is guaranteed. In addition, substantial improvements on the performance of network throughput are also achieved as compared to the famous traditional clustering protocol LEACH and recent energy harvesting aware clustering protocols.

  9. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  10. Fuzzy Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using a D Numbers Based Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-09-12

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool to define, identify, and eliminate potential failures or errors so as to improve the reliability of systems, designs, and products. Risk evaluation is an important issue in FMEA to determine the risk priorities of failure modes. There are some shortcomings in the traditional risk priority number (RPN) approach for risk evaluation in FMEA, and fuzzy risk evaluation has become an important research direction that attracts increasing attention. In this paper, the fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA is studied from a perspective of multi-sensor information fusion. By considering the non-exclusiveness between the evaluations of fuzzy linguistic variables to failure modes, a novel model called D numbers is used to model the non-exclusive fuzzy evaluations. A D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method is proposed to establish a new model for fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA. An illustrative example is provided and examined using the proposed model and other existing method to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  11. Classification of K-Pop Dance Movements Based on Skeleton Information Obtained by a Kinect Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyung; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kwak, Keun-Chang

    2017-06-01

    This paper suggests a method of classifying Korean pop (K-pop) dances based on human skeletal motion data obtained from a Kinect sensor in a motion-capture studio environment. In order to accomplish this, we construct a K-pop dance database with a total of 800 dance-movement data points including 200 dance types produced by four professional dancers, from skeletal joint data obtained by a Kinect sensor. Our classification of movements consists of three main steps. First, we obtain six core angles representing important motion features from 25 markers in each frame. These angles are concatenated with feature vectors for all of the frames of each point dance. Then, a dimensionality reduction is performed with a combination of principal component analysis and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis, which is called fisherdance. Finally, we design an efficient Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)-based Extreme Learning Machine Classifier (ELMC) with an input layer composed of these feature vectors transformed by fisherdance. In contrast to conventional neural networks, the presented classifier achieves a rapid processing time without implementing weight learning. The results of experiments conducted on the constructed K-pop dance database reveal that the proposed method demonstrates a better classification performance than those of conventional methods such as KNN (K-Nearest Neighbor), SVM (Support Vector Machine), and ELM alone.

  12. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martha; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Nabsen Marwaa, Mille; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify how people 6-12 months after stroke were using and integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives. To capture the participants' experiences, one focus group and 14 individual interviews were carried out in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41-79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Five categories were identified from the analysis of the interviews with the participants: 1) Using the mobile phone to feel safe, 2) Staying connected with others, 3) Recreating everyday life, 4) A tool for managing everyday life, and 5) Overcoming obstacles for using ICT. From these categories one core category emerged: The drive to integrate ICT in everyday life after stroke. People with stroke had a strong drive to integrate ICT in order to manage and bring meaning to their everyday lives, although sometimes they needed support and adaptations. It is not only possible but also necessary to start using ICT in rehabilitation in order to support people's recovery and promote participation in everyday life after stroke. Implications for rehabilitation People with stroke have a strong drive for using information and communication technology in their everyday lives, although support and adaptations are needed. The recovery process of people with stroke could benefit from the use of ICT in the rehabilitation and ICT could possibly contribute to independence and promote participation in everyday life. Knowledge from this study can be used in the development of an ICT-based stroke rehabilitation model.

  13. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hammoudeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  14. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Newman, Robert; Dennett, Christopher; Mount, Sarah; Aldabbas, Omar

    2015-09-11

    This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  15. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  16. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  17. Downscaling Satellite Data for Predicting Catchment-scale Root Zone Soil Moisture with Ground-based Sensors and an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Baldwin, D. C.; Smithwick, E. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting root zone (0-100 cm) soil moisture (RZSM) content at a catchment-scale is essential for drought and flood predictions, irrigation planning, weather forecasting, and many other applications. Satellites, such as the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), can estimate near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture content globally at coarse spatial resolutions. We develop a hierarchical Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation modeling system to downscale satellite-based near-surface soil moisture and to estimate RZSM content across the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory at a 1-m resolution in combination with ground-based soil moisture sensor data. In this example, a simple infiltration model within the EnKF-model has been parameterized for 6 soil-terrain units to forecast daily RZSM content in the catchment from 2009 - 2012 based on AMSRE. LiDAR-derived terrain variables define intra-unit RZSM variability using a novel covariance localization technique. This method also allows the mapping of uncertainty with our RZSM estimates for each time-step. A catchment-wide satellite-to-surface downscaling parameter, which nudges the satellite measurement closer to in situ near-surface data, is also calculated for each time-step. We find significant differences in predicted root zone moisture storage for different terrain units across the experimental time-period. Root mean square error from a cross-validation analysis of RZSM predictions using an independent dataset of catchment-wide in situ Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements ranges from 0.060-0.096 cm3 cm-3, and the RZSM predictions are significantly (p State Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) system. Uncertainty estimates are significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to cross validation error during wet and dry conditions, but more so in dry summer seasons. Developing an EnKF-model system that downscales satellite data and predicts catchment-scale RZSM content is especially timely, given the anticipated

  18. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  19. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  20. Sifting, sorting and saturating data in a grounded theory study of information use by practice nurses: a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2012-12-01

    The terminology used to analyse data in a grounded theory study can be confusing. Different grounded theorists use a variety of terms which all have similar meanings. In the following study, we use terms adopted by Charmaz including: initial, focused and axial coding. Initial codes are used to analyse data with an emphasis on identifying gerunds, a verb acting as a noun. If initial codes are relevant to the developing theory, they are grouped with similar codes into categories. Categories become saturated when there are no new codes identified in the data. Axial codes are used to link categories together into a grounded theory process. Memo writing accompanies this data sifting and sorting. The following article explains how one initial code became a category providing a worked example of the grounded theory method of constant comparative analysis. The interplay between coding and categorization is facilitated by the constant comparative method.

  1. Large information plus noise random matrix models and consistent subspace estimation in large sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hachem, Walid; Mestre, Xavier; Najim, Jamal; Vallet, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    In array processing, a common problem is to estimate the angles of arrival of $K$ deterministic sources impinging on an array of $M$ antennas, from $N$ observations of the source signal, corrupted by gaussian noise. The problem reduces to estimate a quadratic form (called "localization function") of a certain projection matrix related to the source signal empirical covariance matrix. Recently, a new subspace estimation method (called "G-MUSIC") has been proposed, in the context where the number of available samples $N$ is of the same order of magnitude than the number of sensors $M$. In this context, the traditional subspace methods tend to fail because the empirical covariance matrix of the observations is a poor estimate of the source signal covariance matrix. The G-MUSIC method is based on a new consistent estimator of the localization function in the regime where $M$ and $N$ tend to $+\\infty$ at the same rate. However, the consistency of the angles estimator was not adressed. The purpose of this paper is ...

  2. Improving Multi-Sensor Drought Monitoring, Prediction and Recovery Assessment Using Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakouchak, Amir; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable drought monitoring, prediction and recovery assessment tools are fundamental to water resources management. This presentation focuses on how gravimetry information can improve drought assessment. First, we provide an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using remote sensing observations and model simulations. Then, we present a framework for integration of satellite gravimetry information for improving drought prediction and recovery assessment. The input data include satellite-based and model-based precipitation, soil moisture estimates and equivalent water height. Previous studies show that drought assessment based on one single indicator may not be sufficient. For this reason, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions and provides composite multi-index drought information for overall characterization of droughts. GIDMaPS includes a seasonal prediction component based on a statistical persistence-based approach. The prediction component of GIDMaPS provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation we present a new component in which the drought prediction information based on SPI, SSI and MSDI are conditioned on equivalent water height obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Using a Bayesian approach, GRACE information is used to evaluate persistence of drought. Finally, the deficit equivalent water height based on GRACE is used for assessing drought recovery. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from 2014

  3. The Outdoor Dust Information Node (ODIN – development and performance assessment of a low cost ambient dust sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olivares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The large gradients in air quality expected in urban areas present a significant challenge to standard measurement technologies. Small, low-cost devices have been developing rapidly in recent years and have the potential to improve the spatial coverage of traditional air quality measurements. Here we present the first version of the Outdoor Dust Information Node (ODIN as well as the results of the first real-world measurements. The lab tests indicate that the Sharp dust sensor used in the ODIN presents a stable baseline response only slightly affected by ambient temperature. The field tests indicate that ODIN data can be used to estimate hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations after appropriate temperature and baseline corrections are applied. The ODIN seems suitable for campaign deployments complementing more traditional measurements.

  4. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.

    2013-12-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human.

  5. A comprehensive operating room information system using the Kinect sensors and RFID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouei, Mahyar Taghizadeh; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Soroush, Ahmad Reza; Ghazalbash, Somayeh

    2015-04-01

    Occasionally, surgeons do need various types of information to be available rapidly, efficiently and safely during surgical procedures. Meanwhile, they need to free up hands throughout the surgery to necessarily access the mouse to control any application in the sterility mode. In addition, they are required to record audio as well as video files, and enter and save some data. This is an attempt to develop a comprehensive operating room information system called "Medinav" to tackle all mentioned issues. An integrated and comprehensive operating room information system is introduced to be compatible with Health Level 7 (HL7) and digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM). DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. Besides, a natural user interface (NUI) is designed specifically for operating rooms where touch-less interactions with finger and hand tracking are in use. Further, the system could both record procedural data automatically, and view acquired information from multiple perspectives graphically. A prototype system is tested in a live operating room environment at an Iranian teaching hospital. There are also contextual interviews and usability satisfaction questionnaires conducted with the "MediNav" system to investigate how useful the proposed system could be. The results reveal that integration of these systems into a complete solution is the key to not only stream up data and workflow but maximize surgical team usefulness as well. It is now possible to comprehensively collect and visualize medical information, and access a management tool with a touch-less NUI in a rather quick, practical, and harmless manner.

  6. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-01-01

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics. PMID:28604582

  7. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hwan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  8. Identifying battlefield information collection strategies to support 'every soldier is a sensor' training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupenia; Cuizinaud; Muller, T.J.; Hulst, A.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards network-centric warfare has been accompanied by a shift towards the ‘Every Soldier is a Sensor’ (ES2) concept where battlefield information collection is completed by regular soldiers within a company/platoon (U.S. Army, 2008). To support the development of ES2 training we investig

  9. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  10. Grounding a new information technology implementation framework in behavioral science: a systematic analysis of the literature on IT use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, Rita; Johnson, Stephen B; Linfante, Allison; Allegrante, John P

    2003-06-01

    Many interventions to improve the success of information technology (IT) implementations are grounded in behavioral science, using theories, and models to identify conditions and determinants of successful use. However, each model in the IT literature has evolved to address specific theoretical problems of particular disciplinary concerns, and each model has been tested and has evolved using, in most cases, a more or less restricted set of IT implementation procedures. Functionally, this limits the perspective for taking into account the multiple factors at the individual, group, and organizational levels that influence use behavior. While a rich body of literature has emerged, employing prominent models such as the Technology Adoption Model, Social-Cognitive Theory, and Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the complexity of defining a suitable multi-level intervention has largely been overlooked. A gap exists between the implementation of IT and the integration of theories and models that can be utilized to develop multi-level approaches to identify factors that impede usage behavior. We present a novel framework that is intended to guide synthesis of more than one theoretical perspective for the purpose of planning multi-level interventions to enhance IT use. This integrative framework is adapted from PRECEDE/PROCEDE, a conceptual framework used by health planners in hundreds of published studies to direct interventions that account for the multiple determinants of behavior. Since we claim that the literature on IT use behavior does not now include a multi-level approach, we undertook a systematic literature analysis to confirm this assertion. Our framework facilitated organizing this literature synthesis and our analysis was aimed at determining if the IT implementation approaches in the published literature were characterized by an approach that considered at least two levels of IT usage determinants. We found that while 61% of studies mentioned or referred to

  11. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  12. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  13. FLCNDEMF: An Event Metamodel for Flood Process Information Management under the Sensor Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant economic losses, large affected populations, and serious environmental damage caused by recurrent natural disaster events (NDE worldwide indicate insufficiency in emergency preparedness and response. The barrier of full life cycle data preparation and information support is one of the main reasons. This paper adopts the method of integrated environmental modeling, incorporates information from existing event protocols, languages, and models, analyzes observation demands from different event stages, and forms the abstract full life cycle natural disaster event metamodel (FLCNDEM based on meta-object facility. Then task library and knowledge base for floods are built to instantiate FLCNDEM, forming the FLCNDEM for floods (FLCNDEMF. FLCNDEMF is formalized according to Event Pattern Markup Language, and a prototype system, Natural Disaster Event Manager, is developed to assist in the template-based modeling and management. The flood in Liangzi (LZ Lake of Hubei, China on 16 July 2010 is adopted to illustrate how to apply FLCNDEM in real scenarios. FLCNDEM-based modeling is realized, and the candidate remote sensing (RS dataset for different observing missions are provided for LZ Lake flood. Taking the mission of flood area extraction as an example, the appropriate RS data are selected via the model of simplified general perturbation version 4, and the flood area in different phases are calculated and displayed on the map. The phase-based modeling and visualization intuitively display the spatial-temporal distribution and the evolution process of the LZ Lake flood, and it is of great significance for flood responding. In addition, through the extension mechanism, FLCNDEM can also be applied in other environmental applications, providing important support for full life cycle information sharing and rapid responding.

  14. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke – a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwaa, Mille Nabsen; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41–79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Results: Five categories were identified from the analysis...

  15. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  16. SAM-2 ground-truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement-2 (SAM 2) sensor on the Nimbus G satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Pepin, T. J.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SAM-2 will fly aboard the Nimbus-G satellite for launch in the fall of 1978 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol extinction in high latitude bands. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. The SAM-2 expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of polar stratospheric aerosols are used in the SAM-2 and correlative sensor analyses.

  17. Retrieval of land parameters by multi-sensor information using the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes

  18. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  19. Information operator approach applied to the retrieval of the vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents from ground-based high-resolution FTIR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high spectral resolution Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra is an important issue in remote sensing. If this is done carefully, one can obtain information, not only about the total column abundances, but also about the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work introduces the application of the information operator approach for extracting vertical profile information from ground-based FTIR measurements. The algorithm is implemented and tested within the well-known retrieval code SFIT2, adapting the optimal estimation method such as to take into account only the significant contributions to the solution. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method in an application to ground-based FTIR spectra taken in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC at Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E. A thorough comparison is made between the original optimal estimation method, Tikhonov regularization and this alternative retrieval algorithm, regarding information content, retrieval robustness and corresponding full error budget evaluation for the target species ozone (O3, nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO. It is shown that the information operator approach performs well and in most cases yields both a better accuracy and stability than the optimal estimation method. Additionally, the information operator approach has the advantage of being less sensitive to the choice of a priori information than the optimal estimation method and Tikhonov regularization. On the other hand, in general the Tikhonov regularization results seem to be slightly better than the optimal estimation method and information operator approach results when it comes to error budgets and column stability.

  20. APFiLoc: An Infrastructure-Free Indoor Localization Method Fusing Smartphone Inertial Sensors, Landmarks and Map Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianga Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The utility and adoption of indoor localization applications have been limited due to the complex nature of the physical environment combined with an increasing requirement for more robust localization performance. Existing solutions to this problem are either too expensive or too dependent on infrastructure such as Wi-Fi access points. To address this problem, we propose APFiLoc—a low cost, smartphone-based framework for indoor localization. The key idea behind this framework is to obtain landmarks within the environment and to use the augmented particle filter to fuse them with measurements from smartphone sensors and map information. A clustering method based on distance constraints is developed to detect organic landmarks in an unsupervised way, and the least square support vector machine is used to classify seed landmarks. A series of real-world experiments were conducted in complex environments including multiple floors and the results show APFiLoc can achieve 80% accuracy (phone in the hand and around 70% accuracy (phone in the pocket of the error less than 2 m error without the assistance of infrastructure like Wi-Fi access points.

  1. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  2. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  3. The Assessment of Properties of the Information Flow in the Subsystem «The Measuring Sensor – The Processing Element»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Victor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the scope and types of automated information systems containing subsystems of the “measuring sensor – element processing”. On the basis of the Queuing theory a model of evaluating the properties of information flow in the subsystem. The time spent by the sensor data generation and processing time of the output data array to the processing elements described by an arbitrary distribution law. Using little’s formula the analytical solution allows to estimate the required level of performance of the subsystem. The research of the obtained solution in the range of parameters of interest. On the basis of General theoretical solutions identified four private practical case, different values of the coefficients of variation of information flows.

  4. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  5. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  6. Track classification within wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumerc, Robin; Pannetier, Benjamin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present our study on track classification by taking into account environmental information and target estimated states. The tracker uses several motion model adapted to different target dynamics (pedestrian, ground vehicle and SUAV, i.e. small unmanned aerial vehicle) and works in centralized architecture. The main idea is to explore both: classification given by heterogeneous sensors and classification obtained with our fusion module. The fusion module, presented in his paper, provides a class on each track according to track location, velocity and associated uncertainty. To model the likelihood on each class, a fuzzy approach is used considering constraints on target capability to move in the environment. Then the evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) is used to perform a time integration of this classifier output. The fusion rules are tested and compared on real data obtained with our wireless sensor network.In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of this system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  8. 地理空间传感网信息公共服务平台的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Geospatial Sensor Web Information Public Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈能成; 杨训亮; 王晓蕾

    2013-01-01

    随着对地观测技术的发展,传感器类型与数量不断增加,为了高效管理传感网中相关的信息与服务资源,便于用户按需、全面和准确地获取并应用这些资源,基于传感网信息模型和服务接口规范,设计并实现了地理空间传感网信息公共服务平台GeoSensor。该平台通过调用和组合传感器注册服务、传感器观测服务、实时制图服务和卫星位置服务等多种服务,实时获取传感器、观测数据和数据产品等信息资源,并在天地图上以图形、文字、表格和视频等方式形象生动地展示这些信息资源。GeoSensor系统实现了对遥感、移动和原位等类型的对地观测传感器及其观测数据等资源的在线搜索、即时获取、网络控制和实时制图,可满足应急处理时对传感器检索、观测数据获取、传感器控制和数据产品生成等功能的需求。%With the development of earth observation technologies, sensor type and quantity increase massively. In order to manage information and service resources related to Earth Observation Sensor Web efficiently, allow users access and apply these resources comprehensively and accurately, based on Sensor Web information model and service interface specifications, this paper designs and implements geospatial sensor web Information Public Service Platform, namely GeoSensor. GeoSensor is based on a service-oriented architecture, calls and combines sensor registration service, sensor observation service, real-time mapping service, satellite location-based service and other services, gets real-time sensor information, sensor observational data, data product and other informa-tion resources and demonstrates these information resources in the Map World with graphics, text, tables, and video vividly. GeoSensor mainly consists of four major functional modules:(i) Sensor Retrieval Module which is mainly used for retrieving motion sensors, in-situ sensors and

  9. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on clouds and precipitation over mountains in Wyoming. Part I: Project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Binod; Geerts, Bart

    2016-12-01

    The AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) campaign was conducted in early 2012 and 2013 over two mountain ranges in southern Wyoming to examine the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on snow growth in winter orographic clouds. The campaign was supported by a network of ground-based instruments, including microwave radiometers, two profiling Ka-band Micro-Rain Radars (MRRs), a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) X-band radar, and a Parsivel disdrometer. The University of Wyoming King Air operated the profiling Wyoming Cloud Radar, the Wyoming Cloud Lidar, and in situ cloud and precipitation particle probes. The characteristics of the orographic clouds, flow field, and upstream stability profiles in 27 intensive observation periods (IOPs) are described here. A composite analysis of the impact of seeding on snow growth is presented in Part II of this study (Pokharel et al., 2017).

  10. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment: Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS), U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the NRHP because it does not meet any criteria for listing ( Quist , 2008). The U.S. Army agreed with this recommendation and determined that...Knight Rachel Quist 75th Civil Engineering Group – Hill AFB Loni Johnson, CERC Kay Winn, CEVOR 75th Civil Engineering Group – Oasis Ronald... Quist , Rachel. 2008. Cultural Resources Management Officer, Dugway Proving Ground. Personal communication with Mary Peters, MBP Consulting

  11. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dan B; Hogeveen, Henk; De Vries, Albert

    2016-01-01

    .... Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for monitoring...

  12. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dan B; Hogeveen, Henk; De Vries, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for monitoring. The state of the art in combining sensor data to predict clinical mastitis still does not perform well enough to be applied in practice. Our objective was to combine a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) with a naïve Bayesian classifier (NBC) in a novel method using sensor and nonsensor data to detect clinical cases of mastitis. We also evaluated reductions in the number of sensors for detecting mastitis. With the DLM, we co-modeled 7 sources of sensor data (milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, conductivity, blood, body weight) collected at each milking for individual cows to produce one-step-ahead forecasts for each sensor. The observations were subsequently categorized according to the errors of the forecasted values and the estimated forecast variance. The categorized sensor data were combined with other data pertaining to the cow (week in milk, parity, mastitis history, somatic cell count category, and season) using Bayes' theorem, which produced a combined probability of the cow having clinical mastitis. If this probability was above a set threshold, the cow was classified as mastitis positive. To illustrate the performance of our method, we used sensor data from 1,003,207 milkings from the University of Florida Dairy Unit collected from 2008 to 2014. Of these, 2,907 milkings were associated with recorded cases of clinical mastitis. Using the DLM/NBC method, we reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89, with a specificity of 0.81 when the sensitivity was set at 0.80. Specificities with omissions of sensor data ranged from 0.58 to 0.81. These results are comparable to other studies, but differences in data quality, definitions of

  13. Smart Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  14. Difficulties Review Atlas Booster Airborne and Ground Support Systems. Book 2. General Information. Volume 3. Autopilot System Airborne Difficulties Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-08-15

    Explanatory Information For Use of Difficulties Review (DR) Data Tab Runs This information has been prepared to facilitate nse of the DR. It is not... hiit op t a a Ito. L- 0 - IV TtJ- ’S I, t, fi 4t w 2 ii:~ 94 5 - sN g a .. tt I Z a -=o. La ad Iwo ,a aus * W a L a aj a * a * a x 2 w a -t hi 1 4

  15. TANTAMOUNT TO FRAUD?: EXPLORING NON-DISCLOSURE OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN LIFE INSURANCE APPLICATIONS AS GROUNDS FOR POLICY RESCISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Anya E R

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic counselors recommend that individuals secure desired insurance policies, such as life insurance, prior to undergoing predictive genetic testing. It has been argued, however, that this practice is "tantamount to fraud" and that failure to disclose genetic test results, or conspiring to secure a policy before testing, opens an individual up to legal recourse. This debate traps affected individuals in a Catch-22. If they apply for life insurance and disclose a genetic test result, they may be denied. If they apply without disclosing the information, they may have committed fraud. The consequences of life insurance fraud are significant: If fraud is found on an application, a life insurer can rescind the policy, in some cases even after the individual has passed away. Such a rescission could leave family members or beneficiaries without the benefits of the life insurance policy payment after the individual's death and place them in in economic difficulty. Although it is clear that lying in response to a direct question about genetic testing would be tantamount to fraud, few, if any, life insurance applications currently include broad questions about genetic testing. This paper investigates whether non-disclosure of unasked for genetic information constitutes fraud and explores varying types of insurance questions that could conceivably be interpreted as seeking genetic information. Life insurance applicants generally have no duty to disclose unasked for information, including genetic information, on an application. However, given the complexities of genetic information, individuals may be exposed to fraud and rescission of their life insurance policy despite honest attempts to truthfully and completely answer all application questions.

  16. Exploring Nurses’, Preschool Teachers’ and Parents’ Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting – A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses’, preschool teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure—the ‘causal conditions’ in a grounded theory model—included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children’s behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address

  17. Exploring Nurses', Preschool Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting - A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fält, Elisabet; Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses', preschool teachers' and parents' perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure-the 'causal conditions' in a grounded theory model-included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children's behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address barriers: the tension

  18. On What Ground Do We Mentalize? Characteristics of Current Tasks and Sources of Information that Contribute to Mentalizing Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M.; Guitton, Matthieu; Jackson, Philip L.; Boutin, Andree; Monetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mentalizing is an aspect of social cognition that is garnering increased interest. Although a wide variety of experimental tasks are available to measure mentalizing abilities in adults, the most widely used tasks typically focus on specific aspects of mentalizing, and mentalizing judgments are performed based on a limited set of information about…

  19. On What Ground Do We Mentalize? Characteristics of Current Tasks and Sources of Information that Contribute to Mentalizing Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M.; Guitton, Matthieu; Jackson, Philip L.; Boutin, Andree; Monetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mentalizing is an aspect of social cognition that is garnering increased interest. Although a wide variety of experimental tasks are available to measure mentalizing abilities in adults, the most widely used tasks typically focus on specific aspects of mentalizing, and mentalizing judgments are performed based on a limited set of information about…

  20. 32 CFR 242a.4 - Grounds on which meetings may be closed, or information may be withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... international tribunal, or an arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition by the USUHS of a... otherwise required by this part to be disclosed to the public, where the Board or committee as applicable...) Disclose investigatory records compiled for law enforcement purposes, or information which if written would...

  1. 45 CFR 1802.4 - Grounds on which meetings may be closed, or information may be withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... court or international tribunal, or an arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition by the... public, where the Board or committee, as applicable, properly determines that such portion or portions of...) Disclose investigatory records compiled for law enforcement purposes, or information which if written would...

  2. Experimental analysis and prediction for aircraft ground frosting based on sensor%基于传感器的飞机地面结霜实验分析与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 孙闯; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    The frosting of aircraft on the ground destroys aerodynamic shape and has a negative effect on the flight performance. In order to monitor and forecast on aircraft frosting on the ground accurately,experimental research on airfoil frosting is carried out using variety of sensors;by analyzing frost layer growth curve of simulating airfoil in different environment conditions,law of airfoil frosting is researched. Analyze datas of frosting experiment,propose polynomial regression predicting model in different frosting environments. Meanwhile,multicollinearity is avoided by orthogonalizing polynomials,which make prediction model has high curve fitting and high precision,fast and accurate prediction for ground frosting of aircrafts is realized.%飞机在地面的结霜会破坏飞机的气动外形,对飞机的飞行性能产生不利的影响。为了对地面飞机结霜进行准确监测与预测,利用多种传感器对机翼的结霜环境进行实验研究,通过分析不同环境下模拟机翼的霜层生长曲线,探寻和统计飞机机翼的地面结霜规律。对结霜实验的数据进行分析,提出了不同结霜环境下的多项式回归预测模型。同时将多项式进行正交化,避免了多重共线性,使预测模型的曲线拟合程度高,预测值具有较高的精度,实现了对飞机的地面结霜进行快速精确的预测。

  3. Managing heterogeneous networks of mobile and stationary sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürkle, Axel; Solbrig, Peter; Segor, Florian; Bulatov, Dimitri; Wernerus, Peter; Müller, Sven

    2011-11-01

    Protecting critical infrastructure against intrusion, sabotage or vandalism is a task that requires a comprehensive situation picture. Modern security systems should provide a total solution including sensors, software, hardware, and a "control unit" to ensure complete security. Incorporating unmanned mobile sensors can significantly help to close information gaps and gain an ad hoc picture of areas where no pre-installed supervision infrastructure is available or damaged after an incident. Fraunhofer IOSB has developed the generic ground control station AMFIS which is capable of managing sensor data acquisition with all kinds of unattended stationary sensors, mobile ad hoc sensor networks, and mobile sensor platforms. The system is highly mobile and able to control various mobile platforms such as small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). In order to establish a real-time situation picture, also an image exploitation process is used. In this process, video frames from different sources (mainly from small UAVs) are georeferenced by means of a system of image registration methods. Relevant information can be obtained by a motion detection module. Thus, the image exploitation process can accelerate the situation assessment significantly.

  4. Critical Evaluation of 0-30 km Profile Information in Ground-Based Zenith-Sky and Satellite-Measured Backscattered UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Deluishi, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We now have several decades of experience in deriving vertical ozone profiles from the measurements of diffuse ultraviolet radiation by both ground and satellite-based instruments using Umkehr and BUV techniques. Continuing technological advances are pushing the state-of-the-art of these measurements to high spectral resolution and broader wavelength coverage. These modern instruments include the ground-based Brewer and satellite-based Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instruments, as well as advanced instruments being developed by ESA(SCIAMACHY), Netherlands(OMI) and Japan(ODUS). However, one of the issues that remains unresolved is the 0-30 km ozone profile information retrievable from these measurements. Though it is commonly believed that both the Umkehr and the satellite-based BUV techniques have very limited profile information below 30 km, there are those who argue that the data from these instruments should continue to be reported in this altitude range for they compare well with ozonesondes and hence there is useful scientific information. Others claim that the limitations of the Umkehr and BUV techniques are largely due to their low spectral resolution, and that the profile information below 30 km can be greatly improved by going to high spectral resolution instruments, such as Brewer and GOME. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the 0-30 km ozone profile information in the various UV remote sensing techniques. We use a database of individual ozone profiles created using ozonesondes and SAGE and 4D ozone fields generated by data assimilation techniques to simulate radiances measured by the various techniques. We then apply a common inversion approach to all the methods to systematically examine how much profile information is available simply from the knowledge of total ozone, how much additional profile information is added by the traditional Dobson Umkehr and satellite buv techniques, and how much better one can do

  5. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  6. Structure and application of an interface program between a geographic-information system and a ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computer-program interface between a geographic-information system and a groundwater flow model links two unrelated software systems for use in developing the flow models. The interface program allows the modeler to compile and manage geographic components of a groundwater model within the geographic information system. A significant savings of time and effort is realized in developing, calibrating, and displaying the groundwater flow model. Four major guidelines were followed in developing the interface program: (1) no changes to the groundwater flow model code were to be made; (2) a data structure was to be designed within the geographic information system that follows the same basic data structure as the groundwater flow model; (3) the interface program was to be flexible enough to support all basic data options available within the model; and (4) the interface program was to be as efficient as possible in terms of computer time used and online-storage space needed. Because some programs in the interface are written in control-program language, the interface will run only on a computer with the PRIMOS operating system. (USGS)

  7. Intelligent wireless sensor nodes for traffic information detection%面向交通信息采集的智能无线传感器节点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲元昌; 蔡增增; 赵贞贞; 宋扬

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate real-time traffic information parameters, the use of wireless sensor network technology and GPRS technology as an intelligent traffic-aware front-end and means of communication builds traffic information collection network and provides a more convenient solution for traffic information collection. Sensor nodes are designed for the traffic information detection and vehicle monitoring algorithm and the speed measurement algorithm are proposed. Experimental results show that the vehicle monitoring algorithm and the speed measurement algorithm can be implemented on the sensor nodes with limited capacity and get high accurate real-time traffic parameters, such as traffic flow, speed and so on. Traffic information collection network can meet the needs of large-scale network deployment and also can be used in intelligent traffic system.%为了准确实时获取交通信息参量,利用无线传感器网络技术作为智能交通感知前端和通信手段,融合GPRS技术,构建交通信息采集网,为道路交通信息采集提供了更加便捷的解决方案.设计了交通信息采集的传感器节点,提出了动态车辆探测算法和车速测量算法.实测结果表明:动态车辆探测算法和车速测量算法能够在计算能力有限的传感器节点上实现,能准确实时地获得车流量、车速等交通参量;该交通信息采集系统能满足网络大规模部署的需求,可应用于智能交通系统.

  8. A Generic Algorithm to Estimate LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER Variables from SPOT4_HRVIR and Landsat Sensors: Evaluation of the Consistency and Comparison with Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR are essential climatic variables in surface process models. FCOVER is also important to separate vegetation and soil for energy balance processes. Currently, several LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER satellite products are derived moderate to coarse spatial resolution. The launch of Sentinel-2 in 2015 will provide data at decametric resolution with a high revisit frequency to allow quantifying the canopy functioning at the local to regional scales. The aim of this study is thus to evaluate the performances of a neural network based algorithm to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products at decametric spatial resolution and high temporal sampling. The algorithm is generic, i.e., it is applied without any knowledge of the landcover. A time series of high spatial resolution SPOT4_HRVIR (16 scenes and Landsat 8 (18 scenes images acquired in 2013 over the France southwestern site were used to generate the LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products. For each sensor and each biophysical variable, a neural network was first trained over PROSPECT+SAIL radiative transfer model simulations of top of canopy reflectance data for green, red, near-infra red and short wave infra-red bands. Our results show a good spatial and temporal consistency between the variables derived from both sensors: almost half the pixels show an absolute difference between SPOT and LANDSAT estimates of lower that 0.5 unit for LAI, and 0.05 unit for FAPAR and FCOVER. Finally, downward-looking digital hemispherical cameras were completed over the main land cover types to validate the accuracy of the products. Results show that the derived products are strongly correlated with the field measurements (R2 > 0.79, corresponding to a RMSE = 0.49 for LAI, RMSE = 0.10 (RMSE = 0.12 for black-sky (white sky FAPAR and RMSE = 0.15 for FCOVER. It is concluded that the proposed generic algorithm provides a good

  9. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  10. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Hogeveen, Henk; Vries, de Albert

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for

  11. Rotorwash wind sensor evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Curtis L.; Lake, Robert E.; Gordge, Dennis N.

    1993-08-01

    This project's purpose was to assess and document the ability of the Qualimetrics, Inc. model 2132 wind sensor (a cup and vane type sensor) to measure a rotor wash flow field as compared to the TSI, Inc. model 204D ion beam deflection sensor. The tests concentrated on the sensor's ability to capture dynamic characteristics of a helicopter rotor wash flow field. The project was conducted from April to November 1992 and consisted of quantitative laboratory and field testing. The laboratory testing included 9.5 hours of wind tunnel test time, subjecting each sensor to three step input tests at velocities of 20 knots, 50 knots, and 80 knots. Field test data were collected during one hour of SH-60B helicopter hover time at heights of 15 and 25 feet above ground level at distances of 35 and 70 feet from the wind sensors. Aircraft gross weights ranged between 19,600 and 20,500 pounds. All field test data were obtained in ambient wind conditions of approximately 8 knots at 40 degrees relative to the aircraft nose, -40 feet pressure altitude in an ambient temperature of 85 F. Laboratory data analysis indicates the model 2132 cup and vane sensor's time constant values were significantly higher than those of the model 204D ion beam sensor and varied relative to wind tunnel velocity settings. This indicates the model 2132 sensor's ability to accurately capture oscillations in a dynamic flow field is significantly less than the model 204D sensor. The model 2132 sensor did detect periodic or pulsating velocity magnitudes, but failed to capture significant oscillations as compared to the model 204D sensor. Comparative analysis of all field test event data indicate the model 2132 sensor only detected frequencies below 1.5 Hz and only captured an average of 46 percent of the model 204D sensor's maximum amplitude pulse values that were below 1.5 Hz. The model 2132 sensor's inability to capture many of the maximum pulse amplitudes is evidence of the sensor's limited capability to

  12. Method for sensor management based on Fisher information distance%基于Fisher信息距离的传感器管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华睿; 杨宏文; 胡卫东; 郁文贤

    2012-01-01

    在进行面向跟踪的传感器管理方法研究时,传统的思路主要以跟踪精度为导向,但是在数据关联环节,改善或维持目标之间的区分度才是传感器资源分配的主要目的.需求的偏差导致不合理的传感器资源分配结果.依据信息几何理论,以流形中的Fisher信息距离来定义目标之间的区分度,然后直接依据目标之间的区分度制定传感器资源分配策略.关联仿真实验表明,该方法相较于传统的传感器管理方法,有效提高了目标之间的关联正确率.%While facing the research of tracking-oriented sensor management, the traditional way focuses on the precision of tracking. But the essential demand of the sensor resources is to improve or maintain the resolva-bility among different targets at the segment of data association, and the bias of demand leads to unreasonable distribution of sensor resources. According to the theory of information geometry, the resolvability defined by Fisher information distance in manifold is proposed. Then the distribution strategy of sensor resources is established based on the resolvability among targets directly. Compared with the traditional way, the simulation results show that the proposed method effectively improves the valid association rates.

  13. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, Prince George's County Earth Networks Owned Weather Stations located on County Facilities, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  14. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeijer, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roozeboom, Clifton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  15. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yunho

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  16. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  17. Improved GSO Optimized ESN Soft-Sensor Model of Flotation Process Based on Multisource Heterogeneous Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc. based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  18. Improved GSO optimized ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process based on multisource heterogeneous information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  19. Generic Sensor Modeling Using Pulse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Dennis L.; Choi, Taeyoung

    2005-01-01

    Recent development of high spatial resolution satellites such as IKONOS, Quickbird and Orbview enable observation of the Earth's surface with sub-meter resolution. Compared to the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 5 TM, the amount of information in the output image was dramatically increased. In this era of high spatial resolution, the estimation of spatial quality of images is gaining attention. Historically, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) concept has been used to estimate an imaging system's spatial quality. Sometimes classified by target shapes, various methods were developed in laboratory environment utilizing sinusoidal inputs, periodic bar patterns and narrow slits. On-orbit sensor MTF estimation was performed on 30-meter GSD Landsat4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the bridge pulse target as a pulse input . Because of a high resolution sensor s small Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), reasonably sized man-made edge, pulse, and impulse targets can be deployed on a uniform grassy area with accurate control of ground targets using tarps and convex mirrors. All the previous work cited calculated MTF without testing the MTF estimator's performance. In previous report, a numerical generic sensor model had been developed to simulate and improve the performance of on-orbit MTF estimating techniques. Results from the previous sensor modeling report that have been incorporated into standard MTF estimation work include Fermi edge detection and the newly developed 4th order modified Savitzky-Golay (MSG) interpolation technique. Noise sensitivity had been studied by performing simulations on known noise sources and a sensor model. Extensive investigation was done to characterize multi-resolution ground noise. Finally, angle simulation was tested by using synthetic pulse targets with angles from 2 to 15 degrees, several brightness levels, and different noise levels from both ground targets and imaging system. As a continuing research activity using the developed sensor

  20. Universal Smart Sensor Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground testing of propulsion systems requires highly accurate and precise sensor systems. Setting up such systems can be more time consuming than the test. The...

  1. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  2. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Bonnie [Adventium Labs; Boddy, Mark [Adventium Labs; Doyle, Frank [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Jamshidi, Mo [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ogunnaike, Tunde [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  3. Multi-sensor integration for unmanned terrain modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Yu, Sijie; Page, David L.; Koschan, Andreas F.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2006-05-01

    State-of-the-art unmanned ground vehicles are capable of understanding and adapting to arbitrary road terrain for navigation. The robotic mobility platforms mounted with sensors detect and report security concerns for subsequent action. Often, the information based on the localization of the unmanned vehicle is not sufficient for deploying army resources. In such a scenario, a three dimensional (3D) map of the area that the ground vehicle has surveyed in its trajectory would provide a priori spatial knowledge for directing resources in an efficient manner. To that end, we propose a mobile, modular imaging system that incorporates multi-modal sensors for mapping unstructured arbitrary terrain. Our proposed system leverages 3D laser-range sensors, video cameras, global positioning systems (GPS) and inertial measurement units (IMU) towards the generation of photo-realistic, geometrically accurate, geo-referenced 3D terrain models. Based on the summary of the state-of-the-art systems, we address the need and hence several challenges in the real-time deployment, integration and visualization of data from multiple sensors. We document design issues concerning each of these sensors and present a simple temporal alignment method to integrate multi-sensor data into textured 3D models. These 3D models, in addition to serving as a priori for path planning, can also be used in simulators that study vehicle-terrain interaction. Furthermore, we show our 3D models possessing the required accuracy even for crack detection towards road surface inspection in airfields and highways.

  4. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-21

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, oftenresulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods,forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence,etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging stormscan be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF]sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales(using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio wavesemitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuouslydistant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number oflightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightningcharacteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, thepolarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shownthat changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are oftenrelated to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observingsystems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may beused to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility ofsupplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

  5. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting. PMID:27879700

  6. Identification of Damage in IR-Structures from Earthquake Records - Optimal Location of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Cakmak, A. S.

    of the optimal location of measurements sensors, i.e. at which locations along the structure the most information about the damage distribution is gained. In all cases it is assumed that measurements are performed at top storey and ground surface, and the investigations are concentrated on putting one or two...

  7. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    September explained 91 % of the variation in above-ground standing biomass (RSE = 593 kg DM ha-1, p RSE = 6 %, p RSE = 9 %, p < 0.01, df = 20), but had a poor relationship with biomass. Although proximal sensors observe only a small area of the pasture, they deliver continual and timely pasture measurements to inform timely decision-making on-farm.

  8. Online Distributed Sensor Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Daniel; Krause, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A key problem in sensor networks is to decide which sensors to query when, in order to obtain the most useful information (e.g., for performing accurate prediction), subject to constraints (e.g., on power and bandwidth). In many applications the utility function is not known a priori, must be learned from data, and can even change over time. Furthermore for large sensor networks solving a centralized optimization problem to select sensors is not feasible, and thus we seek a fully distributed solution. In this paper, we present Distributed Online Greedy (DOG), an efficient, distributed algorithm for repeatedly selecting sensors online, only receiving feedback about the utility of the selected sensors. We prove very strong theoretical no-regret guarantees that apply whenever the (unknown) utility function satisfies a natural diminishing returns property called submodularity. Our algorithm has extremely low communication requirements, and scales well to large sensor deployments. We extend DOG to allow observatio...

  9. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  10. Detection of number of sources and DOA stimation based on the combined information processing of pressure and particle velocity using acoustic vector sensor array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of DOA (direction of arrival) estimation of underwater remote targets, a novel subspace-decomposition method based on the cross covariance matrix of the pressure and the particle velocity of acoustic vector sensor arrays (AVSA) was proposed.Whereafter, using spatio-temporal virtual tapped-delay-line, a new eigenvector-based criteria of detection of number of sources and of subspace partition is also presented. The theoretical analysis shows that the new source detection and direction finding method is different from existing AVSA based DOA estimation methods using particle velocity information of acoustic vector sensor (AVS) as an independent array element. It is entirely based on the combined information processing of pressure and particle velocity, has better estimation performance than existing methods in isotropic noise field. Computer simulations with data from lake trials demonstrate, the proposed method is effective and obviously outperforms existing methods in resolution and accuracy in the case of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  11. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  12. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  13. Compilation of geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow modeling information for the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Bartolino, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington Department of Ecology compiled and described geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow modeling information about the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, ground- and surface-water interactions, computer flow models, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho and the Spokane valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, was designated a Sole Source Aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978. Continued growth, water management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders primarily deposited by a series of catastrophic glacial outburst floods from ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. The material deposited in this high-energy environment is coarser-grained than is typical for most basin-fill deposits, resulting in an unusually productive aquifer with well yields as high as 40,000 gallons per minute. In most places, the aquifer is bounded laterally by bedrock composed of granite, metasedimentary rocks, or basalt. The lower boundary of the aquifer is largely unknown except along the margins or in shallower parts of the aquifer where wells have penetrated its entire thickness and reached bedrock or silt and clay deposits. Based on surface geophysics, the thickness of the aquifer is about 500 ft near the Washington-Idaho state line, but more than 600 feet within the Rathdrum Prairie and more than 700 feet in the Hillyard trough based on drilling records. Depth to water in the aquifer is greatest in the northern

  14. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  15. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their

  16. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  17. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  18. 基于传感器的飞机地面除冰模拟实验研究%Study on simulation experiment for aircraft ground deicing based on sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 赵亮; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    飞机除冰是影响民航冬季安全运行的重要因素之一,为了优化飞机除冰液参数,设计了飞机地面除冰室外实验.在冬季室外条件下通过对结冰的模拟机体表面喷射加热的除冰液进行除冰,在除冰过程中对除冰液流量、除冰液温度进行控制,通过安装在机体上的温度传感器和光纤传感器得到飞机机体表面温度变化和冰层厚度变化情况.通过分析实验结果可得:在一定范围内,除冰液温度升高能有效提高除冰速率;除冰液流量增加也能提高除冰速率,但当除冰液流量超过一定值时,射流冲击成为除冰的主要动力.%Aircraft icing is one of the important factors that affect civil aviation safety in operation in winter.In order to optimize parameters of aircraft deicing fluid,aircraft ground deicing outdoor experiment is carried out.In winter outdoor conditions,aircraft deicing is operated by injecting heated deicing fluid to the aircraft surface.The temperature and the velocity of the flow must be changed regularly,and change of temperature and ice thickness can be detected by temperature sensor and fibre-optic sensor that are installed on the aircraft surface.By analyzing result of experiment,the conclusion is that,in certain range the temperature rise of deicing liquid increases apparently ice removal rate,but the jet impact force will be the main force of deicing when the velocity of flow exceeds certain value.

  19. Analysis of using EMG and mechanical sensors to enhance intent recognition in powered lower limb prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. J.; Kuiken, T. A.; Hargrove, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of electromyography (EMG) data, in combination with a diverse array of mechanical sensors, to locomotion mode intent recognition in transfemoral amputees using powered prostheses. Additionally, we determined the effect of adding time history information using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for both the mechanical and EMG sensors. Approach. EMG signals from the residual limbs of amputees have been proposed to enhance pattern recognition-based intent recognition systems for powered lower limb prostheses, but mechanical sensors on the prosthesis—such as inertial measurement units, position and velocity sensors, and load cells—may be just as useful. EMG and mechanical sensor data were collected from 8 transfemoral amputees using a powered knee/ankle prosthesis over basic locomotion modes such as walking, slopes and stairs. An offline study was conducted to determine the benefit of different sensor sets for predicting intent. Main results. EMG information was not as accurate alone as mechanical sensor information (p < 0.05) for any classification strategy. However, EMG in combination with the mechanical sensor data did significantly reduce intent recognition errors (p < 0.05) both for transitions between locomotion modes and steady-state locomotion. The sensor time history (DBN) classifier significantly reduced error rates compared to a linear discriminant classifier for steady-state steps, without increasing the transitional error, for both EMG and mechanical sensors. Combining EMG and mechanical sensor data with sensor time history reduced the average transitional error from 18.4% to 12.2% and the average steady-state error from 3.8% to 1.0% when classifying level-ground walking, ramps, and stairs in eight transfemoral amputee subjects. Significance. These results suggest that a neural interface in combination with time history methods for locomotion mode classification can enhance intent

  20. Sensor Data Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Alempijevic, S.R. Kodagoda, J.P. Underwood, S. Kumar, and G. Dissanayake. Mutual information based sensor registration and calibration. In Procedings of...Steven Scheding. Calibration of range sensor pose on mobile platforms. In Procedings of the 2007 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems

  1. Biomimetic MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterknecht, Oliver; Macqueen, Mark O.; Karman, Salmah; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this study is biomimetic concept development for a MEMS sensor array for navigation and water detection. The MEMS sensor array is inspired by abstractions of the respective biological functions: polarized skylight-based navigation sensors in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to detect water. The focus lies on how to navigate to and how to detect water sources in desert-like or remote areas. The goal is to develop a sensor that can provide both, navigation clues and help in detecting nearby water sources. We basically use the information provided by the natural polarization pattern produced by the sunbeams scattered within the atmosphere combined with the capability of the honeybee's compound eye to extrapolate the navigation information. The detection device uses light beam reactive MEMS, which are capable to detect the skylight polarization based on the Rayleigh sky model. For water detection we present various possible approaches to realize the sensor. In the first approach, polarization is used: moisture saturated areas near ground have a small but distinctively different effect on scattering and polarizing light than less moist ones. Modified skylight polarization sensors (Karman, Diah and Gebeshuber, 2012) are used to visualize this small change in scattering. The second approach is inspired by the ability of elephants to detect infrasound produced by underground water reservoirs, and shall be used to determine the location of underground rivers and visualize their exact routes.

  2. Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speedsensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimalmultivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noisescorrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors’ outputs are so dangerous thattheir negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of thecar. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our fullattention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noiseson the car’s electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. Theexperimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of therelevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensordesign techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today’s cars need.

  3. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  4. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  5. Managing landmine detection sensors: results from application to AMDS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolba, Mark P.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2007-04-01

    Previous work by the authors using information-based sensor management for static target detection has utilized a probability of error performance metric that assumes knowledge of the number of targets present in a grid of cells. Using this probability of error performance metric, target locations are estimated as the N cells with the largest posterior state probabilities of containing a target. In a realistic application, however, the number of targets is not known a priori. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) developed by Wald is therefore implemented within the previously developed sensor management framework to allow cell-level decisions of "target" or "no target" to be made based on the observed sensor data. Using these cell-level decisions, more traditional performance metrics such as probability of detection and probability of false alarm may then be calculated for the entire region of interest. The resulting sensor management framework is implemented on a large set of data from the U.S. Army's autonomous mine detection sensors (AMDS) program that has been collected using both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors. The performance of the sensor manager is compared to two different direct search techniques, and the sensor manager is found to achieve the same P d performance at a lower cost than either of the direct search techniques. Furthermore, uncertainty in the sensor performance characteristics is also modeled, and the use of uncertainty modeling allows a higher P d to be obtained than is possible when uncertainty is not modeled within the sensor management framework.

  6. Localization and Mapping Using Only a Rotating FMCW Radar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chapuis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle’s displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed.

  7. Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology Integrated Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This booklet contains summary sheets that describe FY 1993 characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) development projects. Currently, 32 projects are funded, 22 through the OTD Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP), 8 through the OTD Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) activity managed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), and 2 through Interagency Agreements (IAGs). This booklet is not inclusive of those CMST projects which are funded through Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and other Integrated Programs (IPs). The projects are in six areas: Expedited Site Characterization; Contaminants in Soils and Groundwater; Geophysical and Hydrogeological Measurements; Mixed Wastes in Drums, Burial Grounds, and USTs; Remediation, D&D, and Waste Process Monitoring; and Performance Specifications and Program Support. A task description, technology needs, accomplishments and technology transfer information is given for each project.

  8. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  9. A no-moving-parts sensor for the detection of eye fixation using polarised light and retinal birefringence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2017-05-01

    Polarised near-infra-red light is reflected from the foveal area in a detectable bow-tie pattern of polarisation states, offering the opportunity for eye tracking. A coaxial optical transducer was developed, consisting of a laser diode, a polariser, a filter, and a photodetector. Several such transducers may be used to interrogate different spots on the retina, thus eliminating the requirement for scanning systems with moving parts. To test the signal quality obtainable, using just one transducer, a test subject was asked to fixate successively on twelve targets located on a circle around the transducer, to simulate the retina's being interrogated by twelve sensors placed on a 3(0) diameter circle surrounding the projection of the fovea. The resulting signal is close to the "ideal" sine wave that would have been recorded from a propeller-type birefringence pattern from a human fovea. The transducer can be used in the detection of fixation for medical and other purposes. It does not require calibration, strict restrictions on head position, or head-mounted appliances.

  10. Ambulatory Measurement of Ground Reaction Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Liedtke, C.B.; Droog, Adriaan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. It is the purpose of this study to show the feasibility of ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces using two six degrees of freedom sensors mounted under the shoe. One

  11. Sensor technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Jørgensen, Birte Holst; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2001-01-01

    The Sensor Technology Center A/S (STC) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory has carried out a sensor technology foresight in order to strengthen a strategic outlook on sensor technology. The technology foresight (with a timeframe of 2000 to2015) has been performed in the period October...... 2000 - September 2001. The conclusions of the sensor technology report are based on 1) a scanning of existing forward looking literature on sensor technology, 2) a number of workshops with Danish andinternational participants and 3) an international survey with 174 respondents. Half of the respondents...... came from universities and other research institutes, and approximately one-third came from industry. The study has analysed six types of sensors(covering 13 sub-types) and, in addition, a number of systemic issues. All three sources of information indicate the same pattern regarding future...

  12. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louis P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-05-15

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  13. Gait Training with Real-Time Augmented Toe-Ground Clearance Information Decreases Tripping Risk in Older Adults and a Person with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul K Begg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls risk increases with ageing but is substantially higher in people with stroke. Tripping-related balance loss is the primary cause of falls, and Minimum Toe Clearance (MTC during walking is closely linked to tripping risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether real-time augmented information of toe-ground clearance at MTC can increase toe clearance, and reduce tripping risk. Nine healthy older adults (76±9 years and one 71 year old female stroke patient participated. Vertical toe displacement was displayed in real-time such that participants could adjust their toe clearance during treadmill walking. Participants undertook a session of unconstrained walking (no-feedback baseline and, in a subsequent Feedback condition, were asked to modify their swing phase trajectory to match a target increased MTC. Tripping probability (PT pre- and post-training was calculated by modelling MTC distributions. Older adults showed significantly higher mean MTC for the post-training retention session (27.7 ±3.79mm compared to the normal walking trial (14.1± 8.3 mm. The PT on a 1cm obstacle for the older adults reduced from 1 in 578 strides to 1 in 105,988 strides. With gait training the stroke patient increased MTC and reduced variability (baseline 16±12 mm, post-training 24±8 mm which reduced obstacle contact probability from 1 in 3 strides in baseline to 1 in 161 strides post-training. The findings confirm that concurrent visual feedback of a lower limb kinematic gait parameter is effective in changing foot trajectory control and reducing tripping probability in older adults. There is potential for further investigation of augmented feedback training across a range of gait-impaired populations, such as stroke.

  14. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  15. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager Wind Dataset: A Source of Quantitative Information for the Ocean-to-Land Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Demaree, G.; Huth, R.; Jaagus, J.; Koslowsky, D.; Przybylak, R.; Wos, A.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It is well recognized that advection from the North Atlantic has a profound effect on the climatic conditions in central Europe. A new dataset of the ocean-surface winds, derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, SSM/1, is now available. This satellite instrument measures the wind speed, but not the direction. However, variational analysis developed at the Data Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, by combining the SSM/I measurements with wind vectors measured from ships, etc., produced global maps of the ocean surface winds suitable for climate analysis. From this SSM/I dataset, a specific index I(sub na) of the North Atlantic surface winds has been developed, which pertinently quantifies the low-level advection into central Europe. For a selected time-period, the index I(sub na) reports the average of the amplitude of the wind, averaging only the speed when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, the contribution counts to the average as zero speed). Strong correlations were found between February I(sub na) and the surface air temperatures in Europe 50-60 deg N. In the present study, we present the correlations between I(sub na) and temperature I(sub s), and also the sensitivity of T(sub s), to an increase in I(sub na), in various seasons and various regions. We specifically analyze the flow of maritime-air from the North Atlantic that produced two extraordinary warm periods: February 1990, and early-winter 2000/2001. The very cold December 2001 was clearly due to a northerly flow. Our conclusion is that the SSM/I dataset is very useful for providing insight to the forcing of climatic fluctuations in Europe.

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  17. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  18. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  19. Protection Method for Data Communication between ADS-B Sensor and Next-Generation Air Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoung-Hyeon Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and direction of aircraft, to the ground. However, ADS-B data are transmitted in an unencrypted (or unprotected communication channel between ADS-B sensors and Air Traffic Control (ATC. Consequently, these data are vulnerable to security threats, such as spoofing, eavesdropping, and data modification. In this paper, we propose a method that protects the ADS-B data transmitted between ADS-B sensors and ATC using Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI certificates and symmetric cryptography. The SPKI certificates are used to grant transmission authorization to the ADS-B sensors, while symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt/decrypt the ADS-B data transmitted between the ADS-B sensors and ATC. The proposed security framework comprises an ADS-B sensor authentication module, an encrypted data processing module, and an ADS-B sensor information management module. We believe that application of the proposed security framework to CNS/ATM will enable it to effectively obviate security threats, such as ground station flood denial, ground station target ghost injection, and ADS-B data modification.

  20. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  1. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  2. Integrated water vapor from IGS ground-based GPS observations. Initial results from a global 5-min data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, S.; Dick, G.; Gendt, G.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. 1 Geodesy and Remote Sensing

    2009-07-01

    Ground based GPS zenith path delay (ZPD) measurements are well established as a powerful tool for integrated water vapor (IWV) observation. The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides ZPD data of currently more than 300 globally distributed GPS stations. To derive IWV from these data, meteorological information (ground pressure and mean temperature above the station) are needed. Only a limited number of IGS stations is equipped with meteorological ground sensors up to now. Thus, meteorological data for IWV conversion are usually derived from nearby ground meteorological observations (ground pressure) and meteorological analyses (mean temperature). In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of ground pressure data from ECMWF meteorological analysis fields in this context. Beside simplified data handling (no single station data and quality control) this approach allows for IWV derivation if nearby meteorological stations are not available. Using ECMWF ground pressure and mean temperature data the new IGS 5-min ZPD data set has been converted to IWV for the first time. We present initial results from selected stations with ground meteorological sensors including pressure and temperature comparisons between ECMWF and local measurements. The GPS IWV is generally validated by comparison with ECMWF IWV. The ECMWF derived station meteorological data are compared with local measurements at all accordingly equipped stations. Based on this comparison, the mean error (in terms of standard deviation) introduced by time interpolation of the 6-hourly ECMWF data is estimated below 0.2 mm IWV. (orig.)

  3. Uncertainty analysis of navigation sensor information fusion for underwater vehicle%水下潜器多传感器信息融合的不确定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 齐永奇; 郭晓波

    2013-01-01

    为了降低水下潜器组合导航模型中传感器信息的不确定性,提出了一种基于证据理论的多传感器信息融合方法。在该算法中,将导航传感器信息数据输入到ELMAN网络来获取D-S证据理论中各传感器故障的基本概率赋值,再利用改进后的证据理论对导航系统的信息进行决策级融合。仿真结果表明,导航传感器信息的不确定性降低到0.001,可以精确检测到故障传感器,有效提高了系统信息的可靠性和对传感器故障的识别能力,为水下潜器精确导航提供了保障。%In order to reduce information uncertainty in integrated navigation model for underwater vehicle, a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm based on evidence theory is presented. In the algorithm, the navigation sensor measured data were input into ELMAN network and used to obtain basic probability assignment for sensor fault in D-S evidence theory. And then the improved evidence theory was used to execute the decision and fusion for navigation information. The simulation results prove that the uncertainty of navigation sensor information is reduced to 0.001, and the fault sensor can be detected. The algorithm can effectively improve the reliability of navigation system information and the recognition of sensor fault, which provides the guarantee for the precise navigation of underwater vehicle.

  4. 基于GIS的矿山地表移动信息管理与分析系统%GIS BASED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND ANALYZING SYSTEM FOR GROUND SURFACE MOVEMENT AT MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓清海; 马凤山; 袁仁茂; 丁德民; 张亚民; 王杰; 郭捷

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with engineering practice of Jinchuan Nickel Mine in Gansu Province, China, this paper studies the method and process of developing ground surface movement information management and analyzing system for mines. The system is a GIS based secondary development. The paper discusses the structure and functions of the system. The system contains three modules: management of ground surface movement information, analysis and evaluation of ground surface movement, and ground surface movement forecast. The system makes the best of powerful information management and spatial analyzing capabilities of GIS, and can carry out the analysis and evaluation of ground surface movement by combining Surfer 8.0. And in the module of forecast, using the technique of MATLAB 6.5 program with VB 6.0, the system can achieve the ANN prediction model for GPS monitoring data. The study results shall improve management and analyzing efficiency for ground surface movement information in Jinchuan Nickel Mine, and can be used in developing the information system of ground surface movement in other mines.%以金川矿区为例,介绍了应用GIS进行二次开发来构建矿山地表移动信息管理与分析系统的方法、过程以及该系统的主要功能.该系统包括地表移动信息管理、地表移动分析与评价、地表移动预测3个模块,充分利用了GIS强大的空间数据管理与分析能力,实现了GIS与Surfer结合进行矿山地表移动分析与评价,GIS与Matlab结合进行监测数据的非线性神经网络时序预测.该系统不但有助于提高金川矿山地表移动信息的检索和分析效率,对其他矿山地表移动信息系统的建立也具有借鉴意义.

  5. Reputation-Based Secure Sensor Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  6. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  7. Study on Ground Automatic Identification Technology for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Vision Sensor%基于视觉传感器的自主车辆地面自动辨识技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔根群; 余建明; 赵娴; 赵丛琳

    2011-01-01

    The ground automatic identification technology for intelligent vehicle is iaking Leobor-Edu autonomous vehicle as a test vector and using DH-HV2003UC-T vision sensor to collect image infarmaiion of five common lane roads( cobbled road, concrete road, dirt road, grass road, tile road) , then using MATLAB image processing module to perform coding compression, recovery reconstruction, smoothing, sharpening, enhancement, feature extraction and other related processing,then using MATLAB BP neural network module to carry on pattern recognition.Through analyzing the pattern recognition result, lt shows that the objective error is 20%, the road recognition rate has reached the intended requirement in the system,and it can be universally applied in the smart vehicle or robots and other related fields.%谊自主车辆地面自动辨识技术是以Leobot-Edu自主车辆作为试验载体,并应用DH-HV2003UC-T视觉传感器对常见的5种行车路面(石子路面、水泥路面、土壤路面、草地路面、砖地路面)进行图像信息的采集,应用Matlab图像处理模块对其依次进行压缩编码、复原重建、平滑、锐化、增强、特征提取等相关处理后,再应用Matlab BP神经网络模块进行模式识别.通过对模式识别结果分析可知,网络训练目标的函数误差为20%,该系统路面识别率达到预定要求,可以在智能车辆或移动机器人等相关领域普及使用.

  8. Intuitive terrain reconstruction using height observation-based ground segmentation and 3D object boundary estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun; Won, Chee Sun; Sim, Sungdae

    2012-12-12

    Mobile robot operators must make rapid decisions based on information about the robot's surrounding environment. This means that terrain modeling and photorealistic visualization are required for the remote operation of mobile robots. We have produced a voxel map and textured mesh from the 2D and 3D datasets collected by a robot's array of sensors, but some upper parts of objects are beyond the sensors' measurements and these parts are missing in the terrain reconstruction result. This result is an incomplete terrain model. To solve this problem, we present a new ground segmentation method to detect non-ground data in the reconstructed voxel map. Our method uses height histograms to estimate the ground height range, and a Gibbs-Markov random field model to refine the segmentation results. To reconstruct a complete terrain model of the 3D environment, we develop a 3D boundary estimation method for non-ground objects. We apply a boundary detection technique to the 2D image, before estimating and refining the actual height values of the non-ground vertices in the reconstructed textured mesh. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment in which trees and buildings were not completely sensed. Our results show that the time required for ground segmentation is faster than that for data sensing, which is necessary for a real-time approach. In addition, those parts of objects that were not sensed are accurately recovered to retrieve their real-world appearances.

  9. Where 2.0 Australia’s Environment? Crowdsourcing, Volunteered Geographic Information, and Citizens Acting as Sensors for Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing, volunteered geographic information (VGI and citizens acting as sensors are currently being used in Australia via GeoWeb 2.0 applications for environmental sustainability purposes. This paper situates the origins of these practices, phenomena and concepts within the intersection of Web 2.0 and emerging online and mobile spatial technologies, herein called the GeoWeb 2.0. The significance of these origins is akin to a revolution in the way information is created, curated and distributed, attributed with transformative social impacts. Applications for environmental sustainability have the potential to be similarly transformative or disruptive. However, Web 2.0 is not described or conceptualised consistently within the literature. Australian examples implementing the GeoWeb 2.0 for environmental sustainability are diverse, but the reasons for this are difficult to ascertain. There is little published by the creators of such applications on their decisions, and Australian research is nascent, occurring across a variety of disciplinary approaches. While a substantial research literature emanates from North America and Europe, its transferability to Australia requires careful assessment. This paper contributes to this assessment by providing a review of relevant literature in the context of Australian examples for environmental sustainability.

  10. Space-Based Internet of Things Applications Based on Integrated Ground-Air-Space Information Network%天地一体化信息网络天基物联网应用体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾业; 周永将

    2016-01-01

    天地一体化信息网络是国家重点工程之一,是未来我国信息时代的战略性公共信息基础设施。随着跨境电子商务、智能家居、智能航空管理等物联网应用的蓬勃发展,对发展天基物联网提出了急需。因此将天地一体化网络工程建设与天基物联网应用服务紧密结合非常重要。本文将主要对基于天地一体化信息网络工程的物联网应用体系进行研究,包括参考模型、网络架构、协议体系和软件系统等几个方面,为天地一体化信息网络工程的建设奠定基础。%As one of the key project in our country,the integrated ground-air-space information network will be the strategic infrastructure and technology in the coming information times. As the development of cross-border electronic commerce, smart home and intelligence air manages, the necessary on the development of space-based internet of things is presented, so it is significant to combine the building of integrated ground-air-space information network project with space-based internet of things applications. This paper focus on the research of space-based internet of things applications based on integrated ground-air-space information network, includes reference model, network architecture, software system and protocols architecture, and lay the foundation to build the integrated ground-air-space information network project.

  11. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  12. An SAO-based approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information: Case study—graphene sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyin; HU; Shu; FANG; Ling; WEI; Yi; WEN; Xian; ZHANG; Min; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces an approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information based on Subject-Action-Object(SAO) structures.Design/methodology/approach: First, SAO structures were extracted from patent documents and were cleaned. Second, several dimension-reduction techniques were used to generate technology topics. Then, the hierarchical relationships between technology topics were calculated based on patent clustering. Finally, technology evolution maps were drawn by adding a timeline.Findings: This approach can reveal technology evolution processes from multiple perspectives than other approaches.Research limitations: The semantic annotation of an SAO type is not very accurate and the semantic types of technology topics need to be enriched.Practical implications: The approach can be applied to draw technology evolution maps using different types of technology topics such as problem or solution.Originality/value: This approach offers an analytical dimension and more details than existing techniques, and it helps identify fundamental and emerging technologies more accurately and comprehensively.

  13. Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensor-Web for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Shirazi, B.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.; Tran, D.; Davis, A.; Pieri, D.; LaHusen, R.; Pallister, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Moran, S.; Lisowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    In response to NASA's announced requirement for Earth hazard monitoring sensor-web technology, a multidisciplinary team involving sensor-network experts (Washington State University), space scientists (JPL), and Earth scientists (USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO)), is developing a prototype dynamic and scaleable hazard monitoring sensor-web and applying it to volcano monitoring. The combined Optimized Autonomous Space -In-situ Sensor-web (OASIS) will have two-way communication capability between ground and space assets, use both space and ground data for optimal allocation of limited power and bandwidth resources on the ground, and use smart management of competing demands for limited space assets. It will also enable scalability and seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. The prototype will be focused on volcano hazard monitoring at Mount St. Helens, which has been active since October 2004. The system is designed to be flexible and easily configurable for many other applications as well. The primary goals of the project are: 1) integrating complementary space (i.e., Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite) and in-situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor-web; 2) advancing sensor-web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enabling scalability for seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. To meet these goals, we are developing: 1) a test-bed in-situ array with smart sensor nodes capable of making autonomous data acquisition decisions; 2) efficient self-organization algorithm of sensor-web topology to support efficient data communication and command control; 3) smart bandwidth allocation algorithms in which sensor nodes autonomously determine packet priorities based on mission needs and local bandwidth information in real-time; and 4) remote network management and reprogramming tools. The space and in-situ control components of the system will be

  14. Long-Range Reduced Predictive Information Transfers of Autistic Youths in EEG Sensor-Space During Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Khorrami, Anahita

    2016-03-01

    The majority of previous functional/effective connectivity studies conducted on the autistic patients converged to the underconnectivity theory of ASD: "long-range underconnectivity and sometimes short-rang overconnectivity". However, to the best of our knowledge the total (linear and nonlinear) predictive information transfers (PITs) of autistic patients have not been investigated yet. Also, EEG data have rarely been used for exploring the information processing deficits in autistic subjects. This study is aimed at comparing the total (linear and nonlinear) PITs of autistic and typically developing healthy youths during human face processing by using EEG data. The ERPs of 12 autistic youths and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were recorded while they were watching upright and inverted human face images. The PITs among EEG channels were quantified using two measures separately: transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (TESPO), and modified transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (MTESPO). Afterwards, the directed differential connectivity graphs (dDCGs) were constructed to characterize the significant changes in the estimated PITs of autistic subjects compared with HC ones. By using both TESPO and MTESPO, long-range reduction of PITs of ASD group during face processing was revealed (particularly from frontal channels to right temporal channels). Also, it seemed the orientation of face images (upright or upside down) did not modulate the binary pattern of PIT-based dDCGs, significantly. Moreover, compared with TESPO, the results of MTESPO were more compatible with the underconnectivity theory of ASD in the sense that MTESPO showed no long-range increase in PIT. It is also noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a version of MTE is applied for patients (here ASD) and it is also its first use for EEG data analysis.

  15. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  16. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  17. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  18. Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dohyun Kim; Ira Goldberg; Jack Judy

    2003-01-01

    A nitrate-sensing system that consists of a micromachined sensor substrate, nitrate-permeable membrane, integrated microfluidic channels, and standard fluidic connectors has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested. Our microsensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of nitrate concentrations in ground water. A silver electrode was patterned for amperometric nitrate detection. An electrochemically oxidized silver electrode was used as a reference electrode. Microfluidic channels were ...

  19. DNA Master File of Ground-Shock, Air-Blast, and Structure-Response Data. Volume 1. Archive Description and User’s Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Representative (COR) during the early part of the program. Lt Col. D. Burgess was the COR for the remainder of the work. The initial effort was...were conducted near Pueblo, Colorado, to investigate ground response in clay-over- shale geologies. Event I was a 20-ton half-buried shot to be

  20. Sensor Integration Using State Estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Means for including very different types of sensors using one single unit are described. Accumulated data are represented using an updatable dynamic model, a Kalman filter. The scheme handles common phenomena such as skewed sampling, finite resolution measurements and information delays. Included is an example where 3D motion information is collected by one or more vision sensors.