WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground safety review

  1. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety review...

  2. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  3. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.

  4. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  5. Conceptual Grounds of Navigation Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Torskiy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important global problem being solved by the whole world community nowadays is to provide sustainable mankind development. Recent research in the field of sustainable development states that civilization safety is impossible without transfer sustainable development. At the same time, sustainable development (i.e. preservation of human culture and biosphere is impossible as a system that serves to meet economical, cultural, scientific, recreational and other human needs without safety. Safety plays an important role in sustainable development goals achievement. An essential condition of effective navigation functioning is to provide its safety. The “prescriptive” approach to the navigation safety, which is currently used in the world maritime field, is based on long-term experience and ship accidents investigation results. Thus this approach acted as an the great fact in reduction of number of accidents at sea. Having adopted the International Safety Management Code all the activities connected with navigation safety problems solution were transferred to the higher qualitative level. Search and development of new approaches and methods of ship accidents prevention during their operation have obtained greater importance. However, the maritime safety concept (i.e. the different points on ways, means and methods that should be used to achieve this goal hasn't been formed and described yet. The article contains a brief review of the main provisions of Navigation Safety Conceptions, which contribute to the number of accidents and incidents at sea reduction.

  6. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  7. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  8. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  9. Safety analysis methodologies for radioactive waste repositories in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is part of the IAEA Safety Series and is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of shallow ground radioactive waste repositories. It discusses approaches that are applicable for safety analysis of a shallow ground repository. The methodologies, analysis techniques and models described are pertinent to the task of predicting the long-term performance of a shallow ground disposal system. They may be used during the processes of selection, confirmation and licensing of new sites and disposal systems or to evaluate the long-term consequences in the post-sealing phase of existing operating or inactive sites. The analysis may point out need for remedial action, or provide information to be used in deciding on the duration of surveillance. Safety analysis both general in nature and specific to a certain repository, site or design concept, are discussed, with emphasis on deterministic and probabilistic studies

  10. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis.

  11. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis

  12. KHNP special safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lee, Bang-Jin; Lee, Soung-Hee; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2009-01-01

    Commemorating the 30 year anniversary of commercial nuclear power plant operation in KOREA, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has conducted a Special Safety Review (SSR) of its 20 operating units to understand their safety performance and to identify any areas that need improvement. The SSR reviewed all 20 operating units for 2 weeks per site. Areas that were reviewed are Safety Margins, Plant Performance, Employee Safety, Employee Performance and Performance Improvement Process. Each review team consisted of international and domestic members. The international reviewers were from IAEA, WANO and INPO. The domestic reviewers consisted of professors, Engineering Company, Research Institute and KHNP experts. The review confirmed safe and reliable operations of the 20 nuclear units. The common understanding resulted from the SSR is as follows. Firstly, KHNP corporate and its plants confirmed and shared mutual understanding on recurring areas for improvements, especially in the areas of Organizational Effectiveness, Industrial Safety, Human Performance, Configuration Management, Operations, Equipment Performance and Material Condition. Secondly, KHNP understood that plant and department level performances are directly related to the leadership and competency of the management team including supervisors. Thirdly, the strengths of individual stations that consistently have produced good results need to be shared with the other KHNP stations. Finally, KHNP learned that strong corporate leadership and support are needed to resolve most of the areas for improvement since they are common to all KHNP stations. (author)

  13. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  14. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  15. Safety review advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshers, J.A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Alguindigue, I.A.; Burnett, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee's Nuclear Engineering department, in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing an expert system to aid in 10CFR50.59 evaluations. This paper discusses the history of 10CFR50.59 reviews, and details the development approach used in the construction of a prototype Safety Review Advisor (SRA). The goals for this expert system prototype are to aid the engineer in the evaluation process by directing his attention to the appropriate critical issues, increase the efficiency, consistency, and thoroughness of the evaluation process, and provide a foundation of appropriate Safety Analysis Report (SAR) references for the reviewer

  16. Safety review advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshers, J.A.; Alguindigue, I.E.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Tennessee's Nuclear Engineering Department, in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing an expert system to aid in 10CFR50.59 evaluations. This paper discusses the history of 10CFR50.59 reviews, and details the development approach used in the construction of a prototype Safety Review Advisor (SRA). The goals for this expert system prototype are to (1) aid the engineer in the evaluation process by directing his attention to the appropriate critical issues, (2) increase the efficiency, consistency, and thoroughness of the evaluation process, and (3) provide a foundation of appropriate Safety Analysis Report (SAR) references for the reviewer. 6 refs., 2 figs

  17. AGI Safety Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Tom; Lea, Gary; Hutter, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The development of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) promises to be a major event. Along with its many potential benefits, it also raises serious safety concerns (Bostrom, 2014). The intention of this paper is to provide an easily accessible and up-to-date collection of references for the emerging field of AGI safety. A significant number of safety problems for AGI have been identified. We list these, and survey recent research on solving them. We also cover works on how best to think of ...

  18. Nuclear safety review for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This publication is based on the fourth Nuclear Safety Review prepared by the IAEA Secretariat for presentation to the Board of Governors. It discusses relevant international activities in 1984 and the current status of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and looks ahead to anticipated developments

  19. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  20. Nuclear Safety Review for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2014 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2013. The Executive Overview provides general nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major issues covered in this report: strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving radiation, transport and waste safety; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; and strengthening civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards, and activities relevant to the Agency’s safety standards. The global nuclear community has made steady and continuous progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2013, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as “the Action Plan”) and reported in Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2013/8-GC(57)/INF/5), and the Supplementary Information to that report and Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2014/2). • Significant progress continues to be made in several key areas, such as assessments of safety vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs), strengthening of the Agency’s peer review services, improvements in EPR capabilities, strengthening and maintaining capacity building, and protecting people and the environment from ionizing radiation. The progress that has been made in these and other areas has contributed to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety framework. • Significant progress has also been made in reviewing the Agency’s safety standards, which continue to be widely applied by regulators, operators and the nuclear industry in general, with increased attention and focus on vitally important areas such as design and operation of NPPs, protection of NPPs against severe accidents, and EPR. • The Agency continued to

  1. Reviews on Food Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, E.

    2004-01-01

    Food safety is an increasing concern. The desire for rapid, specific methods for the detection of viable potential pathogens has grown into a necessity. Microbial contamination of meat, fresh fruits, and vegetables has become a mounting concern during the last decade due to emphasis on their importance in a healthy diet and the recognition of new food borne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This paper presents an overview of different commercial techniques for identification of bacteria such as: III-nitride on Silicon Chips for detection of live bacteria, Optical Biosensors, Piezoelectric-based acoustic wave devices, Electrochemical Biosensors, Immunogenic Techniques, Polymerase chain reaction

  2. Reviews on Food Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, E [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. University orNew Mexico. 209 Farris Engineering Center. Albuquerque. NM 117131 (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    Food safety is an increasing concern. The desire for rapid, specific methods for the detection of viable potential pathogens has grown into a necessity. Microbial contamination of meat, fresh fruits, and vegetables has become a mounting concern during the last decade due to emphasis on their importance in a healthy diet and the recognition of new food borne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This paper presents an overview of different commercial techniques for identification of bacteria such as: III-nitride on Silicon Chips for detection of live bacteria, Optical Biosensors, Piezoelectric-based acoustic wave devices, Electrochemical Biosensors, Immunogenic Techniques, Polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  4. Nuclear Safety Review for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2015 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2014. The Executive Overview provides general nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major issues covered in this report: improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and strengthening civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the Agency’s safety standards. The global nuclear community continued to make steady progress in improving nuclear safety throughout the world in 2014; and, the Agency and its Member States continued to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as “the Action Plan”), which was endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011. • Significant progress has been made in reviewing and revising various Agency’s safety standards in areas such as management of radioactive waste, design basis hazard levels, protection of nuclear power plants (NPPs) against severe accidents, design margins to avoid cliff edge effects, multiple facilities at one site, and strengthening the prevention of unacceptable radiological consequences to the public and the environment, communications and EPR. In addition, the Guidelines for Drafting IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series Publications was issued in July 2014.• The Agency continued to analyse the relevant technical aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and to share and disseminate lessons learned to the wider nuclear community. In 2014, the Agency organized two international experts’ meetings (IEMs), one on radiation protection and one on severe accident management. Reports from previous IEMs were also published in 2014: IAEA Report on Human and Organizational Factors in Nuclear

  5. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments - associated challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory reviews of safety cases and safety assessments are essential for credible decision making on the licensing or authorization of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Regulatory review also plays an important role in developing the safety case and in establishing stakeholders' confidence in the safety of the facility. Reviews of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal facilities need to be conducted by suitably qualified and experienced staff, following systematic and well planned review processes. Regulatory reviews should be sufficiently comprehensive in their coverage of issues potentially affecting the safety of the disposal system, and should assess the safety case against clearly established criteria. The conclusions drawn from a regulatory review, and the rationale for them should be reproducible and documented in a transparent and traceable way. Many challenges are faced when conducting regulatory reviews of safety cases. Some of these relate to issues of project and programme management, and resources, while others derive from the inherent difficulties of assessing the potential long term future behaviour of engineered and environmental systems. The paper describes approaches to the conduct of regulatory reviews and discusses some of the challenges faced. (author)

  6. Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee has had a fundamental difficulty because of the atmosphere that has existed since it was created. It came into existence at a time of decreasing budgets. For any Committee the easiest thing is to tell the Director what additional to do. That does not really help him a lot in this atmosphere of reduced budgets which he reviewed for you on Monday. Concurrently the research arm of Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recognized that the scope of its activity needed to be increased rather than decreased. In the last two-and-a-half-year period, human factors work was reinstated, radiation and health effects investigations were reinvigorated, research in the waste area was given significant acceleration. Further, accident management came into being, and the NRC finally got back into the TMI-2 area. So with all of those activities being added to the program at the same time that the research budget was going down, the situation has become very strained. What that leads to regarding Committee membership is a need for technically competent generalists who will be able to sit as the Division Directors come in, as the contractors come in, and sort the wheat from the chaff. The Committee needs people who are interested in and have a broad perspective on what regulatory needs are and specifically how safety research activities can contribute to them. The author summarizes the history of the Committee, the current status, and plans for the future

  7. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  8. NPP Krsko Periodic Safety Review action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the current, internationally accepted, safety philosophy Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs) are comprehensive reviews aimed at the verification that an operating NPP remains safe when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain an acceptable level of safety. These reviews are complementary to the routine and special safety reviews. They are long time-scale reviews intended to deal with the cumulative effects of plant ageing, modifications, operating experience and technical developments, which are not so easily comprehended over the shorter time-scale routine of safety reviews. The review was completed in 2005 and the next period will see the implementation of the action plan including some plant upgrades. The action plan lists issues that should be implemented at NPP Krsko together with associated milestones. The milestones were assumed based on best estimate resource availability and their ends can be potentially floated. In some cases, multiple corrective measures may be postulated to provide resolution for a given safety issue. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration by decree approved the first periodic safety review and the implementation plan of activities arising from it. The entire implementation plan must be carried out by 15 October 2010. Report on the second periodic safety review must be submitted by the NEK not later than 15 December 2013. (author)

  9. Periodic safety review of the HTR-10 safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fubing; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Li Fu

    2015-01-01

    Designed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, the 10 MW High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor-Test Module (HTR-10) is the first modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in China. According to the nuclear safety regulations of China, the periodic safety review (PSR) of the HTR-10 was initiated by INET after approved by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of China. Safety analysis of the HTR-10 is one of the key safety factors of the PSR. In this paper, the main contents in the review of safety analysis are summarized; meanwhile, the internal evaluation on the review results is presented by INET. (authors)

  10. Nuclear safety review for the year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear, radiation and transport safety and the safety of radioactive waste management. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was prepared in the light of the discussion by the Board of Governors in March 2002. This report presents an overview of the current issues and trends in nuclear, radiation, transport and radioactive waste safety at the end of 2002. This overview is supported by a more detailed factual account of safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. National authorities and the international community continued to reflect and act upon the implications of the events of II September 2001 for nuclear, radiation, transport and waste safety. In the light of this, the Agency has decided to transfer the organizational unit on nuclear security from the Department of Safeguards to the Department of Nuclear Safety (which thereby becomes the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security). By better exploiting the synergies between safety and security and promoting further cross-fertilization of approaches, the Agency is trying to help build up mutually reinforcing global regimes of safety and security. However, the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 addresses only those areas already in the safety programme. This short analytical overview is supported by a second part (corresponding to Part I of the Nuclear Safety Reviews of previous years), which describes significant safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. A Draft Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was submitted to the March 2003 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2003/6.

  11. Nuclear safety review for the year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear, radiation and transport safety and the safety of radioactive waste management. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was prepared in the light of the discussion by the Board of Governors in March 2002. This report presents an overview of the current issues and trends in nuclear, radiation, transport and radioactive waste safety at the end of 2002. This overview is supported by a more detailed factual account of safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. National authorities and the international community continued to reflect and act upon the implications of the events of II September 2001 for nuclear, radiation, transport and waste safety. In the light of this, the Agency has decided to transfer the organizational unit on nuclear security from the Department of Safeguards to the Department of Nuclear Safety (which thereby becomes the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security). By better exploiting the synergies between safety and security and promoting further cross-fertilization of approaches, the Agency is trying to help build up mutually reinforcing global regimes of safety and security. However, the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 addresses only those areas already in the safety programme. This short analytical overview is supported by a second part (corresponding to Part I of the Nuclear Safety Reviews of previous years), which describes significant safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. A Draft Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was submitted to the March 2003 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2003/6

  12. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  13. US nuclear safety review and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilinsky, V.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear safety review of commercial nuclear power reactors has changed over the years from the relatively simple review of Dresden 1 in 1955 to the highly complex and sophisticated regulatory process which characterizes today's reviews. Four factors have influenced this evolution: (1) maturing of the technology and industry; (2) development of the regulatory process and associated staff; (3) feedback of operating experience; and (4) public awareness and participation. The NRC's safety review responsibilities start before an application is tendered and end when the plant is decommissioned. The safety review for reactor licensing is a comprehensive, two-phase process designed to assure that all the established conservative acceptance criteria are satisfied. Operational safety is assured through a strong inspection and enforcement program which includes shutting down operating facilities when necessary to protect the health and safety of the public. The safety of operating reactors is further insured through close regulation of license changes and selective backfitting of new regulatory requirements. An effective NRC standards development program has been implemented and coordinates closely with the national standards program. A confirmatory safety research program has been developed. Both of these efforts are invaluable to the nuclear safety review because they provide the staff with key tools needed to carry out its regulatory responsibilities. Both have been given increased emphasis since the formation of the NRC in 1975. The safety review process will continue to evolve, but changes will be slower and more deliberate. It will be influenced by standardization, early site reviews and development of advanced reactor concepts. New legislation may make possible changes which will simplify and shorten the regulatory process. Certainly the experience provided by the increasing number and types of operating plants will have a very strong impact on future trends in the

  14. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  15. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csilla

    2009-01-01

    Operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) are generally subject to routine reviews of plant operation and special safety reviews following operational events. In addition, many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have initiated systematic safety reassessment, termed periodic safety review (PSR), to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments, site specific, organizational and human aspects. These reviews include assessments of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices. PSRs are considered an effective way of obtaining an overall view of actual plant safety, to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. PSRs can be used as a means to identify time limiting features of the plant. The trend is to use PSR as a condition for deciding whether to continue operation of the plant beyond the originally established design lifetime and for assessing the status of the plant for long term operation. To assist Member States in the implementation of PSR, the IAEA develops safety standards, technical documents and provides different services: training courses, workshops, technical meetings and safety review missions for the independent assessment of the PSR at NPPs, including the requirements for PSR, the review process and the PSR final reports. This paper describes the PSR's objectives, scopes, methods and the relationship of PSR with other plant safety related activities and recent experiences of Member States in implementation of PSRs at NPPs. (author)

  16. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  17. Regulatory review of NPP Krsko Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.; Muehleisen, A.; Persic, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the request of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), Krsko NPP prepared a Periodic Safety Review (PSR) program in January 2001. This is the first PSR of NPP Krsko, the only nuclear power plant in Slovenia. The program was reviewed by the IAEA mission in May 2001 and approved by SNSA in July 2001. The program is made in accordance with the IAEA Safety Guide 'Periodic Safety Review of Operational Nuclear Power Plants' No. 50-SG-012 and with European practice. It contains a systematic review of operation of the NPP Krsko, including the review of the changes as a result of the modernization of the facility. The main tasks of PSR are review of plant status for each safety factor, development of aging and life cycle management program, review of seismic design and PSHA analysis and update of regulatory compliance program. The prioritization process of findings and action plan are also important tasks of PSR. The basic safety factors of the PSR review are: Operational Experience, Safety Assessment and Analyses, Equipment Qualification and Ageing Management, Safety Culture, Emergency Planing, Environmental Impact and Radioactive Waste, Compliance with license requirements and Prioritization. It had been agreed that SNSA will have reviewed all PSR reports generated during the PSR process. At the end of 2003 the PSR Summary Report with selected recommendations for action plan was completed and delivered to SNSA for review. The paper presents regulatory review of NPP Krsko PSR with emphasis on the evaluation of the PSR issues ranking process. (author)

  18. NPP Krsko periodic safety review. Safety assessment and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Thaulez, F.

    2002-01-01

    Definition of a PSR (Periodic Safety Review) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that the plant remains safe when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. The overall goals of the NEK PSR Program are defined in compliance with the basic role of a PSR and the current practice typical for most of the countries in EU. This practice is described in the related guides and good practice documents issued by international organizations. The overall goals of the NEK PSR are formulated as follows: to demonstrate that the plant is as safe as originally intended; to evaluate the actual plant status with respect to aging and wear-out identifying any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and to identify appropriate corrective actions, where needed; to compare current level of safety in the light of modern standards and knowledge, and to identify where improvements would be beneficial for minimizing deviations at justifiable costs. The Krsko PSR will address the following safety factors: Operational Experience, Safety Assessment, EQ and Aging Management, Safety Culture, Emergency Planning, Environmental Impact and Radioactive Waste.(author)

  19. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear, radiation and transport safety and the safety of radioactive waste management. In line with the suggestions made by the Board of Governors in March 2002, the first part is more analytical and less descriptive. This short analytical overview is supported by a second part, which describes significant safety related events and issues worldwide during 2003. A Draft Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 was submitted to the March 2004 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2004/3. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 was prepared in the light of the discussion by the Board.

  20. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  1. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  2. Internet Safety and Security Surveys - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This report gives a review of investigations into Internet safety and security over the last 10 years. The review covers a number of surveys of Internet usage, of Internet security in general, and of Internet users' awareness of issues related to safety and security. The focus and approach...... of the various surveys is considered, and is related to more general proposals for investigating the issues involved. A variety of proposals for how to improve levels of Internet safety and security are also described, and they are reviewed in the light of studies of motivational factors which affect the degree...

  3. Lessons learned from the Galileo and Ulysses flight safety review experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for the launches of the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft, a very comprehensive aerospace nuclear safety program and flight safety review were conducted. A review of this work has highlighted a number of important lessons which should be considered in the safety analysis and review of future space nuclear systems. These lessons have been grouped into six general categories: (1) establishment of the purpose, objectives and scope of the safety process; (2) establishment of charters defining the roles of the various participants; (3) provision of adequate resources; (4) provision of timely peer-reviewed information to support the safety program; (5) establishment of general ground rules for the safety review; and (6) agreement on the kinds of information to be provided from the safety review process

  4. Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Novsak, M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for conducting a Periodic Safety Review for the Krsko NPP has been clearly recognized both by the NEK and the regulator (SNSA). The PSR would be highly desirable both in the light of current trends in safety oversight practices and because of many benefits it is capable to provide. On January 11, 2001 the SNSA issued a decision requesting the Krsko NPP to prepare a program and determine a schedule for the implementation of the program for 'Periodic Safety Review of NPP Krsko'. The program, which is required to be in accordance with the IAEA safety philosophy and with the EU practice, was submitted for the approval to the SNSA by the end of March 2001. The paper summarizes Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review Program [1] including implemented SNSA and IAEA Expert Mission comments.(author)

  5. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 contains an analytical overview of the dominant trends, issues and challenges worldwide in 2011 and the Agency's efforts to strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. This year's report also highlights issues and activities related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The analytical overview is supported by the Appendix at the end of this document, entitled: The IAEA Safety Standards: Activities during 2011. A draft version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was submitted to the March 2012 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2012/6. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was prepared in light of the discussions held during the Board of Governors and also of the comments received.

  6. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  7. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Lambright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  8. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  9. The necessity of periodic fire safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Effective fire safety requires the coordinated integration of many diverse elements. Clear fire safety objectives are defined by plant management and/or regulatory authorities. Extensive and time-consuming systematic analyses are performed. Fire safety features (both active and passive) are installed and maintained, and administrative programs are established and implemented to achieve the defined objectives. Personnel are rigorously trained. Given the time, effort and monetary resources expended to achieve a specific level of fire safety, conducting periodic assessments to verify that the specified level of fire safety has been achieved and is maintained is a matter of common sense. Periodic fire safety reviews and assessment play an essential role in assuring continual nuclear safety in the world's power plants

  10. Nuclear safety review for the year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear and radiation safety, including radioactive waste safety. It is in three parts. Part 1 describes those events in 2001 that have, or may have, significance for nuclear, radiation and waste safety worldwide. It includes developments such as new initiatives in international cooperation, events of safety significance and events that may be indicative of trends in safety. Part 2 describes some of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety during 2001. It covers legally binding international agreements, non-binding safety standards, and provisions for the application of safety standards. This is done in a very brief manner, because these issues are addressed in more detail in the Agency's Annual Report for 2001. Part 3 presents a brief look ahead to some issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). The topics covered were selected by the IAEA Secretariat on the basis of trends observed in recent years, account being taken of planned or expected future developments. A draft of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 was presented to the March 2002 session of IAEA's Board of Governors. This final version has been prepared taking account of the discussion in the Board. In some places, information has been added to describe developments early in 2002 that were considered pertinent to the discussion of events during 2001

  11. Airport Ground Operations Risks and Establishment of the Safety Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stojić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a relatively new approach to air transport safety. This approach introduces the safety indicators whose application’s primer goal is to reduce the number of aviation safety events and to search for their causes. These causes are defined as factors contributing to safety event realisation. These are supposed to be adequately identified and then prevented or at least mitigated. Defined safety indicators are focused on airport processes and subjects.

  12. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  13. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human,......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  14. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  15. Nuclear safety review for the year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review attempts to summarize the global nuclear safety scene during 1997. It starts with discussion of significant safety related events worldwide: International cooperation; reactor facilities; radioactive waste management; medical uses of radiation sources; events at other facilities and transport of radioactive material. This is followed by a description of principal IAEA activities that contributed to global nuclear safety, namely: legally binding international agreements; non-binding safety standards and their application. The third part highlights developments in Member States as they reported them. The review closes with a description of issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). A draft version was submitted to the March 1998 session of the IAEA Board of Governors, and this final version has been prepared in light of the discussion in the Board and was submitted for information to the 42nd session of the IAEA General Conference

  16. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System

  17. 49 CFR 659.27 - Internal safety and security reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal safety and security reviews. 659.27... State Oversight Agency § 659.27 Internal safety and security reviews. (a) The oversight agency shall... safety and security reviews in its system safety program plan. (b) The internal safety and security...

  18. Post Chernobyl safety review at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frescura, G.M.; Luxat, J.C.; Jobe, C.

    1991-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chernobyl Unit 4 accident did not reveal any new phenomena which had not been previously identified in safety analyses. However, the accident provided a tragic reminder of the potential consequences of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) and stimulated nuclear plant operators to review their safety analyses, operating procedures and various operational and management aspects of nuclear safety. Concerning Ontario Hydro, the review of the accident performed by the corporate body responsible for nuclear safety policy and by the Atomic Energy Control Board (the Regulatory Body) led to a number of specific recommendations for further action by various design, analysis and operation groups. These recommendations are very comprehensive in terms of reactor safety issues considered. The general conclusion of the various studies carried out in response to the recommendations, is that the CANDU safety design and the procedures in place to identify and mitigate the consequences of accidents are adequate. Improvements to the reliability of the Pickering NGSA shutdown system and to some aspects of safety management and staff training, although not essential, are possible and would be pursued. In support of this conclusion, the paper describes some of the studies that were carried out and discusses the findings. The first part of the paper deals with safety design aspects. While the second is concerned with operational aspects

  19. Internal safety review team at Comanche Peak SES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D [Comanche Peak Steam Electric Staion, Texas Utilities, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentations describes the following issues: levels of defense in depth; internal safety review organizations; methods used to perform safety assessment; safety committee review; quality verification; root cause analysis; human performance program; industry operating experience.

  20. Preparation of NPP Dukovany periodic safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubsky, L.; Vymazal, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dukovany NPP in Czech Republic performs a periodic safety review for the second time after approximately 20 years of operation. The history of the Safety Report and its transformation into an internationally accepted form complying with IAEA standards is described. The deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the plant's safety-related design and state is applied to determine whether and to what extend the relevant protective goals are fulfilled by the existing plant design. A description of the step-by-step process is presented together with the creation of methods and criteria for PSR evaluation prepared by Nuclear Research Institute Rez

  1. Nuclear safety review for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The nuclear safety review for the year 2000 reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear and radiation safety, including radioactive waste safety. It is in three parts: Part 1 describes those events in 2000 that have, or may have, significance for nuclear, radiation and waste safety worldwide. It includes developments such as new initiatives in international cooperation, events of safety significance and events that may be indicative of trends in safety; Part 2 describes some of the IAEA efforts to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety during 2000. It covers legally binding international agreements, non-binding safety standards, and provisions for the application of safety standards. This is done in a very brief manner, because these issues are addressed in more detail in the Agency's Annual Report for 2000; Part 3 presents a brief look ahead to some issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). The topics covered were selected by the IAEA Secretariat on the basis of trends observed in recent years, account being taken of planned or expected future developments. A draft of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2000 was presented to the March 2001 session of the IAEA Board of Governors. This final version has been prepared taking account of the discussion in the Board. In some places, information has been added to describe developments early in 2001 that were considered pertinent to the discussion of events during 2000. In such cases, a note containing the more recent information has been provided in the form of a footnote

  2. Development of Safety Review Guide for the Periodic Safety Review of Reactor Vessel Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongsoon; Ko, Hanok; Kim, Seonjae; Jhung, Myungjo

    2013-01-01

    Aging management of the reactor vessel internals (RVIs) is one of the important issues for long-term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Safety review on the assessment and management of the RVI aging is conducted through the process of a periodic safety review (PSR). The regulatory body should check that reactor facilities sustain safety functions in light of degradation due to aging and that the operator of a nuclear power reactor establishes and implements management program to deal with degradation due to aging in order to guarantee the safety functions and the safety margin as a result of PSR. KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has utilized safety review guides (SRG) which provide guidance to KINS staffs in performing safety reviews in order to assure the quality and uniformity of staff safety reviews. The KINS SRGs for the continued operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) published in 2006 contain areas of review regarding aging management of RVIs in chapter 2 (III.2.15, Appendix 2.0.1). However unlike the SRGs for the continued operation, KINS has not officially published the SRGs for the PSR of PWRs, but published them as a form of the research report. In addition to that, the report provides almost same review procedures for aging assessment and management of RVIs with the ones provided in the SRGs for the continued operation, it cannot provide review guidance specific to PSRs. Therefore, a PSR safety review guide should be developed for RVIs in PWRs. In this study, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals in PWRs is developed and provided. In this paper, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals (PSR SRG-RVIs) in PWRs is introduced and main contents of the draft are provided. However, since the PSR safety review guides for areas other than RVIs in the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are expected to be developed in the near future, the draft PSR SRG-RVIs should be revisited to be compatible with

  3. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments for near surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nys, V.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of the ASAM Regulatory Review Working Group are presented. Regulatory review of the safety assessment is made. It includes the regulatory review of post-closure safety assessment; safety case development and confidence building. The ISAM methodology is reviewed and SA system description is presented. Recommendations on the review process management are given

  4. Review of fuel safety criteria in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Sandrine; Graff, Stephanie; Foucher-Taisne, Aude; Dubois, Olivier [Institut de Radioprotection et du Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2018-01-15

    Fuel safety criteria for the first barrier, based on state-of-the-art at the time, were first defined in the 1970s and came from the United States, when the French nuclear program was initiated. Since then, there has been continuous progress in knowledge and in collecting experimental results thanks to the experiments carried out by utilities and research institutes, to the operating experience, as well as to the generic R and D programs, which aim notably at improving computation methodologies, especially in Reactivity-Initiated accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident conditions. In this context, the French utility EDF proposed new fuel safety criteria, or reviewed and completed existing safety demonstration covering the normal operating, incidental and accidental conditions of Pressurised Water Reactors. IRSN assessed EDF's proposals and presented its conclusions to the Advisory Committee for Reactors Safety of the Nuclear Safety Authority in June 2017. This review focused on the relevance of historical limit values or parameters of fuel safety criteria and their adequacy with the state-of-the-art concerning fuel physical phenomena (e.g. Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction in incidental conditions, clad embrittlement due to high temperature oxidation in accidental conditions, clad ballooning and burst during boiling crisis and fuel melting).

  5. Review of fuel safety criteria in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, Sandrine; Graff, Stephanie; Foucher-Taisne, Aude; Dubois, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Fuel safety criteria for the first barrier, based on state-of-the-art at the time, were first defined in the 1970s and came from the United States, when the French nuclear program was initiated. Since then, there has been continuous progress in knowledge and in collecting experimental results thanks to the experiments carried out by utilities and research institutes, to the operating experience, as well as to the generic R and D programs, which aim notably at improving computation methodologies, especially in Reactivity-Initiated accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident conditions. In this context, the French utility EDF proposed new fuel safety criteria, or reviewed and completed existing safety demonstration covering the normal operating, incidental and accidental conditions of Pressurised Water Reactors. IRSN assessed EDF's proposals and presented its conclusions to the Advisory Committee for Reactors Safety of the Nuclear Safety Authority in June 2017. This review focused on the relevance of historical limit values or parameters of fuel safety criteria and their adequacy with the state-of-the-art concerning fuel physical phenomena (e.g. Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction in incidental conditions, clad embrittlement due to high temperature oxidation in accidental conditions, clad ballooning and burst during boiling crisis and fuel melting).

  6. Development of web-based safety review advisory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Lee, H. C.; Park, S. O.; Lee, K. H.; Hur, K. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, S. S.; Kang, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they are investigated by KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety). The Safety Review Advisory System(SRAS), this application on web-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviews can do their safety reviewing regardless of their speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into four groups, administrator, project manager, project reviewer and general reviewer. Each user group is delegated appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described

  7. Development of safety review advisory system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Lee, H. C.; Park, S. O.; Park, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Hur, K. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Lee, S. J.; Kang, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application program was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they were investigated by the safety review experts at KINS. Safety Review Advisory System (SRAS), the windows application on client-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviewers can do their safety reviewing regardless of speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into three groups, administrator, project manager, and reviewer. Each user group has appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described in this paper

  8. Comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report presents a comprehensive review of the maritime safety regimes and provides recommendations on how to improve the system. The results show a complex legal framework which generates a high amount of inspections and overlapping of inspection areas where no cross-recognition is

  9. REVIEW OF SAFETY AND TOLERANCE OF OMALIZUMAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Emel'yanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of safety of monoclonal anti-ige-antibodies (xolair — a new medication for the treatment of severe allergic bronchial asthma is presented. Local and system adverse events, originating after injection of medicament in clinical studies and following administration in patients are discussed.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, monoclonal anti Ige antibodies.

  10. Review on JMTR safety design for LEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Makoto; Saruta, Toru; Inada, Seiji; Sakurai, Fumio; Yamamoto, Katsumune; Oyamada, Rokuro; Saito, Minoru

    1993-12-01

    Safety of the JMTR was fully reviewed for the core conversion to low enriched uranium fuel. Fundamental policies for the JMTR safety design were reconsidered based on the examination guide for safety design of test and research reactors, and safety of the JMTR was confirmed. This report describes the safety design of the JMTR from the viewpoint of major functions for reactor safety. (author)

  11. Periodic safety review of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. Review of the activity for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yukimoto; Kashimura, Youichi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Isozaki, Kazunori; Hoshiba, Hideaki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sekine, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    Periodic safety review (Review of the activity for safety) which consisted of 'Comprehensive evaluation of operation experience' and Incorporation of the latest technical knowledge' was carried out up to January 2005. 1. Comprehensive evaluation of operation experience. It was confirmed that the effectual activities for safety through the operation of JOYO were carried out in terms of (1) Operation management, (2) Maintenance management, (3) Fuel management, (4) Radiation management, (5) Radioactive waste management, (6) Emergency planning and (7) Feedback of incidents and failures. 2. Reflection of the latest technical knowledge. It was confirmed that the latest technical knowledge including regulation and guide line established by Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan until March 31st. 2003 were properly reflected in impressing the safety of the reactor. As a result, it was evaluated that the activity for safety was carried out effectually, and no additional measure was identified continual safe operation of the reactor. (author)

  12. Safety Review Services, Site Review Services and IRRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The selection and the evaluation of the site for a nuclear power plant are crucial parts of establishing a nuclear power programme and can be significantly affected by costs, public acceptance and safety considerations. Siting is the process of selecting a suitable site for a facility. This is area containing the plant, defined by a boundary and under effective control of the Plant Management. For safety related issues comparison within topics is generally quite straightforward. For example, sites with relatively higher seismic hazard would be penalized in comparison with those in more stable areas. The site for the NPP is generally chosen at a relatively ‘aseismic’ part of the country. This generally means that well known seismogenic sources are more than at least 50 kms from the site. The proposed sites for nuclear installations shall be examined with respect to the frequency and the severity of natural and human induced events and phenomena that could affect the safety of the installation. The Events unconnected with the operation of a facility or activity which could have an effect on the safety of the facility or activity. The relationship between the site and the design for the nuclear installation shall be examined to ensure that the radiological risk to the public and the environment arising from releases defined by the source terms is acceptably low. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority should issue a document that sets out the technical safety and security criteria against which the Site Permit Application for a new NPP will be reviewed. The objective of the Site Safety Review Services (SSRS) is provided upon request from a Member State. An independent review and assessment of the site and nuclear installation safety in relation to external natural and man induced hazards. This is to make recommendations on additional analysis or plant modifications to be carried out in order to comply with the IAEA Safety Standards and to enhance safety

  13. Review of commonly used remote sensing and ground-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of the use of remote sensing data, the development of spectral reflectance indices for detecting plant water stress, and the usefulness of field measurements for ground-truthing purposes. Reliable measurements of plant water stress over large areas are often required for management ...

  14. Development of web-based safety review advisory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Hur, K. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    For the development of an expert system supporting the safety review of nuclear power plants, the application was implemented after gathering necessary theoretical background and practical requirements. The general and the detail functional specifications were established, and they are investigated by KINS. Safety Review Advisory System (SRAS), this application on web-server environment was developed according to the above specifications. Reviews can do their safety reviewing regardless of their speciality or reviewing experiences because SRAS is operated by the safety review plans which are converted to standardized format. When the safety reviewing is carried out by using SRAS, the results of safety reviewing are accumulated in the database and may be utilized later usefully, and we can grasp safety reviewing progress. Users of SRAS are categorized into four groups, administrator, project manager, project reviewer and general reviewer. Each user group is delegated appropriate access capability. The function and some screen shots of SRAS are described

  15. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  16. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    the various stakeholders effectively and efficiently. Related to this is the need for operators, users and regulatory bodies to communicate with the public effectively and in an open and transparent manner. The global nature of safety is reflected in the relevant international instruments, including conventions and codes of conduct, currently in place. All the international conventions related to safety welcomed additional contracting parties in 2006. During the year, the second review meeting took place for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The newly established Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) is contributing to the enhancement of Member States' legislative and regulatory infrastructure and the harmonization of regulatory approaches in nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. It is also one of the most effective feedback tools on the application of Agency standards that will be used for the further improvement of existing standards and guidance. In addition, the approach evaluates not only the policies and strategies, but also how efficient and effective they are regarding protection against all types of exposure. Therefore it is also a tool for information sharing and mutual learning on good policies and practices that can be used to reach harmonization step by step. Overall, the safety performance of the nuclear industry is good. However, there continue to be recurring events and there is a need to maintain vigilance. There is also a need for lessons learned to be transferred across the various sectors of the nuclear industry. Strong safety management and safety culture are vitally important for the continuation of this good performance. Leaders must ensure that personnel are properly trained and that adequate resources are available. The nuclear power industry around the world remains a safe and sound one with no worker or member of the public receiving a

  17. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, the 50th anniversary year of the Agency, the safety performance of the nuclear industry, on the whole, remained high, although incidents and accidents with no significant impact on public health and safety continue to make news headlines and challenge operators and regulators. It is therefore essential to maintain vigilance, continuously improve safety culture and enhance the international sharing and utilization of operating and other safety experience, including that resulting from natural events. The establishment and sustainability of infrastructures for all aspects of nuclear, radiation, transport and waste safety will remain a high priority. Member States embarking on nuclear power programmes will need to be active participants in the global nuclear safety regime. Harmonized safety standards, the peer review mechanism among contracting parties of the safety conventions, and sharing safety knowledge and best practices through networking are key elements for the continuous strengthening of the global nuclear safety regime. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of the regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance by providing the technical and scientific basis for safety related decisions and activities. There is a need for enhanced interaction and cooperation between TSOs. Academic and industrial expert communities also play a vital role in improving safety cooperation and capacity building. Countries embarking on nuclear power programmes, as well as countries expanding existing programmes, have to meet the challenge of building a technically qualified workforce. A vigorous knowledge transfer programme is key to capacity building - particularly in view of the ageing of experienced professionals in the nuclear field. National and regional safety networks, and ultimately a global safety network will greatly help these efforts. Changes in world markets and technology are having an impact on both

  18. Nuclear safety review requirements for launch approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Winchester, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Use of nuclear power systems in space requires approval which is preceded by extensive safety analysis and review. This careful study allows an informed risk-benefit decision at the highest level of our government. This paper describes the process as it has historically been applied to U.S. isotopic power systems. The Ulysses mission, launched in October 1990, is used to illustrate the process. Expected variations to deal with reactor-power systems are explained

  19. Reactor safety review of permanent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operational compliance engineers review all changes as part of a change control process. Each change, permanent or temporary, is required to undergo an intricate review process to ensure that the benefits associated with the change outweigh the risk. For permanent changes, it is necessary to ensure that the proposed design meets the nuclear safety requirements, conforms to the licensing requirements and complies with regulatory requirements. In addition, during installation of the permanent change and prior to in-service, a configuration management process is in place to align the change with operating and maintenance documents. (author)

  20. Immunization safety review: influenza vaccines and neurological complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen R

    ..., unlike other vaccines. The Immunization Safety Review committee reviewed the data on influenza vaccine and neurological conditions and concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship...

  1. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear technologies are increasingly seen as important solutions for meeting a number of challenges. Enabling the peaceful use of nuclear technology to support global energy demands and other human needs must be accompanied by deliberate, internationally-coordinated actions to minimize the potential for nuclear accidents and terrorism. While in recent years, the safety performance of the nuclear industry has been good, it is important to avoid any complacency. The Agency continues to support and promote the global nuclear safety and security regime as a framework for worldwide achievement of high levels of safety and security in nuclear activities. In 2008, three general themes can be observed from the global trends, issues and challenges in nuclear safety: the continuous improvements in strengthening safety worldwide through international cooperation; an expected increase of new entrant nuclear power programmes and the expansion of existing programmes; and safety and security synergy. Regarding continuous improvements to strengthen safety worldwide, the focus was on operating experience feedback and knowledge networking; and self-assessment and peer review. In the areas of new entrant nuclear programmes and expansion of existing nuclear programmes, activities centred on national safety infrastructures; human resources and capacity building; regulatory independence; nuclear incident and emergency preparedness and response; spent fuel and radioactive waste management; and multinational aspects of nuclear activities. In the area of safety and security synergy, in 2008 there was increasing awareness that processes need to be in place to ensure that safety activities do not compromise security and vice versa. As outlined in Safety Fundamentals No. SF-1, the prime responsibility for safety must rest with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. An effective legal and governmental framework for safety

  2. New French basic safety rule on seismic input ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forner, Sophie; Boulaigue, Yves

    2002-01-01

    French regulatory practice requires that the main safety functions of a land-based major nuclear facility, in particular in accordance with its specific characteristics, safe shutdown, cooling and containment of radioactive substances, be assured during and/or after earthquake events that can plausibly occur at the site where the installation is located. This rule specifies an acceptable method for determining the seismic motion to be taken into account when designing a facility to address the seismic risk. In regions where deformation factors are low, such as in metropolitan France, the intervals between strong earthquakes are long and it can be difficult to associate some earthquakes with known faults. In addition, despite substantial progress in recent years, it is difficult, given the French seismotectonic situation, to identify potentially seismogenic faults and determine the characteristics of the earthquakes that are liable to occur. Therefore, the approach proposed in this Basic Safety Rule is intended to avoid this difficulty by allowing for all direct and indirect influences that can play a role in the occurrence of earthquakes, as well as all seismic knowledge. Furthermore, as concerns calculation of seismic motion, the low number of records of strong motion in metropolitan France makes it necessary to use data from other regions of the world

  3. New food safety law: effectiveness on the ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Christa A; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2015-01-01

    The demand for safety in the US food supply from production to consumption necessitates a scientific, risk-based strategy for the management of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in food. The key to successful management is an increase in systematic collaboration and communication and in enforceable procedures with all domestic and international stakeholders. The enactment of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to prevent or reduce large-scale food-borne illness outbreaks through stricter facility registration and records standards, mandatory prevention-based controls, increased facility inspections in the United States and internationally, mandatory recall authority, import controls, and increased consumer communication. The bill provisions are expected to cost $1.4 billion over the next four years. Effective implementation of the FSMA's 50 rules, reports, studies, and guidance documents in addition to an increased inspection burden requires further funding appropriations. Additional full-time inspectors and unprecedented foreign compliance is necessary for the full and effective implementation of the FSMA.

  4. Safety assessment for the above ground storage of Cadmium Safety and Control Rods at the Solid Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Site is changing from radioisotope production to waste management and environmental restoration. As such, Reactor Engineering has recently developed a plan to transfer the safety and control rods from the C, K, L, and P reactor disassembly basin areas to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads for long-term, retrievable storage. The TRU pads are located within the Solid Waste Management Facilities at the Savannah River Site. An Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Safety Evaluation has been performed for the proposed disassembly basin operations phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project. The USQ screening identified a required change to the authorization basis; however, the Proposed Activity does not involve a positive USQ Safety Evaluation. A Hazard Assessment for the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project determined that the above-ground storage of the cadmium rods results in no change in hazard level at the TRU pads. A Safety Assessment that specifically addresses the storage (at the TRU pads) phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project has been performed. Results of the Safety Assessment support the conclusion that a positive USQ is not involved as a result of the Proposed Activity

  5. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  6. ESRS guidelines for software safety reviews. Reference document for the organization and conduct of Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS) on software important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA provides safety review services to assist Member States in the application of safety standards and, in particular, to evaluate and facilitate improvements in nuclear power plant safety performance. Complementary to the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) and the International Regulatory Review Team (IRRT) services are the Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS), which include reviews of siting, external events and structural safety, design safety, fire safety, ageing management and software safety. Software is of increasing importance to safety in nuclear power plants as the use of computer based equipment and systems, controlled by software, is increasing in new and older plants. Computer based devices are used in both safety related applications (such as process control and monitoring) and safety critical applications (such as reactor protection). Their dependability can only be ensured if a systematic, fully documented and reviewable engineering process is used. The ESRS on software safety are designed to assist a nuclear power plant or a regulatory body of a Member State in the review of documentation relating to the development, application and safety assessment of software embedded in computer based systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. The software safety reviews can be tailored to the specific needs of the requesting organization. Examples of such reviews are: project planning reviews, reviews of specific issues and reviews prior final acceptance. This report gives information on the possible scope of ESRS software safety reviews and guidance on the organization and conduct of the reviews. It is aimed at Member States considering these reviews and IAEA staff and external experts performing the reviews. The ESRS software safety reviews evaluate the degree to which software documents show that the development process and the final product conform to international standards, guidelines and current practices. Recommendations are

  7. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-05-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage rates are lower than expected. Vaccine safety represents one of the main concerns associated with the lack of acceptance of HPV vaccination both in the European Union/European Economic Area and elsewhere. Safety data published on bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines, both in pre-licensure and post-licensure phase, are reviewed. Based on the latest scientific evidence, both HPV vaccines seem to be safe. Nevertheless, public concern and rumors about adverse events (AE) represent an important barrier to overcome in order to increase vaccine coverage. Passive surveillance of AEs is an important tool for detecting safety signals, but it should be complemented by activities aimed at assessing the real cause of all suspect AEs. Improved vaccine safety surveillance is the first step for effective communication based on scientific evidence.

  8. Plant safety review from mass criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    The review has been done to understand the resent status of the plant in facing postulated mass criticality accident. From the design concept of the plant all the components in the system including functional groups have been designed based on favorable mass/geometry safety principle. The criticality safety for each component is guaranteed because all the dimensions relevant to criticality of the components are smaller than dimensions of 'favorable mass/geometry'. The procedures covering all aspects affecting quality including the safety related are developed and adhered to at all times. Staff are indoctrinated periodically in short training session to warn the important of the safety in process of production. The plant is fully equipped with 6 (six) criticality detectors in strategic places to alert employees whenever the postulated mass criticality accident occur. In the event of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, PT BATAN TEKNOLOGI has also proposed the organization structure how promptly to report the crisis to Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) Indonesia. (author)

  9. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Agency and its Director General were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee statement recognizes the Agency's 'efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.' The global nature of safety is reflected in the relevant international legal instruments, both binding conventions and the non-binding codes of conduct currently in place. During the year, the third review meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety as well as the third meeting of the representatives of the competent authorities under the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency took place. Improvements have been made in national legislation and regulatory infrastructure in many Member States in 2005. However, inadequate safety management and regulatory supervision of nuclear installations and use of ionizing radiation is a continuing issue in many Member States. A continuing challenge is to collect, analyse and disseminate safety experience and knowledge. Nuclear power plant (NPP) operational safety performance remained high throughout the world in 2005. Radiation doses to workers and members of the public due to NPP operation are well below regulatory limits. Personal injury accidents and incidents are among the lowest in industry. There were no accidents that resulted in the release of radiation that could adversely impact the environment. NPPs in many parts of the world have successfully coped with severe natural disaster conditions such as earthquakes, tsunamis, widespread river flooding and hurricanes. However, operational safety performance has been on a plateau for several years and concern has been expressed in many forums regarding the need to guard against complacency in the industry. Research reactors also maintained a good

  10. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    The Agency, as a leading organization for promoting international cooperation among its Member States, is in a unique position to observe global trends, issues and challenges in nuclear safety and security through a wide variety of activities related to the establishment of safety standards and security guidelines and their application. The contents of this Nuclear Safety Review reflect the emerging nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges for 2010, as well as recapitulate the Agency's activities intended to further strengthen the global nuclear safety and security framework in all areas of nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, caused by the extraordinary disasters of the earthquake and tsunamis that struck Japan on 11 March 2011, continues to be assessed. As this report focuses on developments in 2010, the accident and its implications are not addressed here, but will be addressed in future reports of the Agency. The international nuclear community maintained a high level of safety performance in 2010. Nuclear power plant safety performance remained high, and indicated an improved trend in the number of emergency shutdowns as well in the level of energy available during these shutdowns. In addition, more States explored or expanded their interests in nuclear power programmes, and more faced the challenge of establishing the required regulatory infrastructure, regulatory supervision and safety management over nuclear installations and the use of ionizing radiation. Issues surrounding radiation protection and radioecology continued as trends in 2010. For example, increased public awareness of exposure to and environmental impacts of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) as well as nuclear legacy sites has led to increased public concern. In addition, human resources in radiation protection and radioecology have been lost as a result of retirement and of the migration of experts to

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  13. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  14. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    . A growing number of Member States are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes for the first time. Several countries have also embarked on ambitious plans for expanding their current programmes. The Agency's latest projections for the future of nuclear power by 2030 are higher than they were last year. Emerging international cooperative efforts in support of new and expanding nuclear power programmes have focused on many key issues. Such issues include gaps in national safety infrastructures, safety and security synergy and integration, and safety responsibilities and capacities for the various participants in a nuclear power programme, which include operators, regulators, government, suppliers, technical support organizations and relevant international organizations. Continued focus on cooperation for new and expanding nuclear power programmes is underscored by the fact that in some cases plans for nuclear programme development are moving faster than the establishment of the necessary safety infrastructure and capacity. Therefore, it is important that those countries of new and expanding nuclear power programmes actively participate in the global nuclear safety and security regime. As a result of the increasingly multinational nature of today's nuclear business and activities and associated technical and economic benefits, suppliers, operators, regulators and experts communities are making significant efforts towards the standardization and harmonization of equipment, components, methods and processes. As an example, the adoption by the European Union of a nuclear towards a harmonized approach to sustainable nuclear safety infrastructure worldwide. Similarly, international cooperation through conventions and codes of conduct, including associated peer review mechanisms, also provide for harmonized approaches to safety. Establishing and maintaining a regulatory body which is effectively independent in its decision making

  15. A systematic review of grounded theory studies in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nancy; May, Stephen; Grafton, Kate

    2018-05-23

    This systematic review aimed at appraising the methodological rigor of grounded theory research published in the field of physiotherapy to assess how the methodology is understood and applied. A secondary aim was to provide research implications drawn from the findings to guide future grounded theory methodology (GTM) research. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINHAL, SPORT Discus, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify studies in the field of physiotherapy that reported using GTM and/or methods in the study title and/or abstract. The descriptive characteristics and methodological quality of eligible studies were examined using grounded theory methodology assessment guidelines. The review included 68 studies conducted between 1998 and 2017. The findings showed that GTM is becoming increasingly used by physiotherapy researchers. Thirty-six studies (53%) demonstrated a good understanding and appropriate application of GTM. Thirty-two studies (47%) presented descriptive findings and were considered to be of poor methodological quality. There are several key tenets of GTM that are integral to the iterative process of qualitative theorizing and need to be applied throughout all research practices including sampling, data collection, and analysis.

  16. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The contents of this Nuclear Safety Review reflect the emerging nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges for 2010, as well as recapitulate the Agency's activities intended to further strengthen the global nuclear safety and security framework in all areas of nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. Nuclear power plant safety performance remained high, and indicated an improved trend in the number of emergency shutdowns as well in the level of energy available during these shutdowns. In addition, more States explored or expanded their interests in nuclear power programmes, and more faced the challenge of establishing the required regulatory infrastructure, regulatory supervision and safety management over nuclear installations and the use of ionizing radiation. Issues surrounding radiation protection and radioecology continued as trends in 2010. For example, increased public awareness of exposure to and environmental impacts of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) as well as nuclear legacy sites has led to increased public concern. In addition, human resources in radiation protection and radioecology have been lost as a result of retirement and of the migration of experts to other fields. It is clear that safety continues to be a work in progress. The global nuclear power industry continued to require substantial efforts by designers, manufacturers, operators, regulators and other stakeholders to satisfy diverse quality and safety requirements and licensing processes, along with the recognized need in industry and among regulators to standardize and harmonize these requirements and processes. In some cases, plans for nuclear power programme development moved faster than the establishment of the necessary regulatory and safety infrastructure and capacity. To assist Member States in this effort, the Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) was formed in June 2010. The RCF is a regulator-to-regulator forum that optimizes regulatory support from Member

  17. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  18. Development of Safety Review Guidance for Research and Training Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kju-Myeng; Shin, Dae-Soo; Ahn, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Hoon-Joo

    2007-01-01

    The KINS already issued the safety review guidance for pressurized LWRs. But the safety review guidance for research and training reactors were not developed. So, the technical standard including safety review guidance for domestic research and training reactors has been applied mutates mutandis to those of nuclear power plants. It is often difficult for the staff to effectively perform the safety review of applications for the permit by the licensee, based on peculiar safety review guidance. The NRC and NSC provide the safety review guidance for test and research reactors and European countries refer to IAEA safety requirements and guides. The safety review guide (SRG) of research and training reactors was developed considering descriptions of the NUREG- 1537 Part 2, previous experiences of safety review and domestic regulations for related facilities. This study provided the safety review guidance for research and training reactors and surveyed the difference of major acceptance criteria or characteristics between the SRG of pressurized light water reactor and research and training reactors

  19. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  20. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal - Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen; Gable, Alicia; McCormick, Marie C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the Immunization Safety Review committee examines the hypothesis of whether or not the use of vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal can cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs...

  1. The policies and practices of sports governing bodies in relation to assessing the safety of sports grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Peter; Otago, Leonie; Finch, Caroline F; Payne, Warren R

    2009-01-01

    Sport is an important context for physical activity and it is critical that safe environments are provided for such activity. Sports safety is influenced by the presence of sports ground environmental hazards such as ground hardness, poorly maintained playing fields, surface irregularities and the presence of debris/rubbish. To reduce injury risk, sports governing bodies need to ensure regular assessment of grounds safety and the removal of identified hazards. This study describes sports ground safety guidelines and recommendations of a sample of sports governing bodies and provides recommendations for how they could be improved. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with nominees of state governing bodies for Australian football, cricket, soccer and hockey. The use of matchday checklists to identify ground hazards, as mandated by insurance companies was widely promoted across all levels of play. Sports governing bodies had more direct involvement in assessing grounds used for higher level of play, than grounds used for community or junior sport. There was a general presumption that identified hazards on community grounds would be corrected by local councils or clubs before anyone played on them, but this was rarely monitored. Sports governing bodies run the risk of being negligent in their duty of care to sports participants if they do not formally monitor the implementation of their ground safety polices and guidelines. There is also further scope for sports bodies to work closely with insurers to develop ground safety assessment guidelines specific to their sport.

  2. Domestic Regulation for Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daesik; Ahn, Seunghoon; Auh, Geunsun; Lee, Jonghyeok

    2015-01-01

    The so-called Periodic Safety Review (PSR) has been carried out such safety assessment throughout its life, on a periodic basis. In January 2001, the Atomic Energy Act and related regulations were amended to adopt the PSR institutional scheme from IAEA Nuclear Safety Guide 50-SG-O12. At that time the safety assessment was made to review the plant safety on 10 safety factors, such as aging management and emergency planning, where the safety factor indicates the important aspects of safety of an operating NPP to be addressed in the PSR. According to this legislation, the domestic utility, the KHNP has conducted the PSR for the operating NPP of 10 years coming up from operating license date, starting since May 2000. Some revisions in the PSR rule were made to include the additional safety factors last year. This paper introduces the current status of the PSR review and regulation, in particular new safety factors and updated technical regulation. Comprehensive safety assessment for Korea Nuclear Power Plants have performed a reflecting design and procedure changes and considering the latest technology every 10 years. This paper also examined the PSR system changes in Korea. As of July 2015, reviews for PSR of 18 units have been completed, with 229 nuclear safety improvement items. And implementation have been completed for 165 of them. PSR system has been confirmed that it has contributed to improvement of plant safety. In addition, this paper examined the PSR system change in Korea

  3. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1615] Review of Gun Safety...'s Plan to reduce gun violence released on January 16, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report on the availability and use of those...

  4. NRU licence extension via integrated safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantifel, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The National Research Reactor, NRU at AECL Chalk River Laboratories achieved first criticality in November 1957. The completion of an Integrated Safety Review (ISR) in 2011, and subsequent Global Assessment Report (GAR), and Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) has given confidence in the safe and reliable operation of NRU, therefore extending the licensing case to safely and reliably operate NRU until 2021 and beyond (64+ years of operation). The key vehicle to achieve this confidence is the IIP, that resulted from the ISR. NRU's IIP is a 10 year plan that addresses the gaps identified in the ISR between modern codes and standards in a prioritized approach. AECL is currently in year 3 of the IIP execution, is on or ahead of schedule to complete the identified improvements. The IIP in conjunction with a License Condition Handbook has replaced the licensing protocol with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, (CNSC). Execution of the IIP to plan supports the continued safe operation of NRU. The ISR was carried out with the recognition that the NRU reactor is a research and isotope producing reactor approaching license renewal and not a power reactor undergoing refurbishment and life extension. Therefore, the IIP is being executed while NRU continues to deliver on its three missions: production of medical isotopes, support for fuels and materials research, and serving as a high flux neutron source in support of research relying on neutron scattering. The IIP is grouped into 5 Global Issue Groups, (GIGs) to support focused execution. The activities and tasks within the five GIGs are being executed via a matrix organization through the use of the Chalk River Laboratories Corrective Action Program to ensure the assignment of actions, completion and evidence to support closure is documented and retained. This paper discusses the approach taken by AECL to license and ensure safe, reliable operation of NRU until 2021 and beyond. (author)

  5. Review of Public Safety in Viewpoint of Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai Chengcheng; Weng Wenguo; Yuan Hongyong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a brief review of public safety in viewpoint of complex networks is presented. Public safety incidents are divided into four categories: natural disasters, industry accidents, public health and social security, in which the complex network approaches and theories are need. We review how the complex network methods was developed and used in the studies of the three kinds of public safety incidents. The typical public safety incidents studied by the complex network methods in this paper are introduced, including the natural disaster chains, blackouts on electric power grids and epidemic spreading. Finally, we look ahead to the application prospects of the complex network theory on public safety.

  6. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  7. Critical review of safety performance metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    Various tools for safety performance measurement have been introduced in order to fulfil the need for safety monitoring in organisations, which is tightly related to their overall performance and achievement of their business goals. Such tools include accident rates, benchmarking, safety culture and

  8. Preclosure radiological safety assessment for the ground support system in the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Tsai, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    An initial probabilistic safety assessment was performed for the exploratory studies facility underground opening to determine whether the ground support system should be classified as an item important to safety. The initiating event was taken to be a rock fall in an operational facility impacting a loaded waste transporter. Rock fall probability rates were estimated from data reported by commercial mining operations. This information was retrieved from the data base compiled by the Mining Safety and Health Administration from the mandatory reporting of incidents. The statistical distribution of the rock fall magnitude was estimated from the horizontal and vertical spacing fractures measured at the Yucca Mountain repository horizon. Simple models were developed to estimate container deformation and radionuclide releases arising from the projected distribution of impacts. Accepted techniques were used to calculate atmospheric dispersion and obtain the committed dose to individuals

  9. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2008-03-01

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  10. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  11. IRSN safety research carried out for reviewing safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Christophe Serres from IRSN (France) described the independent role of the IRSN regarding research related to nuclear safety in the context of the French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 foreseeing a licence application to be submitted in 2015 for the creation of a deep geological repository. IRSN research programme is organised along research activities devoted to addressing independently-identified k ey safety issues . These 'key issues' should also be of prime concern for the implementer since they relate to the demonstration of the overall safety of the repository, and the level of funding that the implementer should afford to research activities of concern for safety. He explained that the quality and independency of the research programme carried out by IRSN allow building and improving a set of scientific knowledge and technical skills that serves the public mission of delivering technical appraisal and advice, e.g., on behalf of the national safety authority. In particular they contribute to improving the decisional process by making possible scientific dialogue with stakeholders independently from regulator or implementer. The current IRSN R and D programme is developed along the following lines: - Test the adequacy of experimental methods for which feedback is not sufficient. - Develop basic scientific knowledge in the fields where there is a need for better understanding of complex phenomena and interactions. - Develop and use numerical modelling tools to support studies on complex phenomena and interactions. - Perform specific experimental tests aiming at assessing the key parameters that may warrant the performances of the different components of the repository. These studies are carried out by means of experiments performed either at IRSN surface laboratories, or in the Tournemire Experimental Station (TES), an underground facility operated by IRSN in the south-east of France. Targeted actions on research related to operational safety and reversibility

  12. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable

  13. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  14. US nuclear safety. Review and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauer, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the evolution of reactor safety principles, design bases, regulatory requirements, and experience in the United States. Safety concerns have evolved over the years, from reactivity transients and shut-down systems, to blowdowns and containment, to severe design basis accidents and mitigating systems, to the performance of actual materials, systems and humans. The primary safety concerns of one epoch have been superseded in considerable measure by those of later times. Successive plateaus of technical understanding are achieved by solutions being found to earlier problems. Design studies, research, operating experience and regulatory imperatives all contribute to the increased understanding and thus to the safety improvements adopted and accepted. The improvement of safety with time, and the ability of existing reactors to operate safely in the face of new concerns, has confirmed the correctness and usefulness of the defence-in-depth approach and safety margins used in safety design in the United States of America. A regulatory programme such as the one in the United States justifies its great cost by its important contributions to safety. Yet only the designers, constructors and operators of nuclear power plants can actually achieve public safety. The regulatory programme audits, assesses and spot-checks the actual work. Since neither materials nor human beings are flawless, mistakes will be made; that is why defence-in-depth and safety margins are provided. The regulatory programme should enhance safety by decreasing the frequency of uncorrected mistakes. Maintenance of public safety also requires technical and managerial competence and attention in the organizations responsible for nuclear plants as well as regulatory organizations. (author)

  15. Safety Review Committee - Annual Report 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During the year under review. The Safety Review Committee (SRC) assessed the safety of ANSTO's operations. This was done by site visits, examination of documentation and briefing by ANSTO officers responsible for particular operations, and includes HIFAR and Moata reactors, radioisotope production, packing and dispatch, radioactive waste management practices, occupational health and safety activities and ANSTO's arrangements for public health and safety beyond the site. This report describes the activities and findings of the SRC during the year ending 30 June 1992. 8 figs., ills

  16. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  17. On some aspects of nuclear safety surveillance and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ganjie; Zhu Hong; Zhou Shanyuan

    2004-01-01

    Five aspects of the nuclear safety surveillance and review are discussed: Strict implementation of nuclear safety regulation, making the nuclear safety surveillance and review more normalization, procedurization, scientific decision-making; Strictly requiring the applicant to comply with the requirements of codes, do not allowing the utilization of mixing of codes; Properly controlling the strictness for the review on significant non-conformance; Strengthening the co-operation between regional offices and technical support units, Properly treat the relations between administrational management unit and technical support units. (authors)

  18. EXPLORATORY STUDY OF OBSTACLES IN SAFETY CULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the obstacles that prevent the development of a safety culture in Thailand’s large construction industry from various managerial points of view. Qualitative research methods were used by performing a series of semi-structured interviews of eight case studies selected from six prominent construction firms to investigate the obstacles they face. Glaser’s keyword coding from Grounded Theory was used to reduce the information load after the interviews. Our findings revealed that the factors influencing the successful development of a safety culture in the construction industry are the workers, the characteristics of construction, the subcontractors, the supervisors, and external factors. Based on the frequency analysis, the main obstacles in developing a safety culture result from problems related to the workers themselves. The three most frequently discussed problems are unskilled workers, unsafe worker habits, and high worker turnover. Our results also suggest that managers should encourage engagement from their workers to optimise the successful implementation of safety programs and their long-term improvement.

  19. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  20. Detailed Safety Review of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    To date, 18 human studies have assessed the safety of anthrax vaccination. These studies, some stretching back almost 50 years, reported adverse events after vaccination in varying degrees of detail...

  1. Patient safety in otolaryngology: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Julian; Muzaffar, Jameel; Metcalfe, Chris; Coulson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Human evaluation and judgement may include errors that can have disastrous results. Within medicine and healthcare there has been slow progress towards major changes in safety. Healthcare lags behind other specialised industries, such as aviation and nuclear power, where there have been significant improvements in overall safety, especially in reducing risk of errors. Following several high profile cases in the USA during the 1990s, a report titled "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System" was published. The report extrapolated that in the USA approximately 50,000 to 100,000 patients may die each year as a result of medical errors. Traditionally otolaryngology has always been regarded as a "safe specialty". A study in the USA in 2004 inferred that there may be 2600 cases of major morbidity and 165 deaths within the specialty. MEDLINE via PubMed interface was searched for English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Each combined two or three of the keywords noted earlier. Limitations are related to several generic topics within patient safety in otolaryngology. Other areas covered have been current relevant topics due to recent interest or new advances in technology. There has been a heightened awareness within the healthcare community of patient safety; it has become a major priority. Focus has shifted from apportioning blame to prevention of the errors and implementation of patient safety mechanisms in healthcare delivery. Type of Errors can be divided into errors due to action and errors due to knowledge or planning. In healthcare there are several factors that may influence adverse events and patient safety. Although technology may improve patient safety, it also introduces new sources of error. The ability to work with people allows for the increase in safety netting. Team working has been shown to have a beneficial effect on patient safety. Any field of work involving human decision-making will always have a risk of error. Within

  2. A review of the nuclear safety activities in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merelli, A.

    1989-01-01

    A review of research programs carried out in Italy in the field of nuclear reactor safety was done in 1986, in the frame of the activities of the Commission of the European Communities, the International Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The report contains information on these programs, as well as information on the organization of safety research in Italy and the evolution of safety research programs

  3. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  4. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    In the nuclear area, challenges continue to emerge from the globalization of issues related to safety, technology, business, information, communication and security. Scientific advances and operational experience in nuclear, radiation, waste and transport technology are providing new opportunities to continuously improve safety and security by utilizing synergies between safety and security. The prime responsibility for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety rests with users and national governments. The Agency continues to support a Global Nuclear Safety Regime based on strong national safety infrastructures and widespread subscription to international legal instruments to maintain high levels of safety worldwide. Central to the Agency's role are the establishment of international safety standards and the provision for applying these standards, as well as the promotion of sharing information through managing the knowledge base. Nuclear power plant operational safety performance remains high throughout the world. Challenges facing the nuclear power industry include avoiding complacency, maintaining the necessary infrastructure, nuclear power plant ageing and long-term operation, as well as new reactor designs and construction. The research reactor community has a long history of safe operation. However nearly two-thirds of the world's operating research reactors are now over 30 years old and face safety and security challenges. In 2004, the Board of Governors approved the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors to help address these challenges. In 2004, there was international consensus on radionuclide activity concentrations in materials below which regulatory controls need not apply. Key occupational radiation protection performance indicators continued to improve in 2004. Challenges include new medical practices where workers can receive high exposures, industrial radiography and worker exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material. New

  6. Patient Safety and Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Noreen M; Colbert, Alison M

    Workplace bullying is strongly associated with negative nursing outcomes, such as work dissatisfaction, turnover, and intent to leave; however, results of studies examining associations with specific patient safety outcomes are limited or nonspecific. This integrative review explores and synthesizes the published articles that address the impact of workplace nurse bullying on patient safety.

  7. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Safety review and approval process for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.; Howe, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has undergone an extensive safety and enviromental analysis involving Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ebasco/Grumman Industrial Subcontractor Team, and other organizations. This analysis, which is continuing during the TFTR operational phase, has been facilitated by the preparation, review and approval of several documents, including an Environmental Statement (Draft and Final), a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Operations Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Safety Requirements (SRs), and various Operating and Maintenance Manuals. Through TFTR Safety Group participation in formal system design evaluations, change control boards, and reviews of project procurement and installation documentation, the TFTR Management Configuration Control System assures that all aspects of the project, including proposed design, installation and operational changes, receive prompt and thorough safety analyses. These efforts will continue as the TFTR Program moves into the neutral beam and D-T operational phases. The safety review and approval experience that has been acquired on the TFTR Project should serve as a foundation for similar efforts on future fusion devices

  11. Safety review of experiments at Albuquerque Operations Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, K.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office is responsible for the safety overview of nuclear reactor and critical assembly facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Rocky Flats Plant. The important safety concerns with these facilities involve the complex experiments that are performed, and that is the area emphasized. A determination is made by the Albuquerque Office (AL) with assistance from DOE/OMA whether or not a proposed experiment is an unreviewed safety question. Meetings are held with the contractor to resolve and clarify questions that are generated during the review of the proposed experiment. The AL safety evaluation report is completed and any recommendations are discussed. Prior to the experiment a preoperational appraisal is performed to assure that personnel, procedures, and equipment are in readiness for operations. During the experiment, any abnormal condition is reviewed in detail to determine any safety concerns

  12. Russian Minatom nuclear safety research strategic plan. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1999-01-01

    An NEA study on safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors, carried out in 1996, strongly recommended that a strategic plan for safety research be developed with respect to Russian nuclear power plants. Such a plan was developed at the Russian International Nuclear Safety Centre (RINSC) of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom). The Strategic Plan is designed to address high-priority safety-research needs, through a combination of domestic research, the application of appropriate foreign knowledge, and collaboration. It represents major progress toward developing a comprehensive and coherent safety-research programme for Russian nuclear power plants (NPPs). The NEA undertook its review of the Strategic Plan with the objective of providing independent verification on the scope, priority, and content of the research described in the Plan based upon the experience of the international group of experts. The principal conclusions of the review and the general comments of the NEA group are presented. (K.A.)

  13. Safety evaluation review of the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the belowground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. In Volume 1 of NUREG-1375, the NRC staff provided the safety review results for an earth-mounded concrete bunker PLASAR. In the current report, the staff focused its review on the design, construction, and operational aspects of the BGV PLASAR. The staff developed review comments and questions using the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev. 1 (NUREG-1200) as the basis for evaluating the acceptability of the information provided in the BGV PLASAR. The detailed review comments provided in this report are intended to be useful guidance to facility developers and State regulators in addressing issues likely to be encountered in the review of a license application for a low-level-waste disposal facility. 44 refs

  14. Activity of safety review for the facilities using nuclear material (2). Safety review results and maintenance experiences for hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Tomio; Fujishima, Tadatsune; Mizukoshi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Naoki; Ohmori, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the site of O-arai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), five hot laboratories for post-irradiation examination and development of plutonium fuels are operated more than 30 years. A safety review method for preventive maintenance on these hot laboratories includes test facilities and devices are established in 2003. After that, the safety review of these facilities and devices are done and taken the necessary maintenance based on the results in each year. In 2008, 372 test facilities and devices in these hot laboratories were checked and reviewed by this method. As a results of the safety review, repair issues of 38 facilities of above 372 facilities were resolved. This report shows the review results and maintenance experiences based on the results. (author)

  15. Medication safety programs in primary care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Shahid, Monica; Roughead, Libby

    2017-10-01

    Medication safety plays an essential role in all healthcare organizations; improving this area is paramount to quality and safety of any wider healthcare program. While several medication safety programs in the hospital setting have been described and the associated impact on patient safety evaluated, no systematic reviews have described the impact of medication safety programs in the primary care setting. A preliminary search of the literature demonstrated that no systematic reviews, meta-analysis or scoping reviews have reported on medication safety programs in primary care; instead they have focused on specific interventions such as medication reconciliation or computerized physician order entry. This scoping review sought to map the current medication safety programs used in primary care. The current scoping review sought to examine the characteristics of medication safety programs in the primary care setting and to map evidence on the outcome measures used to assess the effectiveness of medication safety programs in improving patient safety. The current review considered participants of any age and any condition using care obtained from any primary care services. We considered studies that focussed on the characteristics of medication safety programs and the outcome measures used to measure the effectiveness of these programs on patient safety in the primary care setting. The context of this review was primary care settings, primary healthcare organizations, general practitioner clinics, outpatient clinics and any other clinics that do not classify patients as inpatients. We considered all quantitative studied published in English. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. Data were extracted from the included studies to address the review question. The data extracted included type of medication safety program, author, country of origin, aims and purpose of the study, study population, method, comparator, context, main findings and outcome

  16. Shielding modefication and safety review on Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanai, Masao

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission requests strongly to repair the shielding and make general safety inspection on Mutsu after an accident of radiation leakage from the reactor. The content and procedure of this repair of shielding and general safety inspection are outlined. The neutron leakage location in the reactor proper, technical shielding investigation, conceptual design of relating shielding repair, the mock up test of the shielding on the neutron streaming, the final conceptual design of repair, the relating research and development experiment and the detailed basic design of repair are explained, comparing the original design and the modified one. The modified design depends on the experimental results of neutron streaming test between the reactor vessel and the primary shield. As for the general safety inspection, the functional test of control rod driving mechanism and other main components, the flaw detection for heat transfer tubes of the steam generator and primary cooling pipings are carried out in hardwares, and the integrity analysis of fuel assemblies, stress corrosion cracking of fuel claddings and primary cooling pipings, the natural circulation analysis of primary cooling system, and integrity check of the heat transfer tubes of steam generator are carried out in softwares. The burst test and the strength test after high temperature oxidation for fuel claddings made of stainless steel were carried out. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Using systematic review in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Piacentino, John; MacMahon, Kathleen; Schulte, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of scientific evidence is critical in developing recommendations to reduce risk. Healthcare was the first scientific field to employ a systematic review approach for synthesizing research findings to support evidence-based decision-making and it is still the largest producer and consumer of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews in the field of occupational safety and health are being conducted, but more widespread use and adoption would strengthen assessments. In 2016, NIOSH asked RAND to develop a framework for applying the traditional systematic review elements to the field of occupational safety and health. This paper describes how essential systematic review elements can be adapted for use in occupational systematic reviews to enhance their scientific quality, objectivity, transparency, reliability, utility, and acceptability. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. IRSN safety research carried out for reviewing geological disposal safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Christophe; Besnus, Francois; Gay, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute develops a research programme on scientific issues related to geological disposal safety in order to supporting the technical assessment carried out in the framework of the regulatory review process. This research programme is organised along key safety questions that deal with various scientific disciplines as geology, hydrogeology, mechanics, geochemistry or physics and is implemented in national and international partnerships. It aims at providing IRSN with sufficient independent knowledge and scientific skills in order to be able to assess whether the scientific results gained by the waste management organisation and their integration for demonstrating the safety of the geological disposal are acceptable with regard to the safety issues to be dealt with in the Safety Case. (author)

  19. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  20. A probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less importance than the approach taken, the interaction between sponsor and study team, and the technical and administrative issues that can arise during a peer review. This case study will examine the following issues: how the scope of the peer review was established, based on how it was to be used by the review sponsoring body; how the level of effort was determined, and what this determination meant for the technical quality of the review; how the team of peer reviewers was selected; how the review itself was carried out; what findings were made; what was done with these findings by both the review sponsoring body and the PSA analysis team. 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  1. Safety reviews of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Humberto Vitor

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a model developed for thermal hydraulic (TH) simulation of the Multipurpose Brazilian Reactor (RMB), whose Brazilian proposal for design, construction and operation was established in 2007. This reactor has as main proposed the production of radioisotopes for use in exams of nuclear medicine, material tests and utilization of neutrons beams. Besides of the TH modeling and safety analysis of the reactor, the application of a methodology to perform coupled calculation thermal-hydraulic/neutron kinetic (TH/NK) is also presented. Initially, the RMB was modeled in the safety analysis RELAP5 code. This code performs the thermal hydraulic calculation using point kinetics. Subsequently, the model was adapted and verified to the RELAP5-3D© code. This code performs the process of internal coupling through the option of nodal neutron kinetics calculation using the NESTLE code which solves the neutron diffusion equation. To generate the neutronic group constants, which are macroscopic cross sections that serve as input data for the neutronic codes, it was used the WIMSD-5B cell calculation code. The neutron analysis code PARCS was also used to model the 3D RMB core in order to compare the results of radial and axial average power distribution with the results generated by RELAP5-3D© code and with the available results of the CITATION neutron kinetic code. The safety analyses demonstrated safe behavior of the reactor through situations of possible transients. The 3D coupled calculations to the steady state operation also showed expected behavior, as well as the RMB neutronic analyzes performed with the codes NESTLE and PARCS.(author)

  2. WNP-2 outage safety review methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Albert; Fu, James

    2004-01-01

    A practical and versatile method was developed in the flow chart and checklist forms to show the defense-in-depth for various key safety functions of a nuclear power plant during shutdown. Using four different colors (green, yellow, orange, and red) for indication of levels of defense-in-depth is visually impressive, easy to understand, and was adopted by the outage management personnel as a convenient reference tool for maintenance activity planning before the outage, and schedule changes during the outage. This paper describes the method and its application at Washington Public Power Supply System's Nuclear Project 2 (WNP-2). (author)

  3. On thin ice: ground penetrating radar improves safety for seismic crews in frigid arctic darkness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2002-02-01

    The fact that workers are pushing the limits of the Canadian Arctic's ice is more than act of faith; it is the result of rapidly advancing technologies that are taking the guesswork, and therefore the risk, out of icetop exploration. The most important element to improve safety in recent years has been the increased use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) which allows the most detailed images yet of ice thickness. It is an absolutely invaluable tool for allowing vehicles to drive along the ice roads up the rivers and offshore, with significantly reduced risk for the people involved. GPR is an essential part of the equipment usually tied into global positioning system (GPS) and and geographic information system (GIS). The collected GPS and GPR data are loaded into the workstation and merged to produce a GIS map where the colored map of ice thickness is overlaid over satellite image or aerial photographs. Ground penetrating radar was first used in Austria in 1929 to measure glacial ice thickness. It fell into disuse during the 1950s but the technology advanced rapidly in subsequent years; it was used as part of Apollo 17's lunar sounder experiment in 1972. It is particularly useful in northern Arctic regions to determine near-surface thickness. With pipeline developments in the active planning stages, measuring the thickness of ice is more vital than ever; investors will not commit to multi-billion dollar projects before the resource base is fully delineated.

  4. Safety Review related to Commercial Grade Digital Equipment in Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yeongjin; Park, Hyunshin; Yu, Yeongjin; Lee, Jaeheung

    2013-01-01

    The upgrades or replacement of I and C systems on safety system typically involve digital equipment developed in accordance with non-nuclear standards. However, the use of commercial grade digital equipment could include the vulnerability for software common-mode failure, electromagnetic interference and unanticipated problems. Although guidelines and standards for dedication methods of commercial grade digital equipment are provided, there are some difficulties to apply the methods to commercial grade digital equipment for safety system. This paper focuses on regulatory guidelines and relevant documents for commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. This paper focuses on KINS regulatory guides and relevant documents for dedication of commercial grade digital equipment and presents safety review experiences related to commercial grade digital equipment in safety system. Dedication including critical characteristics is required to use the commercial grade digital equipment on safety system in accordance with KEPIC ENB 6370 and EPRI TR-106439. The dedication process should be controlled in a configuration management process. Appropriate methods, criteria and evaluation result should be provided to verify acceptability of the commercial digital equipment used for safety function

  5. Desonide: a review of formulations, efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanek, Nr; Gelbard, Cg; Hebert, Aa

    2008-07-01

    Desonide is a low-potency topical corticosteroid that has been used for decades in the treatment of steroid-responsive dermatoses. The favorable safety profile of this topical agent makes it ideal for patients of all ages. This article provides a review of desonide's history, pharmacodynamic properties, vehicle technology, efficacy and safety. Randomized controlled trials, as well as open-label and non-comparative studies, case series and reports, experimental models, and data from the Galderma pharmacovigiliance program were reviewed in order to address the clinical efficacy and safety of desonide. Clinical efficacy and safety have been proven in multiple clinical trials. In addition to cream, lotion and ointment formulations, the recently developed hydrogel and foam preparations have increased desonide's versatility and patient tolerability.

  6. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  7. Safety reviews of next-generation light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrick, J.A.; Wilson, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing three applications for design certification under its new licensing process. The U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and System 80+ designs have received final design approvals. The AP600 design review is continuing. The goals of design certification are to achieve early resolution of safety issues and to provide a more stable and predictable licensing process. NRC also reviewed the Utility Requirements Document (URD) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and determined that its guidance does not conflict with NRC requirements. This review led to the identification and resolution of many generic safety issues. The NRC determined that next-generation reactor designs should achieve a higher level of safety for selected technical and severe accident issues. Accordingly, NRC developed new review standards for these designs based on (1) operating experience, including the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2; (2) the results of probabilistic risk assessments of current and next-generation reactor designs; (3) early efforts on severe accident rulemaking; and (4) research conducted to address previously identified generic safety issues. The additional standards were used during the individual design reviews and the resolutions are documented in the design certification rules. 12 refs

  8. Review of the German Reactor Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The accident risks in German nuclear power plants are reviewed. Parameters influencing the extent and consequences of an accident are differentiated. Risks of normal operation, war, and sabotage have not been considered. Measures taken by the operating shaft in the course of an accident are taken into account. The knowledge thus gained can be applied in the planning of emergency measures. (DG) [de

  9. Approach to developing a ground-motion design basis for facilities important to safety at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology for developing a ground-motion design basis for prospective facilities at Yucca Mountain that are important to safety. The methodology utilizes a guasi-deterministic construct called the 10,000-year cumulative-slip earthquake that is designed to provide a conservative, robust, and reproducible estimate of ground motion that has a one-in-ten chance of occurring during the preclosure period. This estimate is intended to define a ground-motion level for which the seismic design would ensure minimal disruption to operations engineering analyses to ensure safe performance are included

  10. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  11. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  12. Safety review on unit testing of safety system software of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Le; Zhang Qi

    2013-01-01

    Software unit testing has an important place in the testing of safety system software of nuclear power plants, and in the wider scope of the verification and validation. It is a comprehensive, systematic process, and its documentation shall meet the related requirements. When reviewing software unit testing, attention should be paid to the coverage of software safety requirements, the coverage of software internal structure, and the independence of the work. (authors)

  13. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  14. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  15. IAEA Completes Safety Review at Czech Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), today completed a review of safety practices at Temelin Nuclear Power Station in the Czech Republic. The team highlighted the Power Plant's good practices and also recommended improvements to some safety measures. At the request of the Government of the Czech Republic, the IAEA assembled a team of nuclear installation safety experts to send an Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) to the Power Plant, and the mission was conducted from 5 to 22 November 2012. The team was comprised of experts from Brazil, Hungary, Slovakia, South Africa, Sweden, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. An OSART mission is designed as a review of programmes and activities essential to operational safety. It is not a regulatory inspection, nor is it a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the Plant's overall safety status. The team at Temelin conducted an in-depth review of the functions essential to the safe operation of the Power Plant, which are under the responsibility of the site's management. The review covered the areas of management, organization and administration; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience; radiation protection; chemistry; and severe accident management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of potential application elsewhere. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant has adopted effective computer software to improve the efficiency of the plant to prepare and isolate equipment for maintenance; - The Power Plant undertakes measures to control precisely the chemical parameters that limit corrosion in the reactor's coolant system, which in turn reduce radiation exposure to the workforce; and - The Temelin

  16. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Louise H.; Johnson, Judith; Watt, Ian; Tsipa, Anastasia; O’Connor, Daryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals’ wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Design Systematic research review. Data Sources PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii) patient safety, in healthcare staff populations. Results Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all) subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety. Conclusions Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed. Implications This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees’ mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340. PMID:27391946

  17. Book review: Safety of Biologics Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tadeusz Robak Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz and Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz, PolandSafety of Biologics Therapy: Monoclonal Antibodies, Cytokines, Fusion Proteins, Hormones, Enzymes, Coagulation Proteins, Vaccines, Botulinum Toxins (Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016 by Brian A Baldo from the Molecular Immunology Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, and the Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia, is a book that belongs on the shelf of everyone in the field of biologic therapies research and clinical practice. In writing this book, the author’s intention was to produce an up-to-date text book on approved biologic therapies, as far as that is possible in this time of rapidly evolving developments in biotherapeutic research and the introduction of new and novel agents for clinical use.The monograph comprises 610 pages in 13 chapters, each including a summary and further reading suggestions. All chapters include a discussion of basic and clinical material. Well-designed, comprehensive tables and color figures are present throughout the book. The book itself examines the biologic products that have regulatory approval in the USA and/or European Union and that show every indication of remaining important therapies. It covers in great detail all the latest work on peptide hormones and enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and cytokine therapies. Beyond that, it also presents the latest information on blood coagulation proteins, vaccines, botulinum neurotoxins, and biosimilars. 

  18. Safety review for seismic qualification on nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingxian

    1995-01-01

    The standards and requirements for seismic qualification of nuclear power plant's component have been fully addressed, including the scope of seismic qualification, the approach and the method of common seismic qualification, the procedure of the seismic tests, and the criteria for the seismic qualification review. The problems discovered in the safety review and the solution for these problems and some other issues are also discussed

  19. A Systematic Review of the Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate

    OpenAIRE

    Coghill, David R.; Caballero, Beatriz; Sorooshian, Shaw; Civil, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Here we review the safety and tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), the first long-acting prodrug stimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A PubMed search was conducted for English-language articles published up to 16 September 2013 using the following search terms: (lisdexamfetamine OR lisdexamphetamine OR SPD489 OR Vyvanse OR Venvanse OR NRP104 NOT review [publication type]). Results In short-term, parallel-group...

  20. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants: LWR edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to construct or operate nuclear power plants. The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. It is also a purpose of the SRP to make information about regulatory matters widely available and to improve communication and understanding of the staff review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. The safety review is primarily based on the information provided by an applicant in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The SAR must be sufficiently detailed to permit the staff to determine whether the plant can be built and operated without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The SAR is the principal document in which the applicant provides the information needed to understand the basis upon which this conclusion has been reached. The individual SRP sections address, in detail, who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis for review, how the review is accomplished, and the conclusions that are sought. The safety review is performed by 25 primary branches. One of the objectives of the SRP is to assign the review responsibilities to the various branches and to define the sometimes complex interfaces between them. Each SRP section identifies the branch that has the primary review responsibility for that section. In some review areas the primary branch may require support, and the branches that are assigned these secondary review responsibilities are also identified for each SRP section

  1. Aging evaluation methodology of periodic safety review in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung-Bae; Jung, Sung-Gyu; Jin, Tae-Eun; Jeong, Ill-Seok

    2002-01-01

    In Korea plant lifetime management (PLIM) study for Kori Unit 1 has been performed since 1993. Meanwhile, periodic safety review (PSR) for all operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been started with Kori Unit 1 since 2000 per IAEA recommendation. The evaluation period is 10 years, and safety (evaluation) factors are 11 per IAEA guidelines as represented in table 1. The relationship between PSR factors and PLIM is also represented. Among these factors evaluation of 'management of aging' is one of the most important and difficult factor. This factor is related to 'actual condition of the NPP', 'use of experience from other nuclear NPPs and of research findings', and 'management of aging'. The object of 'management of aging' is to obtain plant safety through identifying actual condition of system, structure and components (SSCs) and evaluating aging phenomena and residual life of SSCs using operating experience and research findings. The paper describes the scope and procedure of valuation of 'management of aging', such as, screening criteria of SSCs, Code and Standards, evaluation of SSCs and safety issues as represented. Evaluating SSCs are determined using final safety analysis report (FSAR) and power unit maintenance system for Nuclear Ver. III (PUMAS/N-III). The screening criteria of SSCs are safety-related items (quality class Q), safety-impact items (quality class T), backfitting rule items (fire protection (10CFR50.48), environmental qualification (10CFR50.49), pressurized thermal shock (10CFR50.61), anticipated transient without scram (10CFR50.62), and station blackout (10CFR50.63)) and regulating authority requiring items[1∼3]. The purpose of review of Code and Standards is identifying actual condition of the NPP and evaluating aging management using effective Code and Standards corresponding to reactor facilities. Code and Standards is composed of regulating laws, FSAR items, administrative actions, regulating actions, agreement items, and other

  2. The work of the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hide, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme was set up by the IAEA in 1982 to assist Member States to enhance the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Each team is staffed by senior experts in the relevant fields. The review team discusses with plant staff the existing operational programmes for plant which may be under construction, being commissioned or already operating. Following a detailed examination of a safety programme, the OSART team lists strengths and weaknesses and makes recommendations on how to overcome the latter. Since their conclusions are based on the best prevailing international practice, they may be more stringent than those based on national criteria. The results of the 77 missions conducted at 62 plants in 28 countries by the end of 1994 are summarised. (UK)

  3. Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review - Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Winfried; Blanpain, Patrick; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Gorzel, Andreas; Hozer, Zoltan; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Maertens, Dietmar; Nechaeva, Olga; Petit, Marc; Rehacek, Radomir; Rey-Gayo, Jose Maria; Sairanen, Risto; Sonnenburg, Heinz-Guenther; Valach, Mojmir; Waeckel, Nicolas; Yueh, Ken; Zhang, Jinzhao; Voglewede, John

    2012-01-01

    Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960's and early 1970's. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits. In 1996, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) reviewed existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on new fuel and core designs, new cladding materials and industry manufacturing processes. The results were published in the Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review of 2001. The NEA has since re-examined the criteria. A brief description of each criterion and its rationale are presented in this second edition, which will be of interest to both regulators and industry (fuel vendors, utilities)

  4. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal - Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stratton, Kathleen; Gable, Alicia; McCormick, Marie C

    2001-01-01

    ..., and Marie C.McCormick, Editors Immunization Safety Review Committee Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  5. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H Hall

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals' wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety.Systematic research review.PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015, Medline (1946 to July 2015, Embase (1947 to July 2015 and Scopus (1823 to July 2015 were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles.Quantitative, empirical studies that included i either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii patient safety, in healthcare staff populations.Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety.Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed.This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees' mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340.

  6. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Louise H; Johnson, Judith; Watt, Ian; Tsipa, Anastasia; O'Connor, Daryl B

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals' wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Systematic research review. PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii) patient safety, in healthcare staff populations. Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all) subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety. Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed. This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees' mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340.

  7. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  8. Review of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiti, Shadrack Anthony; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used worldwide for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, environmental science, education and research and military applications. Most of these radioactive sources used are imported therefore trans-boundary movement is a significant factor in consideration of safety and security measures during movement of these sources. It is estimated that 20 million packages of radioactive materials are transported annually worldwide and this number of shipments is expected to increase due to the renaissance of nuclear power generation. The African continent has shown considerable leadership in its advocacy for the safety and security of radioactive sources. The First Africa Workshop on the Establishment of a Legal Framework governing Radiation Protection, the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste held in Ethiopia in 2001 called upon the IAEA to form a forum for African countries to consider the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and give it a legally binding effect so that the peaceful use of nuclear technology is not compromised. Despite these laudable efforts, Africa still faces considerable challenges in the implementation of safety and security of radioactive sources because of weak regulatory control and lack of infrastructure to properly control, manage and secure radiation sources 1 . The purpose of this paper was therefore, to analyze, review, address and share knowledge and experience with regard to safety and security measures of radioactive materials in Africa. This project will benefit IAEA's African member states in creating nuclear safety and security networking in the region

  9. [Patient safety in home care - A review of international recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakert, Judith; Lehmann, Yvonne; Ewers, Michael

    2018-06-08

    In recent years there has been a growing trend towards nursing care at home in general as well as towards intensive home care being provided by specialized home care services in Germany. However, resulting challenges for patient safety have rarely been considered. Against this background we aimed to explore whether international recommendations for patient safety in home care in general and in intensive home care in particular already exist and how they can stimulate further practice development in Germany. A review of online English documents containing recommendations for patient safety in intensive home care was conducted. Available documents were analyzed and compared in terms of their form and content. Overall, a small number of relevant documents could be identified. None of these documents exclusively refer to the intensive home care sector. Despite their differences, however, the analysis of four selected documents showed similarities, e. g., regarding specific topics of patient safety (communication, involvement of patients and their relatives, risk assessment, medication management, qualification). Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the documents became apparent: e. g., an explicit understanding of patient safety, a literature-based introduction to safety topics or an adaptation of the recommendations to the specific features of home care were occasionally lacking. This document analysis provides interesting input to the formal and content-related development of specific recommendations and to practice development in Germany to improve patient safety in home care. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Review of current status of LWR safety research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.

    1977-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. The value of peer reviews to nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subalusky, W.T. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    On a global basis, the nuclear utility industry has clearly demonstrated the value of peer reviews for improving nuclear safety and overall plant performance. Peer reviews are conducted by small teams of technical experts who review various aspects of plant operation, recognize strengths and recommend improvements, thereby stimulating a positive response to the recommendations. U.S. nuclear utilities initiated the operator-to-operator peer review process first through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Now, voluntary peer reviews are an important activity of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Formed just five years ago. WANO has made significant progress in its key activities of the operator-to-operator exchanges, operating experience exchange, monitoring of plant performance indicators and sharing of good practices worldwide. A fifth activity, peer review on a strictly voluntary basis, is pertinent to this paper

  12. IAEA Review for Gap Analysis of Safety Analysis Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, Ivica; Kim, Manwoong; Huges, Peter; Lim, B-K; D'Auria, Francesco; Louis, Vidard Michael

    2014-01-01

    improvement of nuclear safety in the participating host organization and host member countries. To achieve this goal, the EM is to establish a process of discussion and comparison of gap findings, which will lead to sharing of information, experience, strengths and weaknesses among the participants, and foster regional cooperation to improve the weaknesses and improve safety generally. The pilot mission was conducted from 28 October to 1 November for one week at the National Nuclear Agency (BATAN) in Indonesia by the mission team formulated with 6 international experts who have considerable knowledge and experience in the field of safety analysis such as the deterministic safety analysis (DSA) and probabilistic safety analysis (PSA). Some comments and recommendations were given to BATAN management to support the establishment and maintenance of safety analysis capability and human resource, organizational and training aspects. Those aspects are important as a measure of the progress being made and an indicator of areas in SATG within the framework of the Extra-budgetary Programme on the Safety of Nuclear Installations in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Far East Countries (the EBP-Asia) or other cooperation programme, such as the IAEA Technical Cooperation programme. Provided in 2013 the Review of Gap Analysis for BATAN (Indonesian Nuclear Safety Regulatory Body) could be good reference for all other newcomer countries which started or plans nuclear power plant installation. (authors)

  13. Independent peer review of nuclear safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Jenks, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A structured, independent computer code peer-review process has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy in their nuclear safety missions. This paper describes a structured process of independent code peer review, benefits associated with a code-independent peer review, as well as the authors' recent peer-review experience. The NRC adheres to the principle that safety of plant design, construction, and operation are the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, NRC staff must have the ability to independently assess plant designs and safety analyses submitted by license applicants. According to Ref. 1, open-quotes this requires that a sound understanding be obtained of the important physical phenomena that may occur during transients in operating power plants.close quotes The NRC concluded that computer codes are the principal products to open-quotes understand and predict plant response to deviations from normal operating conditionsclose quotes and has developed several codes for that purpose. However, codes cannot be used blindly; they must be assessed and found adequate for the purposes they are intended. A key part of the qualification process can be accomplished through code peer reviews; this approach has been adopted by the NRC

  14. Fuel safety criteria and review by OECD / CSNI task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doesburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: with the advent of advanced fuel and core designs, and the implementation of more accurate (best estimate or statistical) design and analysis methods, there is a general feeling that safety margins have been or are being reduced. Historically, fuel safety margins were defined by adding conservatism to the safety limits, which in turn were also fixed in a conservative manner, here, the expression 'conservatism' expresses the fact that bounding or limiting numbers were chosen for model parameters, plant and fuel design data, and fuel operating history values. Unfortunately, as these conservatisms were not quantified (or quantifiable), the amount of safety available or the reduction thereof is difficult to substantiate. For the regulator, it is important to know the margin available with the utilities' request for approval of new fuel or methods; likewise, for the utility and vendor it is important to know what margins exist and what they are based on, to identify in which direction they can make further progress and optimize fuel and fuel cycle cost. Naturally, each party involved will have to decide on how much margin should be in place, to establish operational criteria and ensure that these can actually be met during operation. To assess the margins issue, safety criteria themselves need to be reviewed first. Most - if not all - of the currently existing safety criteria were established during the 60's and early 70's, and verified against experiments with fuel available at that time - mostly at zero exposure. Of course, verification was performed as designs progressed in later years, primarily with the aim to be able to prove that safety criteria were adequate as long as the said conservatisms would be retained, and not with the aim to reestablish limits. The mandate to the OECD/CSNI/PWG2 Task Force on Fuel Safety Criteria (TFFSC) is to assess the adequacy of existing fuel safety criteria, in view of the 'new design' elements (new

  15. Review of probabilistic safety assessments by regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report provides guidance to assist regulatory bodies in carrying out reviews of the PSAs produced by utilities. In following this guidance, it is important that the regulatory body is able to satisfy itself that the PSA has been carried out to an acceptable standard and that it can be used for its intended applications. The review process becomes an important phase in determining the acceptability of the PSA since this provides a degree of assurance of the PSA scope, validity and limitations, as well as a better understanding of plants themselves. This report is also intended to assist technical experts managing or performing PSA reviews. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for the results of PSA reviews. The information presented in this report supports IAEA Safety Guide No. GS-G-1.2. Recommendations on the scope and methods to be used by the utility in the preparation of a PSA study is provided in IAEA Safety Guide No. NSG- 1.2. Information on these Safety Guides and other IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants can be found on the following Internet site: http://www.iaea.org/ns/coordinet. The scope of this report covers the review of Level 1, 2 and 3 PSAs for event sequences occurring in all modes of plant operation (including full power, low power and shutdown). Where the scope of the analysis is narrower than this, a subset of the guidance can be identified and used. Information is provided on carrying out the review of a PSA throughout the PSA production process, i.e. from the initial decision to carry out the PSA through to the completion of the study and the production of the final PSA report. However, the same procedure can be applied to a completed PSA or to one already in progress. As a result of the performance of a PSA, changes to the design or operation of the plant are often identified that would increase the level of safety. This might include the addition of further safety

  16. Grasping at Straws: Comments on the Alberta Pipeline Safety Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Winter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The release last month of the Alberta Pipeline Safety Review was meant to be a symbol of the province’s renewed commitment to environmental responsibility as it aims for new export markets. The report’s authors, Group 10 Engineering, submitted 17 recommendations covering public safety and pipeline incidents, pipeline integrity management and pipeline safety near bodies of water — and many of them run the gamut from the obvious to the unhelpful to the contradictory. That the energy regulator ought to be staffed to do its job should go without saying; in fact, staffing levels were never identified as an issue. The recommendation that record retention and transfer requirements be defined for mergers and acquisitions, sales and takeovers is moot. There is no reason a purchasing party would not want all relevant documents, and no real way to enforce transparency if the seller opts to withhold information. Harmonizing regulations between provinces could reduce companies’ cost of doing business, but could also prove challenging if different jurisdictions use performance-based regulations — which is what the Review recommended Alberta consider. This very brief paper pries apart the Review’s flaws and recommends that the province go back to the drawing board. Safety is a serious issue; a genuine statistical review linking pipeline characteristics to failures and risk-mitigation activities would be a better alternative by far.

  17. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee

    2006-01-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs

  18. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs.

  19. Review of Radiation Safety in Medical X-Ray Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical X-Ray machines have been used for more than a century for non-invasive diagnosis of patients for the benefit of mankind. The safety of operators and patients during such practice has improved with time, but, still cases of detrimental effects to Radiation Workers in Kenya including cancer related deaths have been reported in the recent past. An ongoing study is reviewing the safety status of the worker and patients during medical and dental exposures. The study was initiated following complaint of recurrent headaches by a radiographer working in a busy Kenyan hospital. (author)

  20. IAEA Operational Safety Team Reviews Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear installation safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reviewed operational safety at France's Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) noting a series of good practices as well as recommendations and suggestions to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled an international team of experts at the request of the Government of France to conduct an Operational Safety Review (OSART) of Cattenom NPP. Under the leadership of the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety in Vienna, the OSART team performed an in-depth operational safety review of the plant from 14 November to 1 December 2011. The team was made up of experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Sweden, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The team at Cattenom conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP, which is largely under the control of the site management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training and Qualification; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; Emergency Planning and Preparedness; and Severe Accident Management. Cattenom is the first plant in Europe to voluntarily undertake a Severe Accident Management review during an OSART review. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their application. Examples include: Sheets are displayed in storage areas where combustible material is present - these sheets are updated readily and accurately by the area owner to ensure that the fire limits are complied with; A simple container is attached to the neutron source handling device to ensure ease and safety of operations and reduce possible radiation exposure during use

  1. IAEA Concludes Safety Review at Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA-led international team of nuclear safety experts noted a series of good practices and made recommendations to reinforce some safety measures during a review of operational safety at France's Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that concluded today. The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) was assembled at the French Government's request. The in-depth review, which began 12 November 2012, focused on aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP. The team was composed of experts from Bulgaria, China, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine and the IAEA. The review covered the areas of management, organization and administration; training and qualification; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience; radiation protection; chemistry; emergency planning and preparedness; and severe accident management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their possible use elsewhere. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant uses a staff-skills mapping process that significantly enhances knowledge of the facility's collective and individual skills and provides proactive management to address the loss of such skills; - As a measure to reduce the risk of workers' radiation exposure, the Power Plant uses a system to ensure that dose rate measurements are carried out at a precise distance from the source of radiation; and - Flood protection of the Power Plant is supported by special technical guidance documents and associated arrangements. The team identified a number of proposals for improvements to operational safety at Gravelines NPP. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant should reinforce its measures to prevent foreign objects from entering plant systems; - The Power Plant should ensure the 24-hour presence of an operator

  2. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  3. Periodic safety review of the experimental fast reactor JOYO. Review of aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Ogawa, To-ru; Nishino, Kazunari

    2005-05-01

    Periodic safety review (Review of the aging management) which consisted of ''Technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components'' and ''Establishment a long term maintenance program'' was carried out up to April 2005. 1. Technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components. It was technically confirmed to prevent the loss of function of the safety related structures, systems and components due to aging phenomena, which (1) irradiation damage, (2) corrosion, (3) abrasion and erosion, (4) thermal aging, (5) creep and fatigue, (6) Stress Corrosion Cracking, (7) insulation deterioration and (8) general deterioration, under the periodic monitoring or renewal of them. 2. Establishment of long term maintenance program. The long term maintenance during JFY2005 to 2014 were established based on the technical review on aging for the safety related structures, systems and components. It was evaluated that the inspection and renewal based on the long term maintenance program, in addition to the spontaneous inspection of the long term voluntary long-term inspection plan, could prevent the loss of function of the safety related structures, systems and components. (author)

  4. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  5. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  6. Monitoring and reviewing research reactor safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.C.; Greenslade, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    Th research reactors operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) comprise the 10 MW reactor HIFAR and the 100 kW reactor Moata. Although there are no power reactors in Australia the problems and issues of public concern which arise in the operation of research reactors are similar to those of power reactors although on a smaller scale. The need for independent safety surveillance has been recognized by the Australian Government and the ANSTO Act, 1987, required the Board of ANSTO to establish a Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) with responsibility to the Minister for monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant operated by ANSTO. The Executive Director of ANSTO operates HIFAR subject to compliance with requirements and arrangements contained in a formal Authorization from the Board of ANSTO. A Ministerial Direction to the Board of ANSTO requires the NSB to report to him, on a quarterly basis, matters relating to its functions of monitoring and reviewing the safety of ANSTO's nuclear plant. Experience has shown that the Authorization provides a suitable framework for the operational requirements and arrangements to be organised in a disciplined and effective manner, and also provides a basis for audits by the NSB by which compliance with the Board's safety requirements are monitored. Examples of the way in which the NSB undertakes its monitoring and reviewing role are given. Moata, which has a much lower operating power level and fission product inventory than HIFAR, has not been subject to a formal Authorization to date but one is under preparation

  7. Russian MINATOM nuclear safety research strategic plan. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The 'Safety Research Strategic Plan for Russian Nuclear Power Plants' was published in draft form at the Russian International Nuclear Safety Centre (RINSC) by a working group of fifteen senior Russian experts. The Plan consists of 12 chapters, each addressing a specific technical area and containing a number of proposed research programmes and projects to advance the state-of-knowledge in that area. In part because a strong Recommendation to undertake such a Plan was made by the 1998 OECD/NEA study, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency was asked by the Director of RINSC and the Director of USINSC to organize an international review of the Plan when the English-language version became available in October, 1998. This report represents the results of that review. (R.P.)

  8. A Review of Research on Driving Styles and Road Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagberg, Fridulv; Selpi; Piccinini, Giulio Francesco Bianchi; Engström, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to outline a conceptual framework for understanding driving style and, on this basis, review the state-of-the-art research on driving styles in relation to road safety. Previous research has indicated a relationship between the driving styles adopted by drivers and their crash involvement. However, a comprehensive literature review of driving style research is lacking. A systematic literature search was conducted, including empirical, theoretical, and methodological research, on driving styles related to road safety. A conceptual framework was proposed whereby driving styles are viewed in terms of driving habits established as a result of individual dispositions as well as social norms and cultural values. Moreover, a general scheme for categorizing and operationalizing driving styles was suggested. On this basis, existing literature on driving styles and indicators was reviewed. Links between driving styles and road safety were identified and individual and sociocultural factors influencing driving style were reviewed. Existing studies have addressed a wide variety of driving styles, and there is an acute need for a unifying conceptual framework in order to synthesize these results and make useful generalizations. There is a considerable potential for increasing road safety by means of behavior modification. Naturalistic driving observations represent particularly promising approaches to future research on driving styles. Knowledge about driving styles can be applied in programs for modifying driver behavior and in the context of usage-based insurance. It may also be used as a means for driver identification and for the development of driver assistance systems. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Management implementation plan for a safety analysis and review system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulburt, D.A.; Berkey, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The US Department of Energy has issued an Order, DOE 5481.1, which establishes uniform requirements for the preparation and review of Safety Analysis for DOE Operations. The Management Implementation Plan specified herein establishes the administrative procedures and technical requirements for implementing DOE 5481.1 to Operations under the cognizance of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This Implementation Plan is applicable to all present and future Operations under the cognizance of PETC. The Plan identifies those Operations for which DOE 5481.1 is applicable and those Operations for which no further analysis is required because the initial determination and review has concluded that DOE 5481.1 does not apply

  10. SRTC criticality safety technical review of SRT-CMA-930039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of SRT-CMA-930039, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE): DWPF Melter-Batch 1,'' December 1, 1993, has been performed by the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment of the Melt Cell in the DWPF. Additionally, this pertains only to Batch 1 operation, which differs from batches to follow. Plans for subsequent batch operations call for fissile material in the Salt Cell feed-stream, which necessitates a separate criticality evaluation in the future. The NCSE under review concludes that the process is safe from criticality events, even in the event that all lithium and boron neutron poisons are lost, provided uranium enrichments are less than 40%. Furthermore, if all the lithium and as much as 98% of the boron would be lost, uranium enrichments of 100% would be allowable. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion. This technical review consisted of: an independent check of the methods and models employed, independent calculations application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual( 2 ) procedures

  11. Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel Power System Subpanel review for the Ulysses mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's assessment of the nuclear safety of NASA's Ulysses Mission to investigate properties of the sun, the Power System Subpanel has reviewed the safety analyses and risk evaluations done for the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator which provides on-board electrical power for the spacecraft. This paper summarizes the activities and results of that review. In general, the approach taken in the primary analysis, executed by the General Electric Company under contract to the Department of Energy, and the resulting conclusions were confirmed by the review. However, the Subpanel took some exceptions and modified the calculations accordingly, producing an independent evaluation of potential releases of radioactive fuel in launch and reentry accidents. Some of the more important of these exceptions are described briefly

  12. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  13. Engineering safety review mission Krsko NPP external events PSA. Ljubljana, Slovenia 19-23 February 1996. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Smith, P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the scope of the TC Project RER/9/035, a review mission visited Ljubljana, Slovenia, 19-23 February 1996. Two outside experts, Messrs. R.J. Budnitz (USA) and Paul Smith (USA), as well as a staff member, A. Guerpinar (ESS-NSNI) took part in the review. The purpose of the mission was to assist the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration to review the external events PSA prepared by Krsko NPP consultants Westinghouse Energy Systems Europe and EQE International. Another seismic safety review was performed concurrently in Ljubljana involving the investigations in relation to the tectonic stability and reassessment of the design basis ground motion characterization for the Krsko NPP site

  14. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line Health and Safety Plan, Volume 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    .... The purpose of this Site Health and Safety Plan (SHSP) is to assign SECD personnel health and safety responsibilities, to prescribe mandatory operating procedures, and to establish personal-protective-equipment (PPE...

  15. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches

  16. SKI - ASAR - O3. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1996 Oskarshamn 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a ''ASAR''-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the ''SKI-ASAR'' report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its life-time, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The first series ASAR was delivered by OKG to SKI in December 1996, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  17. SKI - ASAR - F3. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1996 Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a ''ASAR''-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the ''SKI-ASAR'' report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its life-time, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The first series ASAR was delivered by FKA to SKI in December 1996, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  18. SKI - ASAR - R1. As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Ringhals 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Ringhals utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  19. System safety program plan for the Isotope Brayton Ground Demonstration System (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The safety engineering effort to be undertaken in achieving an acceptable level of safety in the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) development program is discussed. The safety organizational relationships, the methods to be used, the tasks to be completed, and the documentation to be published are described. The plan will be updated periodically as the need arises

  20. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Department of...) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to consider a range of issues of [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out...

  1. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Bureau of Justice... meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions...

  2. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route... establish that the route chosen by the carrier poses the least overall safety and security risk, the...

  3. 49 CFR 659.29 - Oversight agency safety and security reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oversight agency safety and security reviews. 659... Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.29 Oversight agency safety and security reviews. At least... safety program plan and system security plan. Alternatively, the on-site review may be conducted in an on...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold eagle... background, encircled by a white band edged in black and inscribed “Occupational Safety and Health Review...

  5. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  6. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  7. Safety assessment for the 118-B-1 Burial Ground excavation treatability tests. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.J.; Frain, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This revision of the Safety Assessment provides an auditable safety analysis of the hazards for the proposed treatability test activities per DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, DOE Limited Standard, Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE 1994). The proposed activities are classified as radiological activities and as such, no longer require Operational Safety Limits (OSLs). The OSLS, Prudent Actions, and Institutional and Organization Controls have been removed from this revision and replaced with ''Administrative Actions Important to Safety,'' as determined by the hazards analysis. Those Administrative Actions Important to Safety are summarized in Section 1.1, ''Assessment Summary.''

  8. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  9. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  10. An international review of patient safety measures in radiotherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Jesmin; Barton, Michael; Noble, Douglas; Lemer, Claire; Donaldson, Liam J.

    2009-01-01

    Errors from radiotherapy machine or software malfunction usually are well documented as they affect hundreds of patients, whereas random errors affecting individual patients are more difficult to be discovered and prevented. Although major clinical radiotherapy incidents have been reported, many more have remained unrecognised or have not been reported. The literature in this field is limited as it is mostly published as a result of investigation of major errors. We present a review of radiotherapy incidents internationally with the aim of identifying the domains where most errors occur through extensive review and synthesis of published reports, unpublished 'Grey literature' and departmental incident data. Our review of radiotherapy-related events in the last three decades (1976-2007) identified more than seven thousand (N = 7741) incidents and near misses. Three thousand one hundred and twenty-five incidents reported patient harm of variable intensity ranging from underdose increasing the risk of recurrence, to overdose causing toxicity, and even death for 1% (N = 38); 4616 events were near misses with no recognisable patient harm. Based on our review, a radiotherapy risk profile has been published by the WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety that highlights the role of communication, training and strict adherence to guidelines/protocols in improving the safety of radiotherapy process.

  11. Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

    1977-12-01

    This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

  12. Guidelines for the review research reactor safety. Reference document for IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the IAEA published new safety standards for research reactors as part of the set of publications considered by its Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP). This set also includes publications giving guidance for all safety aspects related to the lifetime of a research reactor. In addition, the IAEA has also revised the Safety Standards for radiation protection. Consequently, it was considered advisable to revise the Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) procedures to incorporate the new requirements and guidance as well as to extend the scope of the safety reviews to currently operating research reactors. The present report is the result of this revision. The purpose of this report is to give guidance on the preparation, execution, reporting and follow-up of safety review mission to research reactors as conducted by the IAEA under its INSARR missions safety service. However, it will also be of assistance to operators and regulators in conducting: (a) ad hoc safety assessments of research reactors to address individual issues such as ageing or safety culture; and (b) other types of safety reviews such as internal and peer reviews and regulatory inspections

  13. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and pressure systems; (iv) Electrical and non-ionizing radiation systems; and (v) Ionizing radiation...) Electrical and non-ionizing radiation ground support and checkout systems; (v) Ionizing radiation ground... each special interest issue, such as a high-risk situation or potential non-compliance with any...

  14. Harnessing implementation science to improve care quality and patient safety: a systematic review of targeted literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Marks, Danielle; Taylor, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  15. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  16. [A systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasseroni, A; Olimpi, Nadia; Bonaccorsi, G

    2009-01-01

    The authors carried out a systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions, as a part of a wider project funded by CCM, Centre for Disease Control. Several electronic bibliographic databases were checked, using a standardized string selection. The string contained the following four items: the intervention; job features; type of injury; efficacy/effectiveness. Of the various databases consulted, Web of Science was the most efficient. Overall 5531 articles were selected. After reading the title and abstract, 4695 were excluded and eventually 35 systematic reviews were selected, which synthesized 769 original articles. The main topics of the selected systematic reviews were: certain sectors (building industry, agriculture, health care); personal protective equipment; work organization and prevention management at plant level; evaluation of prevention policies by national and regional authorities. A clear need for multiple bibliographical data-base search emerged at the end of this study.

  17. Research on review technology for three key safety factors of periodic safety review (PSR) and its application to Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shoulv; Yao Weida; Dou Yikang; Lin Shaoxuan; Cao Yenan; Zhou Quanfu; Zheng Jiong; Zhang Ming

    2009-04-01

    In 2001, after 10 years' operation, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (Q1) started to carry out periodic safety review (PSR) based on a nuclear safety guideline, Periodic Safety Review for Operational Nuclear Power Plants (HAF0312), issued by National Nuclear Safety Administration of China (NNSA). Entrusted by the owner of Q1, Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) implemented reviews of three key safety factors including safety analysis, equipment qualification and ageing. PSR was a challenging work in China at that time and through three years' research and practice, SNERDI summarized a systematic achievement for the review including review methodology, scoping, review contents and implementation steps, etc.. During the process of review for the three safety factors, totally 148 review reports and 341 recommendations for corrections were submitted to Q1. These reports and recommendations have provided guidance for correction actions as follow-up of PSR. This paper focuses on technical aspects to carry out PSR for the above-mentioned three safety factors, including review scoping, contents, methodology and main steps. The review technology and relevant experience can be taken for reference for other NPPs to carry out PSR. (authors)

  18. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  19. The safety of bone allografts used in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan; Toscano, Nicholas; Eisenlohr, Lisa; Callan, Don

    2008-09-01

    Recent media reports concerning "stolen body parts" have shaken the public's trust in the safety of and the use of ethical practices involving human allografts. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the safety aspects of human bone allografts. The authors reviewed U.S. government regulations, industry standards, independent industry association guidelines, company guidelines and scientific articles related to the use of human bone allografts in the practice of dentistry published in the English language. The use of human bone allografts in the practice of dentistry involves the steps of procurement, processing, use and tracking. Rigorous donor screening and aseptic proprietary processing programs have rendered the use of human bone allografts safe and effective as a treatment option. When purchasing human bone allografts for the practice of dentistry, one should choose products accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks for meeting uniformly high safety and quality control measures. Knowledge of human bone allograft procurement, processing, use and tracking procedures may allow dental clinicians to better educate their patients and address concerns about this valuable treatment option.

  20. Review of SFR Design Safety using Preliminary Regulatory PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop a risk model for regulatory verification of the SFR design, and thereby, make sure that the SFR design is adequate from a risk perspective. In this paper, the development result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. In this paper, development and quantification result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. It was confirmed that the importance PDRC and ADRC dampers is significant as stated in the result of KAERI PSA model. However, the importance can be changed significantly depending on assumption of CCCG and CCF factor of PDRC and ADRC dampers. SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) which is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, is designed to accord with the concept of stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600, which is under development in Korea, includes passive safety systems (e. g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc.) as well as active safety systems. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is needed to support the regulatory body in its safety and licensing review for SFR (KALIMER-600). Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and delay of the SFR licensing schedule that may be caused otherwise

  1. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  2. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  3. Stability evaluation of ground considering dynamic vertical ground motion. Pt. 3. Effect of dynamic vertical motions on sliding safety factor of foundation ground and surrounding slope in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroaki; Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru

    2003-01-01

    In this report, time differences of the peak accelerations between horizontal and vertical motions were investigated based on the earthquake records on the rock sites and analytical studies were carried out in order to investigate the effect of them to the fluctuations of the minimum sliding safety factors of the foundation ground and surrounding slope of nuclear power plants. Summaries of this report were as follows; (1) Maximum time difference of the peak accelerations between horizontal and vertical motions on the rock sites was approximately 10 seconds in the earthquakes within the epicenter distance of 100 km. (2) Analytical studies that employed the equivalent linear analysis with horizontal and vertical input motions were carried out against the representative models and ground properties of the foundation grounds and surrounding slopes in nuclear power plants. The combinations of the horizontal and vertical motions were determined from the above-mentioned investigation results based on the actual earthquake records. It was revealed that the fluctuations of the minimum sliding safety factors were not seriously affected by the time difference of the peak accelerations between horizontal and vertical motions. (author)

  4. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs

  5. Review of the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.; Cece, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of a year-long self-assessment of DOE-EH transportation and packaging safety activities. The self-assessment was initiated in September 1991 and concluded in August 1992. The self-assessment identified several significant issues, some of which have been resolved by EH. Also, improvements in the EH program were made during the course of the self-assessment. The report reflects the status of the EH transportation and packaging safety activities at the conclusion of the self-assessment. This report consists of several sections which discuss background, objectives and description of the review. Another section includes summary discussion and key conclusions. Appendix A, Issues, Observations and Recommendations, lists fifteen issues, including appropriate observations and recommendations. A Corrective Action Plan, which documents EH managements resolve to implement the agreed-upon recommendations, is included. The Corrective Action Plan reflects the status of completed and planned actions as of the date of the report

  6. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. How Swedish communities organised themselves in reviewing a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2009 the Swedish nuclear waste management company, SKB, choose Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as the best place for a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In 2011, as a natural follow-up, SKB presented applications to two Swedish authorities, the Land and Environmental Court and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The municipality of Oesthammar has together with the municipality of Oskarshamn been an active part in the process since 1994, with different local organisations financed by the Swedish nuclear fund. Three leading themes form the basis for our participation - voluntarism, complete openness of plans and results and participation with the possibility to influence. Site investigations for a repository started in 2002 and were finished when SKB selected Oesthammar municipality in the middle of 2009. To follow and scrutinise both site investigations as well as the applications, the organisation within the municipality has changed over time. As the site selection process got underway, the municipality extended its organisation to three committees (EIA, long-term safety and consultation). The committees have respective objectives: reviewing the health and environmental impact, reviewing the long-term safety and communication about the work that is going on within and around the municipality. These are primarily political committees to which a unit of civil servants is attached. The main goal for the organisation is to build up knowledge skills and prepare both the existing as well as the future municipality council for the decision of whether or not the municipality of Oesthammar will accept a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in our municipality. The absolutely most important issue for the municipality is long term-safety and as the process has progressed the municipality has made several statements to the authorities. (authors)

  8. Shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanai, Masao

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) called on the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency (JNSDA) for shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', and JNSDA has conducted the research and development (R and D) to meet the request of JAEC for the above two items. Concerning the shield modification, the following matters are described: the study on the cause of radiation leakage which was concluded to the fast neutron streaming, the conceptual design for this modification, the mock up experiment for shielding utilizing JRR-4, the basic design following on the conceptual design, including the detailed drawings of the modified construction and the shielding analysis using RADHEAT-V3 code, and the relating experiments such as the heat transfer test of the primary shielding structure and the test of strength in stranding. As for the safety review, the survey of the troubles and the technical problems having been experienced in the light water reactor plants of land use, for example, fuel integrity, stress corrosion cracking and the leakage of steam generator tubes, the revision of the design so as to adapt to current safety standards and regulations, for example, in-service inspection, the setting of additional leak detectors in the primary cooling system, the modification of emergeney filters, etc., and the review of the design and construction corresponding to recent R and D works, such as re-evaluation of the core design, cooling capability of natural circulation, thermal stress analysis of main pipings, and the evaluation of ECCS performance are presented . (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Safety analysis and review system: a Department of Energy safety assurance tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of the Safety Analysis and Review System is not new. It has been used within the Department and its predecessor agencies, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), for over 20 years. To minimize the risks from nuclear reactor and power plants, the AEC developed a process to support management authorization of each operation through identification and analysis of potential hazards and the measures taken to control them. As the agency evolved from AEC through ERDA to the Department of Energy, its responsibilities were broadened to cover a diversity of technologies, including those associated with the development of fossil, solar, and geothermal energy. Because the safety analysis process had proved effective in a technology of high potential hazard, the Department investigated the applicability of the process to the other technologies. This paper describes the system and discusses how it is implemented within the Department

  10. Brief review: sleep health and safety for transportation workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accidents related to sleepiness related fatigue are an important concern in transportation related industries. This brief review outlines the public safety concerns with sleepiness related fatigue in the railroad, aviation and motor vehicle transportation fields. In addition, the common causes of sleepiness related fatigue, and impact on operators and their families are highlighted. It is suggested that in addition to greater recognition and changes in duty hour regulations, there should be a greater emphasis on the education of operators on the importance of sleep and circadian factors in causing fatigue, as well as strategies to mitigate their impact.

  11. Response to Absorber-Focus Coil Preliminary Safety Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    In this document we provide responses to the various issues raised in the report of the Preliminary Safety Review Panel (see http://mice.iit.edu/mnp/MICE0069.pdf). In some cases we have made design changes in response to the Panels suggestions. In other cases, we have chosen not to do so. In a few cases, we indicate our plans, although the tasks have not yet been completed. For simplicity, the responses are organized along the same lines as those of the Panel Report

  12. Review of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobioka, Toshiaki

    1977-02-01

    A review is made of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research under way in both commercial power plants and test reactors. Such experiments are grouped in two; first, LWR fuel performance under normal and abnormal operating conditions, and second, irradiation effects on fracture toughness in LWR vessels. In the former are fuel densification, swelling, and the influence of power ramp and cycling on fuel rod, and also fuel rod behavior under accident conditions in in-reactor experiment. In the latter are the effects of neutron exposure level on the ferritic steel of pressure vessels, etc.. (auth.)

  13. Team of experts concludes review of safety issues at Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: At the request of the Czech Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of national experts from Bulgaria, France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with an observer from Austria, to review safety issues at the Temelin power plant that were identified in 1996 as relevant to reactors of the generic Temelin design (WWER-1000/320 type). Following a detailed on-site review from 18 to 23 November 2001, the experts concluded that most identified issues had been addressed and resolved. Work is continuing on the few remaining issues. These issues, however, are not judged by them to be significant and would not from the experts' standpoint preclude the safe operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The final report of the team of experts will be available to the Czech Government in one month's time. (author)

  14. Periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide which supplements the IAEA Safety Fundamentals: The Safety of Nuclear Installations and the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, forms part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Guides relating to nuclear power plants. A list of NUSS publications is given at the end of this book. This Guide was drafted on the basis of a systematic review approach that was endorsed by the IAEA Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the conduct of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs) for an operational nuclear power plant. The Guide is directed at both owners/operators and regulators. This Safety Guide deals with the PSR of an operational nuclear power plant. A PSR is a comprehensive safety review addressing all important aspects of safety, carried out at regular intervals. 22 refs, 4 figs

  15. Experience in the review of utility control room design review and safety parameter display system programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) and the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) had their origins in the studies and investigations conducted as the result of the TMI-2 accident. The President's Commission (Kemeny Commission) critized NRC for not examining the man-machine interface, over-emphasizing equipment, ignoring human beings, and tolerating outdated technology in control rooms. The Commission's Special Inquiry Group (Rogovin Report) recommended greater application of human factors engineering including better instrumentation displays and improved control room design. The NRC Lessons Learned Task Force concluded that licensees should review and improve control rooms using NRC Human engineering guidelines, and install safety parameter display systems (then called the safety staff vector). The TMI Action Plan Item I.D.1 and I.D.2 were based on these recommendations

  16. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  17. Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B

    2017-09-01

    The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.

  18. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  19. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. These certification review policies and procedures are established to ensure that DOE packaging designs and operations meet safety criteria at least equivalent to the standards prescribed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certification process for packaging. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) is not a DOE order, but has been prepared as guidance for the Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) under the Certifying Official, Office of Security Evaluations, or designated representatives. The principal purpose of the PRG is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The PRG also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the PCS in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the PRG. However, applicants should recognize that the PCS has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches. Finally, it is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 7 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  20. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  1. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J.; Mauer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Report discusses safety program implementation for large R&D operating system. Analytical techniques are defined and suggested as tools for identifying potential hazards and determining means to effectively control or eliminate hazards.

  2. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  3. Characterising influences on safety culture in military aviation:a methodologically grounded approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Anthea; Hellier, Elizabeth; Weyman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Historically, much effort has been expended in safety culture / climate research toward identifying a generic core set of components, predominately using the self-administered questionnaire approach. However, no stable unified model has emerged, and much of this research has taken a methodologically top-down approach to depicting organisational safety culture. In light of this, the benefits of qualitative exploration as a precursor to and foundation for the development of quantitative climate...

  4. Seismic hazard analysis. Review panel, ground motion panel, and feedback results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern U.S. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern U.S. Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. (author)

  5. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION... Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U...

  6. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. The principal purpose of this document is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented. It is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 77 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: Experience of Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Routine reviews of nuclear power plant operation (including modifications to hardware and procedures, operating experience, plant management and personnel competence) and special reviews following major events of safety significance are the primary means of safety verification. In addition, many Member States of the IAEA have initiated systematic safety reassessments, termed periodic safety reviews, of nuclear power plants, to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments and siting aspects. The reviews include an assessment of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices, and they have the objective of ensuring a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. They are complementary to the routine and special safety reviews and do not replace them. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants are considered an effective way to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety, and to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety. They can be used as a means of identifying time limiting features of the plant in order to determine nuclear power plant operation beyond the designed lifetime. The periodic safety review process can be used to support the decision making process for long term operation or licence renewal. Since 1994, the use of periodic safety reviews by Member States has substantially broadened and confirmed its benefits. Periodic safety review results have, for example, been used by some Member States to help provide a basis for continued operation beyond the current licence term, to communicate more effectively with stakeholders regarding nuclear power plant safety, and to help identify changes to plant operation that enhance safety. This IAEA-TECDOC is intended to assist Member States in the implementation of a periodic safety review. This publication complements the

  8. Review of key Belotero Balance safety and efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Fagien, Steven; Flynn, Timothy C; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-10-01

    Belotero Balance is a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid that uses cohesive polydensified matrix technology to achieve cohesive gel; improved adaptation by the dermis; and a soft, smooth fill. Several studies have now compared Belotero Balance to bovine collagen and other hyaluronic acids. Two pivotal studies demonstrated the noninferiority and superiority of Belotero Balance to bovine collagen. In the first study, more than half of the patients maintained optimal correction at 6 months on the Belotero-treated side of the face. The second of those two studies followed patients to week 96 and demonstrated that the effects of Belotero Balance in this long-term, open-label study persisted in the majority of subjects without repeated treatment for at least one interval of 48 weeks. The filler was well tolerated, with only one of 34 total adverse events (injection-site bruising) considered to be related to the study device. A third study compared the safety and efficacy of other hyaluronic acids (i.e., Juvéderm and Restylane) with Belotero Balance. In this study, the safety profiles of all three hyaluronic acids were generally favorable, with site-specific adverse events mild to moderate and comparable across each hyaluronic acid. Aesthetic results were also similar, although Belotero Balance resulted in greater evenness than Restylane at 4 weeks by one indicator used in the study. Finally, a 5-year retrospective safety review of 317 patients treated with Belotero Balance over a 5-year period revealed no severe adverse events in any patients, including the absence of persistent nodules or granulomas.

  9. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  10. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  11. Employing ionizing radiation to enhance food safety. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolichova, M.; Dvorak, P.; Musilova, H.

    2004-01-01

    Food irradiation is employed to ensure food safety or food sterility, extend its shelf-life and reduce the losses due to sprouting, ripening or pests. In the Czech Republic mainly spices, mixed spices and dried vegetables are exposed to ionizing radiation. The leading suppliers of irradiated foodstuffs in Europe are Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In the USA, food irradiation is more common and there are also attempts to enforce irradiation not only for food safety, but also for technological purposes. Even though irradiation is a prospective technology, its application causes physico-chemical changes that may affect nutritional adequacy and sensory characteristics of irradiated food. In this paper, the chemical changes of basic food components (proteins, saccharides, fats) are reviewed. Some chemical changes lead to the formation of radiolytic products whose risks are still subject of scientific research. It is expected that the main use of gamma irradiation will be the treatment of diets for patients suffering from different disorders of the immune system, allergic patients or for the army and space flights. Irradiation may be a critical control point in the production of some types of foodstuffs

  12. Safety of treatment options for spondyloarthritis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Carriero, Antonio; Gilio, Michele; Ursini, Francesco; Leccese, Pietro; Palazzi, Carlo

    2018-05-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) are chronic inflammatory diseases with overlapping pathogenic mechanisms and clinical features. Treatment armamentarium against SpA includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, including sulfasalazine, methotrexate, leflunomide, cyclosporine), targeted synthetic DMARDs (apremilast) and biological DMARDs (TNF inhibitors, anti-IL 12/23 and anti-IL-17 agents). Areas covered: A narrative review of published literature on safety profile of available SpA treatment options was performed. Readers will be provided with a comprehensive overview on frequent and rare adverse events associated with each drug listed in current SpA treatment recommendations. Expert opinion: The overall safety profile of such molecules is good and serious adverse events are rare but need to be promptly recognized and treated. However, the monitoring of adverse events is a major challenge for clinicians because it is not adequately addressed by current treatment recommendations. A tailored treatment is crucial and rheumatologists must accurately select patients in order to identify those more susceptible to develop adverse events.

  13. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.); Fauske, H.K. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA)); Call, D.W. (Westinghouse Savannah R

    1989-04-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.

  14. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J.; Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E.; Call, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K, L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone. 37 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Statin Therapy: Review of Safety and Potential Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Satish; Raghunath, Ajay; Raghunath, Sudhakshini

    2016-11-01

    Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins. Major trials and review articles on the safety of statins were identified in a search of the MEDLINE database from 1980 to 2016, which was limited to English articles. Myalgia is the most common side effect of statin use, with documented rates from 1-10%. Rhabdomyolysis is the most serious adverse effect from statin use, though it occurs quite rarely (less than 0.1%). The most common risk factors for statin-related myopathy include hypothyroidism, polypharmacy and alcohol abuse. Derangement in liver function tests is common, affecting up to 1% of patients; however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Some statin drugs are potentially diabetogenic and the risk appears to increase in those patients on higher doses. Pitavastatin has not been associated with increased risk of diabetes. Statins have not been proven to increase the risk of malignancy, dementia, mood disorders or acute interstitial nephritis. However, statins do have multiple drug interactions, primarily those which interact with the cytochrome p450 enzyme group. Overall, statin drugs appear to be safe for use in the vast majority of patients. However, patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are at increased risk of adverse effects from long-term statin use.

  16. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs

  17. Vertical-borehole ground-coupled heat pumps: A review of models and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Cui, P. [Renewable Energy Research Group, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Fang, Z. [Ground Source Heat Pump Research Center, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2010-01-15

    A large number of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been used in residential and commercial buildings throughout the world due to the attractive advantages of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper gives a detailed literature review of the research and developments of the vertical-borehole GCHP technology for applications in air-conditioning. A general introduction on the ground source heat pump system and its development is briefly presented first. Then, the most typical simulation models of the vertical ground heat exchangers currently available are summarized in detail including the heat transfer processes outside and inside the boreholes. The various design/simulation programs for vertical GCHP systems primarily based on the typical simulation models are also reviewed in this paper. Finally, the various hybrid GCHP systems for cooling or heating-dominated buildings are well described. It is found that the GCHP technology can be used both in cold and hot weather areas and the energy saving potential is significant. (author)

  18. SALTO Peer Review Guidelines. Guidelines for Peer Review of Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    International peer review is a useful tool for Member States to exchange experiences, learn from each other and apply good practices in the long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The peer review is also an important mechanism through which the IAEA supports Member States in enhancing the safety of NPPs. The IAEA has conducted various types of safety review that indirectly address aspects of LTO, including safety reviews for design, engineering, operation and external hazards. Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) services include review of ageing management programmes. In addition, several Member States have requested Ageing Management Assessment Team (AMAT) missions. Through these experiences, it was recognized that a comprehensive peer review on LTO would be very useful to Member States. The Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation (SALTO) peer review addresses strategy and key elements for the safe LTO of NPPs, which includes AMAT objectives and complements OSART reviews. The SALTO peer review is designed to assist operating organizations in adopting a proper approach to LTP including implementing appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review can be tailored to focus on ageing management programmes (AMPs) or on other activities related to LTO to support the Member State in enhancing the safety of its NPPs. The SALTO peer review can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for the LTO of NPPs. The guidelines in this publication are primarily intended for members of a SALTO review team and provide a basic structure and common reference for peer reviews of LTO. Additionally, the guidelines also provide useful information to the operating organizations of NPPs (or technical support organizations) for carrying out their own self-assessments or comprehensive programme reviews. The guidelines are intended to be generic, as there are

  19. A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2009-12-01

    Business cases are commonly developed as means to rationalize investment. We systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess if health and productivity arguments make a good business case. To be included in the review, studies had to analyze the costs and benefits, including productivity, of an OSH intervention at the enterprise level. We searched Medline and Embase for studies and used Google search in addition. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The intervention profitability was calculated in euros (euro in 2008) as the first year's benefits minus the total intervention costs per worker. The payback period was calculated as the intervention costs divided by the first year's benefits. We found three ex-ante and 23 ex-post cases. In 20 cases, the study design was a before-after comparison without a control group. Generally a 100% reduction of injuries or sickness absence was assumed. In two cases, productivity and quality increases were very large. The main benefit was avoided sick leave. Depreciation or discounting was applied only in a minority of cases. The intervention profitability was negative in seven studies, up to euro 500 per employee in 12 studies and more than euro 500 per employee in seven studies. The payback period was less than half a year for 19 studies. Only a few studies included sensitivity analyses. Few ex-ante business cases for management decisions on OSH are reported. Guidelines for reporting and evaluation are needed. Business cases need more sound assumptions on the effectiveness of interventions and should incorporate greater uncertainty into their design. Ex-post evaluation should be based preferably on study designs that control for trends at a time different from that of the intervention.

  20. Use of FPGA and CPLD in nuclear reactor safety systems and its regulatory review requirements for reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Suvadip; Biswas, Animesh; Pradhan, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD) is being used widely in safety critical and safety related systems in nuclear power plans like in trip logic units, Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) actuation decision logic and neutronic signal processing for their reprogrammability feature and compact design. These HDL Programmable devices (HPD) are complex devices consisting of both hardware and software which is used to implement the logic on the FPGA. It is observed that these Programmable devices suffer from various modes of failure and the major failures in these devices are due to Single Event Upset (SEU), where a highly energetic ionizing radiation may lead to device failure which can even occur in radiologically benign environment. Other failures can occur during steps of developing the hardware using software tools like during Synthesis and placement and routing of the desired hardware. Here a study on use of such devices in Nuclear Reactors, study on mode of failures of these devices, way to tackle such failure and development of review guidelines for review of such devices used in safety critical and safety related systems with special emphasis on choice of software tools, way to mitigate effects of SEU and simulation and hardware testing results to be reviewed by regulatory body during design safety review is done. (author)

  1. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, Roger D.

    2011-02-01

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  2. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Laurie; Matulka, Ray; Worn, Jeffrey; Nizio, John

    2015-01-01

    Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermitt...

  3. Organization and conduct of IAEA fire safety reviews at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The importance of fire safety in the safe and productive operation of nuclear power plants is recognized worldwide. Lessons learned from experience in nuclear power plants indicate that fire poses a real threat to nuclear safety and that its significance extends far beyond the scope of a conventional fire hazard. With a growing understanding of the close correlation between the fire hazard in nuclear power plants and nuclear safety, backfitting for fire safety has become necessary for a number of operating plants. However, it has been recognized that the expertise necessary for a systematic independent assessment of fire safety of a NPP may not always be available to a number of Member States. In order to assist in enhancing fire safety, the IAEA has already started to offer various services to Member States in the area of fire safety. At the request of a Member State, the IAEA may provide a team of experts to conduct fire safety reviews of varying scope to evaluate the adequacy of fire safety at a specific nuclear power plant during various phases such as construction, operation and decommissioning. The IAEA nuclear safety publications related to fire protection and fire safety form a common basis for these reviews. This report provides guidance for the experts involved in the organization and conduct of fire safety review services to ensure consistency and comprehensiveness of the reviews

  4. Green light for the methodology file. Periodical safety review 2016 has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Every ten years, the organisational framework and the facilities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN are subject to an encompassing safety evaluation. Together with initiatives arising from the stress tests, a large number of safety studies and actions are scheduled until 2018. The article discusses the ongoing safety review.

  5. A review of the safety aspects of radio frequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhaskaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent reports showing high incidence of silent cerebral infarcts and organized atrial arrhythmias following radiofrequency (RF atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, a review of its safety aspects is timely. Serious complications do occur during supraventricular tachycardia (SVT ablations and knowledge of their incidence is important when deciding whether to proceed with ablation. Evidence is emerging for the probable role of prophylactic ischemic scar ablation to prevent VT. This might increase the number of procedures performed. Here we look at the various complications of RF ablation and also the methods to minimize them. Electronic database was searched for relevant articles from 1990 to 2015. With better awareness and technological advancements in RF ablation the incidence of complications has improved considerably. In AF ablation it has decreased from 6% to less than 4% comprising of vascular complications, cardiac tamponade, stroke, phrenic nerve injury, pulmonary vein stenosis, atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF and death. Safety of SVT ablation has also improved with less than 1% incidence of AV node injury in AVNRT ablation. In VT ablation the incidence of major complications was 5–11%, up to 3.4%, up to 1.8% and 4.1–8.8% in patients with structural heart disease, without structural heart disease, prophylactic ablations and epicardial ablations respectively. Vascular and pericardial complications dominated endocardial and epicardial VT ablations respectively. Up to 3% mortality and similar rates of tamponade were reported in endocardial VT ablation. Recent reports about the high incidence of asymptomatic cerebral embolism during AF ablation are concerning, warranting more research into its etiology and prevention.

  6. Strengthening of the nuclear safety regulatory body. Field evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    As a result of a request from the Preparation Committee of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) in 1992, and as recommended by the CEC/RAMG (Commission of European Communities/Regulatory Assistance Management Group) and the Agency mission in July 1993 to the Slovak Republic, the project SLR/9/005 was approved in 1993 as a model project for the period 1994-1996. Current budge is $401,340 and disbursements to date amount to $312,873. The project time schedule has been extended to 1997. The major conclusions of this evaluation are as follows: The project responded to an urgent national need, as well as to a statutory mandate of the Agency, and was adequately co-ordinated with other international assistance programmes to NRA. The project was designed as a structured programme of assistance by means of expert missions, scientific visits and a limited amount of equipment, acting upon several key areas of NRA regulatory responsibilities. Agency assistance was provided in a timely manner. A high concentration of expert missions was noticed at the initial stages of the project, which posed some managements problems. This was corrected to some extent in the course of implementation. Additionally, some overlapping of expert mission recommendations suggests that improvements are needed in the design of such missions. The exposure to international regulatory practice and expertise has resulted in substantial developments of NRA, both in organizational and operational terms. The project can claim to have contributed to NRA having gained governmental and international confidence. NRA's role in the safety assessment of Bohunice V1 reconstruction, as well as in Bohunice V2 safety review, Bohunice A1 decommissioning and in informing the public, also points at the success achieved by the project. The institutional and financial support of the Government contributed decisively to the project achievements. (author). Figs, tabs

  7. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mark K.; Kwiatkowski, Jan W.; Nau, Robert F.; Oliver, Robert M.; Pister, Karl S.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains an analysis of four major California earthquake records using a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It has been possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters and test the residuals generated by these models. It has also been possible to show the connections, similarities and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed in this report is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. (author)

  8. An approach for Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichev, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Safety Reviews (PSR) is complementary to the routine and special safety reviews and does not replaced them. It determines the level of compliance with current safety requirements and covers all safety aspects of NPP operation and all equipment (SSCs) on site. Three levels of importance are defined for the documents in PSR (towards higher conservatism): Bulgarian documents; IAEA documents; Documents of manufactures and suppliers of the equipment (SSCs). The scope and activities consists of four stages and includes 14 safety factors (SF). Cooperation with external companies and organizations in areas with proved experience is used.

  9. A Review of Ground Target Detection and Classification Techniques in Forward Scattering Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. A. Kanona

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of target detection and classification in forward scattering radar (FSR which is a special state of bistatic radars, designed to detect and track moving targets in the narrow region along the transmitter-receiver base line. FSR has advantages and incredible features over other types of radar configurations. All previous studies proved that FSR can be used as an alternative system for ground target detection and classification. The radar and FSR fundamentals were addressed and classification algorithms and techniques were debated. On the other hand, the current and future applications and the limitations of FSR were discussed.

  10. Review of experiments and calculation procedures for ship collision and grounding damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhu, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents a review of experiments and calculation procedures for the resistances of ship structural components subjected to impact loadings. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of large-scale collision and grounding experiments and to discuss the technical...... and material characteristics. In recent literature, analytical and numerical calculations provide relatively accurate prediction of the purely plastic responses of ship structures under impact loads, but universal approaches have not been found for fracture predictions. The existing formulae for failure...

  11. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  12. Main factors affecting strong ground motion calculations: Critical review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Pecker, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the interests of guarding lives and property against the effects of earthquakes, building codes are frequently enforced when erecting conventional structures, usually calling for simple, static calculations. Where more vulnerable facilities are involved, the failure of which, or of parts of which, could subject the environment to harmful substances, more sophisticated methods are used to compute or verify their design, often accompanied by safety margins intended to compensate for uncertainties encountered at various stages of the analysis that begins with input seismic data and culminates with an effective anti-seismic design. The forthcoming discussion will deal with what is known of the characteristics of strong ground motion, highly variable according to context, without entering into the problems raised by seismotectonic studies, which actually constitute the first aspect that must be addressed when performing such an analysis. Our conclusion will be devoted to cogent R and D work in this area

  13. Main factors affecting strong ground motion calculations: Critical review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadioun, B [DAS/SASC (France); Pecker, A [Societe Geodynamique et Structure (France)

    1990-07-01

    In the interests of guarding lives and property against the effects of earthquakes, building codes are frequently enforced when erecting conventional structures, usually calling for simple, static calculations. Where more vulnerable facilities are involved, the failure of which, or of parts of which, could subject the environment to harmful substances, more sophisticated methods are used to compute or verify their design, often accompanied by safety margins intended to compensate for uncertainties encountered at various stages of the analysis that begins with input seismic data and culminates with an effective anti-seismic design. The forthcoming discussion will deal with what is known of the characteristics of strong ground motion, highly variable according to context, without entering into the problems raised by seismotectonic studies, which actually constitute the first aspect that must be addressed when performing such an analysis. Our conclusion will be devoted to cogent R and D work in this area.

  14. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  15. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  16. SSI and SKI's Review of SKB's Updated Final Safety Report for SFR 1. Review Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste (SFR 1) is now the object of a new review by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). One of the stipulations for operating SFR 1 was that a new assessment of the long-term performance and environmental consequences of the repository should be conducted once every 10 years by the licensee, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). During the time that SFR 1 has been in operation, experience has been gained of operating the facility and new knowledge of long-term performance of SFR 1 has been obtained. New regulations for nuclear facilities have been promulgated since SFR 1 was taken into operation (1988). A review committee comprising employees from SKI and SSI has conducted the review of SSR 2001. This review report has resulted in the committee's evaluation of the safety of SFR 1 and is the basis of the regulatory authorities' decision concerning any amendments to the stipulations for the operation of SFR 1. However, the review has found deficiencies in the follow up of the development of design basis norms since the facility was constructed as well as deficiencies in learning from operating experience. However, the overall evaluation is that the facility is being operated in an acceptable manner from the standpoint of safety. With respect to the long-term performance of the repository, it is a deficiency that SSR 2001 does not describe how compliance with the stipulated radiation protection requirements on optimisation and use of the best available technology (BAT) is achieved during operation. In the opinion of the review committee, issues relating to occupational radiation protection are being handled satisfactorily and the operational releases of radioactive substances are very small. Safety and Radiation Protection after Closure SKB's long-term repository performance assessment contains essential updates and improvements compared with the

  17. Safety of High Speed Magnetic Levitation Transportation Systems: Preliminary Safety Review of the Transrapid Maglev System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible : implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad : Administration. This report, one in a series of planned reports on maglev safety, ...

  18. SCART guidelines. Reference report for IAEA Safety Culture Assessment Review Team (SCART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Director General stressed the role of safety culture in his concluding remarks at the Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety in 2002: 'As we have learned in other areas, it is not enough simply to have a structure; it is not enough to say that we have the necessary laws and the appropriate regulatory bodies. All these are important, but equally important is that we have in place a safety culture that gives effect to the structure that we have developed. To me, effectiveness and transparency are keys. So, it is an issue which I am pleased to see, you are giving the attention it deserves and we will continue to work with you in clarifying, developing and applying safety culture through our programmes and through our technical cooperation activities.' The concept of safety culture was initially developed by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Since then the IAEA's perspective of safety culture has expanded with time as its recognition of the complexities of the concept developed. Safety culture is considered to be specific organizational culture in all types of organizations with activities that give rise to radiation risks. The aim is to make safety culture strong and sustainable, so that safety becomes a primary focus for all activities in such organizations, even for those, which might not look safety-related at first. SCART (Safety Culture Assessment Review Team) is a safety review service, which reflects the expressed interest of Members States for methods and tools for safety culture assessment. It is a replacement for the earlier service ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team). The IAEA Safety Fundamentals, Requirements and Guides (Safety Standards) are the basis for the SCART Safety Review Service. The reports of INSAG, identifying important current nuclear safety issues, serve also as references during a SCART mission. SCART missions are based

  19. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  20. Commercial Crew Program and the Safety Technical Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Macy

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is unique to any other program office at NASA. After the agency suffered devastating budget cuts and the Shuttle Program retired, the U.S. gave up its human spaceflight capabilities. Since 2011 the U.S. has been dependent on Russia to transport American astronauts and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and back. NASA adapted and formed CCP, which gives private, domestic, aerospace companies unprecedented reign over America's next ride to space. The program began back in 2010 with 5 companies and is now in the final phase of certification with 2 commercial partners. The Commercial Crew Program is made up of 7 divisions, each working rigorously with the commercial providers to complete the certification phase. One of these 7 divisions is Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) which is partly comprised of the Safety Technical Review Board (STRB). The STRB is primarily concerned with mitigating improbable, but catastrophic hazards. It does this by identifying, managing, and tracking these hazards in reports. With the STRB being in SE&I, it significantly contributes to the overall certification of the partners' vehicles. After the partners receive agency certification approval, they will have the capability to provide the U.S. with a reliable, safe, and cost-effective means of human spaceflight and cargo transport to the ISS and back.

  1. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  2. Review of the Safety Design Approaches in Sodium Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2009-12-01

    The principle of the Defense in depth is essential in securing the safety of nuclear power plants, that is, to prevent cores-damaging severs accidents and to minimize the radiological consequences of the accidents 'as low as possible' (ALARA). One of the major design features of sodium fast reactors (SFRs) is that it has a large amount of sodium in the reactor vessel, providing a large heat capacity, such that it is feasible to contain the consequences of sever core damaging accidents in the vessel and primary system boundary. Containment of a severe accident in the primary system boundary, that is called in-vessel retention(IVR), is not a licensing requirement but set up as a design goal in most of the SFR design in the context of risk minimization. The objective of this report is to broadly review and compare the approaches and efforts made in the some of the major SFR designs of the US, Europe and Japan to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their consequences should they occur. Specifically, the subjects described in this report include design criteria or requirements, accident categorization and acceptance criteria, design features to prevent and contain severs accidents

  3. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  5. Operational safety review programmes for nuclear power plants. Guidelines for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has been offering the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme to provide advice and assistance to Member States in enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Simultaneously, the IAEA has encouraged self-assessment and review by Member States of their own nuclear power plants to continuously improve nuclear safety. Currently, some utilities have been implementing safety review programmes to independently review their own plants. Corporate or national operational safety review programmes may be compliance or performance based. Successful utilities have found that both techniques are necessary to provide assurance that (i) as a minimum the NPP meets specific corporate and legal requirements and (ii) management at the NPP is encouraged to pursue continuous improvement principles. These programmes can bring nuclear safety benefits to the plants and utilities. The IAEA has conducted two pilot missions to assess the effectiveness of the operational review programme. Based on these missions and on the experience gained during OSART missions, this document has been developed to provide guidance on and broaden national/corporate safety review programmes in Member States, and to assist in maximizing their benefits. These guidelines are intended primarily for the IAEA team to conduct assessment of a national/corporate safety review programme. However, this report may also be used by a country or utility to establish its own national/corporate safety review programme. The guidelines may likewise be used for self-assessment or for establishing a baseline when benchmarking other safety review programmes. This report consists of four parts. Section 2 addresses the planning and preparation of an IAEA assessment mission and Sections 3 and 4 deal with specific guidelines for conducting the assessment mission itself

  6. The periodic safety review of nuclear power plants. Practices in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the regulatory concepts and practices for the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants in OECD countries with nuclear power programmes. The statutory bases for such reviews, their objectives and the processes adopted are summarised against the background of each country's regulatory practices. Although periodic safety reviews are now, or will soon be, part of the regulatory process in the majority of countries, the national approaches to these reviews still differ considerably. This report includes numerous examples of the different concepts and practices in OECD countries, thereby illustrating the variety of ways adopted to reach the common goal of maintaining and improving nuclear safety

  7. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Safety assessment of Olkiluoto NPP units 1 and 2. Decision of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority regarding the periodic safety review of the Olkiluoto NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    In this safety assessment the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has evaluated the safety of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 in connection with the periodic safety review. This safety assessment provides a summary of the reviews, inspections and continuous oversight carried out by STUK. The issues addressed in the assessment and the related evaluation criteria are set forth in the nuclear energy and radiation safety legislation and the regulations issued thereunder. The provisions of the Nuclear Energy Act concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, security and emergency preparedness arrangements, and waste management are specified in more detail in the Government Decrees and Regulatory Guides issued by STUK. Based on the assessment, STUK consideres that the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 meet the set safety requirements for operational nuclear power plants, the emergency preparedness arrangements are sufficient and the necessary control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been appropriately arranged. The physical protection of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is not yet completely in compliance with the requirements of Government Decree 734/2008, which came into force in December 2008. Further requirements concerning this issue based also on the principle of continuous improvement were included in the decision relating to the periodic safety review. The safety of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant was assessed in compliance with the Government Decree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (733/2008), which came into force in 2008. The decree notes that existing nuclear power plants need not meet all the requirements set out for new plants. Most of the design bases pertaining to the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units were set in the 1970s. Substantial modernisations have been carried out at the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units since their commissioning to improve safety. This is in line with

  20. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Laurie; Matulka, Ray; Worn, Jeffrey; Nizio, John

    2016-01-01

    Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only) that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week) no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed.

  1. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Dolan

    Full Text Available Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control, 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed. Keywords: Pecan shell, Fiber, Rat, Diet, Toxicity, Mutagenicity

  2. A review of the safety of cold pasteurization through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, L.M.; Ruff, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Perhaps no food process has been researched and reviewed more than food irradiation. The scientific basis and mechanisms of food irradiation are as thoroughly understood by the scientific community and regulatory agencies as traditional food processes. While irradiation provides many benefits, it cannot replace proper food handling as the single most critical food safety measure. Irradiation does not prevent contamination but it controls it.A broad spectrum of national and international studies conclude that food irradiation can accomplish the following:* inhibit sprouting in crops like potatoes, onions and garlic;* destroy insects and parasites in cereal grains, dried beans, dried and fresh fruits, meat and seafood;* delay the ripening and spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables;* extend the shelf-life of perishable products like beef, poultry and seafood;* eliminate disease-causing microorganisms in food; bacterial and fungal spores and viruses are not affected by the most commonly used dose levels; and* sterilize at doses above 10 kGy herbs, spices and other ingredients like dried vegetables, in addition to foods prescribed for immuno-compromised hospital patients and for astronauts during space flight.Scientific research has also determined that food irradiation does not make food 'radioactive' and at low to medium doses, has little negative effect on vitamins and other nutrients humans obtain from their food supply. In cases where the level of certain vitamins are reduced, similar losses are experienced with other processing treatments such as thermal heat and canning. However, irradiation cannot destroy toxins.Scientists have also studied the creation of radiolytic products, including 'free radicals', by food irradiation. There is broad agreement among world renowned researchers, health organizations and agencies that radiolytic products formed during irradiation pose no danger to humans. This conclusion is based upon hundreds of toxicological studies, some

  3. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  4. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  5. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  6. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  7. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall

    2017-06-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  9. OSART Guidelines. 2015 Edition. Reference Report for IAEA Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The IAEA works to provide a global nuclear safety and security framework for the protection of people and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the minimization of the likelihood of accidents that could endanger life and property, and effective mitigation of the effects of any such events, should they occur. The strategic approach to achieving such a framework involves continual improvement in four areas: national and international safety infrastructures; the establishment and global acceptance of IAEA safety standards; an integrated approach to the provision for the application of the safety standards; and a global network of knowledge and experience. The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. The OSART programme, initiated in 1982, is available to all Member States with nuclear power plants under commissioning or in operation. Conservative design, careful manufacture and sound construction are all prerequisites for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. However, the safety of the plant also depends ultimately on: sound management, policies, procedures, processes and practices; the capability and reliability of commissioning and operating personnel; comprehensive instructions; sound accident management and emergency preparedness; and adequate resources. Finally, a positive attitude and conscientiousness on the part of all staff in discharging their responsibilities is important to safety. The OSART programme is based on the safety standards applicable to nuclear power plants. IAEA safety standards reflect the consensus of Member States on nuclear safety matters. The reports of the International Nuclear Safety Group identify important current nuclear safety issues and also serve as references during an OSART review. The publication OSART Guidelines provides overall guidance on the conduct of OSART

  10. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in FY 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    In FY 2008, Federal and State enforcement personnel conducted 14,906 compliance reviews (CRs) on individual motor carriers. It is intended that through education, heightened safety regulation awareness, and the enforcement effects of the CR, carriers...

  11. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in fiscal year 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In FY 2009, Federal and State enforcement personnel conducted more than 15,000 compliance reviews (CRs) on individual motor carriers. It is intended that through education, heightened safety regulation awareness, and the enforcement effects of the CR...

  12. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD 50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human. - Highlights: • Mutagenicity 2-ACBs on the microorganisms was not observed. • Several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs. • Genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested, but elucidation of the mechanism is needed. • 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted in feces. • Further studies for toxicity of 2-ACBs following

  13. Radiation safety, protection and recommendations in dentistry - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, Renita

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. Diagnostic radiology uses ionizing radiations which have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules in biological and other systems. X-rays used in diagnostic radiology are a potent mutagenic agent, capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. X-rays are extensively used in medical and dental practice for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. X-rays provide useful information and aid in diagnosis but at the same time they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry X-rays are used mainly for diagnosis. Radiation in doses required for dentistry may not present any major risks, however these small doses are not necessarily risk free. Hence, no exposure to X-rays can be considered completely free of risk, so the use of radiation by dentists is accompanied by a responsibility to ensure appropriate protection. Several radiation safety measures have been recommended and advocated to reduce harmful effects. Dental professionals are the only practitioners who perform radiographical examination of their patients themselves. Although the exposure used in dentistry is low every effort should be made to reduce radiation in order to prevent the accumulated dose to the dentist in their lifetime. The dose reduction can be achieved in three main steps. They are decision making, optimising radiologic procedures and patient protection. The potential for undesirable effects must be balanced against the benefits obtained from radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel. (author)

  14. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  15. Building safety and human behaviour in fire: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobes, M.; Helsloot, I.; de Vries, B.; Post, J.

    2010-01-01

    The most crucial aspect of a building's safety in the face of fire is the possibility of safe escape. An important precondition is that its fire safety facilities enable independent and adequate fire response performances by the building's occupants. In practice, it appears that the measures

  16. Review of safety reports involving electronic flight bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) are a relatively new device used by pilots. Even so, 37 safety-related events involving EFBs were identified from the public online Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database as of June 2008. In addition, two accid...

  17. Improving Patient Safety Culture in Primary Care: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L. M.

    Background: Patient safety culture, described as shared values, attitudes and behavior of staff in a health-care organization, gained attention as a subject of study as it is believed to be related to the impact of patient safety improvements. However, in primary care, it is yet unknown, which

  18. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  19. Ground-level O3 pollution and its impacts on food crops in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Enzhu; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) pollution has become one of the top environmental issues in China, especially in those economically vibrant and densely populated regions. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the O 3 concentration observation and O 3 effects on food crops throughout China. Data from 118 O 3 monitoring sites reported in the literature show that the variability of O 3 concentration is a function of geographic location. The impacts of O 3 on food crops (wheat and rice) were studied at five sites, equipped with Open Top Chamber or O 3 -FACE (free-air O 3 concentration enrichment) system. Based on exposure concentration and stomatal O 3 flux–response relationships obtained from the O 3 -FACE experimental results in China, we found that throughout China current and future O 3 levels induce wheat yield loss by 6.4–14.9% and 14.8–23.0% respectively. Some policies to reduce ozone pollution and impacts are suggested. - Highlights: • Ozone concentrations are increasing in most of regions of China. • Ozone has caused high yield loss of food crops in China. • More species and local varieties should be investigated for ozone sensitivity. • Developing the air quality standards for crops is required in China. • More air quality stations in the rural are needed. - Ground-level ozone is one of the most serious environmental pollutants for food production in China

  20. Guidelines for the Review of Research Reactor Safety: Revised Edition. Reference Document for IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) is an IAEA safety review service available to Member States with the objective of supporting them in ensuring and enhancing the safety of their research reactors. This service consists of performing a comprehensive peer review and an assessment of the safety of the respective research reactor. The reviews are based on IAEA safety standards and on the provisions of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors. The INSARR can benefit both the operating organizations and the regulatory bodies of the requesting Member States, and can include new research reactors under design or operating research reactors, including those which are under a Project and Supply Agreement with the IAEA. The first IAEA safety evaluation of a research reactor operated by a Member State was completed in October 1959 and involved the Swiss 20 MW DIORIT research reactor. Since then, and in accordance with its programme on research reactor safety, the IAEA has conducted safety review missions in its Member States to enhance the safety of their research reactor facilities through the application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors and the relevant IAEA safety standards. About 320 missions in 51 Member States were undertaken between 1972 and 2012. The INSARR missions and other limited scope safety review missions are conducted following the guidelines presented in this publication, which is a revision of Guidelines for the Review of Research Reactor Safety (IAEA Services Series No. 1), published in December 1997. This publication details those IAEA safety standards and guidance publications relevant to the safety of research reactors that have been revised or published since 1997. The purpose of this publication is to give guidance on the preparation, implementation, reporting and follow-up of safety review missions. It is also intended to be of assistance to operators and regulators in conducting

  1. Patient safety culture in care homes for older people: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Gartshore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of safety culture in preventing incidents such as medication errors and falls. However, research and developments in safety culture has predominantly taken place in hospital settings, with relatively less attention given to establishing a safety culture in care homes. Despite safety culture being accepted as an important quality indicator across all health and social care settings, the understanding of culture within social care settings remains far less developed than within hospitals. It is therefore important that the existing evidence base is gathered and reviewed in order to understand safety culture in care homes. Methods A scoping review was undertaken to describe the availability of evidence related to care homes’ patient safety culture, what these studies focused on, and identify any knowledge gaps within the existing literature. Included papers were each reviewed by two authors for eligibility and to draw out information relevant to the scoping review. Results Twenty-four empirical papers and one literature review were included within the scoping review. The collective evidence demonstrated that safety culture research is largely based in the USA, within Nursing Homes rather than Residential Home settings. Moreover, the scoping review revealed that empirical evidence has predominantly used quantitative measures, and therefore the deeper levels of culture have not been captured in the evidence base. Conclusions Safety culture in care homes is a topic that has not been extensively researched. The review highlights a number of key gaps in the evidence base, which future research into safety culture in care home should attempt to address.

  2. Technical Issues and Proposes on the Legislation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seok-Won; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Na, Jang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Korean Nuclear Power Plants have performed a comprehensive safety assessment reflecting design and procedure changes and using the latest technology every 10 years. In Korea, safety factors of PSR are revised to 14 by revision of IAEA Safety Guidelines in 2003. In the revised safety guidelines, safety analysis field was subdivided into deterministic safety analysis, PSA (Probabilistic safety analysis), and hazard analysis. The purpose to examine PSA as a safety factor on PSR is to make sure that PSA results and assumptions reflect the latest state of NPPs, validate the level of computer codes and analytical models, and evaluate the adequacy of PSA instructions. In addition, its purpose is to derive the plant design change, operating experience of other plants and safety enhancement items as well. In Korea, PSA is introduced as a new factor. Thus, the overall guideline development and long-term implementation strategy are needed. Today in Korea, full-power PSA model revision and low-power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA model development is being performed as a part of the post Fukushima action items for operating plants. The scope of the full-power PSA is internal/external level 1, 2 PSA. But in case of fire PSA, the scope is level 1 PSA using new method, NUREG/CR-6850. In case of LPSD PSA, level 1 PSA for all operating plants, and level 2 PSA for 2 demonstration plants are under development. The result of the LPSD PSA will be used as major input data for plant specific SAMG (Severe Accident Management Guideline). The scope of PSA currently being developed in Korea cannot fulfill 'All Mode, All Scope' requirements recommended in the IAEA Safety Guidelines. Besides the legislation of PSA, step-by-step development strategy for non-performed scopes such as level 3 PSA and new fire PSA is one of the urgent issues in Korea. This paper suggests technical issues and development strategies for each PSA technical elements.

  3. Results of 6th Review Meeting and Perspective of the 7th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sukho; Kim, Manwoong; You, Jeongwon; Lee, Youngeal

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlighted the objective and role of the Convention on Nuclear Safety organized by the IAEA. The Convention provides Member States to demonstrate and share how to maintain and improve the level of nuclear safety. The results of the 6 th review meeting were implemented for safety improvements and to prepare for 7 th national report. Seven and a half months before the 7 th Review Meeting, the National Report has submitted on steps and measures taken to implement Convention obligations. The Contracting Parties reviewed each other’s reports, and exchanged written questions, written answers and comments. The discussions in the Country Group sessions were generally good with a lively and frank exchange of information. The Country Groups noted the significant measures taken by Contracting Parties to improve nuclear safety and identified a number of good practices to be shared with all Contracting Parties.

  4. Revision of AESJ standard 'the code of implemnetation of periodic safety review of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masashi; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) was launched in June 1992, when the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy issued a notification that required licensees to conduct comprehensive review on the safety of each existing nuclear power plant (NPP) once approximately every ten years based on the latest technical findings for the purpose of improving the safety of the NPP. In 2006, the Standard Committee of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the first version of 'The Standard of Implementation for Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: 2006'. Taking into account developments in safety regulation of PSR after the issuance of the first version, the Standard Committee has revised the Standard. This paper summarizes background on PSR, such developments are major contents of the Standard as well as the focal points of the revision. (author)

  5. An integrative review of patient safety in studies on the care and safety of patients with communication disabilities in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Bronwyn; Georgiou, Andrew; Hill, Sophie; Rollo, Megan; Steel, Joanne; Balandin, Susan

    2016-04-01

    To review the research literature on the experiences of patients with communication disabilities in hospital according to the Generic Model of patient safety. In 2014 and 2015, we searched four scientific databases for studies with an aim or result relevant to safety of hospital patients with communication disabilities. The review included 27 studies. A range of adverse event types were outlined in qualitative research. Little detail was provided about contributing or protective factors for safety incidents in hospital for these patients or the impact of the incidents on the patient or organisations involved. Further research addressing the safety of patients with communication disabilities is needed. Sufficient detail is required to identify the nature, timing, and detection of incidents; factors that contribute to or prevent adverse events; and detail the impact of the adverse events. In order to provide safe and effective care to people with communication disabilities in hospital, a priority for health and disability services must be the design and evaluation of ecologically appropriate and evidence-based interventions to improve patient care, communication, and reduce the risk of costly and harmful patient safety incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography for the safety management of a cultural heritage site: Miletos Ilyas Bey Mosque (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Detection and assessment of structural damage affecting foundation robustness is of significant relevance for the safety management of cultural heritage sites. In this framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is worth consideration owing to its capability of providing high resolution and detailed information about the inner status of a structure, without involving significant invasive actions and ensuring a fast survey. On the other hand, the effectiveness of a GPR diagnostic survey can be impaired by the low interpretability of the raw data radargrams; thus huge interest is currently focused on the development of advanced and application-oriented data processing strategies. In this paper, a data processing chain based on the combined use of the commercial REFLEXW program and a microwave tomography approach is presented. An assessment of the achievable imaging capabilities is provided by processing measurements collected during a survey at the Great Mosque of Ilyas Bey (Ilyas Bey Mosque), one of the most important cultural heritages in ancient Miletos-Iona in Söke-Aydin city (Turkey). (paper)

  7. Review of radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.W.; Moore, R.J.; Balter, S.

    1992-01-01

    With the increasing use of coronary arteriography and interventional procedures, radiation exposure to patients and personnel working in cardiac catheterization laboratories has increased. Proper technique to minimize both patient and operator exposure is necessary. A practical approach to radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is presented. This discussion should be useful to facilities with well-established radiation safety programs as well as facilities that require restructuring to cope with the radiation environment in a modern cardiac catheterization laboratory

  8. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants, Revision No. 7 to Section 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Revision No. 1 to Section 9 of the Standard Review Plan incorporates changes that have been developed since the original issuance in September 1975, many of which are editorial in nature, to reflect current staff practice in the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants

  9. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  10. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of Seismic Safety Program. 128-1.8009 Section 128-1.8009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program...

  12. A Review of Interventions To Increase Driving Safety among Teenage Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, John R., II

    Young drivers across the United States represent a persistent traffic safety problem. Many interventions have been imposed on these drivers but few studies have evaluated the impact of these interventions on risky behaviors or traffic safety measures. To fill this gap, a review was undertaken to examine the most rigorous methodological evaluations…

  13. Research oil guidelines for safety review of category 2 waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Safety confirmation items and monitoring items for engineered barriers were compiled, considering the current technical status and monitoring plan for the simulated subsurface disposal and its test facilities. In order to develop the guidelines of the safety review for the disposal of LLW generated from RI facilities and research facilities, technical issues relating toxic substances were surveyed. (author)

  14. Response to NII review of the PCSR July 1982 - protection and essential safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The design provisions of the systems are summarised, and response is made to the detailed concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate as expressed in their review of the pre-construction safety report (PCSR). Further clarification is provided of work done on protection and essential safety systems since presentation of the PCSR, and the ongoing work programme is described. (U.K.)

  15. 75 FR 42818 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request... data on the nation's transportation system is an important component of BTS' responsibility to the...

  16. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder : A critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, David S.; den Boer, Johan A.; Lyndon, Gavin; Emir, Birol; Schweizer, Edward; Haswell, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarise the literature on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Of 241 literature citations, 13 clinical trials were identified that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in

  17. Recommendations and comments on the report of the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The report of the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review (ONSR) prepared by Dr. F. Kenneth Hare in March 1988, is reviewed by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) to assess for the Atomic Energy Control Board the relevance and importance of the ONSR recommendations and comments. The ACNS conclusions from this study are embodied in nineteen recommendations, as well as several suggestions and some specific comments

  18. Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Two-Leg Landing: A Systematic Review and Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH, (2 to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3 to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH. Methods. A computerized bibliographical search was conducted to extract PvGRF data on a single foot when participants landed with both feet from various DHs. An innovative mathematical model was constructed to analyze effects of gender, landing type, shoes, ankle stabilizers, surface stiffness and sample frequency on PvGRF based on the pooled data. Results. Pooled PvGRF and DH data of 26 articles showed that the square root function fits their relationship well. An experimental validation was also done on the regression equation for the medicum frequency. The PvGRF was not significantly affected by surface stiffness, but was significantly higher in men than women, the platform than suspended landing, the barefoot than shod condition, and ankle stabilizer than control condition, and higher than lower frequencies. Conclusions. The PvGRF and root DH showed a linear relationship. The mathematical modeling method with systematic review is helpful to analyze the influence factors during landing movement without considering DH.

  19. Workshop on Regulatory Review and Safety Assessment Issues in Repository Licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, Roger D. (Galson Sciences Limited (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    The workshop described here was organised to address more general issues regarding regulatory review of SKB's safety assessment and overall review strategy. The objectives of the workshop were: - to learn from other programmes' experiences on planning and review of a license application for a nuclear waste repository, - to offer newly employed SSM staff an opportunity to learn more about selected safety assessment issues, and - to identify and document recommendations and ideas for SSM's further planning of the licensing review

  20. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  1. IAEA Issues Report on Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts has delivered its report on a mission it conducted from 21-31 January 2012 to review Japan's process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) officials delivered the IAEA Mission Report to Japanese officials yesterday and made it publicly available today. Following the 11 March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced the development of a revised safety assessment process for the nation's nuclear power reactors. At the request of the Government of Japan, the IAEA organized a team of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts and visited Japan to review NISA's approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 31 January. 'The mission report provides additional information regarding the team's recommendations and overall finding that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The IAEA safety review mission held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. In its report delivered today

  2. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  3. Experience With Laser Safety In The USA--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, David H.

    1986-10-01

    Following several research programs in the 1960's aimed at studying the adverse biological effects of lasers and other optical radiation sources, laser occupational exposure limits were set and general safety standards were developed. Today, the experience from laser accidents and the development of new lasers and new applications have altered the format of the exposure limits and the safety procedures. It is critically important to distinguish between different biological injury mechanisms. The biological effects of ultraviolet radiation upon the skin and eye are additive over a period of at least one workday, and require different safety procedures. The scattered UV irradiance from excimer lasers may be quite hazardous, depending upon wavelength and action spectra. Since laser technology is young, the exposure of an individual in natural sunlight must be studied to evaluate the potential for chronic effects. The safety measures necessary in the use of lasers depend upon a hazard evaluation. The appropriate control measures and alternate means of enclosure, baffling, and operational control measures are presented. Present laser safety standards are explained briefly. Eye protective techniques and eyewear are considered for a variety of sources. The optical properties of enclosure materials are also discussed.

  4. Review of TSOs technical needs in safety research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Bruna, G.

    2012-01-01

    ETSON is the network of European Technical Safety Organizations. The ETSON members have elaborated together a position paper which identifies and ranks the main research and development fields of endeavor in a short, mid and long term perspective. The main research areas and major needs are grouped in 7 areas: 1) safety assessment methods, 2) multi-physics safety approach (several disciplines, macroscopic and microscopic level), 3) Ageing of materials, 4) fuel behaviour, 5) human and organisational factors, 6) instrumentation and control, 7) Severe accidents: phenomenology and methodology, and severe accidents: crisis preparedness and major needs. ETSON has coordinated the activities with other European platforms and has widely contributed to the NUGENIA (Nuclear Generation 2 and 3 Association) topic research and development areas. The next step will be a prioritization of these needs

  5. Patient participation in patient safety and nursing input - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aims to synthesise the existing research on how patients participate in patient safety initiatives. Ambiguities remain about how patients participate in routine measures designed to promote patient safety. Systematic review using integrative methods. Electronic databases were searched using keywords describing patient involvement, nursing input and patient safety initiatives to retrieve empirical research published between 2007 and 2013. Findings were synthesized using the theoretical domains of Vincent's framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical practice: "patient", "healthcare provider", "task", "work environment", "organisation & management". We identified 17 empirical research papers: four qualitative, one mixed-method and 12 quantitative designs. All 17 papers indicated that patients can participate in safety initiatives. Improving patient participation in patient safety necessitates considering the patient as a person, the nurse as healthcare provider, the task of participation and the clinical environment. Patients' knowledge, health conditions, beliefs and experiences influence their decisions to engage in patient safety initiatives. An important component of the management of long-term conditions is to ensure that patients have sufficient knowledge to participate. Healthcare providers may need further professional development in patient education and patient care management to promote patient involvement in patient safety, and ensure that patients understand that they are 'allowed' to inform nurses of adverse events or errors. A healthcare system characterised by patient-centredness and mutual acknowledgement will support patient participation in safety practices. Further research is required to improve international knowledge of patient participation in patient safety in different disciplines, contexts and cultures. Patients have a significant role to play in enhancing their own safety while receiving hospital care. This

  6. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  7. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. A submission to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review by Atomic Energy Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This submission comments on the evolution of the Canadian nuclear program, the management of safety, and the reactor design, analysis, operation and research programs that contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor and provide assurance of safety to the regulatory agency and to the public. The CANDU reactor system has been designed and developed with close cooperation between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), utilities, manufacturers, and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB has the responsibility, on behalf of the public, for establishing acceptable standards with respect to public risk and for establishing through independent review that these standards are satisfied. The plant designer has responsibility for defining how those standards will be met. The plant operator has responsibility for operating within the framework of those standards. The Canadian approach to safety design is based on the philosophy of defence in depth. Defence in depth is achieved through a high level of equipment quality, system redundancy and fail-safe design; regulating and process systems designed to maintain all process systems within acceptable operating parameters; and, independent safety systems to shut down the reactor, provide long-term cooling, and contain potential release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. The resulting design meets regulatory requirements not only in Canada but also in other countries. Probabilistic safety and risk evaluations show that the CANDU design offers a level of safety and least as good as other commercially available reactor designs

  8. Bohunice V-1. Review of safety upgrading and operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korec, J.; Kuschel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Bohunice site in the Slovak Republic has two Russian-designed twin-unit nuclear power plants, one equipped with reactors of the WWER 440/230 type, the other with type WWER 440/213 reactors. Two older units (V-1) started commercial operation in late 1978 and 1980 respectively and have been supplying electricity to the national grid since that time without any events that could have degraded plant safety level. In the period prior to 1990 the utility Slovenske Elektrarne (S.E.) performed extensive modifications and upgrades to the original design of the two older units V-1 NPP. Furthermore, significant steps in safety improvement for Bohunice NPP V-1 have been made since 1990. Following the political restructuring of the former Czechoslovakia and the country's new open-door policy towards western organizations, several international expert missions were focused on evaluation of Bohunice NPP safety status level and operational reliability, particularly targeting the two older units. Based on recommendations of individual expert missions and complementary deterministic and probabilistic safety analyses performed by S.E., the Czechoslovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority issued the Resolution No. 5/91 defining 81 measures concerning further safety and reliability improvement of Bohunice V1 .A range of short-term and long-term upgrades was prioritised in terms of importance to plant safety and work to implement these measures commenced in the early nineties. During the 'Small Reconstruction' from 1991 to 1993 some of the short term upgrading measures were realized to eliminate the most serious safety deficits, thus to achieve a significant reduction in core damage frequency and a major improvement in confinement integrity. In this paper and presentation the goals of the gradual reconstruction project, basic engineering, detailed engineering and realization, last major stage of Unit 2 upgrade, as well as final stage of Unit 1 upgrade in early 2000 are presented

  9. Classification of antecedents towards safety use of health information technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of safety use of health information technology (IT). The first objective is to identify the antecedents towards safety use of health IT by conducting systematic literature review (SLR). The second objective is to classify the identified antecedents based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model and an extension of DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted from peer-reviewed scholarly publications between January 2000 and July 2014. SLR was carried out and reported based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The related articles were identified by searching the articles published in Science Direct, Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Data extracted from the resultant studies included are to be analysed based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and also from the extended DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. 55 articles delineated to be antecedents that influenced the safety use of health IT were included for review. Antecedents were identified and then classified into five key categories. The categories are (1) person, (2) technology, (3) tasks, (4) organization, and (5) environment. Specifically, person is attributed by competence while technology is associated to system quality, information quality, and service quality. Tasks are attributed by task-related stressor. Organisation is related to training, organisation resources, and teamwork. Lastly, environment is attributed by physical layout, and noise. This review provides evidence that the antecedents for safety use of health IT originated from both social and technical aspects. However, inappropriate health IT usage potentially increases the incidence of errors and produces new safety risks. The review cautions future

  10. A review on the benchmarking concept in Malaysian construction safety performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah; Azizan, Muhammad Azizi

    2018-02-01

    Construction industry is one of the major industries that propels Malaysia's economy in highly contributes to our nation's GDP growth, yet the high fatality rates on construction sites have caused concern among safety practitioners and the stakeholders. Hence, there is a need of benchmarking in performance of Malaysia's construction industry especially in terms of safety. This concept can create a fertile ground for ideas, but only in a receptive environment, organization that share good practices and compare their safety performance against other benefit most to establish improvement in safety culture. This research was conducted to study the awareness important, evaluate current practice and improvement, and also identify the constraint in implement of benchmarking on safety performance in our industry. Additionally, interviews with construction professionals were come out with different views on this concept. Comparison has been done to show the different understanding of benchmarking approach and how safety performance can be benchmarked. But, it's viewed as one mission, which to evaluate objectives identified through benchmarking that will improve the organization's safety performance. Finally, the expected result from this research is to help Malaysia's construction industry implement best practice in safety performance management through the concept of benchmarking.

  11. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)

    2017-03-01

    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  12. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings

  13. Review of the World Bank Road Safety website.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Road Safety website of The World Bank needs to be redeveloped. The website should reflect the new developments in the work field and the IT policy of The World Bank and support its implementation. The report is meant as a brief business case, describing the target audience, purposes of the site,

  14. Safety of nanofood: A review | Ijabadeniyi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods generated a lot of controversy few years back, now it is the turn of nanofoods. There has been debate on the safety of foods that have been produced directly or indirectly with nanomaterials. Nanoparticles or nanotechnology procedures may be used to make food products, ...

  15. Gender issues in safety and health at work : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Kauppinen, K.; Kumpulainen, R.; Goudswaard, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report explores the gender differences in occupational safety and health. There is strong segregation of women and men into different jobs and tasks at work. Both men and women face significant risks. In general, men suffer more accidents and injuries at work than women do, whereas women report

  16. Review of Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound in Medical Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, there is a dearth of scientific literature about the safety of ultrasound as a diagnostic modality. Because of its low cost, real-time image display and lack of evidence of bio-effects, ultrasound is a fast growing imaging modality. The impact of ultrasound in the care of women and children is most obvious. Information ...

  17. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. ... Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and ... Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded ...

  18. SKI - ASAR - B1/B2 As operated Safety Analysis Report. Recurring safety review 1995 Barsebaeck 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    According to Swedish law, the reactor owner is responsible for performing a safety review and writing a so called ASAR-report. The Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) examines this report, and reports the findings to the government (the so called SKI-ASAR-report). Each Swedish reactor should pass through three full ASAR reviews during its lifetime, similar to the licensing inspection before start-up of the reactor. The second series ASAR was delivered by the Barsebaeck utility to SKI in September 1995, and forms the basis for the SKI analysis in the present report

  19. The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals. A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of MDEP is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are for a specific technology. Therefore MDEP set up a sub-committee to investigate a different approach. This approach was to start with the top level goals and to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier goals that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones. This approach has the potential to greatly assist in the process of harmonisation of regulatory requirements. The paper reviews the high level goals used in MDEP countries and the relevant work of international groups. From these it draws broad conclusions that the form of the framework should be an Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals, incorporating an extended Defense-in-Depth approach. The basis concept is that the higher level safety goals can then developed, in a coherent and consistent manner, into lower level safety goals and targets that can be applied within the design and operation of reactors, with a clear connection between the different levels. This structured approach is technology-neutral and is sufficiently flexible that it can be

  20. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  1. International review on safety requirements for the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju” (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In response to the lessons learned from the serious nuclear accidents at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations, an advisory committee, which was set up by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, issued the report “Safety Requirements Expected to the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju” taking into account the SFR specific safety characteristics in July 2014. The report was reviewed by the leading international experts on SFR safety from five countries and one international organization in order to obtain independent and objective evaluation. The international review comments on each subsection were collected and compiled, and then a summary of results was derived through the discussion at the review meeting and individual feedbacks. As a result the basic concept for prevention of severe accidents and mitigation of their consequences of Monju is appropriate in consideration of SFR specific safety characteristics, and is in accordance with international common understanding. (author)

  2. Review and assessment of nuclear facilities by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on reviewing and assessing the various safety related submissions made by the operator of a nuclear facility at different stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning or closure) in the facility's lifetime to determine whether the facility complies with the applicable safety objectives and requirements. This Safety Guide covers the review and assessment of submissions in relation to the safety of nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants. Nuclear power plants. Other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies. Spent fuel reprocessing plants. And facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Objectives, management, planning and organizational matters relating to the review and assessment process are presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with the bases for decision making and conduct of the review and assessment process. Section 4 covers aspects relating to the assessment of this process. The Appendix provides a generic list of topics to be covered in the review and assessment process

  3. Review and assessment of nuclear facilities by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on reviewing and assessing the various safety related submissions made by the operator of a nuclear facility at different stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning or closure) in the facility's lifetime to determine whether the facility complies with the applicable safety objectives and requirements. This Safety Guide covers the review and assessment of submissions in relation to the safety of nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants. Nuclear power plants. Other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies. Spent fuel reprocessing plants. And facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Objectives, management, planning and organizational matters relating to the review and assessment process are presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with the bases for decision making and conduct of the review and assessment process. Section 4 covers aspects relating to the assessment of this process. The Appendix provides a generic list of topics to be covered in the review and assessment process

  4. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Narinder; Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing.

  5. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  6. OSART guidelines - 2005 edition. Reference report for IAEA Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has put forward the vision of a global nuclear safety regime that provides for the protection of people and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities, the minimization of the likelihood of accidents that could endanger life and property and effective mitigation of the effects of any such events should they occur. The strategic approach for achieving the vision of enhancing this regime involves four elements and aims at ensuring that the overall nuclear safety level in Member States continues to improve: - Improvement of national and international safety infrastructures: - Establishment and global acceptance of IAEA safety standards; - Integrated approach to the provision for the application of safety standards; and - Global network of knowledge and experience. The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. The OSART programme, initiated in 1982, is available to all Member States with nuclear power plants under commissioning or in operation. The OSART methodology and its safety services may also be applied to other nuclear installations (e.g. fuel cycle facilities, research reactors). Conservative design, careful manufacture and sound construction are all prerequisites for safe operation of nuclear power plants. However, the safety of the plant depends ultimately on sound policies, procedures, processes and practices; on the capability and reliability of the commissioning and operating personnel; on comprehensive instructions; and on adequate resources. A positive attitude and conscientiousness on the part of the management and staff in discharging their responsibilities is important to safety. OSART missions consider these aspects in assessing a facility's operational practices in comparison with those used successfully in other countries and

  7. OSART guidelines - 2005 edition. Reference report for IAEA Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has put forward the vision of a global nuclear safety regime that provides for the protection of people and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities, the minimization of the likelihood of accidents that could endanger life and property and effective mitigation of the effects of any such events should they occur. The strategic approach for achieving the vision of enhancing this regime involves four elements and aims at ensuring that the overall nuclear safety level in Member States continues to improve: - Improvement of national and international safety infrastructures: - Establishment and global acceptance of IAEA safety standards. - Integrated approach to the provision for the application of safety standards. And - Global network of knowledge and experience. The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. The OSART programme, initiated in 1982, is available to all Member States with nuclear power plants under commissioning or in operation. The OSART methodology and its safety services may also be applied to other nuclear installations (e.g. fuel cycle facilities, research reactors). Conservative design, careful manufacture and sound construction are all prerequisites for safe operation of nuclear power plants. However, the safety of the plant depends ultimately on sound policies, procedures, processes and practices. On the capability and reliability of the commissioning and operating personnel. On comprehensive instructions. And on adequate resources. A positive attitude and conscientiousness on the part of the management and staff in discharging their responsibilities is important to safety. OSART missions consider these aspects in assessing a facility's operational practices in comparison with those used successfully in other countries and

  8. OSART guidelines - 2005 edition. Reference report for IAEA Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has put forward the vision of a global nuclear safety regime that provides for the protection of people and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities, the minimization of the likelihood of accidents that could endanger life and property and effective mitigation of the effects of any such events should they occur. The strategic approach for achieving the vision of enhancing this regime involves four elements and aims at ensuring that the overall nuclear safety level in Member States continues to improve: - Improvement of national and international safety infrastructures: - Establishment and global acceptance of IAEA safety standards. - Integrated approach to the provision for the application of safety standards. And - Global network of knowledge and experience. The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. The OSART programme, initiated in 1982, is available to all Member States with nuclear power plants under commissioning or in operation. The OSART methodology and its safety services may also be applied to other nuclear installations (e.g. fuel cycle facilities, research reactors). Conservative design, careful manufacture and sound construction are all prerequisites for safe operation of nuclear power plants. However, the safety of the plant depends ultimately on sound policies, procedures, processes and practices. On the capability and reliability of the commissioning and operating personnel. On comprehensive instructions. And on adequate resources. A positive attitude and conscientiousness on the part of the management and staff in discharging their responsibilities is important to safety. OSART missions consider these aspects in assessing a facility's operational practices in comparison with those used successfully in other countries and

  9. Nuclear Installation Safety: General Observations and Trends from IAEA Peer Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzentkowski, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Review Services (SRSs) for nuclear installations address the needs of Member States at all stages of installations’ lifecycle. SRSs are based on the IAEA Safety Standards and are provided on Member States’ request to peer review national regulatory frameworks and safety provisions for nuclear installations. They result in recommendations and suggestions to improve national regulations and operational safety, and serve to exert peer pressure to ensure that that every Member State with nuclear installations recognizes its safety responsibility and the need to comply with the IAEA Safety Standards. This presentation provides an overview of SRSs for Nuclear Installations, including their structure and main subject areas. The presentation also summarizes general findings and trends which clearly demonstrate that there is continuous improvement in regulation of nuclear installations and in safety of their operation. Nevertheless, there is the need to further enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of SRSs through review of the overall governance model and service delivery to better serve the needs of Member States. The presentation points out some areas of improvements which have already been implemented or are being considered for implementation. Just as important, SRSs are conducted by teams of experts from around the world to strengthening international cooperation, ensure diversity and impartiality, and improve the overall quality of the safety review being conducted. The review team members are also provided with the opportunity for mutual learning and sharing good practices among themselves and with the Member State undergoing the review. As a result, SRAs play an important role in a quest to harmonize regulatory requirements and approaches globally. (author)

  10. A review of the report ''IAEA safety targets and probabilistic risk assessment'' prepared for Greenpeace International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At the request of the Director General, INSAG reviewed the report ''IAEA Safety Targets and Probabilistic Risk Assessment'' prepared for Greenpeace International by the Gesellschaft fuer Oekologische Forschung und Beratung mbH, Hannover, Germany. The conclusions of the report as well as the review results of INSAG experts are reproduced in this document

  11. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition.'' The new subsection is the Standard Review Plan... Nuclear Power Plants: Integral Pressurized Water Reactor (iPWR) Edition.'' DATES: Comments must be filed... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power...

  12. Review on Dutch-German steam generator safety activities in the field of SNR-development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumm, K.; Westenbrugge, J.K. van

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of the experimental and theoretical safety related work for SNR steam generators in brief. A review of the operating experience with SNR-300 sodium-water heat-exchangers and protection philosophy used in SNR-2 is also given

  13. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  14. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Safety Review Procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE program management, human factors analyses, human factors design, and HFE verification and validation, based on section 15.1 'human factors engineering design process' and 15.2 'control room human factors engineering' of KNGR specific safety requirements and chapter 15 'human factors engineering' of KNGR safety regulatory guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  16. A Review on Migration Methods in B-Scan Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Özdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though ground penetrating radar has been well studied and applied by many researchers for the last couple of decades, the focusing problem in the measured GPR images is still a challenging task. Although there are many methods offered by different scientists, there is not any complete migration/focusing method that works perfectly for all scenarios. This paper reviews the popular migration methods of the B-scan GPR imaging that have been widely accepted and applied by various researchers. The brief formulation and the algorithm steps for the hyperbolic summation, the Kirchhoff migration, the back-projection focusing, the phase-shift migration, and the ω-k migration are presented. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate and compare the migration algorithms over different focusing methods such that the reader can decide which algorithm to use for a particular application of GPR. Both the simulated and the measured examples that are used for the performance comparison of the presented algorithms are provided. Other emerging migration methods are also pointed out.

  17. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  18. Letter to the editor regarding "GRAS from the ground up: Review of the Interim Pilot Program for GRAS notification" by.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalt, Vincent; LaMarta, James; Shanahan, Diane; Gregg, Lori; Carrillo, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Present letter is aimed at clarifying some critical points highlighted by Hanlon et al. regarding the common knowledge element of the safety of food enzymes in support of their GRAS designation. Particularly, we outline the development of peer-reviewed, generally recognized safety evaluation methodology for microbial enzymes and its adoption by the enzyme industry, which provides the US FDA with a review framework for enzyme GRAS Notices. This approach may serve as a model to other food ingredient categories for a scientifically sound, rigorous, and transparent application of the GRAS concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. End of mission report on seismic safety review mission for Belene NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpinar, A.; Mohammadioun, B.; Schneider, H.; Serva, L.

    1995-01-01

    Upon the invitation of the Bulgarian government through the Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and within the framework of the implementation of the Technical Cooperation project BUL/9/012 related to site and seismic of NPPs, a mission visited Sofia 3 - 7 July 1995. The mission constituted a follow-up of the interim review of subjects related to tectonic stability and seismic hazard characterization of the site which was performed in September 1993. The main objective of the mission was the final review of the subjects already reviewed in September 1993 as well as issues related to geotechnical engineering and foundation safety. The main terms of reference of the present mission was to verify the implementation of the recommendations of the Site Safety Review Mission of June 1990. This document gives findings on geology-tectonics, seismology and foundation safety. In the end conclusions and recommendations of the mission are presented

  20. An updated status of Department of Energy safety reviews of packages for transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy conducts conformance reviews and issues Certificates of Compliance for Type B packaging for radioactive materials. Several offices within DOE perform these reviews which are required by the Department of Transportation to be to the regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or their safety equivalent. This paper focuses on one of these offices, the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, EH-32, which is responsible for reviewing and certifying packages other than those used for weapons and weapons component, for Naval Reactors, and for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. This paper gives the background and organizational history of EH-32, discusses the version of regulations to which the packaging is reviewed, updates the status of these reviews, describes the effectiveness of the reviews, updates the training courses sponsored by EH-32, and mentions the new Quality Assurance Evaluations being started by EH-32

  1. Mind the Gap. A systematic review to identify usability and safety challenges and practices during electronic health record implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-11-16

    Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.

  2. International experts conclude IAEA peer review of Iran's safety regulation of Bushehr NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts today completed an IAEA mission to review the effectiveness of Iran's safety regulation of its first nuclear power plant and to identify possible improvements before the plant begins operation. Upon invitation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of senior regulators from seven Member States for an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1). The IRRS review took place from 20 February to 2 March at the INRA offices in Tehran and included a technical visit to the BNPP-1 site. The mission was an objective peer review based on IAEA safety standards, and was neither an inspection, nor an audit. Ms. Olena Mykolaichuk, IRRS Team Leader and Head of the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine, commended her INRA counterparts: 'The regulatory work performed on the Bushehr construction and in preparation for commissioning has demonstrated significant progress of INRA as a nuclear regulatory authority,' she said. Philippe Jamet, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division, added: 'Through this IRRS mission, both Iran and the international experts contribute to the enhancement of nuclear safety and worldwide experience sharing.' In the course of its review the IRRS team identified the following strengths: - INRA has a dedicated, conscientious staff, demonstrating clear commitments to further improvements. - INRA clearly recognizes the value of peer reviews and international cooperation regarding nuclear safety. - Despite a shortage of staff, INRA demonstrated strong leadership while performing both review and assessment and inspection tasks during the BNPP-1 construction and pre-commissioning. - INRA has developed an excellent computerized documentation control system. Recommendations and suggestions to improve INRA's regulatory

  3. Second review meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The Second Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety was held in the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna from 15-26 April 2002, under the chairmanship of the President, Mr Miroslav Gregoric, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Authority. The Convention on Nuclear Safety entered into force in October 1996, has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, bringing within its scope 428 of the 448 nuclear reactors worldwide. The Convention aims to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through inter alia enhancement of national measures and international co-operation. Obligations on Contracting Parties in accordance with the Convention include: the establishment and maintenance of a legislative and regulatory framework to govern the safety of land-based civil nuclear installations; the allocation of adequate financial and human resources to support the safety objectives; ensuring that all reasonably practicable improvements to safety are made as a matter of urgency. Adherence to this Convention entails two basic commitments by each Contracting Party: to prepare and make available a national report for review; and to subject its national report to a peer review by the other Contracting Parties. Thus, being a Contracting Party to this Convention involves: including in the national report a self-assessment of steps and measures already taken and in progress to implement the Convention obligations; taking an active part in an open and transparent review of its national report and the Reports of other Contracting Parties; and a commitment to a continuous learning and improving process, something which is a key element of a strong safety culture. The peer review of national reports takes place every three years, the first having been held in 1999. The Second Review Meeting was attended by delegates from 46 contracting parties. During the review certain issues were

  4. Immunization safety review: vaccinations and sudden unexpected death in infancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Immunization Safety Review Committee; Stratton, Kathleen R

    2003-01-01

    ...), and neonatal death (infant death, whether sudden or not, during the first 4 weeks of life). Based on this review, the committee concluded that the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between some vaccines and SIDS...

  5. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  6. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M.; Campello, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  7. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals

  8. Overview of the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants as practised in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhamb, N.K.; Chande, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In India, routine and periodic safety reviews of nuclear facilities are carried out through a multitiered hierarchy of committees at the plant level, the operating organization level and the regulatory body level. In 1993, it was decided by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB, the regulatory body) that, as a policy, authorization for operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) shall have a validity period of 5 years, after which this authorization will have to be renewed. NPPs have to carry out a self-assessment according to an established procedure, prepare a Safety Assessment Report for Renewal of Authorization (SARRA) and submit it to the AERB for review. The procedure defines the objectives of the report and gives guidelines on the required review of the self-assessment of the operational plant safety. The paper discusses the objectives, the elements of the SARRA review, the review process, the SARRA review carried out in 1993-1994, the basis for acceptability of continued plant operation, and the lessons learned for future periodic safety reviews in India and for exchange of operating experience feedback. (author)

  9. Earthquake-induced ground failures in Italy from a reviewed database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, S.; Prestininzi, A.; Romeo, R. W.

    2014-04-01

    A database (Italian acronym CEDIT) of earthquake-induced ground failures in Italy is presented, and the related content is analysed. The catalogue collects data regarding landslides, liquefaction, ground cracks, surface faulting and ground changes triggered by earthquakes of Mercalli epicentral intensity 8 or greater that occurred in the last millennium in Italy. As of January 2013, the CEDIT database has been available online for public use (http://www.ceri.uniroma1.it/cn/gis.jsp ) and is presently hosted by the website of the Research Centre for Geological Risks (CERI) of the Sapienza University of Rome. Summary statistics of the database content indicate that 14% of the Italian municipalities have experienced at least one earthquake-induced ground failure and that landslides are the most common ground effects (approximately 45%), followed by ground cracks (32%) and liquefaction (18%). The relationships between ground effects and earthquake parameters such as seismic source energy (earthquake magnitude and epicentral intensity), local conditions (site intensity) and source-to-site distances are also analysed. The analysis indicates that liquefaction, surface faulting and ground changes are much more dependent on the earthquake source energy (i.e. magnitude) than landslides and ground cracks. In contrast, the latter effects are triggered at lower site intensities and greater epicentral distances than the other environmental effects.

  10. A LITERATURE REVIEW ON GLOBAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PRACTICE & ACCIDENTS SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassu Jilcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review focuses on researches undertaken since 1980s onwards. The purpose of the study is to identify existing gaps on workplace safety and health management and propose future research areas. The review adds value to existing electronic database through integration of researches' results. To identify existing gaps, a systematic literature review approach has been used. The reviews were undertaken through keywords and safety related topics. In the literature, various characteristics of workplace safety and health problems were found emanating from the lack of operational activities of the employees, internal working environment and external environment those impose hazards on employee temporarily, permanently and on working environments. The integration of multidisciplinary approaches and collaborative model of hub and peripheral industries to protect workplace safety hazards to develop multilevel model has been undermined in many researches. The other face of finding is that knowledge transfer mechanism and industrial topology factors are left. Some researches finding showed that they have focused on single problems related to health and health factors leaving universal improving workplace safety. In general, this literature reviews compare various studies output based on their research method and findings to fills gap and add value to a body of knowledge.

  11. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  13. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  15. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Hartman, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The CABRI facility: Implementation of a pressurized water loop and related safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, J.C.; Maegey, M.; Bourguignon, D.; Miachon, G.; Forestier, F.; Coulon, J.P.; Faury, M.

    2003-01-01

    The CABRI reactor operated by CEA at the CADARACHE Nuclear Center in France provided the condition for safety studies on nuclear fuel. Initially designed to support investigations on Fast Reactor fuel, large modifications are underway to provide representative conditions for studies on Light Water Fuel types. A general overview of these modifications, the related safety review and supporting studies are described in the paper. (author)

  17. A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, P. F.; Lovatt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Food safety and hygiene in Ghana was studied using desk top literature review. Food research was highly concentrated in the capital city of the country and most research focus were on commercial food operations specifically street foods and microbiological safety with limited information from institutional catering and other forms of food hazards. The media currently serves as the main source for reporting of food borne diseases. Food establishments and other sources contributing to food born...

  18. Review of Risk Reduction Methods using Probabilistic Safety Assessment Insights and Improved Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan; Choi, Byung-Pil [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As seen in the process of the periodic safety review of domestic nuclear power plants, the risk management objectives such as core damage frequency and large early release frequency are not easy to be met without continuous safety improvements and the integratoin of the improved technologies into the PSA evaluation methodologies. Because external event analyses have a protion of uncertainty factors in the current analysis methodologies, the technical efforts in various perspectives.

  19. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Märit; Fors, Hanna; Lindgren, Therese; Wiström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Urban woodland vegetation provides people with many aesthetic, ecological and psychological benefits, but can also generate problems concerning people’s perception of safety. This paper reviews existing knowledge about perceived personal safety in relation to vegetation, particularly woodland vegetation, in urban green spaces such as parks and residential areas. Individual and social factors, but also vegetation character, maintenance and design, proved to be important for perceived personal ...

  20. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance

  1. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  2. The effectiveness of road safety education : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review of traffic education programmes addresses the current practice in evaluation research, the effectiveness of programmes and their constituting components and the differences and similarities with other fields of education. The study leads to a number of conclusions which can be

  3. A Review of Digital Addiction: A Call for Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugai, Joseph; Hamiliton-Ekeke, Joy-Telu

    2016-01-01

    In reviewing digital addiction, this paper recognized that digital technology has been useful in various spheres of life and the reach is undeniable, with an "average" user spending long hours on their phone or online daily. These hours increase as new applications are released by various technological companies. The demands of modern…

  4. A systematic review of the safety climate intervention literature: Past trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Cheung, Janelle H; Chen, Zhuo; Shaw, William S

    2018-04-26

    Safety climate represents the meaningfulness of safety and how safety is valued in an organization. The contributions of safety climate to organizational safety have been well documented. There is a dearth of empirical research, however, on specific safety climate interventions and their effectiveness. The present study aims at examining the trend of safety climate interventions and offering compiled information for designing and implementing evidence-based safety climate interventions. Our literature search yielded 384 titles that were inspected by three examiners. Using a stepwise process that allowed for assessment of interobserver agreement, 19 full articles were selected and reviewed. Results showed that 10 out of the 19 articles (52.6%) were based on a quasi-experimental pre- and postintervention design, whereas 42.1% (n = 8) studies were based on a mixed-design approach (including both between- and within-subject design). All interventions in these 19 studies involved either safety-/health-related communication or education/training. Improvement of safety leadership was also a common component of safety climate interventions. According to the socio-technical systems classification of intervention strategies, all studies were categorized as interventions focusing on improving organizational and managerial structure as well as the personnel subsystem; four of them also aimed at improving technological aspects of work, and five of them aimed at improving the physical work subsystem. In general, a vast majority of the studies (89.5%, n = 17) showed a statistically significant improvement in safety climate across their organizations postintervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A review of the probabilistic safety assessment application to the TR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.; Adalioglu, U.; Anac, H.; Sevdik, B.; Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to the TR-2 Research Reactor is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development, dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is reviewed briefly with highlights from the selected results. PSA application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. Insights gained from the application of PSA methodology to the TR-2 research reactor led to a significant safety review of the system

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  7. Panel Resource Management (PRM) Implementation and Effects within Safety Review Panel Settings and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W.; Nash, Sally K.

    2007-01-01

    While technical training and advanced degree's assure proficiency at specific tasks within engineering disciplines, they fail to address the potential for communication breakdown and decision making errors familiar to multicultural environments where language barriers, intimidating personalities and interdisciplinary misconceptions exist. In an effort to minimize these pitfalls to effective panel review, NASA's lead safety engineers to the ISS Safety Review Panel (SRP), and Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) initiated training with their engineers, in conjunction with the panel chairs, and began a Panel Resource Management (PRM) program. The intent of this program focuses on the ability to reduce the barriers inhibiting effective participation from all panel attendees by bolstering participants confidence levels through increased communication skills, situational awareness, debriefing, and a better technical understanding of requirements and systems.

  8. Fuel safety criteria technical review - Results of OECD/CSNI/PWG2 Task Force on Fuel Safety Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollasky, N.; Valtonen, K.; Hache, G.; Gross, H.; Bakker, K.; Recio, M.; Bart, G.; Zimmermann, M.; Van Doesburg, W.; Killeen, J.; Meyer, R.O.; Speis, T.

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of advanced fuel and core designs, the adoption of more aggressive operational modes and the implementation of more accurate (best estimate or statistical) design and analysis methods, there is a concern if safety margins have remained adequate. Most - if not all - of the currently existing safety criteria were established during the 60's and early 70's, and verified against experiments with fuel that was available at that time, mostly with unirradiated specimens. Verification was of course performed as designs progressed in later years, however mostly with the aim to be able to prove that these designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits. The OECD/CSNI/PWG2 Task Force on Fuel Safety Criteria (TFFSC) was therefore given the mandate to technically review the existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on the 'new design' elements (new fuel and core design, cladding materials, manufacturing processes, high burnup, MOX, etc.) introduced by the industry. It should also identify if additional efforts may be required (experimental, analytical) to ensure that the basis for fuel safety criteria is adequate to address the relevant safety issues. In this report, fuel-related criteria are discussed without attempting to categorize them according to event type or risk significance. For each of these 20 criteria, we present a brief description of the criterion as it is used in several applications along with the rationale for having such a criterion. New design elements, such as different cladding materials, higher burnup, and the use of MOX fuels, can affect fuel-related margins and, in some cases, the criteria themselves. Some of the more important effects are mentioned in order to indicate whether the criteria need to be re-evaluated. The discussion may not cover all possible effects, but should be sufficient to identify those criteria that need to be addressed. A summary of these discussions is given in Section 7. As part

  9. IAEA Completes First Ever Corporate Safety Review, at Czech Republic's CEZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today completed a review of corporate safety performance at CEZ a.s., the largest national electricity company in the Czech Republic. For the first time since the Agency launched its Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions in 1982, the team addressed corporate aspects of a company in relation to nuclear safety. The team noted a series of good practices and proposed recommendations to strengthen some safety measures. Assembled at the request of the Government of the Czech Republic, the first ''Corporate OSART'' review, which ran from 30 September to 9 October 2013, addressed corporate aspects necessary to ensure the safe operation of the Dukovany and Temelin Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The mission included experts from Finland, France, Romania, USA and the IAEA. OSART services aim to improve operational safety at nuclear facilities by objectively assessing safety performance using the IAEA's Safety Standards and proposing recommendations for improvement where appropriate. The missions serve as a channel to exchange information and experience and provide Member States with good practices. A ''Corporate OSART'' is an OSART mission organized to review those centralized functions of the corporate organization of a utility with multiple nuclear plant sites and conventional plant sites that affect all the operational safety aspects of the nuclear power plants of this utility. ''OSART missions are one of the most important tools of the Agency to ensure better and wider implementation of the IAEA Safety Standards,'' said Denis Flory, Deputy Director General in the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. ''Since 1982, we have conducted close to 200 safety review missions around the globe; however, this mission is the first of its kind because we focused on the corporate performance that is a necessity for a safe operation of NPPs,'' Flory added

  10. Review of light water reactor safety through the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, D.L.

    1984-05-01

    This review of light water reactor safety through the Three Mile Island accident has the purpose of establishing the baseline over which safety achievement post-TMI is assessed, and the need for new reactor designs and business direction is judged. Five major areas of reactor safety pre-TMI are examined: (1) safety philosophy and institutions, (2) reactor design criteria, (3) operational problems, (4) the Rasmussen reactor safety study, and (5) the TMI accident and repercussions. Although nuclear power has made spectacular achievements over the period pre-TMI and although TMI is technically a minor accident, this review concludes that there were basic flaws in the technology and in the manner safety philosophy was conceived and carried out. These flaws included (1) a reactor design that has high core power density, low heat capacity, and low system tolerance to upsets, (2) reactor deployment that had been expedited without extensive operational experience, (3) rules and regulations that had to play catch-up with commercial reactor development, (4) an industry that was fragmented, short-sighted, and tended to rely on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for safety guidance, (5) information that was not effectively shared, and (6) attention that was inadequate to the human aspects of reactor operation and to public reaction to the specter of a reactor accident, major or minor

  11. International Nuclear Officials Discuss IAEA Peer Reviews of Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Senior nuclear regulators today concluded a Workshop on the Lessons Learned from the IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Missions. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) hosted the workshop, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, in Washington, DC, from 26 to 28 October 2011. About 60 senior regulators from 22 IAEA Member States took part in this workshop. The IRRS programme is an international peer review service offered by the IAEA to its Member States to provide an objective evaluation of their nuclear safety regulatory framework. The review is based on the internationally recognized IAEA Safety Standards. ''The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission was pleased to host the IAEA's IRRS meeting this week. The discussions over the past three days have provided an important opportunity for regulators from many countries to come together to strengthen the international peer review process,'' said U.S. NRC Chairman Gregory B. Jaczko. ''Especially after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the global community recognizes that IRRS missions fill a vital role in strengthening nuclear safety and security programs around the world, and we are proud to be a part of this important effort.'' The IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety includes actions focused towards strengthening the existing IAEA peer reviews, incorporating lessons learned and improving their effectiveness. The workshop provided a platform for the exchange of information, experience and lessons learned from the IRRS missions, as well as expectations for the IRRS programme for the near future. Further improvements in the planning and implementation of the IRRS missions in the longer term were discussed. A strong commitment of all relevant national authorities to the IRRS programme was identified as a key element of an effective regulatory framework. The conclusions of the workshop will be issued in November 2011 and the main results will be reported to the IAEA

  12. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  13. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-12

    Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the 'accuracy' and 'practicality' of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1) methods based on measured kinematic data; (2) methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3) methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1) reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2) improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3) minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4) increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5) enhancing the robustness and versatility of the

  14. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the ‘accuracy’ and ‘practicality’ of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1 methods based on measured kinematic data; (2 methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3 methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1 reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2 improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3 minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4 increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5 enhancing the robustness and

  15. Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

  16. ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains the fourth major milestone report and documents associated with its acceptance, review and approval. This ITER Final Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis was presented to the ITER Council at its 13th meeting in February 1998 and was approved at its extraordinary meeting on 25 June 1998. The contents include an outline of the ITER objectives, the ITER parameters and design overview as well as operating scenarios and plasma performance. Furthermore, design features, safety and environmental characteristics and schedule and cost estimates are given

  17. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  18. Nuclear safety review for qualification of class 1E motor inside containment for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shixin; Wu Qi; Zhang Yunbo; Wu Caixia

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, the review for class 1E motor inside containment qualification process and documents is an important aspect of nuclear safety equipment review, and the reviewers should make evaluations for the qualification test results in terms of the compliance with standard and regulation, and the consistency with inside containment environment. Firstly, this paper introduces the qualification test of class 1E motor inside containment for nuclear power generating stations, such as aging test and design-basis-event test. Second, there is a discussion about typical problems of review. At last, comparison of IEEE334 with RCC-E is conducted and explored. (authors)

  19. Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water--A Review of Selected Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides abridged information describing the most salient properties and biodegradation of 27 chlorinated volatile organic compounds detected during ground-water studies in the United States. This information is condensed from an extensive list of reports, papers, and literature published by the U.S. Government, various State governments, and peer-reviewed journals. The list includes literature reviews, compilations, and summaries describing volatile organic compounds in ground water. This report cross-references common names and synonyms associated with volatile organic compounds with the naming conventions supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. In addition, the report describes basic physical characteristics of those compounds such as Henry's Law constant, water solubility, density, octanol-water partition (log Kow), and organic carbon partition (log Koc) coefficients. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for natural and laboratory biodegradation rates, chemical by-products, and degradation pathways.

  20. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  1. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M and T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M and Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M and Ts. The M and Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M and Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M and Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M and T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  2. Multimorbidity and Patient Safety Incidents in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Stokes, Jonathan; Esmail, Aneez; Coventry, Peter; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Alam, Rahul; Bower, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent and represents a major challenge in primary care. Patients with multimorbidity are potentially more likely to experience safety incidents due to the complexity of their needs and frequency of their interactions with health services. However, rigorous syntheses of the link between patient safety incidents and multimorbidity are not available. This review examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient safety incidents in primary care. Methods We followed our published protocol (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007434). Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched up to May 2015. Study design and quality were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the associations between multimorbidity and two categories of patient safety outcomes: ‘active patient safety incidents’ (such as adverse drug events and medical complications) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (such as prescription errors, medication non-adherence, poor quality of care and diagnostic errors). Meta-analyses using random effects models were undertaken. Results Eighty six relevant comparisons from 75 studies were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that physical-mental multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for ‘active patient safety incidents’ (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.38) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.36 to 2.03). Physical multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for active safety incidents (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45 to 1.80) but was not associated with precursors of safety incidents (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.13). Statistical heterogeneity was high and the methodological quality of the studies was generally low. Conclusions The association between multimorbidity and patient safety is complex, and varies by type of multimorbidity and type of safety incident. Our analyses suggest that multimorbidity

  3. 49 CFR 1313.9 - Grounds for complaints and contract review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the contracting rail carrier or carriers to meet their common carrier obligations to the complainant... agricultural commodities on the ground that such shipper individually will be harmed because: (i) The rail...

  4. Review of Leadership for Safety and Role in abnormal situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Rae; Yoon, Myung Hyun; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of an event in Fukushima, the importance of leadership that is able to increase responses and retain safety in unexpected accidents and disasters is emerged and it is increased interest in a systemic approach to leadership. Experts of international community urge to pay attention to humans and organizations because decision making, understanding the situation and communications affect the progress of accident significantly in the extreme condition. The individual as a leader should be able to carry out a central role to coordinate in the central, to take responsibility for ethical decisions, to earn the trust of employees by taking initiative, and to order by using empirical knowledge. However it is not desirable to limit the flexible response of the organization to the individual role of the leader. It should also be emphasized that leadership is a characteristic of the organization that is required by all levels in order to achieve the goal and it is important to develop the ability in organizational level. Therefore it is necessary to constantly modify situational awareness while interacting with the entire organization and all employees must carry out as a leader in the ever-changing field because the leader's recognition ability is limited. Also, leadership can function only through followership in ethical situations.

  5. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Gabardi, Steven; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2003-02-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and place in therapy of bitter melon are described. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Components of bitter melon extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Antiviral and antineoplastic activities have also been reported in vitro. Four clinical trials found bitter melon juice, fruit, and dried powder to have a moderate hypoglycemic effect. These studies were small and were not randomized or double-blind, however. Reported adverse effects of bitter melon include hypoglycemic coma and convulsions in children, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like syndrome, increases in gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in animals, and headaches. Bitter melon may have additive effects when taken with other glucose-lowering agents. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to properly assess safety and efficacy before bitter melon can be routinely recommended. Bitter melon may have hypoglycemic effects, but data are not sufficient to recommend its use in the absence of careful supervision and monitoring.

  6. Safety of Levetiracetam in Paediatrics: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Egunsola

    Full Text Available To identify adverse events (AEs associated with Levetiracetam (LEV in children.Databases EMBASE (1974-February 2015 and Medline (1946-February 2015 were searched for articles in which paediatric patients (≤18 years received LEV treatment for epilepsy. All studies with reports on safety were included. Studies involving adults, mixed age population (i.e. children and adults in which the paediatric subpopulation was not sufficiently described, were excluded. A meta-analysis of the RCTs was carried out and association between the commonly reported AEs or treatment discontinuation and the type of regimen (polytherapy or monotherapy was determined using Chi2 analysis.Sixty seven articles involving 3,174 paediatric patients were identified. A total of 1,913 AEs were reported across studies. The most common AEs were behavioural problems and somnolence, which accounted for 10.9% and 8.4% of all AEs in prospective studies. 21 prospective studies involving 1120 children stated the number of children experiencing AEs. 47% of these children experienced AEs. Significantly more children experienced AEs with polytherapy (64% than monotherapy (22% (p<0.001. Levetiracetam was discontinued in 4.5% of all children on polytherapy and 0.9% on monotherapy (p<0.001, the majority were due to behavioural problems.Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most prevalent adverse events to LEV and the most common causes of treatment discontinuation. Children on polytherapy have a greater risk of adverse events than those receiving monotherapy.

  7. Application of proximal surrogate indicators for safety evaluation: A review of recent developments and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sohel Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a number of recent reviews on the use of traffic conflict techniques (TCTs, none have focused on the use of proximal surrogate indicators. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and application of proximal surrogate safety indicators to address this gap. There is a particular focus on more recent advancements in the application of such indicators. For each of the main indicators reviewed, the paper provides a synthesis of the main guiding principles, as well as the most prominent features, including critical or threshold values used in the past. In addition, the main advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed indicators are highlighted. Finally, a number of research gaps are identified together with recommendations for potentially useful avenues of future research. Keywords: Safety evaluation, Traffic conflict, Surrogate, Proximal, Indicators

  8. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Egan, Michael; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Chapman, Neil; Wilmot, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM review team requested that consideration be given

  9. [Evidence-based effectiveness of road safety interventions: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Katherine; Borrell, Carme

    2009-01-01

    Only road safety interventions with scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness should be implemented. The objective of this study was to identify and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in reducing road traffic collisions, injuries and deaths. All literature reviews published in scientific journals that assessed the effectiveness of one or more road safety interventions and whose outcome measure was road traffic crashes, injuries or fatalities were included. An exhaustive search was performed in scientific literature databases. The interventions were classified according to the evidence of their effectiveness in reducing road traffic injuries (effective interventions, insufficient evidence of effectiveness, ineffective interventions) following the structure of the Haddon matrix. Fifty-four reviews were included. Effective interventions were found before, during and after the collision, and across all factors: a) the individual: the graduated licensing system (31% road traffic injury reduction); b) the vehicle: electronic stability control system (2 to 41% reduction); c) the infrastructure: area-wide traffic calming (0 to 20%), and d) the social environment: speed cameras (7 to 30%). Certain road safety interventions are ineffective, mostly road safety education, and others require further investigation. The most successful interventions are those that reduce or eliminate the hazard and do not depend on changes in road users' behavior or on their knowledge of road safety issues. Interventions based exclusively on education are ineffective in reducing road traffic injuries.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Use of Social Media for Food Safety Risk Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbey, Katie N; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chapman, Benjamin J

    2017-09-01

    This article covers the current published literature related to the use of social media in food safety and infectious disease communication. The aim was to analyze literature recommendations and draw conclusions about how best to utilize social media for food safety risk communication going forward. A systematic literature review was conducted, and 24 articles were included for analysis. The inclusion criteria were (i) original peer-reviewed articles and (ii) primary focus on communication through social media about food safety and/or infectious diseases. Studies were coded for themes about social media applications, benefits, limitations, and best practices. Trust and personal beliefs were important drivers of social media use. The wide reach, immediacy, and information gathering capacities of social media were frequently cited benefits. Suggestions for social media best practices were inconsistent among studies, and study designs were highly variable. More evidence-based suggestions are needed to better establish guidelines for social media use in food safety and infectious disease risk communication. The information gleaned from this review can be used to create effective messages for shaping food safety behaviors.

  11. Preliminary standard review guide for Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The review guide is based on the shared experiences, approaches, and philosophies of the Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) subgroup members. It is presented in the form of a review guide to maximize the benefit to both the safety analyses practitioner and reviewer. The guide focuses on those challenges that tend to be unique to ER/D ampersand D cleanup activities. Some of these experiences, approaches, and philosophies may find application or be beneficial to a broader spectrum of activities such as terminal cleanout or even new operations. Challenges unique to ER/D ampersand D activities include (1) consent agreements requiring activity startup on designated dates; (2) the increased uncertainty of specific hazards; and (3) the highly variable activities covered under the broad category of ER/D ampersand D. These unique challenges are in addition to the challenges encountered in all activities; e.g., new and changing requirements and multiple interpretations. The experiences in approaches, methods, and solutions to the challenges are documented from the practitioner and reviewer's perspective, thereby providing the viewpoints on why a direction was taken and the concerns expressed. Site cleanup consent agreements with predetermined dates for restoration activity startup add the dimension of imposed punitive actions for failure to meet the date. Approval of the safety analysis is a prerequisite to startup. Actions that increase expediency are (1) assuring activity safety; (2) documenting that assurance; and (3) acquiring the necessary approvals. These actions increase the timeliness of startup and decrease the potential for punitive action. Improvement in expediency has been achieved by using safety analysis techniques to provide input to the line management decision process rather than as a review of line management decisions. Expediency is also improved by sharing the safety input and resultant decisions with

  12. Involving patients in patient safety programmes: A scoping review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trier, H.; Valderas, J.M.; Wensing, M.; Martin, H.M.; Egebart, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient involvement has only recently received attention as a potentially useful approach to patient safety in primary care. OBJECTIVE: To summarize work conducted on a scoping review of interventions focussing on patient involvement for patient safety; to develop consensus-based

  13. Effectiveness of public health interventions in food safety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M E; Gardner, C E; Dwyer, J J; Isaacs, S M; Krueger, P D; Ying, J Y

    1998-01-01

    To summarize evidence on the effectiveness of public health interventions regarding food safety at restaurants, institutions, homes and other community-based settings. This systematic review of published and unpublished studies involved a comprehensive literature search, screening for relevance, quality assessment of relevant studies, data extraction and synthesis. The interventions identified in 15 studies included in this review were grouped into three categories: inspections, food handler training, and community-based education. The evidence suggests that: routine inspection (at least once per year) of food service premises is effective in reducing the risk of foodborne illness; food handler training can improve the knowledge and practices of food handlers; and selected community-based education programs can increase public knowledge of food safety. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of multiple public health interventions on food safety. Future research needs include evaluation of HACCP and community-based education programs.

  14. Accidents in industrial radiography and lessons to be learned. A review of IAEA Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modupe, M.S.; Oresegun, O.

    1998-01-01

    This IAEA Safety Report Series publication is the result of a review of a large selection of accidents in industrial radiography which Regulatory Authorities, professional associations and scientific journals have reported. The review's objective was to draw lessons from the initiating events of the accidents, contributing factors and the consequences. A small, representative selection of accident descriptions is used to illustrate the primary causes of radiography accidents and a set of recommendations to prevent recurrence of such accidents or to mitigate the consequences of those that do occur is provided. By far the most common primary cause of over-exposure was 'Failure to follow operational procedures' and specifically failure to perform radiation monitoring to locate the position of the source. The information in the Safety Report is intended for use by Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers manufacturers and client organizations having responsibilities for radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography. (author)

  15. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be further developed for the licence application. -SKB's quality

  16. A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.

    2011-01-01

    The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for

  17. Review on the assessment of safety and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany); Doherty, R.M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Historically explosion accidents are linked with energetic materials. There is the further belief, that the proneness to accidents-and their severity-is linked with the sensitivity of these explosives. Consequently there exist seemingly very insensitive materials for which it is believed that their accidental explosion can be ignored, so that safety distances can be reduced to those that apply to materials for which the hazard is assumed to be mass fire rather than mass detonation. Evidence is presented here that shows these assumptions to be invalid. Reports of explosion accidents are gathered here for substances that are not generally considered to be explosives (non UN-class 1 substances, like ammonium nitrate (AN), neat alkali metal chlorates, and even hypochlorites and nitromethane). In most of these cases the proneness of accidents had not been foreseen by testing. The basic explosion mechanisms are of a more general nature than simply those that apply to high explosives. Explosion is not solely a matter of energy, but of any physical power conversion. In order to prove this, a survey of explosion events is given: Natural events, like the impacts of celestial bodies and volcanic erptions. Fuel/liquid interactions in nature are industrial risks too, which occur at very different occasions and sites: Cellulose processing, the oil industry, foundries, power stations, explosions of hot cinders, chemical processing, fire extinguishing, and (most common) in the kitchen, and (most catastrophic) in nuclear reactors. Explosions of similar type are Hydraulic Transients, Bubble resonance explosions with the possibility of associated chemical room explosions (BLEVE), Rollovers. Second order effects are sorption/desorption resonance explosions, which most powerful also occur in nature (Nios Lake (CO{sub 2}-release), Kivu Lake, Monoun Lake, 1984, Tanganjika Lake, all in Africa, and the Ocracoke in the Gulf of Mexico (CH{sub 4}-release))-and at the lowest end shaken

  18. Systematic Review of Kinship Care Effects on Safety, Permanency, and Well-Being Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Holtan, Amy; Batchelder, Keri E.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Children in out-of-home placements typically display more educational, behavioral, and psychological problems than do their peers. This systematic review evaluated the effect of kinship care placement compared to foster care placement on the safety, permanency, and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment. Methods:…

  19. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions... participate must register at least seven (7) days in advance of the meeting/conference call by contacting Mr.... Anyone requiring special accommodations should contact Mr. Joy at least seven (7) days in advance of the...

  20. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions... who wish to participate must register at least seven (7) days in advance of the meeting/conference... registration. Anyone requiring special accommodations should contact Mr. Joy at least seven (7) days in advance...

  1. Use of mobile phones while driving : effects on road safety : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving has become a road safety concern and has been the focus of various behavioural studies. This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road. Although studies

  2. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system security plan. 659.25 Section 659.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... and system security plan. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to conduct an annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the rail...

  3. Promoting occupational safety and health through the supply chain Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustailieva, E.; Starren, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Lopes Nunes, I.; Hauke, A.

    2012-01-01

    This report sheds light on occupational safety and health (OSH) within complex supply chain networks. Based on a literature, policy and case study review it attempts to give an overview of how OSH can be managed and promoted through the supply chain, and which drivers, incentives and instruments

  4. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour

  5. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour

  6. Preparations for the 1994 OSART [operational safety review] at Hunterston Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency have accepted an invitation from the Scottish Office to carry out an Operational Safety Review at Hunterston Power Station in April 1994. This paper outlines the preparations being undertaken by Scottish Nuclear Limited to ensure the standards set by the International Atomic Energy Agency are met. (author)

  7. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.; Klug, N.P.; Winchester, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Discovery culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government

  8. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...

  9. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Treutlein, D.; Rydlewska, I.; Frusteri, L.; Krüger, H.; Veerman, T.; Eeckelaert, L.; Roskams, N.; Broek, K. van den; Taylor, T.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information

  10. Learning from aviation to improve safety in the operating room - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S.G.L. Wauben; J.F. Lange (Johan); R.H.M. Goossens (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR). This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed

  11. IAEA Operational Safety Team Reviews Saint-Alban Nuclear Power Plant, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear installation safety experts, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has reviewed safety practices at France's Saint-Alban Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and has highlighted a set of strong practices as well as a series of recommendations to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled the team at the request of the Government of France to conduct an Operational Safety Review (OSART) of the Saint-Alban NPP. Under the leadership of the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety in Vienna, the OSART team performed an in-depth operational safety review from 20 September to 6 October 2010. The team was made up of experts from Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Sweden and the USA. An OSART mission is designed to review programmes and activities essential to operational safety. It is not a regulatory inspection, nor is it a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the plant's overall safety status. The team at Saint-Alban conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP, which largely are under the control of the site management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training and Qualification; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; and Emergency Planning and Preparedness. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their application. Examples include: A safety guideline for outages; The use of remote video surveillance of fuel inspection and handling activities; A motivational tool for plant staff regarding the benefits of operating experience and associated corrective actions; and Use of a sophisticated key control system

  12. IAEA Operational Safety Team Review Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant, Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear installation safety experts, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has reviewed Slovakia's Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) for its safety practices and has noted a series of good practices as well as recommendations to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled an international team of experts at the request of the Government of Slovak Republic to conduct an Operational Safety Review (OSART) of Bohunice NPP. Under the leadership of the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, the OSART team performed an in-depth operational safety review from 1 to 18 November 2010. The team was made up of experts from Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. An OSART mission is designed as a review of programmes and activities essential to operational safety. It is not a regulatory inspection, nor is it a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the plant's overall safety status. The team at BNPP conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP, which largely is under the control of the site management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry and Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Long Term Operation assessment has been requested by the plant in addition to the standard OSART program. The OSART team has identified good plant practices which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their application. Examples include: BNPP has implemented a comprehensive set of technical and organizational measures which have significantly reduced the production of liquid radioactive waste; BNPP has developed an automatic transfer of dosimetry data

  13. IRIS guidelines. 2014 ed. Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety (IRIS) for self-assessment when establishing the safety infrastructure for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment, and therefore represent what all Member States should achieve, whilst recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety when implementing a nuclear power programme. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-16, entitled Establishing the Safety Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme was published in order to provide recommendations, presented in the form of sequential actions, on meeting safety requirements progressively during the initial three phases of the development of safety, as described in INSAG-22, Nuclear Safety Infrastructure for a National Nuclear Power Programme Supported by the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles. To that end, the 200 safety related actions, which are proposed by SSG-16, constitute a roadmap to establish a foundation for promoting a high level of safety over the entire lifetime of the nuclear power plant. These actions reflect international consensus on good practice in order to achieve full implementation of IAEA safety standards. The IAEA has developed a methodology and tool, the Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety (IRIS), to assist States in undertaking self-assessment with respect to SSG-16 recommendations when establishing the safety infrastructure for a nuclear power programme, and to develop an action plan for improvement. The IRIS methodology and the associated tool are fully compatible with the IAEA safety standards and are also used, when appropriate, in the preparation of review missions, such as the Integrated Regulatory Review Service and advisory missions. The present guidelines describe the IRIS methodology for self-assessment against SSG-16 recommendations. Through IRIS implementation, every organization concerned with nuclear safety may gain proper awareness and engage in a continuous progressive process to develop the effective national

  14. New graduate registered nurses' knowledge of patient safety and practice: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2018-01-01

    To critically appraise available literature and summarise evidence pertaining to the patient safety knowledge and practices of new graduate registered nurses. Responsibility for patient safety should not be limited to the practice of the bedside nurses, rather the responsibility of all in the healthcare system. Previous research identified lapses in safety across the health care, more specifically with new practitioners. Understanding these gaps and what may be employed to counteract them is vital to ensuring patient safety. A focused review of research literature. The review used key terms and Boolean operators across a 5-year time frame in CINAHL, Medline, psycINFO and Google Scholar for research articles pertaining to the area of enquiry. Eighty-four articles met the inclusion criteria, 39 discarded due to irrelevant material and 45 articles were included in the literature review. This review acknowledges that nursing has different stages of knowledge and practice capabilities. A theory-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses exists, and transition to practice is a key learning period setting new nurses on the path to becoming expert practitioners. Within the literature, there was little to no acknowledgement of patient safety knowledge of the newly registered nurse. Issues raised in the 1970s remain a concern for today's new graduate registered nurses. Research has recognised several factors affecting transition from nursing student to new graduate registered nurse. These factors are leaving new practitioners open to potential errors and risking patient safety. Understanding the knowledge of a new graduate registered nurse upon entering clinical practice may assist in organisations providing appropriate clinical and theoretical support to these nurses during their transition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants, updates. Irregular repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to construct or operate nuclear power plants. The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. It is also a purpose of the SRP to make information about regulatory matters widely available and to improve communication and understanding of the staff review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. The Standard Review Plan is written so as to cover a variety of site conditions and plant designs. Each section is written to provide the complete procedure and all acceptance criteria for all of the areas of review pertinent to that section. However, for any given application, the staff reviewers may select and emphasize particular aspects of each SRP section as is appropriate for the application

  16. Mechanics of aerosols in nuclear reactor safety: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyalka, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    Although the estimated public risks from nuclear reactors are not high, a significant fraction of these arises from the accident sequences that lead to severe core damage. Calculation of release fractions of the core radioactive inventories for such accidents requires an understanding of the evolution of aerosols in primary coolant systems and reactor containment. The state-of-the-art in the mechanics of a single aerosol particle is reviewed and available work on coagulation of two aerosol particles is discussed. Progress in kinetic theory descriptions and experimental works is described and directions of future work are noted. The General Dynamic Equation for the aerosol distribution is considered, and several forms of this for conditions of interest are noted. Methods of solution that are discussed include analytical techniques, similarity transforms, moments methods and numerical techniques. Computer programs that have been developed in the past few years are also discussed, and their capabilities and limitations are noted. Finally, the comparison of computed results with the available experimental data is discussed, and needs for future research are emphasized. (author)

  17. Driving Safety after Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammoud, Abduljabbar; Alkhalili, Kenan; Hannallah, Jack; Ibeche, Bashar; Bajammal, Sohail; Baco, Abdul Moeen

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess driving reaction times (DRTs) after spinal surgery to establish a timeframe for safe resumption of driving by the patient postoperatively. The MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were analyzed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) Statement for clinical studies that investigated changes in DRTs following cervical and lumbar spinal surgery. Changes in DRTs and patients' clinical presentation, pathology, anatomical level affected, number of spinal levels involved, type of intervention, pain level, and driving skills were assessed. The literature search identified 12 studies that investigated postoperative DRTs. Six studies met the inclusion criteria; five studies assessed changes in DRT after lumbar spine surgery and two studies after cervical spina surgery. The spinal procedures were selective nerve root block, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and lumbar fusion and/ordecompression. DRTs exhibited variable responses to spinal surgery and depended on the patients' clinical presentation, spinal level involved, and type of procedure performed. The evidence regarding the patients' ability to resume safe driving after spinal surgery is scarce. Normalization of DRT or a return of DRT to pre-spinal intervention level is a widely accepted indicator for safe driving, with variable levels of statistical significance owing to multiple confounding factors. Considerations of the type of spinal intervention, pain level, opioid consumption, and cognitive function should be factored in the assessment of a patient's ability to safely resume driving.

  18. A departmental brief to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The major nuclear activity in Canada is that associated with the generation of electricity by nuclear power stations. This area is in part subject to federal jurisdiction under the authority of the Atomic Energy Control Board. Environment Canada can play a significant role in influencing decisions regarding environmental aspects of nuclear energy development. The Department believes that the best way to preserve the quality of the environment is to anticipate and prevent problems before they arise. However, even if all precautionary measures were taken in the design and operating procedures of nuclear power stations, accidents can occur and radionuclides and toxic pollutants may escape and disperse into the environment. This brief outlines the rationale for Environment Canada's involvement and role in the nuclear area, and the major programs and activities of the Department with respect to environmental protection and emergency preparedness. The brief also makes recommendations for consideration of environmental protection technologies for nuclear power stations, for improved measurement and modelling capabilities relating to release and dispersion of radionuclides during accident conditions, and for improved communication with the public following a nuclear emergency. Environment Canada recommends that an appropriate environmental review process be undertaken for new or expanded nuclear facilities in Ontario

  19. Establishment of safety verification method for life extension based on periodic safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soong Pyung; Yeom, Yu Son; Yoon, In Sik; Lee, Jeo Young [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Safe management of operating lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants is a subject of prime interests. As the design life of the Nuclear Power Plant will be ended in 2008, an appropriate procedure for the design life re-assessment or lifetime extension is necessary in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedural requirements which can be applied to the regulation of lifetime management or life extension of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. Review on the linkage of the PSR with the extension of the operating lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants was performed to enhance the utilization of PSR results and analysis of the insufficiencies in the license rule in Korea.

  20. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  1. Review: Günter Mey & Katja Mruck (Eds. (2007. Grounded Theory Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schmidtke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The volume was published to mark the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Discovery of Grounded Theory." The first part describes the emergence and fundamental positions of grounded theory methodology (GTM in methodological and theoretical terms; the second part focuses on research practices. The "Grounded Theory Reader" is an excellent compilation that doesn’t claim to be a standard textbook for newcomers to GTM. Rather, it is a reflection of the state of the art in GTM and enables insights in complex research practices. A basic understanding of GTM is recommended in order to get the most from the book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903286

  2. IAEA-led Operational Safety Team Reviews Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear installation safety experts, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has commended the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Czech Republic for its safety practices and has also made a series of recommendations to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled an international team of experts at the request of the Government of the Czech Republic to conduct an Operational Safety Review (OSART) of Dukovany NPP. Under the leadership of the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety in Vienna, the OSART team performed an in-depth operational safety review of the plant from 6 to 23 June 2011. The team was made up of experts from Armenia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, the UK and the USA. An OSART mission is designed as a review of programmes and activities essential to operational safety. It is not a regulatory inspection, nor is it a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the plant's overall safety status. The team at Dukovany conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP, which is largely under the control of the site management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training and Qualification; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; and Emergency Planning and Preparedness. The OSART team has identified good plant practices, which will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration of their application. Examples include: The plant uses an integrated approach to recruit, select, psychologically assess and train new employees. This approach has resulted in consistently high success rates for licensed operator examinations and the identification of potential candidates for various plant departments; The performance

  3. Gaia Launch Imminent: A Review of Practices (Good and Bad) in Building the Gaia Ground Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, W.

    2014-05-01

    As we approach launch the Gaia ground segment is ready to process a steady stream of complex data coming from Gaia at L2. This talk will focus on the software engineering aspects of the ground segment. Of course in a short paper it is difficult to cover everything but an attempt will be made to highlight some good things, like the Dictionary Tool and some things to be careful with like computer aided software engineering tools. The usefulness of some standards like ECSS will be touched upon. Testing is also certainly part of this story as are Challenges or Rehearsals so they will not go without mention.

  4. Common issues found in operating safety peer review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meijing; Zhang Fengping

    2004-01-01

    The 3rd stage of the safety culture promotion in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is characterized by establishing learning organization and continuous self-improvement. Peer Review was used as an effective tool by a lot of NPPs to improve the overall management and performance. This Paper provided the WANO Peer Review Methodology, the common issues found, the recommendation or suggestions to correct the area for improvement. It may be beneficial to other NPP which planning to have Peer Review or Self Evaluation. (authors)

  5. IAEA Concludes Safety Review at Chooz Nuclear Power Plant in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA-led international team of nuclear safety experts noted good practices and made recommendations to reinforce safety measures during a review of operational safety at France's Chooz Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that concluded today. The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) was assembled at the French Government's request. The in-depth review, which began 17 June, focused on aspects essential to the safe operation of the NPP. The team comprised experts from Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, China, India, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Canada, Hungary and the IAEA. The review covered the areas of management, organization and administration; training and qualification of personnel; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience; radiation protection; chemistry; emergency planning and preparedness; and severe accident management. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards. The OSART team identified good plant practices that will be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration. Examples include: The plant has a professional development programme as part of a joint employment effort shared by the plant and its contractors. This enables trainees to develop professional capability, understand practices and gain experience from other nuclear power plants in terms of work planning and coordination; The plant has built a strong relationship between the on-shift response team of the plant and the local fire brigade to improve firefighting and rescue operations; Self-assessment groups discuss and resolve specific issues within operations, empowering operations personnel to take ownership of improvement programmes; and The plant has improved warnings at entrances to all o range zones , areas of elevated dose rates to which only authorized staff have access. The team identified a number of improvements to operational safety at Chooz NPP. Examples include: The plant should review its process for the

  6. What is the value and impact of quality and safety teams? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Jill M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature about the establishment and impact of quality and safety team initiatives in acute care. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ABI Inform, Cochrane databases. Grey literature and bibliographies were also searched. Qualitative or quantitative studies that occurred in acute care, describing how quality and safety teams were established or implemented, the impact of teams, or the barriers and/or facilitators of teams were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study design, sample, interventions, and outcomes. Quality assessment of full text articles was done independently by two reviewers. Studies were categorized according to dimensions of quality. Results Of 6,674 articles identified, 99 were included in the study. The heterogeneity of studies and results reported precluded quantitative data analyses. Findings revealed limited information about attributes of successful and unsuccessful team initiatives, barriers and facilitators to team initiatives, unique or combined contribution of selected interventions, or how to effectively establish these teams. Conclusions Not unlike systematic reviews of quality improvement collaboratives, this broad review revealed that while teams reported a number of positive results, there are many methodological issues. This study is unique in utilizing traditional quality assessment and more novel methods of quality assessment and reporting of results (SQUIRE to appraise studies. Rigorous design, evaluation, and reporting of quality and safety team initiatives are required.

  7. Human Factors Evaluation of Procedures for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the results of human factors assessment on the plant operating procedures as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit no. 1, 2. The suitability of item and appropriateness of format and structure in the key operating procedures of nuclear power plants were investigated by the review of plant operating experiences and procedure documents, field survey, and experimental assessment on some part of procedures. A checklist was used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The reviewed procedures include EOP(Emergency Operating Procedures), GOP(General Operating Procedures), AOP(Abnormal Operating Procedures), and management procedures of some technical departments. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on the human factors in the operating procedures. However, several small items to be changed and improved were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on the operating procedure.

  8. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  9. Lessons Learned in Preparation and Review of Safety Analysis Report of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2010-01-01

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia. Since the day it was supplied by General Atomic (GA) in 1983, periodic safety reviews were carried out but not published in the form of a complete SAR. In fact, the original SAR (SAR 1983) document was provided by GA as soon as GA was selected as the supplier of RTP. The focus of this report is on the lessons learned from the preparation of SAR. The lessons learned were to address the preparation and regulatory review of the second SAR (SAR 2006). Realizing that safety is important as RTP is aging, the experiences and lessons learned from SAR development and updating processes are of great value for all parties involved. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and organize the lessons learned and suggest the best practice for the next SAR development both in preparation and regulatory review

  10. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views.

  11. Lessons Learned in Preparation and Review of Safety Analysis Report of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskin, Mazleha [Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia. Since the day it was supplied by General Atomic (GA) in 1983, periodic safety reviews were carried out but not published in the form of a complete SAR. In fact, the original SAR (SAR 1983) document was provided by GA as soon as GA was selected as the supplier of RTP. The focus of this report is on the lessons learned from the preparation of SAR. The lessons learned were to address the preparation and regulatory review of the second SAR (SAR 2006). Realizing that safety is important as RTP is aging, the experiences and lessons learned from SAR development and updating processes are of great value for all parties involved. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and organize the lessons learned and suggest the best practice for the next SAR development both in preparation and regulatory review

  12. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [fr

  13. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [fr

  14. Guidelines regarding the review process under the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  15. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  16. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  17. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  18. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [es

  19. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [es

  20. Importance of safety review to the safe operation of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkerhoff, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Widely differing standards of construction of nuclear reactors are employed in different countries. Although the reactor vendors, including designers and construction contractors, have a vested interest in safety, the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the reactor facility operator. Even though governmental agencies, either directly or indirectly, must take a strong lead in developing policies and practices of safe operation, the reactor facility operator must recognize and accept the full responsibility for safe operation of the facility. The policies and practices of safe operation imposed by governmental agencies must help assure the prudent operation and the adequate maintenance of those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety. Since each country has a slightly different philosophy for achieving safety and each vendor utilizes different structures, systems, and components to fulfil this philosophy, it is imperative that the facility operator adequately maintain those engineered safety features and those plant protective systems which have been engineered into achieving the desired levels of safety. An additional method of helping to assure that those structures, systems, and components of importance to safety are prudently operated and adequately maintained is to assign the full safety responsibility for the overall operations of the reactor facility to the operating organization, i.e. assigning a 'line of responsibility' within the reactor facility operator. This assurance can be further strengthened by requiring that the facility operator establish a safety review body that overviews the operation and assures that the operating organization complies with those policies and practices of safe operation which have been imposed on the reactor facility. (author)

  1. Patient safety in out-of-hours primary care: a review of patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients receive healthcare in primary care settings, but relatively little is known about patient safety. Out-of-hours contacts are of particular importance to patient safety. Our aim was to examine the incidence, types, causes, and consequences of patient safety incidents at general practice cooperatives for out-of-hours primary care and to examine which factors were associated with the occurrence of patient safety incidents. Methods A retrospective study of 1,145 medical records concerning patient contacts with four general practice cooperatives. Reviewers identified records with evidence of a potential patient safety incident; a physician panel determined whether a patient safety incident had indeed occurred. In addition, the panel determined the type, causes, and consequences of the incidents. Factors associated with incidents were examined in a random coefficient logistic regression analysis. Results In 1,145 patient records, 27 patient safety incidents were identified, an incident rate of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5% to 3.2%. The most frequent incident type was treatment (56%. All incidents had at least partly been caused by failures in clinical reasoning. The majority of incidents did not result in patient harm (70%. Eight incidents had consequences for the patient, such as additional interventions or hospitalisation. The panel assessed that most incidents were unlikely to result in patient harm in the long term (89%. Logistic regression analysis showed that age was significantly related to incident occurrence: the likelihood of an incident increased with 1.03 for each year increase in age (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04. Conclusion Patient safety incidents occur in out-of-hours primary care, but most do not result in harm to patients. As clinical reasoning played an important part in these incidents, a better understanding of clinical reasoning and guideline adherence at GP cooperatives could contribute to patient safety.

  2. Whole blood pathogen reduction technology and blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review with regional discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Nkohkwo, Asa?ah; Agbor, Gabriel; Asongalem, Emmanuel; Tagny, Claude; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite vast improvements in transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, there remain serious concerns on the safety and adequacy of the blood supply across the region. Objective: This review paper ascertains the role of pathogen reduction technology (PRT) in improving blood safety and supply adequacy in the region. Method: The state of blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed. Meetings, seminars and correspondence were undertaken with key clinic...

  3. The implementation and discussion on review of periodic safety reviews (PSRs) for research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Quanyuan

    2011-01-01

    The overview of regulations with which the review of PSRs for research reactors shall comply, the implementation of the review of PSRs for research reactors in China and its effects, the discussion on several issues about PSRs for research reactors and its review, and suggestions on reinforcing the PSRs for research reactors in China are concerned. (author)

  4. ASCOT guidelines revised 1996 edition. Guidelines for organizational self-assessment of safety culture and for reviews by the assessment of safety culture in organizations team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to properly assess safety culture, it is necessary to consider the contribution of all organizations which have an impact on it. Therefore, while assessing the safety culture in an operating organization it is necessary to address at least its interfaces with the local regulatory agency, utility corporate headquarters and supporting organizations. These guidelines are primarily intended for use by any organization wishing to conduct a self-assessment of safety culture. They should also serve as a basis for conducting an international peer review of the organization's self-assessment carried out by an ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team) mission

  5. Pharmacist medication reviews to improve safety monitoring in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Casey E; Sokhal, Dimmy; Zeidler Schreiter, Elizabeth; Margolis, Amanda R

    2016-06-01

    Patients prescribed psychotropic medications within primary care are at risk of suboptimal monitoring. It is unknown whether pharmacists can improve medication safety through targeted monitoring of at risk populations. Access Community Health Centers implemented a quality improvement pilot project that included pharmacists on an integrated care team to provide medication reviews for patients. Aims were to determine whether inclusion of a pharmacist performing medication reviews within a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) practice is feasible and facilitates safe medication use. Pharmacists performed medication reviews of the electronic health record for patients referred for psychiatry consultation. Reviews were performed 1-3 months following consultation and focused on medications with known suboptimal monitoring rates. Reviews were documented within the EHR and routed to the primary care provider. Primary outcome measures were change in percentage up-to-date on monitoring and AIMS assessment, and at risk of experiencing drug interaction(s) between baseline and 3 months postreview. Secondary outcome was provider opinion of medication reviews collected via electronic survey. Reviews were performed for 144 patients. Three months postreview, percentage up-to-date on recommended monitoring increased 18% (p = .0001), at risk for drug interaction decreased 20% (p improved safety monitoring of psychotropic medications. Results identify key areas for improvement that other clinics considering integration of similar pharmacy services should consider. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  7. Determinants of safety outcomes and performance: A systematic literature review of research in four high-risk industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Pieter A; Van Hoof, Joris J; De Jong, Menno D T

    2017-09-01

    In spite of increasing governmental and organizational efforts, organizations still struggle to improve the safety of their employees as evidenced by the yearly 2.3 million work-related deaths worldwide. Occupational safety research is scattered and inaccessible, especially for practitioners. Through systematically reviewing the safety literature, this study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of behavioral and circumstantial factors that endanger or support employee safety. A broad search on occupational safety literature using four online bibliographical databases yielded 27.527 articles. Through a systematic reviewing process 176 online articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria (e.g., original peer-reviewed research; conducted in selected high-risk industries; published between 1980-2016). Variables and the nature of their interrelationships (i.e., positive, negative, or nonsignificant) were extracted, and then grouped and classified through a process of bottom-up coding. The results indicate that safety outcomes and performance prevail as dependent research areas, dependent on variables related to management & colleagues, work(place) characteristics & circumstances, employee demographics, climate & culture, and external factors. Consensus was found for five variables related to safety outcomes and seven variables related to performance, while there is debate about 31 other relationships. Last, 21 variables related to safety outcomes and performance appear understudied. The majority of safety research has focused on addressing negative safety outcomes and performance through variables related to others within the organization, the work(place) itself, employee demographics, and-to a lesser extent-climate & culture and external factors. This systematic literature review provides both scientists and safety practitioners an overview of the (under)studied behavioral and circumstantial factors related to occupational safety behavior. Scientists

  8. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Korea's Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety experts concluded today a two-week mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in the Republic of Korea. The team identified good practices and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of Korea, while the final report will be submitted by the end of summer 2011. At the request of the Korean Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 16 senior regulatory experts from 14 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Korean Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (MEST) and the Korean Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS). The mission is a peer-review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. ''This was the first IRRS mission organized after Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident and it included a review of the regulatory implications of that event,' explains Denis Flory, IAEA Deputy Director General and Head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. William Borchardt, Executive Director of Operations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Team Leader of this mission commended the Korean authorities for their openness and commitment to sharing their experience with the world's nuclear safety community. ''IRRS missions such as the one that was just concluded here in the Republic of Korea are crucial to the enhancement of nuclear safety worldwide,'' he said. The IRRS team reviewed Korea's current regulatory framework while acknowledging the fact that the country's Government has already decided to establish, as of October 2011, a new independent regulatory body to be called Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). As a consequence, KINS role will be as a regulatory expert organization reporting to the NSC, while MEST's role will be restricted to promoting the utilization of nuclear energy. The IRRS team identified particular strengths in the Korean regulatory system

  9. International review of Kursk unit 1 in-depth safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouha, M.; Bolshov, L.; Butcher, P.; Janke, R.; Parsons, T.; Weber, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the objectives, organisation, main findings and conclusions of the international review of the Kursk unit 1 safety analysis report (K1IRSR). The K1IRSR was administered by RISKAUDIT IRSN/GRS international and carried out by international experts from 7 western countries plus the Russian Federation, under the supervision of the safety review group (SRG) of the European bank for reconstruction and development (EBRD). The project was financed by the nuclear safety account (NSA) administered by the EBRD. The Russian experts worked under a contract with IBRAE financed by Rosenergoatom. The main conclusions were that the SAR followed a correct approach, broadly in line with Russian and international guidance documents, but needed improvement in structure and content. It established that the safety level of the unit has been increased significantly by the modernisation programme. The important deviations of the unit from current Russian regulations and the IAEA safety issues for RBMK are either fully resolved or are being addressed to the extent possible by compensatory measures to further reduce the risk. The K1IRSR experts have made a number of recommendations for improvement of the K1SAR. The authors agreed to take the recommendations into account in future revision of the K1SAR. (orig.)

  10. Review of SKB's report, SR 97 - Post-closure safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlund, P.

    2000-01-01

    The climate and glaciation scenarios are described in detail and largely adequately supported by data. The deficiencies that I have chosen to point out are serious from the point of view of principle. I have not attempted to assess the significance of these deficiencies for a future repository. The climate predictions used in the reports are internationally generally accepted models, which can be said to be uncontroversial. However, they have been overutilized in that too much confidence has been placed in the results. The uncontroversial part of the climate scenario is the predicted development, that is, that there will be alternating cold and warm periods over the next hundred thousand year period, like we have experienced during the last glacial cycle. However, time and temperature data are naturally highly uncertain. As a reviewer, it is difficult for me to understand why priority has not been given to reconstructing events that have occurred at the possible repository sites studied in the report instead of performing general calculations based on the highly inaccurate future scenarios. High resolution data are available from the last glacial cycle. Geological evidence is also available which provides information on temperature conditions within and beneath the ice and, thereby, also provides information on the hydrology of the ice and beneath the ice. We know a great deal about these conditions, but nothing about the future. The modelling of extent of the ice sheet is not significantly different from other model experiments, which means that it largely reflects what most researchers consider to have occurred and likely to occur. However, the modelling results relating to the temperature distribution are highly controversial. These results are not supported by other modelling data, which on the contrary clearly indicate temperature patterns in and beneath the ice, which deviate from SR 97. The classification into ice divide zones and melting zones lacks a

  11. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  12. Re-assessment of seismic loads in conjunction with periodic safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonczyk, Josef

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the fundamental consideration of a safeguard-aim-oriented approach for use in the re-assessment of seismic events with regard to the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plants (NPP). The re-assessment aspects of site-specific design earthquakes (DEQ), specially the procedure for seismic hazard analysis, will not, however, be considered in detail here. The proposed assessment concept clearly presents a general approach for safety assessments. The approach is based on a successive screening review of components that are considered sufficiently earthquake-resistant. In this respect, the principle of maximum practical application of the design documentation has been considered in the re-assessment process. On the other hand, the safeguard-aim-oriented evaluation will also be applied with regard to whether the requirements of the safety regulations are fulfilled with respect to the safety goals. The review in conjunction with PSR does not, however, attempt to perform this under all technical aspects. Moreover, it is possible to make extensive use of experimental knowledge and engineering judgement with regard to the structural capacity behaviour in case of a seismic event. Compared with design procedures, however, this proposed approach differs from the one applied in licensing procedures, in which such assessment freedom will not usually be exhausted. (author)

  13. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. Methods/Design We wi