WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground safety review

  1. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  2. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  3. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  4. SSC Safety Review Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toohig, T.E. [ed.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  5. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  6. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor must... 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  7. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  8. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  9. Internet Safety and Security Surveys - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This report gives a review of investigations into Internet safety and security over the last 10 years. The review covers a number of surveys of Internet usage, of Internet security in general, and of Internet users' awareness of issues related to safety and security. The focus and approach...... of the various surveys is considered, and is related to more general proposals for investigating the issues involved. A variety of proposals for how to improve levels of Internet safety and security are also described, and they are reviewed in the light of studies of motivational factors which affect the degree...

  10. Safety analysis review terms of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, T.

    1981-03-01

    This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

  11. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  12. Construction safety and digital design: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei; Whyte, Jennifer; Sacks, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    As digital technologies become widely used in designing buildings and infrastructure, questions arise about\\ud their impacts on construction safety. This review explores relationships between construction safety and\\ud digital design practices with the aim of fostering and directing further research. It surveys state-of-the-art\\ud research on databases, virtual reality, geographic information systems, 4D CAD, building information\\ud modeling and sensing technologies, finding various digital t...

  13. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  14. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  15. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews PhD

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the latest in a family of Grounded Theory books by Glaser that continue to build on previous work and make the methodology much more explicit. Its purpose is quite simply to provide Grounded Theory researchers with a set of procedures that can be followed to generate a Formal Grounded Theory (FGT. Despite several chapters in previous books that deal with generating formal grounded theory it has been given scant attention by researchers and this book aims to reverse this. It brings together and synthesises these previous writings in one book and seeks to specify much more clearly what is meant by a formal grounded theory. As with other more recent books by Glaser, this one is based on data in that the procedures outlined are come from previously generated formal grounded theories. However, Glaser cautions that this is based on limited data since not many FGTs exist yet and as more are generated, the method will become more explicit. The book has been eagerly anticipated by grounded theorists and it does not disappoint.

  16. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  17. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  18. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  19. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously a

  20. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  1. Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ≤17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119

  2. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  3. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management has been developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  4. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  5. Ground penetrating radar for underground sensing in agriculture: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Dong, Xuejun; Leskovar, Daniel I.

    2016-10-01

    Belowground properties strongly affect agricultural productivity. Traditional methods for quantifying belowground properties are destructive, labor-intensive and pointbased. Ground penetrating radar can provide non-invasive, areal, and repeatable underground measurements. This article reviews the application of ground penetrating radar for soil and root measurements and discusses potential approaches to overcome challenges facing ground penetrating radar-based sensing in agriculture, especially for soil physical characteristics and crop root measurements. Though advanced data-analysis has been developed for ground penetrating radar-based sensing of soil moisture and soil clay content in civil engineering and geosciences, it has not been used widely in agricultural research. Also, past studies using ground penetrating radar in root research have been focused mainly on coarse root measurement. Currently, it is difficult to measure individual crop roots directly using ground penetrating radar, but it is possible to sense root cohorts within a soil volume grid as a functional constituent modifying bulk soil dielectric permittivity. Alternatively, ground penetrating radarbased sensing of soil water content, soil nutrition and texture can be utilized to inversely estimate root development by coupling soil water flow modeling with the seasonality of plant root growth patterns. Further benefits of ground penetrating radar applications in agriculture rely on the knowledge, discovery, and integration among differing disciplines adapted to research in agricultural management.

  6. System safety activities supporting an aero-space plane ground support technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the specific system safety activities required to support the ground support technology program associated with the design of an aerospace plane. Safe zones must be assessed to ensure that explosive safety requirements are attained to protect the vehicle, personnel, and support and operational facilities. Attention is given to the specific and unique design requirements connected with the utilization of cryogenic fuels as they apply to the design and development of an aerospace plane.

  7. Patient safety and electromagnetic protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Noemí; Febles, Víctor; Hernández, José A; Bardasano, José L; Monteagudo, José L; Fernández de Aldecoa, José C; Ramos, Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A systematic literature review was carried out to study patient security and possible harmful effects, immunity and interferences on medical devices, and effectiveness and transmission problems in healthcare and hospital environments due to electromagnetic interferences. The objective was to determine already-reported cases of patient security, immunity of medical devices, and transmission/reception failure in order to evaluate safety and security of patients. Literature published in the last 10 years has been reviewed by searching in bibliographic databases, journals, and proceedings of conferences. Search strategies developed in electronic databases identified a total of 820 references, with 50 finally being included. The study reveals the existence of numerous publications on interferences in medical devices due to radiofrequency fields. However, literature on effectiveness, transmission problems and measurements of electromagnetic fields is limited. From the studies collected, it can be concluded that several cases of serious interferences in medical instruments have been reported. Measures of electromagnetic fields in healthcare environments have been also reported, concluding that special protective measures should be taken against electromagnetic interferences by incoming radio waves.

  8. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  9. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  10. International Space Station EXPRESS Pallet. Ground Demonstration Baseline Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is comprised of the viewgraphs from the presentations of the EXPRESS Pallet Baseline Design Review meeting held July 20, 1995. Individual presentations addressed general requirements and objectives; mechanical, electrical, and data systems; software; operations and KSC (Kennedy Space Center) integration; payload candidates; thermal considerations; ground vs. flight demo; and recommended actions.

  11. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human...

  12. Key concepts in perioperative safety: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edison Alexander Benavides-Hernández; Juan Sebastián Echeverri-Uribe; Francisco Eduardo Agredo-Villaquirán; Jose Andres Calvache; Markus Klimek; Robert Jan Stolker

    2015-01-01

    ..., particularly in sensitive areas as perioperative care. Implementing measures of improvement begins with a self-assessment of "safety climate" which it represents the measurable component of the "safety culture...

  13. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... of Justice Programs Review of Gun Safety Technologies AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, JPO, DOJ...) is conducting a review of existing and emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report... to help inform its technology assessment and market research of existing and emerging gun...

  14. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  15. Temsirolimus: a safety and efficacy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2012-09-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) represent the most frequently exploited targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mTOR, and is a unique ester derivative of sirolimus, a macrocyclic lactone, with improved pharmaceutical properties, including stability and solubility. Temsirolimus binds to the cytoplasmic protein FKBP-12, and the complex binds and inhibits mTOR. This review summarizes the clinical findings and safety of temsirolimus in RCC patients. A Phase III clinical trial has demonstrated that temsirolimus has statistically significant advantages over treatment with IFN-α in RCC patients with poor prognosis, in terms of OS (overall survival), PFS (progression-free survival), and tumor response. Median OS was improved 49% compared to IFN-α, and median PFS was approximately doubled. It is now considered the standard for RCC patients with poor prognostic features. The possibility that this agent is useful in metastatic non-clear cell carcinoma patients has also been suggested by a subset analysis of the pivotal Phase III trial. Studies in untreated favorable and intermediate risk clear cell and refractory mRCC patients are required.

  16. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  17. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  18. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. A REVIEW ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Progress of the industrial safety and occupational health movements in the United States toward their common goal of protecting the physical welfare of workers is discussed in this article. When these activities and workmen's compensation began, about a half century ago, it was anticipated that they would be "complementary and mutually sustaining." Besides presenting historical accounts of the safety and health movements, the authors evaluate the current problems and relationships among safety, health, and compensation activities. This article constitutes part of a broader study by the authors to be published under the title "Workmen's Compensation and Occupational Disability." (Author's abstract courtesy EBSCO. This Article will examine that historical perspective, covering both state and federal law, and will comprehensively detail the current law relating to occupational safety and health in the State of Washington.

  20. Patient safety in otolaryngology: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Julian; Muzaffar, Jameel; Metcalfe, Chris; Coulson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Human evaluation and judgement may include errors that can have disastrous results. Within medicine and healthcare there has been slow progress towards major changes in safety. Healthcare lags behind other specialised industries, such as aviation and nuclear power, where there have been significant improvements in overall safety, especially in reducing risk of errors. Following several high profile cases in the USA during the 1990s, a report titled "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System" was published. The report extrapolated that in the USA approximately 50,000 to 100,000 patients may die each year as a result of medical errors. Traditionally otolaryngology has always been regarded as a "safe specialty". A study in the USA in 2004 inferred that there may be 2600 cases of major morbidity and 165 deaths within the specialty. MEDLINE via PubMed interface was searched for English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Each combined two or three of the keywords noted earlier. Limitations are related to several generic topics within patient safety in otolaryngology. Other areas covered have been current relevant topics due to recent interest or new advances in technology. There has been a heightened awareness within the healthcare community of patient safety; it has become a major priority. Focus has shifted from apportioning blame to prevention of the errors and implementation of patient safety mechanisms in healthcare delivery. Type of Errors can be divided into errors due to action and errors due to knowledge or planning. In healthcare there are several factors that may influence adverse events and patient safety. Although technology may improve patient safety, it also introduces new sources of error. The ability to work with people allows for the increase in safety netting. Team working has been shown to have a beneficial effect on patient safety. Any field of work involving human decision-making will always have a risk of error. Within

  1. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  2. Patient Safety and Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Noreen M; Colbert, Alison M

    Workplace bullying is strongly associated with negative nursing outcomes, such as work dissatisfaction, turnover, and intent to leave; however, results of studies examining associations with specific patient safety outcomes are limited or nonspecific. This integrative review explores and synthesizes the published articles that address the impact of workplace nurse bullying on patient safety.

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  6. Periodic safety review of French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirrier, D.; Debes, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1997-12-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is checked through different types of safety evaluations, for example, a continuous process, with followup of operational feedback and over-all evaluation every year by each NPP; specific examination, with the study of generic problems when they occur; and a 10-yr outage inspection. In France, the license does not explicitly require periodic safety reviews (PSRs), but an article has been added to the Decree of December 11, 1963 concerning nuclear installations that states, {open_quotes}The Ministers may jointly request the operating utility at any time to proceed to a review of nuclear safety,{close_quotes} which supports requests for PSRs from the safety authority.

  7. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat.

  8. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  9. Examining the asymptote in safety progress: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Sidney; Pitzer, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    Many industries are confronted by plateauing safety performance as measured by the absence of negative events--particularly lower-consequence incidents or injuries. At the same time, these industries are sometimes surprised by large fatal accidents that seem to have no connection with their understanding of the risks they faced; or with how they were measuring safety. This article reviews the safety literature to examine how both these surprises and the asymptote are linked to the very structures and practices organizations have in place to manage safety. The article finds that safety practices associated with compliance, control and quantification could be partly responsible. These can create a sense of invulnerability through safety performance close to zero; organizational resources can get deflected into unproductive or counterproductive initiatives; obsolete practices for keeping human performance within a pre-specified bandwidth are sustained; and accountability relationships can encourage suppression of the 'bad news' necessary to learn and improve.

  10. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  11. Investigation of noise pollution in Ground Safety section of Mehrabad Airport and its relation with employees hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mostafaee

    2015-07-01

    .Conclusion: The noise exposure of employees of Ground Safety working in Mehrabad airport was higher than the permissible limit which implies the necessity for use of earmuffs and implementation of noise reduction programs.

  12. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  14. Narrative review of the UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Rowley, Emma; Dingwall, Robert; Palmer, Cecily; Murcott, Toby

    2010-01-01

    The UK Patient Safety Research Portfolio (PSRP) commissioned 38 studies investigating the threats to patient safety in various clinical settings and evaluating safety-related service interventions. This paper reviews 27 of these studies, drawing out emergent and cross-cutting themes in terms of theory, research methods and thematic findings. Given the diversity of PSRP studies, the paper takes a narrative approach that allows for qualitative description, interpretation and synthesis of the studies and their findings. The theoretical review shows the majority of PSRP studies draw upon a patient safety 'orthodoxy', developed from the concepts and models associated with the human factors approach. The methodological review shows that a diverse range of research designs and techniques have been utilized. Although many follow in the 'scientific' tradition, interpretative, mixed and innovative methods have been integral to research. The thematic review of findings highlights significant contributions to knowledge in the areas of 'people', 'organizations', and 'technology'. As well as identifying the various sources of risk in the organization and delivery of patient care, the studies also evaluate and make recommendations about service change and improvement. The PSRP has provided the foundations for significant theoretical, methodological and empirical advances in the area of patient safety. The findings and recommendations make important contributions to policy formulation and implementation as well as professional and managerial practice. Through this body of research the PSRP has supported the formation and growth of a thriving research community across academic, policy and professional communities.

  15. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R. (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA); LaHoud, Paul (Athens, AL); Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  16. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  17. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Louise H.; Johnson, Judith; Watt, Ian; Tsipa, Anastasia; O’Connor, Daryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals’ wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Design Systematic research review. Data Sources PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii) patient safety, in healthcare staff populations. Results Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all) subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety. Conclusions Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed. Implications This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees’ mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340. PMID:27391946

  18. Book review: Safety of Biologics Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tadeusz Robak Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz and Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz, PolandSafety of Biologics Therapy: Monoclonal Antibodies, Cytokines, Fusion Proteins, Hormones, Enzymes, Coagulation Proteins, Vaccines, Botulinum Toxins (Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2016 by Brian A Baldo from the Molecular Immunology Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, and the Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia, is a book that belongs on the shelf of everyone in the field of biologic therapies research and clinical practice. In writing this book, the author’s intention was to produce an up-to-date text book on approved biologic therapies, as far as that is possible in this time of rapidly evolving developments in biotherapeutic research and the introduction of new and novel agents for clinical use.The monograph comprises 610 pages in 13 chapters, each including a summary and further reading suggestions. All chapters include a discussion of basic and clinical material. Well-designed, comprehensive tables and color figures are present throughout the book. The book itself examines the biologic products that have regulatory approval in the USA and/or European Union and that show every indication of remaining important therapies. It covers in great detail all the latest work on peptide hormones and enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and cytokine therapies. Beyond that, it also presents the latest information on blood coagulation proteins, vaccines, botulinum neurotoxins, and biosimilars. 

  19. Review of Ground Characterization by Using Instrumented Drills for Underground Mining and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sair; Rostami, Jamal; Naeimipour, Ali

    2016-02-01

    In underground mining, many miners are injured or lose their lives because of roof/pillar instability each year, and this is a persistent safety risk. Characterization of overlying strata is important for the design of safe and cost-effective ground support systems. Entry roof characterization can be performed by geological back-mapping of the ground using various methods such as geophysical logging, borescoping, rock mass rating, and intelligent roof bolt drilling systems. This paper offers a brief review of mine roof characterization methods, followed by an introduction to and discussion of roof characterization methods using instrumented roof bolters. A brief overview of the various instrumentation systems developed for roof bolt drills is presented. The results of the preliminary study and initial testing indicate that, despite recent improvements in the area of ground characterization by instrumented drills, there are still several issues that must be addressed to improve the efficiency and accuracy of existing systems. A summary of suggested improvements is provided.

  20. Radiological safety studies on ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Environmental simulation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Washio, Masakazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment)

    1982-03-01

    As the method of disposing low level radioactive wastes on land, the underground disposal method disposing the wastes in the structures constructed underground near the ground surface has been investigated as a feasible method. In order to contribute to the environmental safety assessment for this underground disposal method, environmental simulation test is planned at present, in which earth is sampled in the undisturbed state, and the behavior of radioactive nuclides is examined. The testing facilities are to be constructed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from fiscal 1981. First, the research made so far concerning the movement of radioactive nuclides in airing layer and aquifer which compose natural barrier is outlined. As for the environmental simulation test, the necessity and method of the test, earth sampling, the underground simulation facility and the contribution to environmental safety assessment are explained. By examining the movement of radioactive nuclides through natural barrier and making the effective mddel for the underground movement of radioactive nuclides, the environmental safety assessment for the disposal can be performed to obtain the national consensus.

  1. Safety and protection for hospitalized children: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatkoski, Aline Modelski; Wegner, Wiliam; Algeri, Simone; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2009-01-01

    This narrative-descriptive review is about the safety/protection of hospitalized children who, due to their fragility, vulnerability and peculiar growth and development conditions need special attention from health professionals. This study aimed to identify knowledge production on safety, protection and violence to hospitalized children between 1997 and 2007. In total, 15 national and international articles were analyzed, using the key words: hospitalized child, safety, violence and nursing. This qualitative approach enabled the development of four categories: adverse occurrences; medication errors; notification of adverse occurrences; and safety of pediatric patients. Results indicate the need to develop strategies to reduce the probability of these events occurring during children's hospitalization, so that they do not suffer any problem neither violation of their fundamental rights.

  2. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H Hall

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals' wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety.Systematic research review.PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015, Medline (1946 to July 2015, Embase (1947 to July 2015 and Scopus (1823 to July 2015 were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles.Quantitative, empirical studies that included i either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii patient safety, in healthcare staff populations.Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety.Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed.This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees' mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340.

  3. Agricultural Media Coverage of Farm Safety: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jim; Heiberger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural media merit increased attention in addressing dynamic changes in safety aspects of one of the nation's most hazardous industries. Changes in farming, such as larger-scale, new "niche" enterprises and new technologies, bring new forms of risk to the safety of those who live and work on farms and ranches. At the same time, traditional agricultural media--commercial firms that publish farm periodicals and commercial radio/television stations and networks that provide farm programming--are changing dramatically. In the face of media convergence, these enterprises provide an increasing menu of agricultural information services delivered by print, radio, and television, plus a host of new electronic media. This review of literature addressed the role and importance of commercial agricultural media in the United States, the scope and pattern of their safety coverage, and the opportunities they represent. The review involved searches of 14 bibliographic databases, as well as reference lists of relevant studies and contacts with farm safety experts. Analysis of 122 documents suggested that limited focus has been directed to the role of commercial agricultural media in safety decisions on US farms. Findings revealed that they continue to serve an efficient, early-stage role in creating awareness and interest, providing information, forming attitudes, and stirring consideration of farm safety. Potentials are seen as expanding through the interactive features of social media and other new services offered by these media firms. Findings also identified research needs, 100 farm safety topics for reporting, and opportunities for strengthening safety coverage by commercial agricultural media.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Statistical Reviews of Patient Safety Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey R; Dexter, Franklin; Espy, Jennifer L; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-06-06

    For 8.5 consecutive years, all patient safety articles of a journal underwent statistical review before publication. We sought to establish the prevalence of statistical themes in the statistical reviews, consideration of contemporary statistical methods, and their associations with time to journal receipt of authors' revision. An initial set of statistical themes was created using the statistical editor's notes. For example, for the statistical theme of "CONSORT checklist," the search term needed was "CONSORT." A complete (exhaustive) list of additional themes was obtained inductively. Among the 273 subsequent reviews for manuscripts that were ultimately accepted, the number of paragraphs that included a theme of a statistical method was only weakly associated with longer revision times (Kendall τ = 0.139 ± 0.039, P = 0.0004). Among the total 3274 paragraphs of statistical reviews, 72.2% did not include a theme of a statistical method (e.g., the editor instead asked the authors to clarify what statistical method had been used) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70.6%-73.7%, P paragraphs of statistical review comments, only 16.0% included a contemporary theme (95% CI = 13.7%-18.6%). The revised versions of patient safety articles, which are eventually to be accepted for publication, have many statistical limitations especially in the reporting (writing) of basic statistical methods and results. The results suggest a need for education of patient safety investigators to include statistical writing.

  5. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects.

  6. Patient involvement in the safety of care: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara de Oliveira Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this integrative review was to survey the strategies adopted by health institutions that involve patients in care as a barrier to prevent incidents. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL and PubMed databases using the descriptors ‘patient safety’, ‘iatrogenic’, ‘medical error’ and ‘involvement’. The review included studies in full text published between 2003 and March 2016 in English, Spanish or Portuguese. It was found that the effective communication and the development of patients’ autonomy are the most advocated strategies. The level of evidence of studies was limited to four and six. The assessment or description of institutional practices involving patients in their safety emerged as a gap in scientific knowledge. The impact of this review is to demonstrate the need for randomized studies to identify effective interventions, directing health institutions towards change in the organizational culture, focusing on safety and patient-centered care.

  7. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the third volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of appendices C through U of the report

  8. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the third volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of appendices C through U of the report

  10. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  11. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  12. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  13. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  14. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  15. Grounded Theory in studies on health of the elderly: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Oliveira de Mesquita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available : It is an integrative literature review in order to analyze national scientific production on the health of the elderly who used the Grounded Theory (DFT or Grounded Theory. We conducted a search in the Virtual Library databases Health considering all publications until March 2015. The search resulted in the selection of 11 articles by keywords: Grounded Theory and Aging Health. A Grounded Theory has contributed in the development of theories and meanings of experiences.  

  16. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  17. Review Essay: Eine Reise durch die Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In "Constructing Grounded Theory" begleitet Kathy CHARMAZ die Leser(innen) durch den Forschungsprozess. Ausgehend von einem historischen Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der Grounded Theory Methodologie führt sie die Lesenden von der Datenerfassung über das Kodieren zum Schreiben von Memos und schließlich zum ersten Entwurf der eigenen Grounded Theory. Durch die zahlreichen Beispiele aus ihrer eigenen Forschung erhalten Lesende jedoch mehr als einen theoretischen Überblick; sie haben vielmehr di...

  18. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  19. Teneligliptin: a review on cardio-renal safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit K. Patel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Various drugs including DPP4 inhibitors with different pharmacologic profile are being used in patients with type 2 diabetes for improving glycaemic control. Cardiovascular (CV safety is one of the important aspects while selecting the glucose lowering therapies. In addition, DPP-4 inhibitors differ in their mode of excretion and degree of accumulation, which require dose/frequency modification in patients with impaired renal function. Therefore, understanding the cardio-renal safety profile of DPP4 inhibitors is of great importance. Teneligliptin is a DPP4 inhibitor, approved recently for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present review is to integrate published literature and evaluate the cardio-renal safety of teneligliptin in type 2 diabetic patients. As per the available evidence, teneligliptin has apparently positive effects on CV safety markers like no QT prolongation at clinically relevant dose, small but significant improvement in left ventricular (LV function, improvement in adiponectin levels and improvement in endothelial dysfunction. These findings support the cardiovascular safety of teneligliptin in T2DM patients. Dual route of excretion makes teneligliptin suitable (no dose adjustment required for T2DM patients with renal failure. Available clinical evidence suggests that teneligliptin exerts cardiovascular safety in T2DM patients. This drug can be used in T2DM patients with CKD including end stage renal disease patients without any major safety concern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 229-234

  20. Book Review: Essentials of Accessible Grounded Theory (Stern & Porr, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Porr is a relative newcomer to grounded theory, Stern has been at it for many years (she received her PhD under Glaser and Strauss in 1977. She has been instrumental in introducing many students to grounded theory, particularly in the nursing field, as well as making notable contributions to grounded theory literature. As Stern’s (1994 observations and insights suggested, constructivist versions of grounded theory emerged and spread in part because grounded theory was often being taught by teachers who themselves had a superficial, distorted understanding of the methodology, because they had learned it “minus mentor.” Given her observations, insights, and writings, when I began reading Essentials, my expectations were high. But, after reading it, I concluded that, in some important ways, it falls short. Given Stern’s considerable experience and previous contributions to grounded theory, it is ironic that Essentials contains more confusing and subtly inaccurate content than a book written for neophyte grounded theorists should. Although I think it is a noble effort with useful information, it contains material that is at variance with classic grounded theory, yet this isn’t made clear to the reader. Because Stern and Porr failed to make a clear distinction between classic and other forms of grounded theory, many readers, particularly neophytes, will of course expect that what they present in this book accurately represents essential canons of all types of grounded theory, including classic. Readers will carry the understandings and misunderstandings gained from the book into their research and discussions with other neophytes and individuals who express interest in grounded theory.

  1. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for food safety: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Harish; Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Harish Kumar, Rani Neelam Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana, India Abstract: In recent years, food storage environment safety has been a major concern for food and health scientists. There is growing interest in electrochemical biosensors due to their high sensitivity and rapid response. The aim of this review article is to provide details regarding the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors, and their use in t...

  2. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  3. Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce harm caused by health care is a global priority. Medical students should be able to recognize unsafe conditions, systematically report errors and near misses, investigate and improve such systems with a thorough understanding of human fallibility, and disclose errors to patients. Incorporating the knowledge of how to do this into the medical student curriculum is an urgent necessity. This paper aims to systematically review the literature about patient safety education for undergraduate medical students in terms of its content, teaching strategies, faculty availability and resources provided so as to identify evidence on how to promote patient safety in the curriculum for medical schools. This paper includes a perspective from the faculty of a medical school, a major hospital and an Evidence Based Medicine Centre in Sichuan Province, China. Methods We searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Source Premier(ASP, EMBASE and three Chinese Databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CBM; China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI; Wangfang Data from 1980 to Dec. 2009. The pre-specified form of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed for literature screening. The quality of included studies was assessed using Darcy Reed and Gemma Flores-Mateo criteria. Two reviewers selected the studies, undertook quality assessment, and data extraction independently. Differing opinions were resolved by consensus or with help from the third person. Results This was a descriptive study of a total of seven studies that met the selection criteria. There were no relevant Chinese studies to be included. Only one study included patient safety education in the medical curriculum and the remaining studies integrated patient safety into clinical rotations or medical clerkships. Seven studies were of a pre and post study design, of which there was only one controlled study. There was considerable variation in relation to contents

  4. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to vote on the position of Board Chairperson... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C...

  5. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on the... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory...

  6. 76 FR 56226 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote of the... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U...

  7. Simulation of safety: a review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development.

  8. Seismic safety of structures: Influence of soil-flexibility, asymmetry and ground motion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sekhar Chandra; Roy, Rana; Das, Prithwish Kumar; Roy, Raghupati; Reddy, G. R.

    2007-11-01

    Structures may experience degradation in strength in the event of strong seismic shaking. A rational estimation of the reserve strength of the structures is often desired in the process of retrofitting or strengthening the same. To achieve this end, the present paper confirms the suitability of an existing hysteresis model in reproducing experimental load-displacement characteristics for reinforced concrete ( R/C) structural members. Attempt has also been made for rational and realistic estimation of the degradation parameter required for the model in absence of any case-specific calibrated value. Subsequently, post-earthquake behaviour of the low-rise symmetric structures is assessed with and without accounting for the effect of soil-structure interaction. Such response for low-rise multistorey systems with regular asymmetry has also been investigated in the sample form. To develop insight into the behaviour of asymmetric (uni-directional and bi-directional) systems, detailed investigation has been made on idealized single-storey asymmetric systems under simulated and real ground motions with different phase difference or time lag variation. This suggests a serious implication of occurrence of peaks of the ground motions on the seismic performance of bi-directionally eccentric structures and indicates a relatively higher torsional vulnerability of bi-directionally eccentric system compared to equivalent uni-directional counterpart. The results along with the endeavour toward measuring the ductility capacity for R/C structural members based on the systematic observation and interpretation of the available experimental results, made in the paper, may prove useful in evaluating the seismic safety of low-rise R/C structures.

  9. A Review of Celestial Burying Ground in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQIAN

    2005-01-01

    Celestial burying ground ,also called “Mandala”,is where life leaves and comes.A huge piece of stone hidden in high mountains is surrounded by burning plants that give up smoke going up into the air.

  10. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  11. Phenomenological studies on sodium for CSP applications: A safety review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2016-05-01

    Sodium Heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as sodium, can achieve temperatures above 700°C to obtain power cycle performance improvements for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF's (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal power cycles. This advantage could increase the efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sensible sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium receiver designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Lessons obtained from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  12. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  13. Harnessing implementation science to improve care quality and patient safety: a systematic review of targeted literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Marks, Danielle; Taylor, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  14. The growth of railway ground vibration problems - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, David P; Marecki, Grzegorz P; Kouroussis, Georges; Thalassinakis, Ioannis; Woodward, Peter K

    2016-10-15

    Ground-borne noise and vibration from railway lines can cause human distress/annoyance, and also negatively affect real estate property values. Therefore this paper analyses a collection of technical ground-borne noise and vibration reports, detailing commercial vibration assessments undertaken at 1604 railway track sections, in 9 countries across the world. A wide range of rail projects are considered including light rail, tram lines, underground/tunnelled lines, freight, conventional rail and high speed rail. It documents the rise in ground-borne vibration problems and trends in the prediction industry, with the aim of informing the current research area. Firstly, the reports are analysed chronologically and it is found that railway vibration is a growing global concern, and as such, assessments have become more prevalent. International assessment metrics are benchmarked and it is found that velocity decibels (VdB), vibration dose value (VDV) and peak particle velocity (PPV) are the most commonly used methods of assessment. Furthermore, to predict vibration levels, the physical measurement of frequency transfer functions is preferential to numerical modelling. Results from the reports show that ground vibration limits are exceeded in 44% of assessments, and that ground-borne noise limits are exceeded in 31%. Moreover, mitigation measures were required on approximately 50% of projects, revealing that ground-borne noise and vibration is a widespread railroad engineering challenge. To solve these problems, the most commonly used abatement strategy is a modification of the railtrack structure (active mitigation), rather than the implementation of a more passive solution in the far-field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting/conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor nominations, review issues relevant to the nomination review...

  16. Efficacy and safety of blonanserin versus other antipsychotics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many atypical antipsychotics are available, there is a need of an atypical antipsychotic effective in all symptom domains of schizophrenia and well tolerated especially for side effects like extrapyramidal side effects, weight gain and blood prolactin elevation. Blonanserin is an atypical antipsychotic which blocks dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2A receptors. Its efficacy and safety has been studied in patients with schizophrenia and delirium. Blonanserin is found to be effective and well tolerated in both conditions. This article has reviewed efficacy and tolerability of blonanserin in these two psychiatry diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 689-692

  17. Grounded Theory: Managing the Challenge for Those Facing Institutional Review Board Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen; Thomas, M. Lori

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine one of the earliest systematic forms of qualitative inquiry to identify some of the boundaries needed in grounded theory designs to provide a small corner of clarity in the discourse about what is acceptable science from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) perspective. Beginning with an overview of grounded theory research as…

  18. Culturally Grounded Prevention for Minority Youth Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K; Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; Zaremba, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    Contemporary prevention science has focused on the application of cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs for minority youth populations. Far less is known about culturally grounded methods that are intended to organically develop prevention programs within specific populations and communities. This article systematically reviews recent literature on culturally grounded interventions used to prevent health disparities in ethnic minority youth populations. In this review, we assessed 31 peer-reviewed articles published in 2003 or later that fit inclusionary criteria pertaining to the development and evaluation of culturally grounded prevention programs. The evaluated studies indicated different approaches toward cultural grounding, as well as specific populations, geographic regions, and health issues that have been targeted. Specifically, the findings indicated that most of the studies focused on the development and evaluation of culturally grounded HIV/STI and substance abuse prevention programs for Mexican-American, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth residing in the South or Southwestern US. These studies largely relied on community-based participatory or qualitative research methods to develop programs from the "ground up." This review has implications for the development of future culturally grounded and culturally adapted prevention programs targeting underserved minority youth populations and geographic regions. Specifically, it identifies populations and regions where culturally grounded prevention efforts are underdeveloped or non-existent, providing some scientific direction for the future development of these types of programs.

  19. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  20. 29 CFR 2200.108 - Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official Seal of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. 2200.108 Section 2200.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. The seal of the Commission shall consist of: A gold...

  1. Review on - Nanotechnology Applications in Food Packaging and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Wesley , Praveen Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, the science of very small materials, is poised to have a big impact in food production and packaging.Public perception will be crucial to the realization of these technological advances. Today, nanotech R&D of food packaging and the monitoring of nanotech food packaging is a major focus in the food industry. Due to very large aspect ratios, a relatively low level of nanoparticle is sufficient to change the properties of packaging materials without significant changes in density, transparency and processing characteristics. New packaging solutions will focus more on food safety by controlling microbial growth, delaying oxidation, improving tamper visibility, and convenience. The rapid use of nano-based packaging in a wide range of consumer products has also raised a number of safety, environmental, ethical, policy and regulatory issues. Nanotechnologies are expected to play a major role, taking into account all additional safety considerations and filling present packaging needs. This review also provides the most complete accounting of nano-enabled packaging for food products in various markets around the globe.

  2. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-06-15

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  3. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  4. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  5. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels, Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  6. Developmental and Evolutionary Lexicon Acquisition in Cognitive Agents/Robots with Grounding Principle: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Nadia; Amin, Shamsudin H M

    2016-01-01

    Grounded language acquisition is an important issue, particularly to facilitate human-robot interactions in an intelligent and effective way. The evolutionary and developmental language acquisition are two innovative and important methodologies for the grounding of language in cognitive agents or robots, the aim of which is to address current limitations in robot design. This paper concentrates on these two main modelling methods with the grounding principle for the acquisition of linguistic ability in cognitive agents or robots. This review not only presents a survey of the methodologies and relevant computational cognitive agents or robotic models, but also highlights the advantages and progress of these approaches for the language grounding issue.

  7. 77 FR 51826 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2011-2012 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  8. 78 FR 43227 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2012-2013 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues relevant...

  9. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau... announcement of a meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  10. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  11. Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzy, Manhal; Malieckal, Anju; Little, Erin; Anand, Sury

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of constipation in geriatrics. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, google scholar, and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation, which were conducted between January 1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords. Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included. Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials, case series, or case reports. RESULTS: Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search, only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics. The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna, lactulose, sorbital, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lubiprostone, linaclotide, and prucalopride. In those studies, senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as, a very good adverse effect profile. PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population. Furthermore, it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population. New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrants further investigation. CONCLUSION: Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation. PMID:27158549

  12. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.); Fauske, H.K. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA)); Call, D.W. (Westinghouse Savannah R

    1989-04-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.

  13. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  14. Safety of Moxibustion: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moxibustion is a traditional medical treatment originating in China. It involves using the heat of burning moxa to stimulate acupoints. It is considered safe and effective and is widely used throughout the world. The increasing use of moxibustion has drawn attention to the procedure’s adverse events (AEs. This review covers a total of 64 cases of AEs associated with moxibustion in 24 articles, reported in six countries. Some evidence of the risks of moxibustion has been found in these cases. AEs include allergies, burns, infection, coughing, nausea, vomiting, fetal distress, premature birth, basal cell carcinoma (BCC, ectropion, hyperpigmentation, and even death. The position, duration, distance between moxa and skin, proficiency of the practitioners, conditions of the patients, presence of smoke, and even the environment of treatment can affect the safety of moxibustion. Improving practitioner skill and regulating operations may reduce the incidence of adverse reactions and improve the security of moxibustion.

  15. Safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Sirotin, Anton P; Mishkind, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings, such as a personal residence, must be established to inform policy and further the dissemination of telemental health programs. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of safety issues associated with telemental healthcare and, through a systematic literature review, evaluate the safety of telemental healthcare delivered to unsupervised settings. The review resulted in a total of nine studies that specifically evaluated the delivery of telemental healthcare to unsupervised settings. Six of the nine studies reviewed explicitly described safety plans or specific precautions that could be used if necessary. Two of the nine studies reported events that required the researchers to use safety procedures to effectively respond to concerns they had regarding participant safety. In both of these studies, the issues were resolved with prescribed safety procedures. Recommendations and future directions for the development and evaluation of safety protocols are discussed.

  16. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. The principal purpose of this document is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented. It is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 77 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Safety of metamizole: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, S; Bartels, D B; Lange, R; Sandford, L; Gurwitz, J

    2016-10-01

    Metamizole was withdrawn from the market in the United States and several European countries following reports of fatal agranulocytosis among users, but is still available in many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. Over the past several decades, a number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to quantify the risk of agranulocytosis and other adverse effects associated with metamizole and other non-narcotic analgesics. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of metamizole. Epidemiologic studies published between 1 January 1980 and 15 December 2014 were identified through systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar; the reference sections of selected articles were also reviewed to identify potentially relevant studies. Studies included in this review focused on the safety of metamizole, that is on outcomes such as haematologic abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis and hepatotoxicity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to prespecified criteria. A total of 22 articles met the criteria for evaluation. The majority of studies that evaluated agranulocytosis indicated an increased risk associated with metamizole, with relative risk (RR) estimates ranging from 1·5 (95% CI, 0·8-2·7) to 40·2 (95% CI, 14·7-113·3). Findings of three case-control studies do not suggest an association between metamizole and aplastic anaemia. Of the five case-control studies that evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four found a statistically significant increased risk associated with metamizole (RR estimates ranging from 1·4 to 2·7). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether metamizole increases the risk of other outcomes (e.g. hepatic effects, anaphylaxis, congenital anomalies). Few studies evaluated the effects of dose, route of administration or duration of therapy. Published studies reported differences in

  18. Is it really theoretical? A review of sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Purssell, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Grounded theory is a distinct method of qualitative research, where core features are theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis. However, inconsistent application of these activities has been observed in published studies. This review assessed the use of theoretical sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals. An adapted systematic review was conducted. Three leading nursing journals (2010-2014) were searched for studies stating grounded theory as the method. Sampling was assessed using a concise rating tool. A high proportion (86%) of the 134 articles described an iterative process of data collection and analysis. However, half of the studies did not demonstrate theoretical sampling, with many studies declaring or indicating a purposive sampling approach throughout. Specific reporting guidelines for grounded theory studies should be developed to ensure that study reports describe an iterative process of fieldwork and theoretical development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ground control stations for unmanned air vehicles (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Natarajan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available "During the last five decades, the world has witnessed tremendous growth in the military aircraft technology and the air defence weapons technology. Use of manned aircraft for routine reconnaissance/surveillance missions has become a less preferred option due to possible high attrition rate. Currently, the high political cost of human life has practically earmarked the roles of reconnaissance and surveillance missions to the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs. Almost every major country has a UAV program of its own and this interest has spawned intensive research in the field of UAVs. Presently, the UAVs come in all shapes and sizes, from palm top micro UAVs to giant strategic UAVs that can loiter over targets for extended periods of time. Though UAVs are capable of operating at different levels of autonomy, these are generally controlled from a ground control station (GCS. The GCS is the nerve centre of activity during UAV missions and provides necessary capability to plan and execute UAV missions. The GCS incorporates facilities, such as communication, displays, mission planning and data exploitation. The GCS architecture is highly processor-oriented and hence the computer hardware and software technologies play a major role in the realisation of this vital system. This paper gives an overview of the GCS, its architecture and the current state-of-the-art in various subsystem technologies.

  20. The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, t...

  1. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power... incorporate the final approved guidance into the next revision of NUREG 0800. Dated at Rockville,...

  2. A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2009-12-01

    Business cases are commonly developed as means to rationalize investment. We systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess if health and productivity arguments make a good business case. To be included in the review, studies had to analyze the costs and benefits, including productivity, of an OSH intervention at the enterprise level. We searched Medline and Embase for studies and used Google search in addition. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The intervention profitability was calculated in euros (euro in 2008) as the first year's benefits minus the total intervention costs per worker. The payback period was calculated as the intervention costs divided by the first year's benefits. We found three ex-ante and 23 ex-post cases. In 20 cases, the study design was a before-after comparison without a control group. Generally a 100% reduction of injuries or sickness absence was assumed. In two cases, productivity and quality increases were very large. The main benefit was avoided sick leave. Depreciation or discounting was applied only in a minority of cases. The intervention profitability was negative in seven studies, up to euro 500 per employee in 12 studies and more than euro 500 per employee in seven studies. The payback period was less than half a year for 19 studies. Only a few studies included sensitivity analyses. Few ex-ante business cases for management decisions on OSH are reported. Guidelines for reporting and evaluation are needed. Business cases need more sound assumptions on the effectiveness of interventions and should incorporate greater uncertainty into their design. Ex-post evaluation should be based preferably on study designs that control for trends at a time different from that of the intervention.

  3. Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhal Izzy; Anju Malieckal; Erin Little; Sury Anand

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacolo-gical treatment of constipation in geriatrics.METHODS:Pub Med,MEDLINE,google scholar,and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation,which were conducted between January1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords.Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included.Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials,case series,or case reports.RESULTS:Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search,only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics.The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna,lactulose,sorbital,polyethylene glycol(PEG),lubiprostone,linaclotide,and prucalopride.In those studies,senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as,a very good adverse effect profile.PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population.Furthermore,it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population.New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrant further investigation.CONCLUSION:Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation.

  4. A review of the safety aspects of radio frequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhaskaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent reports showing high incidence of silent cerebral infarcts and organized atrial arrhythmias following radiofrequency (RF atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, a review of its safety aspects is timely. Serious complications do occur during supraventricular tachycardia (SVT ablations and knowledge of their incidence is important when deciding whether to proceed with ablation. Evidence is emerging for the probable role of prophylactic ischemic scar ablation to prevent VT. This might increase the number of procedures performed. Here we look at the various complications of RF ablation and also the methods to minimize them. Electronic database was searched for relevant articles from 1990 to 2015. With better awareness and technological advancements in RF ablation the incidence of complications has improved considerably. In AF ablation it has decreased from 6% to less than 4% comprising of vascular complications, cardiac tamponade, stroke, phrenic nerve injury, pulmonary vein stenosis, atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF and death. Safety of SVT ablation has also improved with less than 1% incidence of AV node injury in AVNRT ablation. In VT ablation the incidence of major complications was 5–11%, up to 3.4%, up to 1.8% and 4.1–8.8% in patients with structural heart disease, without structural heart disease, prophylactic ablations and epicardial ablations respectively. Vascular and pericardial complications dominated endocardial and epicardial VT ablations respectively. Up to 3% mortality and similar rates of tamponade were reported in endocardial VT ablation. Recent reports about the high incidence of asymptomatic cerebral embolism during AF ablation are concerning, warranting more research into its etiology and prevention.

  5. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, J.; Mauer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Report discusses safety program implementation for large R&D operating system. Analytical techniques are defined and suggested as tools for identifying potential hazards and determining means to effectively control or eliminate hazards.

  6. The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, PhD

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, to reground it, to quote one notable British author who, lack of handson grounded theory experience aside, manages a booklength critique of the method. Two recent books in the“remaking grounded theory” genre are from sociologists with some years of grounded theory projects behind them. Adele E. Clarke, author of Situational Analysis, was a student and colleague of Anselm L. Strauss at the University of California San Francisco. Kathy Charmaz, author of Constructing Grounded Theory, is among the few grounded theorists who studied with Barney G. Glaser and Strauss at UCSF.

  7. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department`s helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team`s appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  8. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department's helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team's appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  9. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route analysis. If the Associate Administrator for Safety determines that a railroad carrier's route selection...

  10. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office...: This is an announcement of a meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202. Pursuant...

  11. A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpkaya, T.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

  12. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  13. Review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety control in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. T.; Smith, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Basic elements in the review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety in transportation are the magnitudes of reactivity changes that may occur to a shipment of packages and those inherent in the regulatory procedure of assessment. The generic representation of criticality of reflected arrays of uncontained fissionable materials is used as a basis for comparison of packaged fissionable materials. The reactivities associated with array changes and perturbations representative of credible conditions that may occur in storage or transportation are summarized for air-spaced units of fissionable materials. Calculations of packaged fissionable material determined reactivities associated with similar changes to arrays of packages. Typical thermal insulating materials being studied are Celotex, wood, Foamglas, and a bonded vermiculite. The effect on the array neutron multiplication of these, with and without steel as an inner and outer container material, is examined. The present stage of the study has produced results illustrating the variable margin of subcriticality manifested by the criteria. Depending upon the packaging, mass loading and array reflector condition, the margin of subcriticality can be of the order of 1% in k/sub eff/.

  14. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Czachor, Jason D.; Westphal, Joslyn A.; Mestre, Miriam A.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research. PMID:28603504

  15. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  17. Safety on the ground: the Franco-German cooperation; La surete sur le terrain: la cooperation franco-allemande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockle, W. [service de surete nucleaire au Ministere de L' Environnement du Land de Baden-Wurttemberg, membre du GT1 de la DFK (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The Franco-German Commission on nuclear installation safety issues (DFK) combines the traditional with the modern. Established at the time of the construction of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, it has nearly four decades of experience dealing with issues of nuclear safety, emergency situations and radiation protection in nuclear power plants located near the border between France and Germany. The exchange of information that takes place within the framework of the DFK is highly beneficial in terms of keeping national nuclear safety authorities, as well as the general public, informed. This interchange also serves to identify avenues and suggestions for improvement in national practices, which can lead to a review and harmonization of regulations. (author)

  18. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  19. Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

    1977-12-01

    This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

  20. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  1. (Q)SAR modeling and safety assessment in regulatory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruhlak, N L; Benz, R D; Zhou, H; Colatsky, T J

    2012-03-01

    The ability to predict clinical safety based on chemical structures is becoming an increasingly important part of regulatory decision making. (Quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are currently used to evaluate late-arising safety concerns and possible nonclinical effects of a drug and its related compounds when adequate safety data are absent or equivocal. Regulatory use will likely increase with the standardization of analytical approaches, more complete and reliable data collection methods, and a better understanding of toxicity mechanisms.

  2. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  3. Protection Method of Biological Lightning Safety around Power Grid Based on Grounding Electrode Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixiang, Chen; Daopin, Chen; Ming, Zhang; Xiao, Huang; Jian, He; Zhijie, He

    2017-05-01

    Aimed at the actual situation of fish death in fish ponds near the power transmission line towers after the thunderstorm happened in Guangdong Province in China, this paper studied the influence of the ground current on fish in the pond. Firstly, This paper studied the current density of the fish without protection. On this basis, paper studied the horizontal pole with full-shielded, the vertical pole with half-shielded, the horizontal pole with extension three kinds of protective measures and effects. Finally an effective protection scheme was put forward according to the engineering practice. The results can provide some engineering guidance and quantitative basis for the design and modification of grounding devices when the tower is adjacent to the fish ponds in southern China.

  4. Safety guidelines of ultimate hull girder strength for grounded container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, Jeom Kee;

    2013-01-01

    Various accidents commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. In this regard, an accidental risk-based approach that is in line with the Goal Based Standard (GBS) of the International Maritime...... damage criteria and making rapid salvage plans or rescue schemes for container ships that have sustained a grounding accident. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-10-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human.

  6. Improving Patient Safety Culture in Primary Care: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient safety culture, described as shared values, attitudes and behavior of staff in a health-care organization, gained attention as a subject of study as it is believed to be related to the impact of patient safety improvements. However, in primary care, it is yet unknown, which effec

  7. Application of GIS and MODFLOW to Ground Water Hydrology- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singha Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Due to over exploitation, the ground water systems are affected and require management to maintain the conditions of ground water resources within acceptable limits. With the development of computers and advances in information technology, efficient techniques for water management has evolved. The main intent of the paper is to present a comprehensive review on application of GIS (Geographic Information System followed by coupling with MODFLOW package for ground water management and development. Two major areas are discussed stating GIS applications in ground water hydrology. (i GIS based subsurface flow and pollution modelling (ii Selection of artificial recharge sites. Although the use of these techniques in groundwater studies has rapidly increased since last decade the sucess rate is very limited. Based on this review , it is concluded that integation of GIS and MODFLOW have great potential to revolutionize the monitoring and management of vital ground water resources in the future.

  8. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY IMPROVEMENT OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE AIRPORT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  10. Pharmacoepidemiological safety studies in children: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.U. Osokogu (Osemeke); Dukanovic, J. (Julijana); C. Ferrajolo (Carmen); C. Dodd (Caitlin); A.C. Pacurariu (Alexandra C.); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); 'tJong, G. (Geert); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); F. Kaguelidou (Florentia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In order to identify challenges in pediatric pharmacoepidemiological safety studies, we assessed the characteristics of such (published) studies. Methods: Relevant articles from inception to 2013 were retrieved from Embase and Medline. We sequentially screened titles, abstracts

  11. A Review of Interventions To Increase Driving Safety among Teenage Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, John R., II

    Young drivers across the United States represent a persistent traffic safety problem. Many interventions have been imposed on these drivers but few studies have evaluated the impact of these interventions on risky behaviors or traffic safety measures. To fill this gap, a review was undertaken to examine the most rigorous methodological evaluations…

  12. The timing of the literature review in grounded theory research: an open mind versus an empty head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; King, Lindy; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The timing of the literature review in grounded theory has been debated for decades, with previous recommendations to delay the review now under question. Mounting evidence suggests that a preliminary review can enhance theoretical sensitivity and rigor and may lead to innovative insights. However, researchers must acknowledge the influence of prior knowledge during data analysis and theory development to avoid bias. This article critically examines the ongoing debate and recommends that we should not seek to avoid preconceptions but ensure that they are well grounded in evidence and always subject to further investigation, revision, and refutation. If used reflexively, a preliminary literature review may well enhance grounded theory research.

  13. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, Clemens R. M.; Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. Materials and Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation

  14. Draft safety review plan for accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this ``living`` Safety Review Plan (SRP) is to describe the products and processes that will be followed to conduct a systematic review of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), and subsequently to prepare a draft Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the PSAR. This plan is prepared for and will be implemented by the APT Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) over the period July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1998, in accordance with provisions established in DOE-STD-1104-96. A core team of DOE, INEEL, and AMPARO Corporation engineers and scientists will prepare the initial draft SER with assistance from other ISRC team members on an as needed basis. Guidelines for preparing the draft SER are presented in Section 7 of this SRP. The PSAR reviews will focus exclusively on safety. The ever-present two-part question will be: Does the subject matter have safety significance? If so, does the APT structural, system, component, and/or process engineering design ensure an acceptable margin of safety? The APT mission, efficiency, and cost are not considerations of this plan. A more detailed discussion of the review philosophy is presented in Section 5 of this SRP.

  15. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic safety margins research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M. K.; Kwiatkowski, J. W.; Nau, R. F.; Oliver, R. M.; Pister, K. S.

    1981-02-01

    Four major California earthquake records were analyzed by use of a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It was possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters, and test the residuals generated by these models. It was also possible to show the connections, similarities, and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum-likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain, and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. 60 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Growth and development of microseismics applied to ground control and mine safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, F.

    1983-08-01

    The microseismic technique has advanced a great deal in recent years and has been used with moderate success in a number of different applications in the mining industry. More potential users are becoming aware of its capabilities and are making efforts to use the technology. As mining continues to greater depths and stability problems become more intense, use can only be expected to expand. Current Bureau research is aimed at better use, with particular regard to the reliability of data analysis procedures. Experience to date has shown that, while the techniques are beneficial and can contribute substantially to both mine safety and mine production, reliability problems exist, specifically in the areas of false warnings and of structural failures where warning is not provided. It seem, however, that these reliability problems can be resolved with continued research and development.

  17. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  18. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  19. Safety of amisulpride (Solian): a review of 11 clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulouvrat, C; Dondey-Nouvel, L

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the overall safety profile of amisulpride based on the results from 11 clinical studies performed in patients suffering from schizophrenia with predominance of positive or negative symptoms. A total of 1933 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with amisulpride (n = 1247) or haloperidol (n = 309), risperidone (n = 113), flupentixol (n = 62) and placebo (n = 202). Safety data collection was performed using open reporting, UKU scales or specific extrapyramidal side-effect scales; electrocardiogram recording and vital signs examination; laboratory data collection. Amisulpride demonstrated a satisfactory global safety profile in the range of doses usually prescribed. The number of patients having at least one extrapyramidal side-effect was higher in haloperidol patients compared with both amisulpride and risperidone patients (50% versus 30% in the two latter groups). For endocrine events, a similar rate was observed between amisulpride and risperidone groups (4% versus 6%, respectively) versus 1% in the haloperidol group. Electrocardiogram results were satisfactory, confirmed by the absence of cardiovascular events. The overall laboratory safety profile of amisulpride did not show clinically relevant abnormalities in liver function tests nor haematological abnormalities. Our extensive clinical data confirm the satisfactory safety profile of amisulpride which is superior to standard reference compounds.

  20. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  1. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  2. Safety studies conducted on pecan shell fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Dolan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control, 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000 ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000 ppm males, resulting in intermittent decreases in food efficiency (150 000 ppm males only that were not biologically relevant. All animals survived and no adverse clinical signs or functional changes were attributable to the test material. There were no toxicologically relevant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry or urinalysis parameters or organ weights in rats ingesting pecan shell fiber. Any macroscopic or microscopic findings were incidental, of normal variation and/or of minimal magnitude for test substance association. Pecan shell fiber was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and non-clastogenic in a mouse peripheral blood micronucleus test. Based on these results, pecan shell fiber has an oral subchronic (13-week no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 150 000 ppm in rats and is not genotoxic at the doses analyzed.

  3. Aviation and healthcare: a comparative review with implications for patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Anam; Soukup, Tayana; Reader, Tom; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Safety in aviation has often been compared with safety in healthcare. Following a recent article in this journal, the UK government set up an Independent Patient Safety Investigation Service, to emulate a similar well-established body in aviation. On the basis of a detailed review of relevant publications that examine patient safety in the context of aviation practice, we have drawn up a table of comparative features and a conceptual framework for patient safety. Convergence and divergence of safety-related behaviours across aviation and healthcare were derived and documented. Key safety-related domains that emerged included Checklists, Training, Crew Resource Management, Sterile Cockpit, Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Organisational Culture. We conclude that whilst healthcare has much to learn from aviation in certain key domains, the transfer of lessons from aviation to healthcare needs to be nuanced, with the specific characteristics and needs of healthcare borne in mind. On the basis of this review, it is recommended that healthcare should emulate aviation in its resourcing of staff who specialise in human factors and related psychological aspects of patient safety and staff wellbeing. Professional and post-qualification staff training could specifically include Cognitive Bias Avoidance Training, as this appears to play a key part in many errors relating to patient safety and staff wellbeing. PMID:26770817

  4. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings fr

  5. Gender issues in safety and health at work : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Kauppinen, K.; Kumpulainen, R.; Goudswaard, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report explores the gender differences in occupational safety and health. There is strong segregation of women and men into different jobs and tasks at work. Both men and women face significant risks. In general, men suffer more accidents and injuries at work than women do, whereas women report

  6. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)

    2017-03-01

    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  7. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  8. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem.

  9. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  10. Improving the governance of patient safety in emergency care: a systematic review of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Berben, S.A.; Beune, T.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review interventions that aim to improve the governance of patient safety within emergency care on effectiveness, reliability, validity and feasibility. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health

  11. Status of patient safety culture in Arab countries: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashrafi, Ahmed; Banarsee, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the status of patient safety culture in Arab countries based on the findings of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC). Design Systematic review. Methods We performed electronic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest and PsychINFO, Google Scholar and PubMed databases, with manual searches of bibliographies of included articles and key journals. We included studies that were conducted in the Arab countries that were focused on patient safety culture. 2 reviewers independently verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria and critically assessed the quality of the studies. Results 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. The review identified that non-punitive response to error is seen as a serious issue which needs to be improved. Healthcare professionals in the Arab countries tend to think that a ‘culture of blame’ still exists that prevents them from reporting incidents. We found an overall similarity between the reported composite score for dimension of teamwork within units in all of the reviewed studies. Teamwork within units was found to be better than teamwork across hospital units. All of the reviewed studies reported that organisational learning and continuous improvement was satisfactory as the average score of this dimension for all studies was 73.2%. Moreover, the review found that communication openness seems to be a concerning issue for healthcare professionals in the Arab countries. Conclusions There is a need to promote patient safety culture as a strategy for improving the patient safety in the Arab world. Improving patient safety culture should include all stakeholders, like policymakers, healthcare providers and those responsible for medical education. This review was limited only to English language publications. The varied settings in which the HSPSC was used may have influenced the areas of strengths and weaknesses as healthcare workers' perception of safety culture may differ. PMID

  12. European Tunnelling Review Quality, Environment and Safety Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill Weburn

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of tunnelling projects with some of the themes covered by the Chengdu Tunnelling Conference.(a) Environmental issues and tunnels under high groundwater pressure (Hallandsis Rail Tunnel, Sweden)(b) Fire -fighting and tunnel safety on long highway tunnels (Socatop Tunnel, West Paris)(c) Mechanised tunnelling below the world's largest airport (Heathrow T5) of a quality that avoids disruption to its operation.Each of these overviews show an enhanced performance in regard to project specific events or objectives. Particularly in tunnelling, project owners expect more than just a facility delivered on time for their money: they expect an all round performance respecting deadlines, budget, environmental protection, safety, quality and community harmony. Funding agencies do not always have the same agenda as project owners, acknowledging peripheral selection criteria but often demanding that the lowest bidder be awarded work. All round performance requires all round project selection criteria.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  14. A Review of Safety Practices and Safety Training for the Explosives Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    situation. 7. Teach new personnel to respect, not fear, explosives; recognize that knowledge is the key to safety. 8. Hold a Monday-morning meeting...L. R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, " Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives," NWSY-TR7-TR76-2, July 1976. 59 .4 The following...SENSITIVITY (I) Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives, Robert Petersen, Lewis R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, NWSY-TR 76-2, Jul 76, (2470

  15. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  16. Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding patient safety: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety.

  17. Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Models of Innovation Diffusion: A Critical Review

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Innovation diffusion has been studied extensively in a variety of disciplines, including sociology, economics, marketing, ecology, and computer science. Traditional literature on innovation diffusion has been dominated by models of aggregate behavior and trends. However, the agent-based modeling (ABM) paradigm is gaining popularity as it captures agent heterogeneity and enables fine-grained modeling of interactions mediated by social and geographic networks. While most ABM work on innovation diffusion is theoretical, empirically grounded models are increasingly important, particularly in guiding policy decisions. We present a critical review of empirically grounded agent-based models of innovation diffusion, developing a categorization of this research based on types of agent models as well as applications. By connecting the modeling methodologies in the fields of information and innovation diffusion, we suggest that the maximum likelihood estimation framework widely used in the former is a promising paradigm...

  18. Atazanavir pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety in pregnancy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eley, T.; Bertz, R.; Hardy, H.; Burger, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For some antiretroviral therapies, drug concentrations are reduced during pregnancy, potentially compromising effective virological suppression. METHODS: Data on atazanavir boosted with ritonavir in pregnancy are reviewed. RESULTS: With standard atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once-daily

  19. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to ... rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. ... Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another ...

  20. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    OpenAIRE

    Packer M

    2016-01-01

    Mark Packer Mark Packer MD Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS A...

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  2. Trials of bevacizumab in breast cancer - a safety review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2012-01-01

    enables the reader to overview current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in breast cancer. Expert opinion: Insight into complex risk-benefit calculations for bevacizumab is missing. In unselected patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, the risk of serious side effects...... of bevacizumab overshadows the benefit of the drug. However, increased response rates and progression-free survival in the majority of Phase III trials suggest that the drug is of benefit in a subgroup of patients. Although requiring close monitoring, most side effects are manageable. Reliable, validated...

  3. Mind the Gap. A systematic review to identify usability and safety challenges and practices during electronic health record implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-11-16

    Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.

  4. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  5. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Hartman, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable.

  6. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  7. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  8. A Review of Strategies to Promote Road Safety in Rich Developing Countries: the Gcc Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Jadaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Road safety policies, strategies and action plans, along with trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries were examined to appraise their road safety work with an overall objective of identifying key measures and initiatives that would reduce RTA and their resulting consequences in these countries. Data on RTIs was obtained from police and from vital statistics and was analyzed. Research papers, policy documents, and strategies, obtained from relevant stakeholders in the six GCC countries, were reviewed and discussed. Traffic Safety Programs and action plans, which were the most fundamental documents in the development of the GCC countries’ road safety policies and strategies, were reviewed. Policy documents on road safety and traffic related issues were searched on the websites of related authorities. Published research on road safety in GCC countries was searched using available databases. Analysis of accident data shows that the fatality rates in all the GCC countries are much higher than developed countries with good safety records. The six administrations started the fundamental traffic safety programs to combat the increase in RTIs, with some succeeding in reducing RTI rates by implementing vast road safety improvements. However, RTIs increased again mainly because of increasing traffic volume and high-risk driving behavior. Developing and implementing national road safety strategies in some GCC countries was successful in reducing the RTI rates. The road safety situation in the six GCC countries was assessed showing high crash and fatality rates compared to developed countries. Most GCC countries still suffer from sustainable increase in traffic crashes despite the efforts to reduce their magnitude and severity. Some of these countries have developed and implemented national road safety strategies, while countries like Oman still need to develop such a long-term strategy. Following the

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  10. Panel Resource Management (PRM) Implementation and Effects within Safety Review Panel Settings and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W.; Nash, Sally K.

    2007-01-01

    While technical training and advanced degree's assure proficiency at specific tasks within engineering disciplines, they fail to address the potential for communication breakdown and decision making errors familiar to multicultural environments where language barriers, intimidating personalities and interdisciplinary misconceptions exist. In an effort to minimize these pitfalls to effective panel review, NASA's lead safety engineers to the ISS Safety Review Panel (SRP), and Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) initiated training with their engineers, in conjunction with the panel chairs, and began a Panel Resource Management (PRM) program. The intent of this program focuses on the ability to reduce the barriers inhibiting effective participation from all panel attendees by bolstering participants confidence levels through increased communication skills, situational awareness, debriefing, and a better technical understanding of requirements and systems.

  11. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek-van Noord, Inge; de Bruijne, Martine C; Zwijnenberg, Nicolien C; Jansma, Elise P; van Dyck, Cathy; Wagner, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012. The Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews was used to assess the risk of bias in the individual studies. In total, 22 manuscripts were included for review. Training settings, study designs, and evaluation methods varied widely. Most studies reporting only a selection of culture dimensions found mainly positive results, whereas studies reporting all safety culture dimensions of the particular survey found mixed results. On average, studies were at moderate risk of bias. Evidence of the effectiveness of Crew Resource Management training in health care on safety culture is scarce and the validity of most studies is limited. The results underline the necessity of more valid study designs, preferably using triangulation methods.

  12. The effectiveness of road safety education : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review of traffic education programmes addresses the current practice in evaluation research, the effectiveness of programmes and their constituting components and the differences and similarities with other fields of education. The study leads to a number of conclusions which can be

  13. Effectiveness of health and safety in small enterprises: a systematic review of quantitative evaluations of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Kyle, Natasha; Bigelow, Philip; Irvin, Emma; Morassaei, Sara; MacEachen, Ellen; Mahood, Quenby; Couban, Rachel; Shannon, Harry; Amick, Benjamin C

    2010-06-01

    This systematic review was conducted to identify effective occupational health and safety interventions for small businesses. The review focused on peer-reviewed intervention studies conducted in small businesses with 100 or fewer employees, that were published in English and several other languages, and that were not limited by publication date. Multidisciplinary members of the review team identified relevant articles and assessed their quality. Studies assessed as medium or high quality had data extracted, which was then synthesized. Five studies were deemed of medium or high quality, and proceeded to data extraction and evidence synthesis. The types of interventions identified: a combination of training and safety audits; and a combination of engineering, training, safety audits, and a motivational component, showed a limited amount of evidence in improving safety outcomes. Overall, this evidence synthesis found a moderate level of evidence for intervention effectiveness, and found no evidence that any intervention had adverse effects. Even though there were few studies that adequately evaluated small business intervention, several studies demonstrate that well-designed evaluations are possible with small businesses. While stronger levels of evidence are required to make recommendations, these interventions noted above were associated with positive changes in safety-related attitudes and beliefs and workplace parties should be aware of them.

  14. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  15. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  16. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  4. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  5. Reviewing methodologically disparate data: a practical guide for the patient safety research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina F; Long, Susannah J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Vincent, Charles A; Kroll, J Simon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses key questions frequently asked by researchers conducting systematic reviews in patient safety. This discipline is relatively young, and asks complex questions about complex aspects of health care delivery and experience, therefore its studies are typically methodologically heterogeneous, non-randomized and complex; but content rich and highly relevant to practice. Systematic reviews are increasingly necessary to drive forward practice and research in this area, but the data do not always lend themselves to 'standard' review methodologies. This accessible 'how-to' article demonstrates that data diversity need not preclude high-quality systematic reviews. It draws together information from published guidelines and experience within our multidisciplinary patient safety research group to provide entry-level advice for the clinician-researcher new to systematic reviewing, to non-biomedical research data or to both. It offers entry-level advice, illustrated with detailed practical examples, on defining a research question, creating a comprehensive search strategy, selecting articles for inclusion, assessing study quality, extracting data, synthesizing data and evaluating the impact of your review. The article concludes with a comment on the vital role of robust systematic reviews in the continuing advancement of the patient safety field. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Contamination source review for Building E6891, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of various APG buildings. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E6891. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. This building is part of the Lauderick Creek Concrete Slab Test Site, located in the Lauderick Creek Area in the Edgewood Area. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances the potential exists` for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  7. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  8. Effects of digital countdown timer on intersection safety and efficiency: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanyun; Zhang, Yaping; Qi, Weiwei; Cheng, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the available evidence referring to the effectiveness of digital countdown timers (DCTs) in improving the safety and operational efficiency of signalized intersection. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. Relevant literature was searched from electronic databases using key terms. Based on study selection and methodological quality assessment, 14 studies were included in the review. Findings of the studies were synthesized in a narrative analysis. Three types of DCT had different effects on intersection safety and operational efficiency. Green signal countdown timers (GSCTs) reduced red light violations, type I dilemma zone distributions, and rear-end collision likelihood but increased crossing after yellow onset and had mixed impacts on type II dilemma zone distributions and intersection capacity. In contrast, red signal countdown timers (RSCTs) increased intersection capacity, although their effectiveness in reducing red light violations dissipated over time. Likewise, continuous countdown timers (CCTs) significantly enhanced intersection capacity but had mixed influences on red light violations and crossing after yellow onset. Due to the limited and inconsistent evidence regarding DCTs' effects on intersection safety and efficiency, it is not sufficient to recommend any type of DCT to be installed at signalized intersections to improve safety and operational efficiency. Nevertheless, it is apparent that both RSCTs and CCTs enhance intersection capacity, though their impacts on intersection safety are unclear. Future studies need to further verify those anticipated safe and operational benefits of DCTs with enriched field observation data.

  9. A Systematic Review of the Use of Social Media for Food Safety Risk Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbey, Katie N; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chapman, Benjamin J

    2017-09-01

    This article covers the current published literature related to the use of social media in food safety and infectious disease communication. The aim was to analyze literature recommendations and draw conclusions about how best to utilize social media for food safety risk communication going forward. A systematic literature review was conducted, and 24 articles were included for analysis. The inclusion criteria were (i) original peer-reviewed articles and (ii) primary focus on communication through social media about food safety and/or infectious diseases. Studies were coded for themes about social media applications, benefits, limitations, and best practices. Trust and personal beliefs were important drivers of social media use. The wide reach, immediacy, and information gathering capacities of social media were frequently cited benefits. Suggestions for social media best practices were inconsistent among studies, and study designs were highly variable. More evidence-based suggestions are needed to better establish guidelines for social media use in food safety and infectious disease risk communication. The information gleaned from this review can be used to create effective messages for shaping food safety behaviors.

  10. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    by searching the websites of regional and national agencies and programmes in a non-exhaustive set of exemplar countries including England, Denmark, the Netherlands, the USA, Canada and Australia. Initiatives were categorised by type and software systems covered. RESULTS: We found 27 patient safety initiatives...... regulations in some countries, the safety of the most common types of HIT systems such as EHRs and CPOE without decision support is not being explicitly addressed in most nations. Appropriate mechanisms for safety assurance are required for the full range of HIT systems for health professionals and consumers......OBJECTIVE: To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). METHOD: Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified...

  11. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... inspections per year under the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. Investigators typically...

  12. Healthcare quality and safety: a review of policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Allen, Davina; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Sandall, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Over the last two decades healthcare quality and safety have risen to the fore of health policy and research. This has largely been informed by theoretical and empirical ideas found in the fields of ergonomics and human factors. These have enabled significant advances in our understanding and management of quality and safety. However, a parallel and at time neglected sociological literature on clinical quality and safety is presented as offering additional, complementary, and at times critical insights on the problems of quality and safety. This review explores the development and contributions of both the mainstream and more sociological approaches to safety. It shows that where mainstream approaches often focus on the influence of human and local environment factors in shaping quality, a sociological perspective can deepen knowledge of the wider social, cultural and political factors that contextualise the clinical micro-system. It suggests these different perspectives can easily complement one another, offering a more developed and layered understanding of quality and safety. It also suggests that the sociological literature can bring to light important questions about the limits of the more mainstream approaches and ask critical questions about the role of social inequality, power and control in the framing of quality and safety. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Jansma, E.P.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012.

  14. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  15. Estradiol gel : review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naunton, M.; Al Hadithy, A.F.Y.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Archer, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a gel containing estradiol that is applied to the skin. Design: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted from 1966 to March 2005. Additional references were identified from bibliographies from selected studies in addi

  16. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Jansma, E.P.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012.

  17. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Haak, L.; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premi

  18. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, L. van den; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search Prem

  19. Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, G.A.H. van den; Ahmed, A.I.A.; Lammers, M.; Kramers, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Marck, M.A. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review aims to integrate the evidence on indications, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of medical cannabinoids in older subjects. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. We selected controlled trials including solely older subjects

  20. Promoting occupational safety and health through the supply chain Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustailieva, E.; Starren, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Lopes Nunes, I.; Hauke, A.

    2012-01-01

    This report sheds light on occupational safety and health (OSH) within complex supply chain networks. Based on a literature, policy and case study review it attempts to give an overview of how OSH can be managed and promoted through the supply chain, and which drivers, incentives and instruments exi

  1. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  2. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour

  3. Safety Review Panel (SRP) Special Topic Presentation on the Iodine Compatible Water Container (ICWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the safety requirements for the Iodine Compatible Water Container (ICWC). The topics include: 1) ICWC Team; 2) Purpose of presentation; 3) Background/Description of ICWC System; 4) Current status of ICWC Project; 5) HTV launch NCR Processing; 6) Tox 1 containment NCR processing; and 7) ISS on-orbit failure propagation and fault tolerance NCR processing.

  4. Pharmaco-economics of blood transfusion safety : review of the available evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, M; de Wolf, JTM; Staginnus, U; Ruitenberg, EJ; Postma, MJ

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pharmaco-economics provides a standardized methodology for valid comparisons of interventions in different fields of health care. The role of pharmaco-economics in the safety of blood and blood products has, however, been very limited to date. This review discusses the phar

  5. Use of mobile phones while driving : effects on road safety : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving has become a road safety concern and has been the focus of various behavioural studies. This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road. Although studies

  6. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, L. van den; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search

  7. Efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators in laparoscopic surgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Haak, L.; Alleblas, C.; Nieboer, T.E.; Rhemrev, J.P.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This review aims to objectively assess the efficacy and safety of uterine manipulators as reported in scientific literature. Furthermore, it evaluates as to which manipulator best suits which surgical procedure. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Academic Search

  8. Establishment of safety verification method for life extension based on periodic safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soong Pyung; Yeom, Yu Son; Yoon, In Sik; Lee, Jeo Young [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Safe management of operating lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants is a subject of prime interests. As the design life of the Nuclear Power Plant will be ended in 2008, an appropriate procedure for the design life re-assessment or lifetime extension is necessary in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop procedural requirements which can be applied to the regulation of lifetime management or life extension of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. Review on the linkage of the PSR with the extension of the operating lifetime of Nuclear Power Plants was performed to enhance the utilization of PSR results and analysis of the insufficiencies in the license rule in Korea.

  9. New graduate registered nurses' knowledge of patient safety and practice: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2017-03-02

    To critically appraise available literature and summarise evidence pertaining to the patient safety knowledge and practices of new graduate registered nurses. Responsibility for patient safety should not be limited to the practice of the bedside nurses, rather the responsibility of all in the healthcare system. Previous research identified lapses in safety across the health care, more specifically with new practitioners. Understanding these gaps and what may be employed to counteract them is vital to ensuring patient safety. A focused review of research literature. The review used key terms and Boolean operators across a 5-year time frame in CINAHL, Medline, psycINFO and Google Scholar for research articles pertaining to the area of enquiry. Eighty-four articles met the inclusion criteria, 39 discarded due to irrelevant material and 45 articles were included in the literature review. This review acknowledges that nursing has different stages of knowledge and practice capabilities. A theory-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses exists, and transition to practice is a key learning period setting new nurses on the path to becoming expert practitioners. Within the literature, there was little to no acknowledgement of patient safety knowledge of the newly registered nurse. Issues raised in the 1970s remain a concern for today's new graduate registered nurses. Research has recognised several factors affecting transition from nursing student to new graduate registered nurse. These factors are leaving new practitioners open to potential errors and risking patient safety. Understanding the knowledge of a new graduate registered nurse upon entering clinical practice may assist in organisations providing appropriate clinical and theoretical support to these nurses during their transition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  11. Patient safety in out-of-hours primary care: a review of patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients receive healthcare in primary care settings, but relatively little is known about patient safety. Out-of-hours contacts are of particular importance to patient safety. Our aim was to examine the incidence, types, causes, and consequences of patient safety incidents at general practice cooperatives for out-of-hours primary care and to examine which factors were associated with the occurrence of patient safety incidents. Methods A retrospective study of 1,145 medical records concerning patient contacts with four general practice cooperatives. Reviewers identified records with evidence of a potential patient safety incident; a physician panel determined whether a patient safety incident had indeed occurred. In addition, the panel determined the type, causes, and consequences of the incidents. Factors associated with incidents were examined in a random coefficient logistic regression analysis. Results In 1,145 patient records, 27 patient safety incidents were identified, an incident rate of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5% to 3.2%. The most frequent incident type was treatment (56%. All incidents had at least partly been caused by failures in clinical reasoning. The majority of incidents did not result in patient harm (70%. Eight incidents had consequences for the patient, such as additional interventions or hospitalisation. The panel assessed that most incidents were unlikely to result in patient harm in the long term (89%. Logistic regression analysis showed that age was significantly related to incident occurrence: the likelihood of an incident increased with 1.03 for each year increase in age (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04. Conclusion Patient safety incidents occur in out-of-hours primary care, but most do not result in harm to patients. As clinical reasoning played an important part in these incidents, a better understanding of clinical reasoning and guideline adherence at GP cooperatives could contribute to patient safety.

  12. Ground-based Observations of the Solar Sources of Space Weather (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Veronig, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and its activity is a task of growing importance in the frame of space weather research and awareness. Major space weather disturbances at Earth have their origin in energetic outbursts from the Sun: solar flares, coronal mass ejections and associated solar energetic particles. In this review we discuss the importance and complementarity of ground-based and space-based observations for space weather studies. The main focus is drawn on ground-based observations in the visible range of the spectrum, in particular in the diagnostically manifold H$\\alpha$ spectral line, which enables us to detect and study solar flares, filaments, filament eruptions, and Moreton waves. Existing H$\\alpha$ networks such as the GONG and the Global High-Resolution H$\\alpha$ Network are discussed. As an example of solar observations from space weather research to operations, we present the system of real-time detection of H$\\alpha$ flares and filaments established at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO; Austria) in the...

  13. A review of turbulence measurements using ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    pioneered in the first 15 yr, i.e., from 1972–1997, when standard techniques could not be used to measure turbulence. Obtaining unfiltered turbulence statistics from the large probe volume of the lidars has been and still remains the most challenging aspect. Until now, most of the processing algorithms......A review of turbulence measurements using ground-based wind lidars is carried out. Works performed in the last 30 yr, i.e., from 1972–2012 are analyzed. More than 80% of the work has been carried out in the last 15 yr, i.e., from 1997–2012. New algorithms to process the raw lidar data were...... that have been developed have shown that by combining an isotropic turbulence model with raw lidar measurements, we can obtain unfiltered statistics.We believe that an anisotropic turbulence model will provide a more realistic measure of turbulence statistics. Future development in algorithms will depend...

  14. What is the value and impact of quality and safety teams? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Jill M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature about the establishment and impact of quality and safety team initiatives in acute care. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ABI Inform, Cochrane databases. Grey literature and bibliographies were also searched. Qualitative or quantitative studies that occurred in acute care, describing how quality and safety teams were established or implemented, the impact of teams, or the barriers and/or facilitators of teams were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study design, sample, interventions, and outcomes. Quality assessment of full text articles was done independently by two reviewers. Studies were categorized according to dimensions of quality. Results Of 6,674 articles identified, 99 were included in the study. The heterogeneity of studies and results reported precluded quantitative data analyses. Findings revealed limited information about attributes of successful and unsuccessful team initiatives, barriers and facilitators to team initiatives, unique or combined contribution of selected interventions, or how to effectively establish these teams. Conclusions Not unlike systematic reviews of quality improvement collaboratives, this broad review revealed that while teams reported a number of positive results, there are many methodological issues. This study is unique in utilizing traditional quality assessment and more novel methods of quality assessment and reporting of results (SQUIRE to appraise studies. Rigorous design, evaluation, and reporting of quality and safety team initiatives are required.

  15. Patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Cohen, Adrienne Wai Seung; Walton, Merrilyn

    2015-08-01

    To establish current knowledge of patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia, current interventions and the knowledge gaps. Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search seven electronic databases in addition to manual searching of relevant journals. Titles and abstracts of publications between 1990 and 2014 were screened by two reviewers and checked by a third. Full text articles were screened against the eligibility criteria. Data on design, methods and key findings were extracted and synthesized. Four inter-related safety and quality concerns were evident from 33 publications: (i) the risk of patient infection in healthcare delivery, (ii) medications errors/use, (iii) the quality and provision of maternal and perinatal care and (iv) the quality of healthcare provision overall. Large-scale prevalence studies are needed to identify the full range of safety and quality problems in developing countries in Southeast Asia. Sharing lessons learnt from extensive quality and safety work conducted in industrialized nations may contribute to significant improvements. Yet the applicability of interventions utilized in developed countries to the political and social context in this region must be considered. Strategies to facilitate the collection of robust safety and quality data in the context of limited resources and the local context in each country are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  16. REVIEW OF REACTOR SAFETY ANALYSES OF FAST AND LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, R. E.; Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1967-11-01

    Safety analysis reports on United States fast and liquid metal cooled reactors were reviewed to gain a better understanding of the safety philosophy applied to the design of these facilities. This information was compiled to help guide the design and safety analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility. No attempt was made to draw conclusions concerning the relative merit of different approaches and philosophies used by different reactor design teams. The facilities reviewed were; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant (FERMI) Hallam Nuclear Power Facility (HALLAM) Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor (SEFOR) Fast Reactor Test Facility (FARET) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) Fast Reactor Zero Power Experiment (ZPR - III). The information gathered from the safety analysis reports is tabulated under these headings: Control and Safety Systems; Reactor Protection Systems; Backup Systems; Containment or Confinement Systems; Inherent Reactivity Effects and Important Physics Parameters; Fuel and Fuel Handling; Accidents Considered and Chemical Problems; Site; Exhaust Ventilation System; and Waste Effluents.

  17. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  18. Safety reporting in developing country vaccine clinical trials-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhans, Susann; Richard, Georgina; Ali, Mohammad; Codarini, Gabriela; Elemuwa, Chris; Khamesipour, Ali; Maurer, Wolfgang; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rundblad, Gabriella; Vuitton, Dominique; Rath, Barbara

    2012-05-09

    With more vaccines becoming available worldwide, vaccine research is on the rise in developing countries. To gain a better understanding of safety reporting from vaccine clinical research in developing countries, we conducted a systematic review in Medline and Embase (1989-2011) of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting safety outcomes with ≥50% developing country participation (PROSPERO systematic review registration number: CRD42012002025). Developing country vaccine RCTs were analyzed with respect to the number of participants, age groups studied, inclusion of safety information, number of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI), type and duration of safety follow-up, use of standardized AEFI case definitions, grading of AEFI severity, and the reporting of levels of diagnostic certainty for AEFI. The systematic search yielded a total number of 50 randomized vaccine clinical trials investigating 12 different vaccines, most commonly rotavirus and malaria vaccines. In these trials, 94,459 AEFI were reported from 446,908 participants receiving 735,920 vaccine doses. All 50 RCTs mentioned safety outcomes with 70% using definitions for at least one AEFI. The most commonly defined AEFI was fever (27), followed by local (16) and systemic reactions (14). Logistic regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the implementation of a fever case definition and the reporting rate for fever as an AEFI (p=0.027). Overall, 16 different definitions for fever and 7 different definitions for erythema were applied. Predefined AEFI case definitions by the Brighton Collaboration were used in only two out of 50 RCTs. The search was limited to RCTs published in English or German and may be missing studies published locally. The reported systematic review suggests room for improvement with respect to the harmonization of safety reporting from developing country vaccine clinical trials and the implementation of standardized case definitions.

  19. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. Methods/Design We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Discussion Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be

  20. Safety as a management concept in the air transport sector: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the present study is to conduct a literature review of the contribution made by safety in air transport, based on the existing international academic literature in the field of the social sciences. It primarily attempts to examine and verify the relationship between safety-related concepts (co-occurrence, the link between the different authors (co-authorship and the corresponding citations (co-citations. Methodology: To achieve the established objectives, a systematic literature review (SLR has been conducted using the Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2016, identifying international academic papers related to the research topic of the present study. Findings: It has been verified, on the one hand, that safety in the air transport sector is a field of growing interest, as the number of papers has increased considerably in recent years, thus demonstrating the importance that this topic has acquired over time. On the other hand, however, it must be mentioned that the total quantity of papers related to the topic is low in terms of absolute numbers. The results of the co-occurrence analysis show that the most important aspect of safety is safety management, while the strongest link is between safety management and aircraft accidents, a fact that is foreseeable a priori.  Originality/value: The approach used allows a better view of the academic contribution made in relation to safety; this serves as the link among the different elements of the concept studied, and it demonstrates the growing interest in this area.

  1. Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost.

  2. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  3. The Role of Fear Appeals in Improving Driver Safety: A Review of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing (Threat) Appeals in Road Safety Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I.; Watson, B.; Tay, R.; White, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews theoretical and empirical evidence relating to the effectiveness of fear (threat) appeals in improving driver safety. The results of the review highlight the mixed and inconsistent findings that have been reported in the literature. While fear arousal appears important for attracting attention, its contribution to behaviour…

  4. Work zone safety analysis and modeling: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Work zone safety is one of the top priorities for transportation agencies. In recent years, a considerable volume of research has sought to determine work zone crash characteristics and causal factors. Unlike other non-work zone-related safety studies (on both crash frequency and severity), there has not yet been a comprehensive review and assessment of methodological approaches for work zone safety. To address this deficit, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing extensive research efforts focused on work zone crash-related analysis and modeling, in the hopes of providing researchers and practitioners with a complete overview. Relevant literature published in the last 5 decades was retrieved from the National Work Zone Crash Information Clearinghouse and the Transport Research International Documentation database and other public digital libraries and search engines. Both peer-reviewed publications and research reports were obtained. Each study was carefully reviewed, and those that focused on either work zone crash data analysis or work zone safety modeling were identified. The most relevant studies are specifically examined and discussed in the article. The identified studies were carefully synthesized to understand the state of knowledge on work zone safety. Agreement and inconsistency regarding the characteristics of the work zone crashes discussed in the descriptive studies were summarized. Progress and issues about the current practices on work zone crash frequency and severity modeling are also explored and discussed. The challenges facing work zone safety research are then presented. The synthesis of the literature suggests that the presence of a work zone is likely to increase the crash rate. Crashes are not uniformly distributed within work zones and rear-end crashes are the most prevalent type of crashes in work zones. There was no across-the-board agreement among numerous papers reviewed on the relationship between work zone

  5. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  6. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  7. Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Two-Leg Landing: A Systematic Review and Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH, (2 to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3 to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH. Methods. A computerized bibliographical search was conducted to extract PvGRF data on a single foot when participants landed with both feet from various DHs. An innovative mathematical model was constructed to analyze effects of gender, landing type, shoes, ankle stabilizers, surface stiffness and sample frequency on PvGRF based on the pooled data. Results. Pooled PvGRF and DH data of 26 articles showed that the square root function fits their relationship well. An experimental validation was also done on the regression equation for the medicum frequency. The PvGRF was not significantly affected by surface stiffness, but was significantly higher in men than women, the platform than suspended landing, the barefoot than shod condition, and ankle stabilizer than control condition, and higher than lower frequencies. Conclusions. The PvGRF and root DH showed a linear relationship. The mathematical modeling method with systematic review is helpful to analyze the influence factors during landing movement without considering DH.

  8. Contamination source review for Building E1489, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E1489 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the U.S. Army-in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed in 1994-1995. Building E1489 located in J-Field on the Gunpowder Peninsula in APG`s Edgewood Area housed a power generator that supplied electricity to a nearby observation tower. Building E1489 and the generator were abandoned in 1974, demolished by APG personnel and removed from real estate records. A physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E1489 were completed by ANL staff during November 1994. In 1994, ANL staff conducted geophysical surveys in the immediate vicinity of Building E1489 by using several nonintrusive methods. Survey results suggest the presence of some underground objects near Building E1489, but they do not provide conclusive evidence of the source of geophysical anomalies observed during the survey. No air monitoring was conducted at the site, and no information on underground storage tanks associated with Building E1489 was available.

  9. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  10. Relationship between patient safety climate and standard precaution adherence: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, A J; Larson, E L

    2016-04-01

    Standard precaution (SP) adherence is universally suboptimal, despite being a core component of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention and healthcare worker (HCW) safety. Emerging evidence suggests that patient safety climate (PSC) factors may improve HCW behaviours. Our aim was to examine the relationship between PSC and SP adherence by HCWs in acute care hospitals. A systematic review was conducted as guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Three electronic databases were comprehensively searched for literature published or available in English between 2000 and 2014. Seven of 888 articles identified were eligible for final inclusion in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using a validated quality tool. The seven articles were assigned quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 of 10 possible points. Five measured all aspects of SP and two solely measured needlestick and sharps handling. Three included a secondary outcome of HCW exposure; none included HCAIs. All reported a statistically significant relationship between better PSC and greater SP adherence and used data from self-report surveys including validated PSC measures or measures of management support and leadership. Although limited in number, studies were of high quality and confirmed that PSC and SP adherence were correlated, suggesting that efforts to improve PSC may enhance adherence to a core component of HCAI prevention and HCW safety. More clearly evident is the need for additional high-quality research.

  11. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Omesh K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Diercks, Dwight R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ma, David Chia-Chiun [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Garud, Yogendra S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-17

    At the request of the United States (U.S.) government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 20 senior safety experts to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States. This review focused on the effectiveness of the regulatory functions implemented by the NRC and on its commitment to nuclear safety and continuous improvement. One suggestion resulting from that review was that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) incorporate lessons learned from periodic safety reviews (PSRs) performed in other countries as an input to the NRC’s assessment processes. In the U.S., commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) are granted an initial 40-year operating license, which may be renewed for additional 20-year periods, subject to complying with regulatory requirements. The NRC has established a framework through its inspection, and operational experience processes to ensure the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities on an ongoing basis. In contrast, most other countries do not impose a specific time limit on the operating licenses for NPPs, they instead require that the utility operating the plant perform PSRs, typically at approximately 10-year intervals, to assure continued safe operation until the next assessment. The staff contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to perform a pilot review of selected translated PSR assessment reports and related documentation from foreign nuclear regulatory authorities to identify any potential new regulatory insights regarding license renewal-related topics and NPP operating experience (OpE). A total of 14 PSR assessment documents from 9 countries were reviewed. For all of the countries except France, individual reports were provided for each of the plants reviewed. In the case of France, three reports were provided that reviewed the performance assessment of thirty-four 900-MWe reactors of similar design commissioned between 1978

  12. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Contamination source review for Building E5032, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) documents results of a contamination source review of Building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E5032. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E5032 (APG designation), originally known as Building 99, is located at the northwest comer of the intersection of Hoadley Road and Magnolia Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. It was constructed during World War I as an incendiary bomb filling plant and in 1920s and 1930s maintained as a filling facility. During World War II the building was a pilot plant for the development of a dry white phosphorus filling process. Since then the building has been used for white phosphorus filling pilot studies. Most of the dry filling methods were developed in Building E5032 between 1965 and 1970. Other filling operations in Building E5032 have included mustard during the period shortly after World War II and triethyl aluminum (TEA) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the World War II period, the building was connected to the sanitary sewer system with one large and at least one small interior sump. There are also seven sumps adjacent to the exterior of the building: two on the west elevation, four near the four bays on the south elevation, and one at the northeast corner of the building. All of these sumps are connected with the chemical sewer system and received most, if not all, of the production operation wastewater. The discharge from this system was released into the east branch of Canal Creek; the discharge pipe was located southeast of Building E5032. There are no records indicating the use of Building E5032 after 1974, and it is assumed that the building has been out of service since that time.

  15. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagina, Benjamin M; Wiysonge, Charles S; Lesosky, Maia; Madhi, Shabir A; Hussey, Gregory D

    2014-09-11

    Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be feasible among HIV-infected persons

  16. Safety and tolerability of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriasis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semble, Ashley L; Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are an alternative to oral systemic therapies for psoriasis. Data regarding the safety of TNF-α inhibitors from randomized clinical trials may not fully reflect the effects on the clinic patient population receiving the therapy, but other sources of information are available. We performed a literature review to assess the safety and tolerability of the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with TNF-α inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using PubMed for articles dating from January 2000 to October 2013. Randomized controlled, cohort, open-label, and observational studies were included, as well as case reports and letters to the editor. Articles found on PubMed describing the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in psoriasis patients were included, while studies highlighting interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 inhibitors were excluded, as were non-English articles. In total, 58 articles were included in the review. TNF-α inhibitors exhibit both efficacy and tolerability in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Adverse effects associated with these medications are not common and can be minimized with routine clinical monitoring and patient education. While the risk of severe adverse events is low, the lack of very large, long-term, randomized safety trials limits the ability to fully define the safety of these agents. TNF-α inhibitors have a good efficacy/safety ratio for use in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Serious adverse effects are not common, and common injection-site reactions are usually manageable. The benefits of TNF-α inhibitors outweigh the risks for moderate-to-severe psoriasis; however, there are potential adverse effects and the patient populations at highest risk include the elderly and those with a history of malignancy.

  17. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  18. Book Review: Glaser, B.G. (2007. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, PhD, APRN, BC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after developing the classic grounded theory method with Anselm Strauss, Barney Glaser has published the long-anticipated follow-up monograph that details the method for generating formal grounded theory. Through the years, Glaser continued writing about substantive grounded theory, but formal grounded theory remained in the background, lacking a clear definition and distinctive method. Although his previous monographs offer hints about formal grounded theory, this is the first definitive guide for researcher-theorists. It is Glaser’s aim that this monograph will provide the inspiration and direction needed by researcher-theorists who will then generate formal grounded theory. The intended audience for this book is grounded theorists who have previous experience developing substantive grounded theories.

  19. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  20. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  1. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment.

  2. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term program'' to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  3. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER&WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER&WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term ``program`` to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER&WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  4. A review of the safety of cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Trivedi, BS, BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The safety of cosmetic procedures in patients who are pregnant and/or lactating is a complex clinical question surrounded by uncertainty. Our objective is to consolidate data on the safety of commonly requested cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation after a systematic review of the current literature to guide evidence-based care in the future. A systematic search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles on cosmetic procedures during pregnancy and lactation. Due to a lack of controlled trials, case reports and series were considered. Minor procedures such as shave, punch, snipping, and electrocautery are considered safe. With respect to chemical peels, glycolic and lactic acid peels are deemed safe; however, trichloracetic and salicylic acid peels should be avoided or used with caution. Although safety data on botulinum toxin A is insufficient, the procedure may be safe because systemic absorption and placental transfer are negligible. Sclerotherapy can be safe during pregnancy but must be avoided during the first trimester and after week 36 of the pregnancy. Laser and light therapies have been considered generally safe for patients with granulomatous conditions and condylomata. Epilation should be limited to waxing, shaving, and topical treatments instead of permanent procedures. In patients who are lactating, most therapies discussed above are safe but fat transfer, sclerotherapy, and tumescent liposuction are not recommended. Better evidence is needed to make concrete recommendations on the safety of cosmetic therapy during pregnancy and lactation but preliminary evidence suggests excellent safety profiles for many commonly requested cosmetic procedures.

  5. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  7. The economic burden of patient safety targets in acute care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Nicole; Koo, Marika; Daneman, Nick; McDonald, Andrew; Baker, Michael; Matlow, Anne; Krahn, Murray; Shojania, Kaveh G; Etchells, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine the quality of literature in costing of the economic burden of patient safety. Methods We selected 15 types of patient safety targets for our systematic review. We searched the literature published between 2000 and 2010 using the following terms: “costs and cost analysis,” “cost-effectiveness,” “cost,” and “financial management, hospital.” We appraised the methodologic quality of potentially relevant studies using standard economic methods. We recorded results in the original currency, adjusted for inflation, and then converted to 2010 US dollars for comparative purposes (2010 US$1.00 = 2010 €0.76). The quality of each costing study per patient safety target was also evaluated. Results We screened 1948 abstracts, and identified 158 potentially eligible studies, of which only 61 (39%) reported any costing methodology. In these 61 studies, we found wide estimates of the attributable costs of patient safety events ranging from $2830 to $10,074. In general hospital populations, the cost per case of hospital-acquired infection ranged from $2132 to $15,018. Nosocomial bloodstream infection was associated with costs ranging from $2604 to $22,414. Conclusion There are wide variations in the estimates of economic burden due to differences in study methods and methodologic quality. Greater attention to methodologic standards for economic evaluations in patient safety is needed. PMID:23097615

  8. Efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil treatment in IgA nephropathy: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Youyuan; Li, Yumin; Yang, ShengLin; Li, Yan; Liang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide and also the most frequent cause of kidney failure. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a selective immunosuppressant widely used in many autoimmune diseases. However, the benefits and risks of MMF for the treatment of IgA nephropathy remain uncertain. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of MMF in IgA nephropathy patient...

  9. The Design and Safety Review for a Creep Capsule With Four Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, C. G.; Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    To review the safety in the irradiation test of a creep capsule with 4 specimens, the design analysis for the incore creep test in the normal and abnormal operation condition was performed. In the normal operation condition, the reactivity effect was estimated and the analysis on the stress and temperature was performed. In the abnormal operation condition, the effect exerted on the capsule body by a leakage or breakage of the stress loading unit was analyzed.

  10. The relationship between road safety and congestion on motorways : a literature review of potential effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay and stress, and environmental pollution increases. The effects of traffic congestion on traffic safety, however, are less obvious. This literature review investigates the relationship between conges...

  11. Review of GMO safety assessment studies: glyphosate residues in Roundup Ready crops is an ignored issue

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-015-0052-7 Background Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant cultivar varieties have been a commercial success widely known as Roundup Ready plants. As new glyphosate-tolerant varieties are introduced to satisfy agriculture demand, it is relevant to review the scientific evidence that documents the quality and safety of such biotechnology. Assessments of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant plants are partly ba...

  12. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  14. Does classroom-based Crew Resource Management training improve patient safety culture? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Verbeek-van Noord

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of classroom-based Crew Resource Management training on safety culture by a systematic review of literature. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Educational Resources Information Center up to 19 December 2012. The Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews was used to assess the risk of bias in the individual studies. Results: In total, 22 manuscripts were included for review. Training settings, study designs, and evaluation methods varied widely. Most studies reporting only a selection of culture dimensions found mainly positive results, whereas studies reporting all safety culture dimensions of the particular survey found mixed results. On average, studies were at moderate risk of bias. Conclusion: Evidence of the effectiveness of Crew Resource Management training in health care on safety culture is scarce and the validity of most studies is limited. The results underline the necessity of more valid study designs, preferably using triangulation methods.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2016 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Farren J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review of fiscal year (FY) 2016 shows that INL has integrated management programs and safety elements throughout the oversight and operational activities performed at INL. The significant maturity of Contractor Assurance System (CAS) processes, as demonstrated across INL’s management systems and periodic reporting through the Management Review Meeting process, over the past two years has provided INL with current real-time understanding and knowledge pertaining to the health of the institution. INL’s sustained excellence of the Integrated Safety and effective implementation of the Worker Safety and Health Program is also evidenced by other external validations and key indicators. In particular, external validations include VPP, ISO 14001, DOELAP accreditation, and key Laboratory level indicators such as ORPS (number, event frequency and severity); injury/illness indicators such as Days Away, Restricted and Transfer (DART) case rate, back & shoulder metric and open reporting indicators, demonstrate a continuous positive trend and therefore improved operational performance over the last few years. These indicators are also reflective of the Laboratory’s overall organizational and safety culture improvement. Notably, there has also been a step change in ESH&Q Leadership actions that have been recognized both locally and complex-wide. Notwithstanding, Laboratory management continues to monitor and take action on lower level negative trends in numerous areas including: Conduct of Operations, Work Control, Work Site Analysis, Risk Assessment, LO/TO, Fire Protection, and Life Safety Systems, to mention a few. While the number of severe injury cases has decreased, as evidenced by the reduction in the DART case rate, the two hand injuries and the fire truck/ambulance accident were of particular concern. Aggressive actions continue in order to understand the causes and

  17. Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Natalie; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Wiebe, Samuel; Lukmanji, Sara; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search strategy, which included broad search terms and synonyms pertaining to the EMU, was run in six medical databases and included conference proceedings. Data abstracted included patient and EMU demographics and quality and safety variables. Study quality was evaluated using a modified 15-item Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Descriptive statistics and meta-analyses were used to describe and synthesize the evidence. The search yielded 7,601 references, of which 604 were reviewed in full text. One-hundred thirty-five studies were included. The quality and safety data came from 181,823 patients and reported on 34 different quality and safety variables. Included studies commonly reported the number of patients (108 studies; median number patients, 171.5), age (49 studies; mean age 35.7 years old), and the reason for admission (34 studies). The most common quality and safety data reported were the utility of the EMU admission (38 studies). Thirty-three studies (24.4%) reported on adverse events, and yielded a pooled proportion of adverse events of 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-9%). The mean quality score was 73.3% (standard deviation [SD] 17.2). This study demonstrates that there is a great deal of variation in the reporting of quality and safety measures and in the quality and safety in EMUs. Study quality also varied considerably from one study to the next. These findings highlight the need to develop

  18. Human Factors Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface for Periodic Safety Review of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang (and others)

    2006-01-15

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Yonggwang Unit no. 1, 2. As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area.

  19. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  20. A Review on Migration Methods in B-Scan Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Özdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though ground penetrating radar has been well studied and applied by many researchers for the last couple of decades, the focusing problem in the measured GPR images is still a challenging task. Although there are many methods offered by different scientists, there is not any complete migration/focusing method that works perfectly for all scenarios. This paper reviews the popular migration methods of the B-scan GPR imaging that have been widely accepted and applied by various researchers. The brief formulation and the algorithm steps for the hyperbolic summation, the Kirchhoff migration, the back-projection focusing, the phase-shift migration, and the ω-k migration are presented. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate and compare the migration algorithms over different focusing methods such that the reader can decide which algorithm to use for a particular application of GPR. Both the simulated and the measured examples that are used for the performance comparison of the presented algorithms are provided. Other emerging migration methods are also pointed out.

  1. Impact and remedial strategy of Fluoride in Ground Water – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan yadav

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO report 20% of the fluoride-affected villages in the whole world are in India, viz 33,231 villages are affected by fluoride in the country. Drinking water with excessive concentration of fluoride causes fluorosis which progresses gradually and becomes a crippling malady in the long run. It affects people of all age group, rich, rural, and urban population. It has attained a very alarming dimension. Rajasthan suffers both the problems of quantity and quality of water. In most part of the state groundwater is either saline or having high nitrates and fluoride content. Obviously, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and over 94% of the drinking water demand is met by groundwater. Fluoride concentrations beyond the standards cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride toxicity can also cause non-skeletal diseases like aches and pain in the joints, non-ulcer dyspepsia, Polyurea and polydipsia, muscle weakness, fatigue, anemia with very low hemoglobin levels, etc besides other reasons. Many researchers have used various types of inexpensive and effective adsorption medium like clays, solid industrial wastes such as red mud, spent bleaching earths, spent catalysts and fly ash, activated alumina, carbonaceous materials, bone charcoal, natural and synthetic zeolites, etc. for the treatment of fluoride contamination. This paper presents a review, which focuses on the sources of fluoride in ground water, its impacts on health and different control measures.

  2. Ground heat flux: An analytical review of 6 models evaluated at 88 sites and globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, A. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Goulden, M. L.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty in ground heat flux (G) means that evaluation of the other terms in the surface energy balance (e.g., latent and sensible heat fluxes (LE and H)) remains problematic. Algorithms that calculate LE and H require available energy, the difference between net radiation, RNET, and G. There are a wide range of approaches to model G for large-scale applications, with a subsequent wide range of estimates and accuracies. We provide the largest review of these methods to date (N = 6), evaluating modeled G against measured G from 88 FLUXNET sites. The instantaneous midday variability in G is best captured by models forced with net radiation, while models forced by temperature show the least error at both instantaneous and daily time scales. We produce global decadal data sets of G to illustrate regional and seasonal sensitivities, as well as uncertainty. Global model mean midmorning instantaneous G is highest during September, October, and November at 63.42 (±16.84) Wm-2, while over December, January, and February G is lowest at 53.86 (±18.09) Wm-2 but shows greater intermodel uncertainty. Results from this work have the potential to improve evapotranspiration estimates and guide appropriate G model selection and development for various land uses.

  3. Medication administration technologies and patient safety: a mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kelly; Cummings, Greta G; Marck, Patricia; Yurtseven, Ozden

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare leaders need evidence-based information on nursing medication administration technologies to guide the design of improvements to patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the research evidence on relationships between the use of medication administration technologies and incidence of medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events to inform decision-making about existing technology options. Thirteen electronic databases and seven relevant patient safety websites were searched for the years 1980-2009. A mixed-method systematic literature review of research on medication administration technologies and associated links to patient safety, operationalized as medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events, was conducted. Twelve studies (two qualitative, five pre- and postinterventions and five correlational) met the inclusion criteria. All were assessed as medium quality with low generalizability of study findings. Only two studies sampled more than one hospital and none of the studies was driven by an explicit theoretical framework. The studies included in this review are generally positive towards medication administration technologies and their potential benefits, yet the level of evidence overall is equivocal. The majority of studies pointed to the development of workarounds by nurses following medication administration technology implementation that could compromise patient safety. More theoretically driven research is needed to determine which medication administration technologies should be implemented in what ways to most effectively reduce medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events and minimize the development of potentially unsafe workarounds. Further evidence is required to accurately assess the actual contribution of medication administration technologies for improving patient safety. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell

  4. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  5. Evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are

  6. Secondary use of randomized controlled trials to evaluate drug safety: a review of methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Tarek A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Neyarapally, George A

    2011-10-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are often positioned at the top of evidence hierarchies. Meta-analyses of RCTs aim to integrate the state of knowledge on a given scientific question, particularly for rare drug-related outcomes. However, although RCTs are valuable tools in our armamentarium, they are rarely designed to evaluate drug safety and are thus susceptible to limitations that may hamper the ability of both RCTs and meta-analyses to fully characterize the safety profiles of drugs. Their potential limitations might be exacerbated in the study of rare outcomes, often encountered in drug safety assessment, when even minor deviations from the intended randomization could impact the stability of the risk estimates. This article considers the methodological caveats of both RCTs and meta-analyses of RCTs pertinent to the study of drug-related harms. It is intended to stimulate discussion about the impact of these caveats on interpreting findings of RCTs and meta-analyses for drug safety, which would foster more robust, critical evaluations, and thus enhance clinical and regulatory decision-making. Pertinent issues that can influence the interpretation of drug-related harms discussed in this article were based on authors' expertise and review of the literature. Investigators and clinicians should be cognizant of the potential limitations of the secondary use of RCTs and meta-analyses in the assessment of drug-related harms and, when applicable, should consider potential remedies to overcome these limitations. Only few practical examples are included in the article due to the fact that many of the discussed caveats are not examined and/or reported in many publications. In addition, the confidential nature of data reviewed at a regulatory agency forestalls an in depth discussion of examples pertaining to specific drugs. Furthermore, our ability to quantify the extent of encountering, or the actual impact of, the caveats addressed in this review on the RCTs findings

  7. What is learning? A review of the safety literature to define learning from incidents, accidents and disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Guldenmund, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning from incidents, accidents and disasters contributes to improvement of safety and the prevention of unwanted events. In this review, literature on learning from safety incidents within organizations is studied and compared with the organizational learning theory of Argyris and Schön. Sub-pro

  8. What is learning? A review of the safety literature to define learning from incidents, accidents and disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Guldenmund, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning from incidents, accidents and disasters contributes to improvement of safety and the prevention of unwanted events. In this review, literature on learning from safety incidents within organizations is studied and compared with the organizational learning theory of Argyris and Schön. Sub-pro

  9. Earthquake-induced ground failures in Italy from a reviewed database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, S.; Prestininzi, A.; Romeo, R. W.

    2014-04-01

    A database (Italian acronym CEDIT) of earthquake-induced ground failures in Italy is presented, and the related content is analysed. The catalogue collects data regarding landslides, liquefaction, ground cracks, surface faulting and ground changes triggered by earthquakes of Mercalli epicentral intensity 8 or greater that occurred in the last millennium in Italy. As of January 2013, the CEDIT database has been available online for public use (ceri.uniroma1.it/cn/gis.jsp"_target="blank">http://www.ceri.uniroma1.it/cn/gis.jsp ) and is presently hosted by the website of the Research Centre for Geological Risks (CERI) of the Sapienza University of Rome. Summary statistics of the database content indicate that 14% of the Italian municipalities have experienced at least one earthquake-induced ground failure and that landslides are the most common ground effects (approximately 45%), followed by ground cracks (32%) and liquefaction (18%). The relationships between ground effects and earthquake parameters such as seismic source energy (earthquake magnitude and epicentral intensity), local conditions (site intensity) and source-to-site distances are also analysed. The analysis indicates that liquefaction, surface faulting and ground changes are much more dependent on the earthquake source energy (i.e. magnitude) than landslides and ground cracks. In contrast, the latter effects are triggered at lower site intensities and greater epicentral distances than the other environmental effects.

  10. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research.

  11. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam in Procedural Sedation. A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Clemens R M; Absalom, Anthony; van Minnen, Baucke; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam when used for procedural sedation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE for clinical trials comparing dexmedetomidine and midazolam for procedural sedation up to June 20, 2016. Inclusion criteria: clinical trial, human subjects, adult subjects (≥18 years), article written in English, German, French or Dutch, use of study medication for conscious sedation and at least one group receiving dexmedetomidine and one group receiving midazolam. Exclusion criteria: patients in intensive care, pediatric subjects and per protocol use of additional sedative medication other than rescue medication. Outcome measures for efficacy comparison were patient and clinician satisfaction scores and pain scores; outcome measures for safety comparison were hypotension, hypoxia, and circulatory and respiratory complications. We identified 89 papers, of which 12 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 883 patients were included in these studies. Dexmedetomidine was associated with higher patient and operator satisfaction than midazolam. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine experienced less pain and had lower analgesic requirements. Respiratory and hemodynamic safety were similar. Dexmedetomidine is a promising alternative to midazolam for use in procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine provides more comfort during the procedure for the patient and clinician. If carefully titrated, the safety profiles are similar.

  12. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rizwana; Agarwal, Nidhi Bharal; Kaushal, Neelam; Mali, Ghanshyam; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Currently available antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs), despite being effective, do not provide adequate glycemic control in some cases and are associated with side effects. A sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, is a newer AHA, which acts by decreasing the reabsorption of filtered glucose thereby elevating the urinary glucose excretion in diabetics. This systematic review was completed to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of canagliflozin in T2DM. A literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted for randomized clinical trials of canagliflozin as an AHA by applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total 13 studies were included in the systematic review. The main outcomes assessed were change in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose. Canagliflozin monotherapy or combination therapy has the potential to decrease inadequately controlled hyperglycemia in T2DM. It acts by a novel insulin independent mechanism which complements the action of the existing AHA and improves glycemic control and decreases the body weight. Safety profile of canagliflozin indicates lower number of hypoglycemic episodes. Some manageable adverse events include genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, osmotic diuresis-related events etc. These findings affirm the utility of canagliflozin in T2DM; however, data on long-term safety and efficacy are needed.

  13. Beneficial Effects and Safety of Corticosteroids Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine for Pemphigus: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial effects and safety of corticosteroids combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for pemphigus. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify any potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs or clinical controlled trials (CCTs that compared corticosteroids with and without TCM for the treatment of pemphigus, published in any language. Remission of the mucocutaneous lesions, therapeutic duration, dosage of corticosteroids, and specific antibody titers were employed as the main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions and Rev Man 5.1.0 software. Results. Four RCTs with a total of 199 patients were included in the present review. Management with corticosteroids combined with TCM seemed to benefit pemphigus patients in terms of healing of lesions, prevention of complications and relapse, and reduced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level. The trials were not of high methodological quality. No study mentioned allocation concealment and blinding. Only one trial reported adverse events, and it indicated that the safety of corticosteroids combined with TCM was uncertain. Conclusion. There is some, albeit weak, evidence to show that combined treatment with corticosteroids with TCM could be of benefit for some patients with pemphigus. The efficacy and safety of this combined treatment should be evaluated further in better designed, fully powered, and confirmatory RCTs.

  14. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumie, Abera; Amera, Tadesse; Berhane, Kiros; Samet, Jonathan; Hundal, Nuvjote; G/Michael, Fitsum; Gilliland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid economic development has brought changes in workplaces in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. There is limited information on the gaps and needs of occupational health services in workplaces in Ethiopia. The present review article describes the existing profile of occupational safety and health services in Ethiopia and identifies the current gaps and needs in the services. Secondary data sources were reviewed using a structured checklist to explore the status of occupational safety, health services and related morbidity. Local literature was consulted in order to describe the type and prevalence of work related hazards, patterns of industries and of workforce. Published articles were searched in Google, Google scholar, PUBMED, and HINARI databases. Relevant heads of stakeholder organizations and experts were interviewed to verify the gaps that were synthesized using desk review. Ethiopia is an agrarian country that is industrializing rapidly with a focus on construction, manufacturing, mining, and road infrastructure. An estimated work force of about two million is currently engaged in the public and private sectors. Males constitute the majority of this workforce. Most of the workforce has basic primary education. Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and dust of various types in manufacturing sectors and chemical exposures in the flower industry. Injury in both the agriculture and the manufacturing sectors is another workplace hazard commonly observed in the country. A lack of information made assessing workplace exposures in detail difficult. The prevalence of noise exposure was found to be high with the potential to seriously impact hearing capacity. Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded international

  15. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  16. Scoping Review of Research on the Effectiveness of Food-Safety Education Interventions Directed at Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramalingam, Bhairavi; Young, Ian; Pham, Mai T; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Improper food handling by consumers at home is a major cause of foodborne illness. Therefore, effective education strategies are essential to change consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and characterize primary literature examining the effectiveness of consumer food-safety education interventions. Ten bibliographic databases were searched using a comprehensive search strategy. Citations were identified; two reviewers screened them for relevance and characterized relevant articles. To ensure results would be applicable to end users, stakeholders were engaged to provide input on the review scope, methods, and results. We identified 246 relevant articles, of which 150 were quantitative, 66 qualitative, and 30 mixed-method research studies. Most studies (64.2%) were published in the United States, using an uncontrolled before-and-after study design (31.3%), and investigated the effectiveness of community-based training sessions and workshops (52.0%). Research gaps were found in the number of randomized controlled studies conducted, academic- and school-based courses and curricula investigated, and interventions targeting high-risk populations (e.g., pregnant women, those who are immunocompromised) and using new media channels (e.g., social media). Key opportunities to enhance the utility of future primary research investigating consumer food-safety interventions include the following: using studies based on behavior-change theories and formative research; engaging the target population in the research; using validated instruments to measures outcomes; and reporting intervention characteristics and outcomes completely. Results of this review can be used to prioritize future primary research and decision-making in this area.

  17. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks.

  18. Regulatory review and confidence building in post-closure safety assessments and safety cases for near surface disposal facilities, IAEA ASAM coordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Waste and Geosciences Div., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Benbelfadhelm@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca; Bennett, D.G. [Galson Science Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom); Gonzales, A. [Iberdrola Ingeniera y Consultoria, Madrid (Spain); Metcalf, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nys, V. [Association Vincotte Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium); Simeonov, G. [Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zeleznik, N. [ARAO-Agency of Radwaste Management, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The IAEA successfully concluded a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) called ISAM, which focused on the development of an Improved Safety Assessment Methodology for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (1997-2002). In November 2002, and as an extension of ISAM, the IAEA launched a new CRP called ASAM, designed to test the Application of the Safety Assessment Methodology by considering a range of near surface disposal facilities. The ASAM work programme is being implemented by three application working groups and two cross-cutting working groups. The application working groups are testing the applicability of the ISAM methodology by assessing an existing disposal facility in Hungary, a copper mine in South Africa, and a hypothetical facility containing heterogenous wastes, such as disused sealed sources. The first cross-cutting working group is addressing a number of technical issues that are common to all near-surface disposal facilities, while the second group, the Regulatory Review Working Group (RRWG) is developing guidance on how to gain confidence in safety assessments and safety cases, and on how to conduct regulatory reviews of safety assessments. This paper provides a brief overview of the work being conducted by the Regulatory Review Working Group. (author)

  19. Quality indicators for patient safety in primary care. A review and Delphi-survey by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Pareja-Rossell, Clara; Gens-Barber, Montse; Oliva-Oliva, Glòria; Alava-Cano, Fernando; Wensing, Michel; Davins-Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Quality indicators are measured aspects of healthcare, reflecting the performance of a healthcare provider or healthcare system. They have a crucial role in programmes to assess and improve healthcare. Many performance measures for primary care have been developed. Only the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care identifies key domains of patient safety in primary care. Objective: To present an international framework for patient safety indicators in primary care. Methods: Literature review and online Delphi-survey, starting from the Catalan model. Results: A set of 30 topics is presented, identified by an international panel and organized according to the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care. Most topic areas referred to specific clinical processes; additional topics were leadership, people management, partnership and resources. Conclusion: The framework can be used to organize indicator development and guide further work in the field. PMID:26339833

  20. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  1. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nøhr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). METHOD: Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified...... with blood bank and image management software which is regulated in the USA. Of the 16 initiatives directed at unregulated software, 11 were aimed at increasing standardisation using guidelines and standards for safe system design, build, implementation and use. Three initiatives for unregulated software...... were aimed at certification in the USA, Canada and Australia. Safety is addressed alongside interoperability in the Australian certification programme but it is not explicitly addressed in the US and Canadian programmes, though conformance with specific functionality, interoperability, security...

  2. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  3. Safety and regulatory review of dyes commonly used as excipients in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibarbia, Leire; Majdanski, Tobias; Schubert, Stephanie; Windhab, Norbert; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-10-10

    Color selection is one of the key elements of building a strong brand development and product identity in the pharmaceutical industry, besides to prevent counterfeiting. Moreover, colored pharmaceutical dosage forms may increase patient compliance and therapy enhancement. Although most synthetic dyes are classified as safe, their regulations are stricter than other classes of excipients. Safety concerns have increased during the last years but the efforts to change to natural dyes seem to be not promising. Their instability problems and the development of "non-toxic" dyes is still a challenge. This review focuses specifically on the issues related to dye selection and summarizes the current regulatory status. A deep awareness of toxicological data based on the public domain, making sure the compliance of standards for regulation and safety for successful product development is provided. In addition, synthetic strategies are provided to covalently bind dyes on polymers to possibly overcome toxicity issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fesoterodine in randomised clinical trials: an updated systematic clinical review of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Utri, Chiara; Digesu, G Alessandro; Bhide, Alka; Khullar, Vik

    2012-10-01

    This is a systematic review of clinical data assessing the safety, efficacy and tolerability of fesoterodine in randomised control trials (RCTs) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). We performed a MEDLINE literature search of articles published between 2005 and 2010 regarding the efficacy and safety of fesoterodine. The US Food and Drug Administration Web site was also searched for RCTs. Two studies demonstrated significant improvement of OAB symptoms with fesoterodine compared with placebo. Two phase III studies showed both doses of fesoterodine to be more effective than placebo for most symptoms. Another phase III trial confirmed the superiority of 8 mg fesoterodine compared with tolterodine ER 4 mg. Dry mouth was the commonest side effect. Fesoterodine is effective for treating OAB symptoms. Its once-daily dosing regime and the flexibility to increase the dose are appealing factors.

  5. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus vaccine in patients with autoimmune diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-07-09

    Whereas safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in healthy women have been shown in several randomised controlled clinical trials and in post marketing analyses, only few data exist in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. These issues are significant as autoimmune conditions are recognised as a risk factor for the persistence of HPV infection. Herein we review and systematise the existing literature to assess immunogenicity and safety of HPV vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The results of our literature revision suggest that the HPV vaccines are efficacious and safe in most of the patients affected by autoimmune diseases. Yet, some points of concern remain to be tackled, including the effects of concomitant therapies, the risk of disease exacerbation and the cost-effectiveness of such immunisation programmes in these populations.

  7. Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are. In pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies performed in vivo, no significant inhibitions of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoforms have been found after the administration of standardized E. purpurea preparations. However, contradictory results exist in studies using liver microsomes. Adverse events reported during clinical trials following administration of Echinacea spp. mono-preparations were generally mild and mostly without causality. Due to published long term studies with continuous ingestion of different Echinacea preparations up to 6 month with no reported toxicological concerns, Echinacea can be recommended also for long-term use. Moreover, the contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immune-suppression are questionable, since lipophilic Echinacea preparations containing alkamides suppress cellular immune responses, and beneficial effects in autoimmunity were reported. The same applies for the use during pregnancy. Although there has been some impact reported on embryonic angiogenesis in mice, no association with an increased risk for major or minor malformations during organogenesis was found in a literature review. Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Das, Lopamudra; Raaen, Laura; Smith, Alexandria; Chari, Ramya; Newberry, Sydne; Shanman, Roberta; Perry, Tanja; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gidengil, Courtney

    2014-08-01

    Concerns about vaccine safety have led some parents to decline recommended vaccination of their children, leading to the resurgence of diseases. Reassurance of vaccine safety remains critical for population health. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the safety of routine vaccines recommended for children in the United States. Data sources included PubMed, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices statements, package inserts, existing reviews, manufacturer information packets, and the 2011 Institute of Medicine consensus report on vaccine safety. We augmented the Institute of Medicine report with more recent studies and increased the scope to include more vaccines. Only studies that used active surveillance and had a control mechanism were included. Formulations not used in the United States were excluded. Adverse events and patient and vaccine characteristics were abstracted. Adverse event collection and reporting was evaluated by using the McHarm scale. We were unable to pool results. Strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low, or insufficient. Of 20 478 titles identified, 67 were included. Strength of evidence was high for measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine and febrile seizures; the varicella vaccine was associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals. There is strong evidence that MMR vaccine is not associated with autism. There is moderate evidence that rotavirus vaccines are associated with intussusception. Limitations of the study include that the majority of studies did not investigate or identify risk factors for AEs; and the severity of AEs was inconsistently reported. We found evidence that some vaccines are associated with serious AEs; however, these events are extremely rare and must be weighed against the protective benefits that vaccines provide. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Improving medication safety in primary care. A review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lainer, M.; Vogele, A.; Wensing, M.; Sonnichsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug treatment is an important clinical process in primary care that is associated with risk of error and adverse events. OBJECTIVE: To review currently available research evidence on the topic and to develop a framework, which can help to guide improvement of medication safety. METHODS:

  10. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control. PMID:27689098

  11. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Commercial Veterinary Vaccines against Rift Valley Fever: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Alhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans as well as a wide range of domestic ruminants. This review provides significant information about the prevention options of RVF along with the safety-efficacy profile of commercial vaccines and some of RVF vaccination strategies. Information presented in this paper was obtained through a systematic investigation of published data about RVF vaccines. Like other viral diseases, the prevention of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine that is able to confer long-term protective immunity. Several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and are available in commercial production including Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone13. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. Despite Clone13 vaccine being suggested as safe in pregnant ewes and as highly immunogenic along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA, a recent study raised concerns about the safety of the vaccine during the first trimester of gestation. Accordingly, RVF vaccines that are currently available in the market to a significant extent do not fulfill the requirements of safety, potency, and DIVA. These adverse effects stressed the need for developing new vaccines with an excellent safety profile to bridge the gap in safety and immunity. Bringing RVF vaccine candidates to local markets besides the absence of validated serological test for DIVA remain the major challenges of RVF control.

  12. The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Anam; Dopson, Sue; Renz, Anna; Vincent, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the empirical literature to identify the activities, time spent and engagement of hospital managers in quality of care. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods A search was carried out on the databases MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE, HMIC. The search strategy covered three facets: management, quality of care and the hospital setting comprising medical subject headings and key terms. Reviewers screened 15 447 titles/abstracts and 423 full texts were checked against inclusion criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on 19 included articles. Results The majority of studies were set in the USA and investigated Board/senior level management. The most common research designs were interviews and surveys on the perceptions of managerial quality and safety practices. Managerial activities comprised strategy, culture and data-centred activities, such as driving improvement culture and promotion of quality, strategy/goal setting and providing feedback. Significant positive associations with quality included compensation attached to quality, using quality improvement measures and having a Board quality committee. However, there is an inconsistency and inadequate employment of these conditions and actions across the sample hospitals. Conclusions There is some evidence that managers’ time spent and work can influence quality and safety clinical outcomes, processes and performance. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies, further weakened by a lack of objective outcome measures and little examination of actual actions undertaken. We present a model to summarise the conditions and activities that affect quality performance. PMID:25192876

  13. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-12

    Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the 'accuracy' and 'practicality' of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1) methods based on measured kinematic data; (2) methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3) methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1) reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2) improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3) minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4) increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5) enhancing the robustness and versatility of the

  14. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the ‘accuracy’ and ‘practicality’ of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1 methods based on measured kinematic data; (2 methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3 methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1 reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2 improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3 minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4 increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5 enhancing the robustness and

  15. Efficacy and safety of treatments in Familial Mediterranean fever: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Erer, Burak; Ozen, Seza; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad

    2016-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease, which can be well controlled with lifelong use of colchicine. Since studies dealing with the efficacy and safety of colchicine were conducted mainly in the sixties and seventies of the previous century, it seems that this topic needs to be updated. Recently, an international expert panel was undertaken for the establishment of recommendations on how to manage FMF. We aimed to summarize the efficacy and safety of the current treatments available to prevent FMF attacks and to avert the appearance of amyloidosis secondary to FMF. A systematic review was performed. Two reviewers and methodologist established the protocol of the review and the epidemiological questions in PICO terms. MEDLINE through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Trials Register all up to May 31, 2014, were searched, and only randomized controlled trials or quasicontrolled trials were accepted. For each study, a judgment on risk of bias was then rated as high, moderate, or low. Of 1222 initially captured publications, 153 articles were studied in detail. Finally, only seven studies met all criteria and were included. Among these seven studies, four were randomized crossover clinical trials of colchicine including a total of 57 patients, one RCT of Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract employed in 24 patients, one randomized crossover clinical trial of Rilonacept used in 12 patients, and one RCT of interferon treating 34 acute abdominal attacks in 22 patients. The quality of the colchicine trials was low compared with the other drugs trials. Safety was not clearly mentioned in the trials. Colchicine is an effective treatment in FMF.

  16. Modelling the Source of Blasting for the Numerical Simulation of Blast-Induced Ground Vibrations: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The mining and construction industries have long been faced with considerable attention and criticism in regard to the effects of blasting. The generation of ground vibrations is one of the most significant factors associated with blasting and is becoming increasingly important as mining sites are now regularly located near urban areas. This is of concern to not only the operators of the mine but also residents. Mining sites are subjected to an inevitable compromise: a production blast is designed to fragment the utmost amount of rock possible; however, any increase in the blast can generate ground vibrations which can propagate great distances and cause structural damage or discomfort to residents in surrounding urban areas. To accurately predict the propagation of ground vibrations near these sensitive areas, the blasting process and surrounding environment must be characterised and understood. As an initial step, an accurate model of the source of blast-induced vibrations is required. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the approaches to model the blasting source in order to critically evaluate developments in the field. An overview of the blasting process and description of the various factors which influence the blast performance and subsequent ground vibrations are also presented. Several approaches to analytically model explosives are discussed. Ground vibration prediction methods focused on seed waveform and charge weight scaling techniques are presented. Finally, numerical simulations of the blasting source are discussed, including methods to estimate blasthole wall pressure time-history, and hydrodynamic codes.

  17. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  18. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  19. Review on the efficacy, safety and clinical applications of polihexanide, a modern wound antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Kramer, A

    2010-01-01

    Infected wounds are still one of the great challenges in medicine. In the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that antimicrobial chemotherapy is limited by the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fortunately, new, highly effective antiseptic substances with a broad antimicrobial spectrum are available, so local treatment is expected to get increasingly more important in wound therapy. This paper reviews the antiseptic agent polihexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB), one of the most promising substances available today, from a clinical point of view, focusing on efficacy, safety and clinical applications.

  20. A safety review for irradiation test of the creep capsule(02S-08K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, C. G.; Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The creep capsule(02S-08K), which is aimed to confirm the design characteristics and the structural integrity, will be irradiated at the IR2 test hole in October, 2004. To review a safety in the irradiation test of the capsule, the reactivity effect in HANARO was analyzed and stress and temperatures on the capsule were estimated. In the abnormal operating condition during the test of the capsule, the effect exerted on the capsule outer body by leakage or breakage of the stress loading unit equipped in the capsule was analyzed.

  1. The Periodic Safety Review of ANSTO's OPAL Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerfield, Mark [ANSTO, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of ANSTO's OPAL reactor was performed and documented. Emphasis is given to the methodology adopted and the practical means of actually doing a PSR with the aim of providing advice and guidance to other research reactor operators intending (or required) to perform a PSR. A summary of the results is also provided, including an overview of the recommendations. Feedback received from the Australian Nuclear Regulator ARPANSA and the subsequent preparation of a PSR Supplement is discussed.

  2. Review of the development of safety and relief valve silencers for steam discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    The progress made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the development of silencers for the control of boiler safety valve and relief valve noise is reviewed. System noise sources and the formulation of environmental noise criteria are discussed; the silencer design philosophy adopted by the CEGB is described and the progressive improvements are charted to demonstrate the advances made over earlier practices. The results of this work are design concepts which provide silencers which are suitable for application to any of the CEGB's steam valve vent systems and are capable of meeting stringent neighbourhood noise criteria.

  3. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  4. Book Review: Grounded Theory in Perspective: A Lifetime’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Scott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The grounded theory general method of research was Glaser and Strauss’ response to the problem of “superthink”: the generation of hypotheses in the field of sociology without recourse to data. Glaser and Strauss observed that since such hypotheses were of little relevance, pursuing them wasted resources and had fateful impact on young researchers’ careers. Glaser and Strauss preferred to ground their hypotheses in data that was from the field and was of relevance to their participants. The resultant development of the grounded theory method to maturity has taken decades of dedicated, scholarly endeavour. Glaser explains and examples how this has been achieved in his new book: The grounded theory perspective: Its origins and growth.

  5. Thematic Review and Analysis of Grounded Theory Application in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Badreddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present metacodes, a new concept to guide grounded theory (GT research in software engineering. Metacodes are high level codes that can help software engineering researchers guide the data coding process. Metacodes are constructed in the course of analyzing software engineering papers that use grounded theory as a research methodology. We performed a high level analysis to discover common themes in such papers and discovered that GT had been applied primarily in three software engineering disciplines: agile development processes, geographically distributed software development, and requirements engineering. For each category, we collected and analyzed all grounded theory codes and created, following a GT analysis process, what we call metacodes that can be used to drive further theory building. This paper surveys the use of grounded theory in software engineering and presents an overview of successes and challenges of applying this research methodology.

  6. Renal safety in patients treated with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul D; Jamal, Sophie A; Evenepoel, Pieter; Eastell, Richard; Boonen, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and are generally well tolerated. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration safety reports have highlighted the issue of renal safety in bisphosphonate-treated patients. All bisphosphonates carry labeled "warnings" or a contraindication for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance osteoporosis were obtained via PubMed, and were reviewed with support from published articles available on PubMed. Renal safety analyses of pivotal trials of oral alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate for postmenopausal osteoporosis showed no short-term or long-term effects on renal function. Transient postinfusion increases in serum creatinine have been reported in patients receiving intravenous ibandronate and zoledronic acid; however, studies showed that treatment with these agents did not result in long-term renal function deterioration in clinical trial patients with osteoporosis. All bisphosphonate therapies have "warnings" for use in patients with severe renal impairment. Clinical trial results have shown that even in elderly, frail, osteoporotic patients with renal impairment, intravenous bisphosphonate therapy administration in accordance with the prescribing information did not result in long-term renal function decline. Physicians should follow guidelines for bisphosphonate therapies administration at all times. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Learning from Aviation to Improve Safety in the Operating Room - a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. G. L. Wauben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR. This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant articles written in the English language published between 2000 and 2011. In total, 25 articles were included, all within the medical domain focusing on the comparison between surgery and aviation. In order to improve safety in the OR, multiple interventions have to be implemented. Additionally, the healthcare organization has to become a ‘learning organization’ and the OR team has to become a team with shared responsibilities and flat hierarchies. Interpersonal and technical skills can be trained by means of simulation and can be supported by implementing team briefings, debriefings and cross-checks. However, further development and research is needed to prove if these solutions are useful, practical, and actually increase safety.

  8. Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines. Part II: general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, W L

    2001-03-01

    In the 1920s, the availability of piezoelectric materials and electronic devices made it possible to produce ultrasound (US) in water at high amplitudes, so that it could be detected after propagation through large distances. Laboratory experiments with this new mechanical form of radiation showed that it was capable of producing an astonishing variety of physical, chemical and biologic effects. In this review, the early findings on bioeffects are discussed, especially those from experiments done in the first few decades, as well as the concepts employed in explaining them. Some recent findings are discussed also, noting how the old and the new are related. In the first few decades, bioeffects research was motivated partly by curiosity, and partly by the wish to increase the effectiveness and ensure the safety of therapeutic US. Beginning in the 1970s, the motivation has come also from the need for safety guidelines relevant to diagnostic US. Instrumentation was developed for measuring acoustic pressure in the fields of pulsed and focused US employed, and standards were established for specifying the fields of commercial equipment. Critical levels of US quantities were determined from laboratory experiments, together with biophysical analysis, for bioeffects produced by thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. These are the basis for safety advice and guidelines recommended or being considered by national, international, professional and governmental organizations.

  9. A brief review of the occurrence, use, and safety of food-related nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene A; Jonaitis, Tomas S; Card, Jeffrey W

    2011-08-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have tremendous potential to enhance the food supply through novel applications, including nutrient and bioactive absorption and delivery systems; ingredient functionality; improved colors and flavors; microbial, allergen, and contaminant detection and control; and food packaging properties and performance. To determine the current state of knowledge regarding the safety of these potential uses of nanomaterials, an appraisal of the published literature on the safety of food-related nanomaterials was undertaken. A method of assessment of reliability of toxicology studies was developed to conduct this appraisal. The review of the toxicology literature on oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials found that the number of studies is limited. Exposure to nanomaterials in the human food chain may occur not only through intentional uses in food manufacturing, but also via uses in agricultural production and carry over from use in other industries. Although a number of analytical methods are useful in physicochemical characterization of manufactured nanomaterials, new methods may be needed to more fully detect and characterize nanomaterials incorporated into foods and in other media. There is a need for additional toxicology studies of sufficient quality and duration on different types of nanomaterials to further our understanding of the characteristics of nanomaterials that affect safety of oral exposure resulting from use in various food applications.

  10. The third-party regulation on food safety in China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Man; QIAO Hui; WANG Xu; PU Ming-zhe; YU Zhi-jun; ZHENG Feng-tian

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders in the ifeld of food safety management in China can be classiifed into three categories, government, food producers (farmers and enterprises), and the third-party regulatory bodies. The third-party regulation has experienced rapid development in past twenty years, and recently received considerable attention from consumers and the central government. This paper provides a review about the development, problems and future trend of the third-party regulation on food safety in China. To be speciifc, ifve forms of the third-party regulation are assessed, including media exposure, the third-party certiifcation, regulation by consumer associations, social movements promoted by non-governmental organiza-tions (NGOs), and regulation by industry associations. The study concludes that media and consumer associations are the major players in the third-party regulation and are highly repudiated among customers. The food certiifcation industry has developed rapidly, but is now facing crises of conifdence among consumers because of its lack of self-regulation. NGOs and industry associations stil remain in the early development stages of food safety management, and therefore, are of little importance in current regulatory bodies.

  11. QMRA and water safety management: review of application in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R; Ashbolt, N J

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the assessment of microbial risks when model inputs and estimated health impacts are explicitly quantified, is a valuable tool to support water safety plans (WSP). In this paper, research studies undertaken on the application of QMRA in drinking water systems were reviewed, highlighting their relevance for WSP. The important elements for practical implementation include: the data requirements to achieve sufficient certainty to support decision-making; level of expertise necessary to undertake the required analysis; and the accessibility of tools to support wider implementation, hence these aspects were the focus of the review. Recommendations to support the continued and growing application of QMRA to support risk management in the water sector are provided.

  12. Occupational safety and health management in the construction industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Hafiidz; Arifin, Kadir; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal; Ishak, Muhammad Izzuddin Syakir; Samsurijan, Mohamad Shaharudin

    2017-09-11

    The construction industry plays a significant role in contributing to the economy and development globally. During the process of construction, various hazards coupled with the unique nature of the industry contribute to high fatality rates. This review refers to previous published studies and related Malaysian legislation documents. Four main elements consisting of human, worksite, management and external elements which cause occupational accidents and illnesses were identified. External and management elements are the underlying causes contributing to occupational safety and health (OSH), while human and worksite elements are more apparent causes of occupational accidents and illnesses. An effective OSH management approach is required to contain all hazards at construction sites. An approach to OSH management constructed by elements of policy, process, personnel and incentive developed in previous work is explored. Changes to the sub-elements according to previous studies and the related Malaysian legislation are also covered in this review.

  13. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  14. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  15. Differences in efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical treatments between men and women: an umbrella review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Gartlehner

    Full Text Available Being male or female is an important determinant of risks for certain diseases, patterns of illness and life expectancy. Although differences in risks for and prognoses of several diseases have been well documented, sex-based differences in responses to pharmaceutical treatments and accompanying risks of adverse events are less clear. The objective of this umbrella review was to determine whether clinically relevant differences in efficacy and safety of commonly prescribed medications exist between men and women. We retrieved all available systematic reviews of the Oregon Drug Effectiveness Review Project published before January 2010. Two persons independently reviewed each report to identify relevant studies. We dually abstracted data from the original publications into standardized forms. We synthesized the available evidence for each drug class and rated its quality applying the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Findings, based on 59 studies and data of more than 250,000 patients suggested that for the majority of drugs no substantial differences in efficacy and safety exist between men and women. Some clinically important exceptions, however, were apparent: women experienced substantially lower response rates with newer antiemetics than men (45% vs. 58%; relative risk 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.64; men had higher rates of sexual dysfunction than women while on paroxetine for major depressive disorder; women discontinued lovastatin more frequently than men because of adverse events. Overall, for the majority of drugs sex does not appear to be a factor that has to be taken into consideration when choosing a drug treatment. The available body of evidence, however, was limited in quality and quantity, confining the range and certainty of our conclusions.

  16. Safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luisa Santos; Müller, Vanessa Teixeira; da Mota Gomes, Marleide; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy remain with pharmacologically intractable seizures. An emerging therapeutic modality for seizure suppression is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Despite being considered a safe technique, rTMS carries the risk of inducing seizures, among other milder adverse events, and thus, its safety in the population with epilepsy should be continuously assessed. We performed an updated systematic review on the safety and tolerability of rTMS in patients with epilepsy, similar to a previous report published in 2007 (Bae EH, Schrader LM, Machii K, Alonso-Alonso M, Riviello JJ, Pascual-Leone A, Rotenberg A. Safety and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy: a review of the literature. Epilepsy Behav. 2007; 10 (4): 521-8), and estimated the risk of seizures and other adverse events during or shortly after rTMS application. We searched the literature for reports of rTMS being applied on patients with epilepsy, with no time or language restrictions, and obtained studies published from January 1990 to August 2015. A total of 46 publications were identified, of which 16 were new studies published after the previous safety review of 2007. We noted the total number of subjects with epilepsy undergoing rTMS, medication usage, incidence of adverse events, and rTMS protocol parameters: frequency, intensity, total number of stimuli, train duration, intertrain intervals, coil type, and stimulation site. Our main data analysis included separate calculations for crude per subject risk of seizure and other adverse events, as well as risk per 1000 stimuli. We also performed an exploratory, secondary analysis on the risk of seizure and other adverse events according to the type of coil used (figure-of-8 or circular), stimulation frequency (≤ 1 Hz or > 1 Hz), pulse intensity in terms of motor threshold (rTMS with maximum stimulator output for speech arrest, clinically arising

  17. Coordinated studies of the geospace environment using Cluster, satellite and ground-based data: an interim review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A little more than four years after its launch, the first magnetospheric, multi-satellite mission Cluster has already tremendously contributed to our understanding about the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system. This is mostly due to its ability, for the first time, to provide instantaneous spatial views of structures in the system, to separate temporal and spatial variations, and to derive velocities and directions of moving structures. Ground-based data have an important complementary impact on Cluster-related research, as they provide a larger-scale context to put the spacecraft data in, allow to virtually enlarge the spacecrafts' field of view, and make it possible to study in detail the coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere in a spatially extended domain. With this paper we present an interim review of cooperative research done with Cluster and ground-based instruments, including the support of other space-based data. We first give a short overview of the instrumentation used, and present some specific data analysis and modeling techniques that have been devised for the combined analysis of Cluster and ground-based data. Then we review highlighted results of the research using Cluster and ground-based data, ordered into dayside and nightside processes. Such highlights include, for example, the identification of the spatio-temporal signatures of the different modes of reconnection on the dayside, and the detailed analysis of the electrodynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling of bursty bulk flows in the tail plasma sheet on the nightside. The aim of this paper is to provide a "sourcebook" for the Cluster and ground-based community that summarises the work that has been done in this field of research, and to identify open questions and possible directions for future studies.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; General or

  18. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G

    2008-05-01

    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included.

  19. A review of the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Lindsey K; Baggett, Sara; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Skelley, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin (CAN) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies were identified using PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar from 2011 to August 2013. The following key words were reviewed: canagliflozin, canagliflozin elderly, canagliflozin geriatrics, dapagliflozin, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, and SGLT2 receptor inhibitors. Articles evaluating CAN for diabetes that were published in English and used human subjects were selected. Fifteen clinical trials were identified and evaluated. Of 15 identified articles, 2 articles, 2 published posters, and unpublished information from the manufacturer were chosen based on the mean age of the study subjects. Evidence that elderly patients with T2DM have less A1C reduction with CAN is presented; the benefit on A1C is significant. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body weight reduction in the elderly were consistent with younger patients. Adverse effects such as increased urinary frequency, genital mycotic infections, and urinary tract infections may discourage the use of CAN in the elderly patient. Treatment with CAN improves A1C levels, reduces SBP and body weight, and is overall well tolerated in older subjects with T2DM. Risks and benefits of treatment with CAN should be assessed in geriatric patients on a case-by-case basis. Safety in elderly patients was consistent with that of other phase 3 trials in the general population. Additional longterm cardiovascular studies are needed.

  20. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Usach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 non-nucleoside and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are key drugs of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the clinical management of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV infection. Discussion: First-generation NNRTIs, nevirapine (NVP, delavirdine (DLV and efavirenz (EFV are drugs with a low genetic barrier and poor resistance profile, which has led to the development of new generations of NNRTIs. Second-generation NNRTIs, etravirine (ETR and rilpivirine (RPV have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Union, and the next generation of drugs is currently being clinically developed. This review describes recent clinical data, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of commercialized NNRTIs, including the effects of sex, race and age differences on pharmacokinetics and safety. Moreover, it summarizes the characteristics of next-generation NNRTIs: lersivirine, GSK 2248761, RDEA806, BILR 355 BS, calanolide A, MK-4965, MK-1439 and MK-6186. Conclusions: This review presents a wide description of NNRTIs, providing useful information for researchers interested in this field, both in clinical use and in research.

  1. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis.

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension Therapy and a Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of PDE-5 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unegbu, Chinwe; Noje, Corina; Coulson, John D; Segal, Jodi B; Romer, Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a syndrome that is of growing concern to pediatricians worldwide. Recent data led to concerns about the safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in children and a US Food and Drug Administration safety advisory. Our objective is to provide insight into therapies for PH in children and to systematically review the comparative effectiveness and safety of PDE5 inhibitors in the management of pediatric patients with PH. We searched the following databases through February 2015: Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies that examined PDE5 inhibitor use in children with PH. Allowed comparators were either no medication or other classes of medication for management of PH. Study inclusion was via a 2-stage process with 2 reviewers and a predesigned form. Of 1270 papers identified by the literature search, 21 were included: 8 randomized controlled trials and 13 observational studies (9 retrospective, 4 prospective). There is strong evidence that PDE5 inhibitor use improves echocardiography measurements, cardiac catheterization parameters, and oxygenation compared with baseline or placebo in pediatric patients with PH. Evidence suggests that low- and moderate-dose sildenafil are safe regimens for children. There are a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials that address use of PDE5 inhibitors in pediatric patients with PH. PDE5 inhibitors are effective agents for cardiovascular and oxygenation end points in pediatric PH and important components of a multimodal pharmacotherapeutic approach to this growing challenge. Additional studies are needed to define optimal PH therapy in childhood.

  3. The Safety of Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Ward, Lesley; Saper, Robert; Fishbein, Daniel; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy

    2015-08-15

    As yoga has gained popularity as a therapeutic intervention, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. Thus, this review aimed to systematically assess and meta-analyze the frequency of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of yoga. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and IndMED were screened through February 2014. Of 301 identified randomized controlled trials of yoga, 94 (1975-2014; total of 8,430 participants) reported on adverse events. Life-threatening, disabling adverse events or those requiring intensive treatment were defined as serious and all other events as nonserious. No differences in the frequency of intervention-related, nonserious, or serious adverse events and of dropouts due to adverse events were found when comparing yoga with usual care or exercise. Compared with psychological or educational interventions (e.g., health education), more intervention-related adverse events (odds ratio = 4.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 17.67; P = 0.05) and more nonserious adverse events (odds ratio = 7.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.91, 27.92; P yoga group; serious adverse events and dropouts due to adverse events were comparable between groups. Findings from this review indicate that yoga appears as safe as usual care and exercise. The adequate reporting of safety data in future randomized trials of yoga is crucial to conclusively judge its safety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  5. The Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Urticaria: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acupuncture might have effectiveness in relieving the symptoms of chronic urticaria. There are currently no systematic reviews of acupuncture for chronic urticaria published in English. Objective. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for chronic urticaria. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials were performed. The primary outcome was global symptom improvement. Results. We included 6 studies with 406 participants. Three trials showed significant difference between acupuncture and drugs in global symptom improvement (relative risk 1.37; 95% CI 1.11–1.70; P=0.003. As an adjuvant to medication, acupuncture was also beneficial for global symptom improvement (relative risk 1.77; 95% CI 1.41–2.22; P<0.01. There were no severe adverse events related to acupuncture. Limitations. Some methodological limitations were observed. The overall risk of bias in the 6 included trials was high and all included RCTs were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Besides, the lack of proper control groups and the use of different rating methods and cut-offs in the included trials also made the evidence of this review limited. Conclusions. Acupuncture might be effective and safe for chronic urticaria in relieving symptoms, based on a low level of evidence. To draw a reliable conclusion, more high quality trials are needed in the future. This trial is registered with PROSPERO CRD42015015702.

  6. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer Mark Packer MD Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL, and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.. Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594=1.33; P=0.18. The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks

  7. How effective is drug testing as a workplace safety strategy? A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    The growing prevalence of workplace drug testing and the narrow scope of previous reviews of the evidence base necessitate a comprehensive review of research concerning the efficacy of drug testing as a workplace strategy. A systematic qualitative review of relevant research published between January 1990 and January 2013 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were studies that evaluated the effectiveness of drug testing in deterring employee drug use or reducing workplace accident or injury rates. Methodological adequacy was assessed using a published assessment tool specifically designed to assess the quality of intervention studies. A total of 23 studies were reviewed and assessed, six of which reported on the effectiveness of testing in reducing employee drug use and 17 which reported on occupational accident or injury rates. No studies involved randomised control trials. Only one study was assessed as demonstrating strong methodological rigour. That study found random alcohol testing reduced fatal accidents in the transport industry. The majority of studies reviewed contained methodological weaknesses including; inappropriate study design, limited sample representativeness, the use of ecological data to evaluate individual behaviour change and failure to adequately control for potentially confounding variables. This latter finding is consistent with previous reviews and indicates the evidence base for the effectiveness of testing in improving workplace safety is at best tenuous. Better dissemination of the current evidence in relation to workplace drug testing is required to support evidence-informed policy and practice. There is also a pressing need for more methodologically rigorous research to evaluate the efficacy and utility of drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review: Günter Mey & Katja Mruck (Eds. (2007. Grounded Theory Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schmidtke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The volume was published to mark the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Discovery of Grounded Theory." The first part describes the emergence and fundamental positions of grounded theory methodology (GTM in methodological and theoretical terms; the second part focuses on research practices. The "Grounded Theory Reader" is an excellent compilation that doesn’t claim to be a standard textbook for newcomers to GTM. Rather, it is a reflection of the state of the art in GTM and enables insights in complex research practices. A basic understanding of GTM is recommended in order to get the most from the book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903286

  9. Patient Safety and Quality Improvement in Otolaryngology Education: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettelfinger, John D; Paulk, P Barrett; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2017-06-01

    Objective The breadth and depth of patient safety/quality improvement (PS/QI) research dedicated to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) education remains unknown. This systematic review aims to define this scope and to identify knowledge gaps as well as potential areas of future study to improved PS/QI education and training in OHNS. Data Sources A computerized Ovid/Medline database search was conducted (January 1, 1965, to May 15, 2015). Similar computerized searches were conducted using Cochrane Database, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Review Methods The study protocol was developed a priori using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles were classified by year, subspecialty, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Crossing the Chasm categories, and World Health Organization (WHO) subclass. Results Computerized searches yielded 8743 eligible articles, 267 (3.4%) of which met otolaryngology PS/QI inclusion criteria; 51 (19%) were dedicated to resident/fellow education and training. Simulation studies (39%) and performance/competency evaluation (23.5%) were the most common focus. Most projects involved general otolaryngology (47%), rhinology (18%), and otology (16%). Classification by the IOM included effective care (45%), safety/effective care (41%), and effective and efficient care (7.8%). Most research fell into the WHO category of "identifying solutions" (61%). Conclusion Nineteen percent of OHNS PS/QI articles are dedicated to education, the majority of which are simulation and focus on effective care. Knowledges gaps for future research include facial plastics PS/QI and the WHO category of "studies translating evidence into safer care."

  10. Report on inspection of concerns regarding the Martin Marietta Corporate Review of health and safety at Martin Marietta Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-18

    An Office of Inspector General Hotline allegation was received from an anonymous complainant regarding a July 1994 Martin Marietta Corporation Team`s health and safety review at three Department of Energy sites managed and operated by the then Martin Marietta Energy Systems. Inc. (Energy Systems), at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. We determined that the President of Energy Systems had requested a Corporate review at the three sites because of his concerns about safety incidents and accidents during the late Spring and early Summer of 1994. The Corporate Team`s charter was to determine if root causes existed for these safety incidents and accidents and to produce recommendations for the reduction or prevention of future safety incidents or accidents.

  11. Research on the maximum utilization of PSR (Periodic Safety Review) results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Myung; Lee, Jae Kyung; Ahn, Jin Chul; Kim, G. U.; Ryu, Y. S.; Lee, G. B.; Park, D. H. [Chungju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    This is the final report of 'research on the maximum utilization of PSR results' focused on linkage strategy of PSR with continued operation over design life of operating NPP. Study was mace mainly on the analysis of current status of continued operation over plant design life in foreign countries, analysis of domestic PSR implementation status and establishment of basic strategy for linking PSR with continued operation. The results of the study performed so far can be summarized as below, the recent worldwide trend of promoting efficiency of NPP operation is focused on life extension of the plants rather than building of new. Considering the fact that some developed countries have already implemented the plant life extension and not a few countries at least have invested a good amount of fund for R and D of plant life management, we can not disregard the owner's request for review of life extension application without any reasonable description. As a result of investigation and analysis for the current status of continued operation over plant design life in foreign countries, it is concluded that most countries tend to link PSR with continued operation over plant design life and the extended operation has already been implemented in some developed countries. From the point, it turned out to be more desirable to couple those two systems for continued operation over plant design life of Korean NPP. A less than 7 years left until the end of design life for the oldest NPP Kori unit 1, it is strongly recommended to establish institutional frame including a legal basis and regulatory guidelines for continued operation over plant design life before long. For the prioritization methods of corrective actions in consideration of safety significance of shortcomings picked up from PSR, some related systems are reviewed including IAEA guidelines, PSR implementation experience of UK and US prioritization system for GSI (Generic Safety Issue). Basic principles are

  12. The Analytical Review of the Condition of Heavy Class Military and Dual-Purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the evaluation of the actual condition of heavy (weight more than 700 kg military robotics and dual-purpose robotics in the world. The extensive review of the world market of heavy class military unmanned ground vehicle was made. All reviewed robots are used at present time or exist like prototypes. All robots were systematized by most important technical characteristics. In the closing of article the analysis of the reviewed heavy class dual purpose UGVs are presented. Based on the analysis the conclusion about actual condition of the heavy military robotics and dual-purpose robotics was made. Also the most promising ways and tendencies of development are representeds.

  13. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  14. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  15. Safety, Efficacy, and Bioavailability of Fixed-Dose Combinations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Mahalingam Vijayakumar, M.Pharm, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Implications: From this updated review, it was found that metformin was the most widely used component of FDCs with other OHAs. Studies on the safety and efficacy of newly approved OHAs such as sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors were limited. An increasing number of randomized trials on the safety and efficacy of newly emerging FDCs suggests that they would be better treatment options for T2DM patients.

  16. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  17. Final Hazard Categorization and Auditable Safety Analysis for the Remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, 118-D-3, 118-H-1, 118-H-2 and 118-H-3 Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Rodovsky

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the initial hazard categorization, final hazard categorization and auditable safety analysis for the remediation of the 118-D-1, 118-D-2, and 118-D-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-D/DR Area of the Hanford Site and the 118-H-1, 118-H-2, and 118-H-3 Burial Grounds located within the 100-H Area of the Hanford Site.

  18. Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matricciani Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science was undertaken (6/1/11. The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of

  19. Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST: A Mixed Studies Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Aston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify evidence to support use of specific harms for the development of a children and young people’s safety thermometer (CYPST. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library post-1999 for studies in pediatric settings about pain, skin integrity, extravasation injury, and use of pediatric early warning scores (PEWS. Following screening, nine relevant articles were included. Convergent synthesis methods were used drawing on thematic analysis to combine findings from studies using a range of methods (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. A review of PEWS was identified so other studies on this issue were excluded. No relevant studies about extravasation injury were identified. The synthesized results therefore focused on pain and skin integrity. Measurement and perception of pain were complex and not always carried out according to best practice. Skin abrasions were common and mostly associated with device related injuries. The findings demonstrate a need for further work on perceptions of pain and effective communication of concerns about pain between parents and nursing staff. Strategies for reducing device-related injuries warrant further research focusing on prevention. Together with the review of PEWS, these synthesized findings support the inclusion of pain, skin integrity, and PEWS in the CYPST.

  20. A detailed review of hip reduction maneuvers: a focus on physician safety and introduction of the Waddell technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford S. Waddell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip is a well-described event that occurs in conjunction with highenergy trauma or postoperatively after total hip arthroplasty. Bigelow first described closed treatment of a dislocated hip in 1870, and in the last decade many reduction techniques have been proposed. In this article, we review all described techniques for the reduction of hip dislocation while focusing on physician safety. Furthermore, we introduce a modified technique for the reduction of posterior hip dislocation that allows the physician to adhere to the back safety principles set for by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  1. Safety review and stress test of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau; Compact. Sicherheitsueberpruefung und Stresstest der Urananreicherungsanlage Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiboemer, Burkhard [URENCO Deutschland GmbH, Gronau (Germany). Ueberwachung

    2013-07-01

    As a consequence of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011 and the subsequent catastrophic destruction of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima URENCO has agreed to perform the safety check of the uranium enrichment facility Gronau (UAG) two years earlier than planned. The review was started in May 2011. The contribution deals with the requirements for the safety analysis and the questionnaire for the stress test, the methodology for realization of the safety check and the results of the investigations performed by URENCO and experts of ESK.

  2. Whole blood pathogen reduction technology and blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review with regional discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa'ah Nkohkwo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite vast improvements in transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, there remain serious concerns on the safety and adequacy of the blood supply across the region.Objective: This review paper ascertains the role of pathogen reduction technology (PRT in improving blood safety and supply adequacy in the region.Method: The state of blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed. Meetings, seminars and correspondence were undertaken with key clinicians, scientists and professional bodies in the region, including the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa, to examine the suitability of PRT for improving the safety of whole blood transfusion, a prevalent transfusion format in the region.Results: Existing literature suggests that combining PRT with current blood safety measures (such as serology would improve the safety and adequacy of the blood supply for transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa. This was echoed by the findings of the stakeholder meetings.Conclusion: Following a detailed appraisal of two leading PRT systems, the Mirasol® PRT System and the Cerus S-303 System, we suggest that companies conduct comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the agents used for PRT and publish this in the scientific literature. We also recommend that the safety and efficacy of these technologies should be established in a randomised clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Road impacts on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, with emphasis on effects to surface and shallow ground-water hydrology : a literature review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of published research on unpaved road effects on surface-water and shallow ground-water hydrology was undertaken to assist the Baca National Wildlife...

  4. Systematic review: the safety of vedolizumab for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, W A; Jairath, V; Travis, S P L

    2017-07-01

    Vedolizumab specifically recognises the α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut lymphocyte trafficking: potentially, it offers gut-specific immunosuppression. To review the safety of vedolizumab and summarise post-marketing data to assess if any safety concerns that differ from registration trials have emerged. A systematic bibliographic search identified six registration trials and nine cohort studies. Integrated data from registration trials included 2830 vedolizumab-exposed patients (4811 person-years exposure [PYs]) and 513 placebo patients. This reported lower exposure-adjusted incidence rates of infection (63.5/100 PYs; 95% CI: 59.6-67.3) and serious adverse events (20.0/100 PYs; 95% CI: 18.5-21.5) compared to placebo (82.9/100 PYs; 95% CI: 68.3-97.5) and (28.3/100 PYs 95% CI: 20.6-35.9) respectively. Higher, but statistically insignificant rates of enteric infections occurred in vedolizumab-exposed patients (7.4/100 PYs; 95% CI: 6.6-8.3) compared to placebo (6.7 PYs; 95% CI: 3.2-10.1). Six post-marketing cohort studies (1049 patients, 403 PYs) demonstrated rates of infection of 8% (82/1049); enteric infection of 2% (21/1049) and adverse events of 16% (166/1049). Multivariate analysis in one cohort study suggested increased risk of surgical site infection with perioperative VDZ. Human experience in pregnancy is limited. Post-marketing data confirm the excellent safety of vedolizumab observed in registration trials. The signal of post-operative complications should be interpreted with caution, but warrants further study. Although comparative studies are needed, Vedolizumab may be a safe alternative in patients who best avoid systematic immunosuppression, including those pre-disposed to infection, malignancy or the elderly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 1: a review of the extent and causes of medication problems 2002–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Roughead, Elizabeth E.; Semple, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication incidents and adverse drug events in acute care. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify Australian s...

  6. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano Sharyl E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  7. Applications of hyperspectral imaging in chicken meat safety and quality detection and evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.

  8. A Review and Comparative Analysis of Security Risks and Safety Measures of Mobile Health Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with a patient-centred model of healthcare, Mobile Health applications (mhealth apps provide convenient and equitable access to health and well-being resources and programs that can enable consumers to monitor their health related problems, understand specific medical conditions and attain personal fitness goals. This increase in access and control comes with an increase in risk and responsibility to identify and manage the associated risks, such as the privacy and security of consumers’ personal and health information. Based on a review of the literature, this paper identifies a set of risk and safety features for evaluating mHealth apps and uses those features to conduct a comparative analysis of the 20 most popular mHealth apps. The comparative analysis reveals that current mHealth apps do pose a risk to consumers. To address the safety and privacy concerns, recommendations to consumers and app developers are offered together with consideration of mHealth app future trends.

  9. Hospital-initiated transitional care interventions as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennke, Stephanie; Nguyen, Oanh K; Shoeb, Marwa H; Magan, Yimdriuska; Wachter, Robert M; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-03-05

    Hospitals now have the responsibility to implement strategies to prevent adverse outcomes after discharge. This systematic review addressed the effectiveness of hospital-initiated care transition strategies aimed at preventing clinical adverse events (AEs), emergency department (ED) visits, and readmissions after discharge in general medical patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials (January 1990 to September 2012) were searched, and 47 controlled studies of fair methodological quality were identified. Forty-six studies reported readmission rates, 26 reported ED visit rates, and 9 reported AE rates. A "bridging" strategy (incorporating both predischarge and postdischarge interventions) with a dedicated transition provider reduced readmission or ED visit rates in 10 studies, but the overall strength of evidence for this strategy was low. Because of scant evidence, no conclusions could be reached on methods to prevent postdischarge AEs. Most studies did not report intervention context, implementation, or cost. The strategies hospitals should implement to improve patient safety at hospital discharge remain unclear.

  10. Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly: review of safety and effectiveness of different regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P M; Freaney, R; McKenna, M J

    1995-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly, especially in countries where effective sunlight or exposure to sunlight is limited. Two regimes for vitamin D supplementation--low-dose daily oral administration and intermittent high-dose administration--were examined with regard to safety and effectiveness. Eleven papers reporting studies in 449 elderly subjects were reviewed. On low-dose continuous supplementation mean concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ranged from 57 to 105 nmol/L compared to 55 to 87 nmol/L following high-dose supplementation. These mean values fall within the physiological range for young adults. Hypercalcemia occurred in only 3 subjects and was associated with a predisposing cause in 2 of 3 subjects. We suggest that low dose continuous supplementation (10 to 20 micrograms daily) is the regime of choice but high-dose intermittent supplementation (2.5 mg six monthly) may be suitable where compliance is poor.

  11. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...... is a considerable technical problem and has become an important factor which might postpones subsequent extension of lithium-ion batteries. This paper reviews different methods for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. Various methods such as using Phase change materials and using air cooling, straight...... liquid cooling, ancillary liquid cooling, fin cooling have been considered to assess their usefulness from the viewpoint of coolant energy utilization, highest temperature growth, temperature alteration, and extra mass required for the cooling scheme....

  12. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    that employees of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the employees of larger ones, and that small enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is important to develop......The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...... in the number of studies of small enterprises, but the research community is scattered between many different disciplines and institutions. There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and practical applicability. However, there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude...

  13. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  14. Silage and the safety and quality of dairy foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Driehuis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silage contains a number of potential hazards to the safety and quality of milk and dairy products. This paper reviews the present knowledge about silage as a source of (1 spores of anaerobic spore-formers (Clostridium species and aerobic spore-formers (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus species, (2 the zoonotic pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and (3 mycotoxins. A distinction is made between field-derived mycotoxins, i.e. mycotoxins that are formed during growth of crops in the field, and ensilage-derived mycotoxins, i.e. mycotoxins that are formed after ensiling. The routes of transmission of these hazards from feed to milk, the effect of pasteurization of milk, and reduction strategies are discussed. Aerobic deterioration of silages is a major factor influencing levels of spores of both aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers, L. monocytogenes, and certain mycotoxins.

  15. Analyses comparing the antimicrobial activity and safety of current antiseptic agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, John S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the results and conclusions from four pivotal and two comparative clinical trials. The six randomized, controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trials were conducted to determine which antiseptic is best for use as a patient preoperative skin preparation. The objective of these studies was to compare the immediate, persistent (residual), and cumulative antimicrobial efficacy and safety of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) combined with 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (ChloraPrep); another combination CHG and IPA antiseptic (CHG+IPA) and 2% aqueous CHG alone; 4% CHG (Hibiclens) alone; 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) alone; and an iodine-containing solution, 10% povidone-iodine (Betadine) alone as preoperative skin topical antiseptics for potential prevention of nosocomial infections.

  16. [Recommendations on the safety of patients for socio-health centers: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcázar, Víctor; Cambil Martín, Jacobo; Herrera-Usagre, Manuel

    2013-11-02

    We did a systematic review to find recommendations on patient safety oriented toward improving the quality of care in nursing homes, residential facilities, housing for the elderly and long-term care facilities, among others. One hundred and thirty-four articles were selected in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to October 2012. Of these, 17 met inclusion criteria and 5 studies were added in the secondary search for further detailed analysis. Few studies with high or very high level of scientific evidence on the scale SIGN were identified. Analyzed studies focused primarily on nursing staff. Most of the recommendations are oriented toward medication-related issues, staff training, pressure ulcers or falls, adherence to guidelines and protocols and topics referred to organizational culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Medicinal Plants or Related Natural Products for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of medicinal plants (MPs or related natural products (RNPs on fibromyalgia (FM patients, we evaluate the possible benefits and advantages of MP or RNP for the treatment of FM based on eight randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs involving 475 patients. The methodological quality of all studies included was determined according to JADAD and “Risk of Bias” with the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. Evidence suggests significant benefits of MP or RNP in sleep disruption, pain, depression, joint stiffness, anxiety, physical function, and quality of life. Our results demonstrated that MP or RNP had significant effects on improving the symptoms of FM compared to conventional drug or placebo; longer tests are required to determine the duration of the treatment and characterize the long-term safety of using MP, thus suggesting effective alternative therapies in the treatment of pain with minimized side effects.

  18. Regional anesthesia for pediatric knee surgery: a review of the indications, procedures, outcomes, safety, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhly WT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallis T Muhly, Harshad G Gurnaney, Arjunan GaneshDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, PA, USAAbstract: The indications for surgery on the knee in children and adolescents share some similarity to adult practice in that there are an increasing number of sports-related injuries requiring surgical repair. In addition, there are some unique age-related conditions or congenital abnormalities that may present as indications for orthopedic intervention at the level of the knee. The efficacy and safety of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs for postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery has been well established in adults. Recent studies have also demonstrated earlier functional recovery after surgery in patients who received PNBs. In children, PNB is gaining popularity, and increasing data are emerging to demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety in this population. In this paper, we will review some of the most common indications for surgery involving the knee in children and the anatomy of knee, associated dermatomal and osteotomal innervation, and the PNBs most commonly used to produce analgesia at the level of the knee. We will review the evidence in support of regional anesthesia in children in terms of both the quality conferred to the immediate postoperative care and the role of continuous PNBs in maintaining effective analgesia following discharge. Also we will discuss some of the subtle challenges in utilizing regional anesthesia in the pediatric patient including the use of general anesthesia when performing regional anesthesia and the issue of monitoring for compartment syndrome. Finally, we will offer some thoughts about areas of practice that are in need of further investigation.Keywords: pediatric surgery, regional anesthesia, analgesia, knee surgery

  19. Understanding public attitudes to road-user safety – literature review: final report road safety research report no. 112.

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, C.; Avineri, E.; Fulcher, E; Goodwin, P.; Susilo, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Context and scope: \\ud – The literature reviewed in this report is primarily UK based and published post 2000. \\ud – In total, 72 articles have been reviewed in-depth and represent a mixture of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology primary research and a variety of reviews (see Appendix 2). \\ud – A wider definition of attitudes was incorporated to include a variety of psychosocial variables, such as social norms, risk, identity and impression management, pro-social behaviour, habit,...

  20. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    its backgrotnid. Middleton (1936) studied the applicability of the C.I.E. metric to that of colored point sources. Konchmieder ( 1924 ) thought that...igated in two studieu per- formed by Rusia , Snyder, and GreeninE, (965u) and Rusis, Snyder, Greening, and Rawlingg (1965b), which repreosent exp erionto...acquisition of ground targets by observers in low-leve: high-speed aircraft. Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico , SC-TM-66-54, February 1966

  1. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  2. Review: Ina-Maria Greverus, Sharon MacDonald, Regina Romhild, Gisela Welz & Helena Wullf (Eds. (2002. Stability Upon Shifting Ground: Review Note of Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Boylorn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is written in response to "Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethno­graphy," a volume of the Anthropological Journal on European Cultures. This review cites the history and implications of ethnography as a methodology within various academic disciplines while praising the authors within this text for their contributions to various ways of "doing ethnography." By investi­gating and considering the body as an ethno­graphic site where life and stories are performed and em­bodied, this article considers the varying ways the authors respond to experimental and performative ethnography while applying it to relevant and current issues within anthropology. By engaging both the anthropological and historical turn of ethnography, this book thematically discusses the mobility of fieldwork, time, space, multi-locality, tour­ism, and tradition/culture. Shifting Grounds does not only offer experiments in doing ethnography, it also offers alternatives for doing ethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503175

  3. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Ayako; Wagner, Cordula; Bijnen, Bart

    2014-02-08

    Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour for patient safety and aimed at (1) assessing the effectiveness of speaking up, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of speaking-up training, (3) identifying the factors influencing speaking-up behaviour, and (4) developing a model for speaking-up behaviour. Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for English articles describing health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour as well as those evaluating the relationship between speaking up and patient safety. Influencing factors were identified and then integrated into a model of voicing behaviour. In total, 26 studies were identified in 27 articles. Some indicated that hesitancy to speak up can be an important contributing factor in communication errors and that training can improve speaking-up behaviour. Many influencing factors were found: (1) the motivation to speak up, such as the perceived risk for patients, and the ambiguity or clarity of the clinical situation; (2) contextual factors, such as hospital administrative support, interdisciplinary policy-making, team work and relationship between other team members, and attitude of leaders/superiors; (3) individual factors, such as job satisfaction, responsibility toward patients, responsibility as professionals, confidence based on experience, communication skills, and educational background; (4) the perceived efficacy of speaking up, such as lack of impact and personal control; (5) the perceived safety of speaking up, such as fear for the responses of others and conflict and concerns over appearing incompetent; and (6) tactics and targets, such as collecting facts, showing positive intent, and selecting the person who has

  4. Safety Analysis of Panax Ginseng in Randomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sook; Woo, Jung-Yoon; Han, Chang-Kyun; Chang, Il-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most frequently used herbs in the world. The roots of Panax ginseng have been used as a traditional tonic and medicine for thousands of years in Korea and China. Today, ginseng root is used as a dietary supplement and complementary medicine and for adjuvant therapeutics worldwide. The efficacy of ginseng has been studied in a wide range of basic research and clinical studies. However, it has been reported that the results from clinical studies are conflicting, and they depend on the parameters of the protocol design including the conditions of the participants and the types of ginseng used such as red ginseng, white ginseng, fermented ginseng and cultured ginseng. Meanwhile, in addition to clinical efficacy, the safety of ginseng is a highly important matter for customers. With globally increasing demand for Panax ginseng as a dietary supplement or complementary medicine, it is necessary to provide information on its safe use to customers to improve their health conditions. Although the safety of Panax ginseng in pre-clinical studies is well known, the evaluation of safety in clinical studies has so far been insufficient. This systematic review was conducted to assess the safety of ginseng in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) over the last 10 years. We chose the last 10 years because many clinical trials have been conducted in the past 10 years, and it will help to understand the recent trends in RCTs of ginseng. Methods: Articles on ginseng studies were searched with keywords in MEDLINE and four other Korean online database sites. Studies with ginseng as a monopreparation were selected while studies with single administration, preparations combined with other herbs or drug combinations were excluded from the selected studies. Data from the selected studies meeting the criteria were extracted and reviewed in terms of study design, condition and number of participants, type of ginseng, dosage, duration

  5. A review of the safety implications of magnetic resonance imaging at field strengths of 3 Tesla and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, Neil [Alliance Medical, Iceni Centre, Warwick Technology Park, Warwick CV34 6DA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ncrook@alliance.co.uk; Robinson, Leslie [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiography, School of Healthcare Professions, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Rationale: Diagnostic imaging is being driven by technological developments particularly so in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Electromagnetic fields used to produce images are becoming much stronger and switched more rapidly and it is essential that safety advice remains appropriate and current. Using a systematic methodology, this review aims to identify the clinical safety implications in performing MRI at field strengths of 3 Tesla (T) and above and determine whether the current clinical safety guidelines are appropriate. Method: References were sourced from The Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Related websites searched included The British Institute of Radiology, Society of Radiographers, Royal College of Radiologists, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, IMRSER (Institute for Magnetic Resonance Safety, Education, and Research), MagNet (NHS PASA). References supplied in retrieved papers were also checked for potential relevance. The use of consistent search terminology and inclusion and exclusion criteria ensured quality and provided rigour to conclusions drawn. Conclusion: According to the literature retrieved, the current body of knowledge has allowed safety guidelines to be established for patient safety and these are both appropriate and valid at field strengths of 3 T.

  6. Efficacy and safety concerns are important reasons why the FDA requires multiple reviews before approval of new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Dzara, Kristina; Downing, Nicholas S

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory approval of new drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a long and complex process and often requires multiple cycles of review, potentially delaying patients' access to new and effective therapeutics. We used qualitative methods to characterize the safety and efficacy reasons why applications for novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2011 required multiple review cycles prior to approval. Among ninety-six applications approved between 2001 and 2011 that required multiple review cycles, safety concerns contributed to seventy-four (77.1 percent) and efficacy concerns to forty-three (44.8 percent). Our study suggests that multiple review cycles appear to play an important role in allowing the FDA to protect public health and in ensuring adequate understanding of clinical benefits and risks prior to approval.

  7. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiassa, E.; Higgins, J.P.T.; Frampton, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answe......Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods...... review. Such questions can be structured by their “key elements” (e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s) and outcome(s)). Prioritisation of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual...

  8. Efficacy, safety, acceptability and affordability of cryotherapy: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, E C; Blumenthal, P D

    2012-04-01

    As a result of widespread screening and treatment programs, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased by as much as 75% in the developed world. Commonly used treatment modalities for precancerous lesions include cone biopsy, the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), laser ablation and cryotherapy. In recent years LEEP has replaced cryotherapy as a commonly provided outpatient procedure in many places; however increased awareness of the burden of cervical cancer in the developing world and increased awareness of long term consequences of LEEP ‑ such as cervical insufficiency ‑ have renewed interest in cryotherapy. We reviewed current literature addressing the technique, efficacy, safety and acceptability of cryotherapy, as well as special topics such as cost effectiveness, HIV, and low resource settings. Among studies we reviewed, cure rates ranged from 56.8-96.6% among prospective controlled trials and from 70-95.5% among observational studies. Cryotherapy has very low complication rates and serious complications requiring medical intervention or affecting future reproductive outcomes are extremely rare. Side effects including vaginal discharge and cramping are temporary, generally self-limited, and well tolerated after anticipatory patient counseling. When surveyed, women find cryotherapy highly acceptable. Compared to other treatment modalities, cryotherapy is very affordable and feasible to integrate into cervical cancer screening and treatment programs.

  9. Safety profile of drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis: a systematical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varenna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The range of osteoporosis treatments is increasingly large and, like any disease, the pharmacological management of patients should involve a risk/benefit evaluation to attain the greatest reduction in risk of fracture with the lowest incidence of adverse events. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the literature about the safety issues of the main pharmacological treatments of osteoporosis. This document is the result of a consensus of experts based on a systematic review of regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, metaanalyses, pharmacovigilance surveys and case series related to possible adverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, denosumab, and teriparatide. As expected, randomized controlled trials showed only the most common adverse events due to the samples size and the short observation time. Case series and observational studies are able to provide data about uncommon side effects, but in some cases a sure cause-effect relationship needs still to be confirmed. Consistently with methodological limitations, the newer drugs have a tolerance profile that has not been fully explored yet. Osteoporosis treatments showed an overall good tolerance profile with rare serious adverse events that, however, must be well known by the clinician who prescribes these drugs. The concern about possible adverse events should be weighed against the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with a significant fracture risk reduction.

  10. A review of the safety of clozapine during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Taylor M; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation. The limited available data do not support an increased risk of congenital malformations in foetuses exposed to clozapine during pregnancy, though rates of gestational diabetes are twice as high in pregnant women using clozapine. Clozapine accumulation in foetal serum possibly contributes to increased rates of floppy infant syndrome at delivery, decreased foetal heart rate variability, and seizures in infancy. Clozapine crosses the placenta and also accumulates in breast milk, which may increase the risk of agranulocytosis in infants and may necessitate infant testing. The majority of these data come from case reports and case series, making it unclear if the published risks associated with clozapine are due to mental illness, lifestyle factors, or co-treatment with other psychotropic medications. While the available literature on clozapine use during the perinatal period is very limited, the risks of clozapine use during pregnancy and the postpartum period should be discussed with women and weighed against those associated with other treatments and partially or untreated schizophrenia.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccines: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Ma, Shu-Juan; Liu, Xie; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ding, Hong; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A number of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines have been used for preventing Japanese encephalitis around the world. We here reviewed the immunogenicity and safety of the currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and other online databases up to March 25, 2014 for studies focusing on currently used JE vaccines in any language. The primary outcomes were the seroconversion rate against JEV and adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed for the primary outcome when available. A total of 51 articles were included. Studies were grouped on the basic types of vaccines. This systematic review led to 2 aspects of the conclusions. On one hand, all the currently available JE vaccines are safe and effective. On the other hand, the overall of JE vaccine evaluation is disorganized, the large variation in study designs, vaccine types, schedules, doses, population and few hand-to-hand trails, make direct comparisons difficult. In order to make a more evidence-based decision on optimizing the JE vaccine, it is warranted to standardize the JE vaccine evaluation research. PMID:25668666

  12. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-10-05

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  13. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fraga-Lamas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS.

  14. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. PMID:27782052

  16. A review of selected ground penetrating radar applications to mineral resource evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Since the commercialisation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the 1970s, the technology has been relegated to niche applications in the mining industry. Advances in radar technology, such as flexible collinear antennas and the integration of live differential GPS positioning, have spurred GPR's acceptance in recent years as a standard exploration method for a number of deposit types. Provided herein is an overview of commercialised GPR applications for surface mineral resource evaluations, covering examples of alluvial channels, nickel and bauxitic laterites, iron ore deposits, mineral sands, coal and kimberlites.

  17. Efficacy and safety of anakinra for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an update of the Oregon Drug Effectiveness Review Project

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Kylie; Chandiramani, Divya V; Hansen, Richard A.; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the general and comparative efficacy and safety of anakinra for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We searched MEDLINE?, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1980 to April 2009. We manually searched reference lists of pertinent review articles and explored the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research database. For efficacy we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anakinra with placebo or other biologics...

  18. Development of safety and regulatory requirements for Korean next generation reactor - Development of human factors design review guidelines (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model' and '26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and the characteristics of the KNGR design, and reviewing the reference documents of NURGE-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides at KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system design review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we updated the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design that published after 1994. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  20. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Rajić, A; Verloo, D

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare, and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimize biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritizing questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" [e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s), and outcome(s)]. Prioritization of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritizing systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Annete; Colosia, Ann; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed to collect and review information on the clinical efficacy and safety of treatments for relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with a meta-analysis, if possible. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English from January 1, 1997, to August 2, 2012. Conference proceedings, bibliographic reference lists of included articles, recent reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for phase II to IV studies displaying results. Studies were included if they reported on patients with R/R MCL who were ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Studies of patients with several non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes were only included if they reported MCL outcomes separately. We identified 59 studies in R/R MCL. Forty distinct treatment regimens were evaluated. Thirty studies included more than 15 patients with R/R MCL. Six studies were comparative (including 5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]); 53 were single-arm. There were no common treatments among the RCTs; therefore, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirty-one of 59 studies reported baseline data for patients with R/R MCL. Of the 30 studies with > 15 patients with R/R MCL, 30 reported overall response rate data, 14 reported progression-free survival (PFS), and 12 reported overall survival (OS). The small number of RCTs in R/R MCL precludes identifying an optimal treatment. Small sample sizes, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS, and limited information on patient characteristics made a comparison of results difficult. High-quality comparative studies of novel therapies that have the potential to demonstrate OS advantages in R/R MCL are needed.

  2. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Acree, J.R. [Westinghouse Environmental and Geotechnical Services, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA`s developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented.

  3. Safety and efficacy of the remote magnetic navigation for ablation of ventricular tachycardias-a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Akca (Ferdi); I. Önsesveren (Ibrahim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Remote magnetic navigation (RMN) is considered to be a solution for mapping and ablation of several arrhythmias. In this systematic review we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of RMN in ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Methods: The National Library of Medicine's

  4. Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2012-01-01

    A Technical Interchange meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.

  5. Suitability review of FMEA and reliability analysis for digital plant protection system and digital engineered safety features actuation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, M. C.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Ryu, K. C. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    Of the many items that should be checked out during a review stage of the licensing application for the I and C system of Ulchin 5 and 6 units, this report relates to a suitability review of the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (DESFAS). In the reliability analysis performed by the system designer, ABB-CE, fault tree analysis was used as the main methods along with Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). However, the present regulatory technique dose not allow the system reliability analysis and its results to be appropriately evaluated. Hence, this study was carried out focusing on the following four items ; development of general review items by which to check the validity of a reliability analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the reliability analysis for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS L development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of an FMEA, and the subsequent review of suitability of the FMEA for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; development of detailed review items by which to check the validity of a fault tree analysis, and the subsequent review of suitability of the fault tree for Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS ; an integrated review of the safety and reliability of the Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS based on the results of the various reviews above and also of a reliability comparison between the digital systems and the comparable analog systems, i.e., and analog Plant Protection System (PPS) and and analog Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). According to the review mentioned above, the reliability analysis of Ulchin 5 and 6 DPPS and DESFAS generally satisfies the review requirements. However, some shortcomings of the analysis were identified in our review such that the assumed test periods for several equipment were not properly incorporated in the analysis, and failures of some equipment were not included in the

  6. SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's safety report SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report summarises SKI's and SSI's joint review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) safety report SR-Can (SKB TR-06-09). SR-Can is the first assessment of post-closure safety for a KBS-3 spent nuclear fuel repository at the candidate sites Forsmark and Laxemar, respectively. The analysis builds on data from the initial stage of SKB's surface-based site investigations and on data from full-scale manufacturing and testing of buffer and copper canisters. SR-Can can be regarded as a preliminary version of the safety report that will be required in connection with SKB's planned licence application for a final repository in late 2009. The main purpose of the authorities' review is to provide feedback to SKB on their safety reporting as part of the pre-licensing consultation process. However, SR-Can is not part of the formal licensing process. In support of the authorities' review three international peer review teams were set up to make independent reviews of SR-Can from three perspectives, namely integration of site data, representation of the engineered barriers and safety assessment methodology, respectively. Further, several external experts and consultants have been engaged to review detailed technical and scientific issues in SR-Can. The municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn where SKB is conducting site investigations, as well NGOs involved in SKB's programme, have been invited to provide their views on SR-Can as input to the authorities' review. Finally, the authorities themselves, and with the help of consultants, have used independent models to reproduce part of SKB's calculations and to make complementary calculations. All supporting review documents are published in SKI's and SSI's report series. The main findings of the review are: -SKB's safety assessment methodology is overall in accordance with applicable regulations, but part of the methodology needs to be

  7. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  8. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  9. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  10. Nebulized formoterol: a review of clinical efficacy and safety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gross

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J Gross1, James F Donohue21Hines VA Hospital, Stritch Loyola School of Medicine, Hines, IL, USA; 2University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: A nebulized formulation of formoterol, Perforomist®, 20 μg/2 ml, has been available since 2007 for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We review the safety and efficacy data obtained during its development. In a dose-finding study, formoterol inhalation solution (FFIS was similar to the formoterol originator, Foradil® 12 μg DPI (FA in patients with COPD. In a 12-week efficacy study, FFIS manifested a rapid onset of action and FEV1 peak, AUC0–12, and trough levels similar to FA. No loss of efficacy, tachyphylaxis, was observed over 12 weeks of regular administration. In placebo-controlled studies in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium, the addition of FFIS significantly augmented bronchodilation over the 6-week treatment duration, signifying that nebulized formoterol can further improve lung function in patients who are receiving tiotropium without an observed increase in adverse reactions. The safety profile of FFIS during 12-week and 1-year studies revealed adverse events that were similar to those of placebo and FA. Cardiac rhythm studies, including frequent ECGs and Holter monitoring, did not indicate any increase in rate or rhythm disturbances greater than placebo or FA. We conclude that maintenance use of Perforomist® is appropriate for patients with COPD who require or prefer a nebulizer for management of their disease.Keywords: long-acting bronchodilator, β-agonist, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, Perforomist®, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  11. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney; Rodrigues, Hugo Marcus; de Melo, Amanda Gosson; Giraldo, Paulo César

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccines have been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ). We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR) of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00-3.60), swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79-3.53) and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17-2.68). For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42-3.43) and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0-3.44). Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  12. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katherine Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccine shave been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ. We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00–3.60, swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79–3.53 and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17–2.68. For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42–3.43 and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0–3.44. Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  13. Effectiveness, safety and costs of orphan drugs: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-06-24

    Several orphan drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) over the past two decades. However, the drugs are expensive, and in some instances, the evidence for effectiveness is not convincing at the time of regulatory approval. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of orphan drugs that have been granted marketing licenses in Europe, determine the annual costs of each drug, compare the costs of branded orphan drugs against their generic equivalents, and explore any relationships between orphan drug disease prevalence and annual costs. We searched the EMA database to identify orphan drugs granted marketing authorisation up to April 2014. Electronic searches were also conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar, to assess data on effectiveness, safety and annual costs. 2 reviewers independently evaluated the levels and quality of evidence, and extracted data. We identified 74 orphan drugs, with 54 (73%) demonstrating moderate quality of evidence. 85% showed significant clinical effects, but serious adverse events were reported in 86.5%. Their annual costs were between £726 and £378,000. There was a significant inverse relationship between disease prevalence and annual costs (p = 0.01); this was largely due to the influence of the ultra-orphan diseases. We could not determine whether the balance between effectiveness and safety influenced annual costs. For 10 drugs where generic alternatives were available, the branded drugs were 1.4 to 82,000 times more expensive. The available evidence suggests that there is inconsistency in the quality of evidence of approved orphan drugs, and there is no clear mechanism for determining their prices. In some cases, far cheaper generic agents appear to be available. A more robust, transparent and standard mechanism for determining annual costs is imperative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Do runners who suffer injuries have higher vertical ground reaction forces than those who remain injury-free? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp, Henk; Vrielink, Jelte W.; Bredeweg, Steef W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters have been implicated as a cause of several running-related injuries. However, no systematic review has examined this relationship. Aim We systematically reviewed evidence for a relation between VGRF parameters and specific running-related i

  15. Do runners who suffer injuries have higher vertical ground reaction forces than those who remain injury-free? : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp, Henk; Vrielink, Jelte W.; Bredeweg, Steef W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters have been implicated as a cause of several running-related injuries. However, no systematic review has examined this relationship. AIM: We systematically reviewed evidence for a relation between VGRF parameters and specific running-related

  16. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine: systematic review with an emphasis on resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nathan Ford1,2, Janice Lee1, Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer1, Alexandra Calmy1,31Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome reside in the developing world, in settings characterized by limited health budgets, critical shortages of doctors, limited laboratory monitoring, a substantial burden of HIV in children, and high rates of coinfection, in particular tuberculosis. Therefore, the extent to which new antiretrovirals will contribute to improvements in the management of HIV globally will depend to a large extent on their affordability, ease of use, low toxicity profile, availability as pediatric formulations, and compatibility with tuberculosis and other common drugs. We undertook a systematic review of the available evidence regarding drug interactions, and the efficacy and safety of rilpivirine (also known as TMC-278, and assessed our findings in view of the needs and constraints of resource-limited settings. The main pharmacokinetic interactions relevant to HIV management reported to date include reduced bioavailability of rilpivirine when coadministered with rifampicin, rifabutin or acid suppressing agents, and reduced bioavailability of ketoconazole. Potential recommendations for dose adjustment to compensate for these interactions have not been elaborated. Trials comparing rilpivirine and efavirenz found similar outcomes up to 96 weeks in intent-to-treat analysis; failure of rilpivirine was mainly virological, whereas failure among those exposed to efavirenz was mainly related to the occurrence of adverse events. Around half of the patients who fail rilpivirine develop non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations

  17. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  18. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  19. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  20. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  1. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  2. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  3. Review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation.......A review of occupational safety and health activities in Southern Africa (SADC region) which have been funded under the DANIDA/ILO framework agreement on technical cooperation....

  4. Difficulties Review Atlas Booster Airborne and Ground Support Systems. Book 2. General Information. Volume 3. Autopilot System Airborne Difficulties Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-08-15

    Explanatory Information For Use of Difficulties Review (DR) Data Tab Runs This information has been prepared to facilitate nse of the DR. It is not... hiit op t a a Ito. L- 0 - IV TtJ- ’S I, t, fi 4t w 2 ii:~ 94 5 - sN g a .. tt I Z a -=o. La ad Iwo ,a aus * W a L a aj a * a * a x 2 w a -t hi 1 4

  5. Review of Safety and Efficacy of Sleep Medicines in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Jennifer L; Ford, James; Conway, Erin L; Kurtzhalts, Kari E; Gee, Megan E; Vollmer, Krista A; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2016-11-01

    Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population. Search terms included medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for insomnia: benzodiazepines (triazolam, estazolam, temazepam, flurazepam, and quazepam), nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists (non-BzRAs; zaleplon, zolpidem, and eszopiclone), suvorexant, ramelteon, doxepin and trazodone. Off-label drugs such as other antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, gabapentin, pramipexole, tiagabine, valerian, and melatonin were also included. Cognitive behavioral therapy and sleep hygiene are considered initial therapy for insomnia. Benzodiazepines are discouraged in the geriatric population, especially for long-term use. Although non-BzRAs have improved safety profiles compared with benzodiazepines, their side effects include dementia, serious injury, and fractures, which should limit their use. Ramelteon has a minimal adverse effect profile and is effective for sleep-onset latency and increased total sleep time, making it a valuable first-line option. Although the data on suvorexant are limited, this drug improves sleep maintenance and has mild adverse effects, including somnolence; residual daytime sedation has been reported, however. Sedating low-dose antidepressants should only be used for insomnia when the patient has comorbid depression. Antipsychotic agents, pramipexole, and tiagabine have all been used for insomnia, but none has been extensively studied in an older population, and all have considerable

  6. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in treatment of anismus: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameh Hany Emile; Hossam Ayman Elfeki; Hosam Ghazy Elbanna; Mohamed Youssef; Waleed Thabet; Tito M Abd El-Hamed; Basem Said; Ahmed Lotfy

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A(BTX-A) in the management of patients with anismus. METHODS: An organized search of published literature was conducted using electronic databases including: Pub Med/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials, also an internet-based search using "Google Scholar" service was conducted. Both comparative and observational studies were included. We excluded irrelevant articles, editorials, case reports, reviews, and meta-analyses. The studies that followed the patients less than 6 mo were excluded. Variables collected were demographic data of the patients, technique of BTX-A injection and number of sessions, short-term and longterm clinical improvement, post-injection changes in electromyography(EMG), defecography, manometry, and balloon expulsion test, and complications recorded after BTX-A injection.RESULTS: Seven studies comprising 189 patients were included in the review. The median age of the patients was 41.2 years and female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1. The median dose of BTX-A injected per procedure was 100 IU(range, 20-100 IU). Lateral injection was done in five trails and combined lateral and posterior injections in two trials. Three studies used endorectal ultrasonographyguided technique, one study used EMG-guided technique,whereas the remaining three studies used manual palpation with the index finger. The median percentage of patients who reported initial improvement of symptoms was 77.4%(range 37.5%-86.7%), this percentage declined to a median of 46%(range 25%-100%) at 4 mo after injection of BTX-A. Rates of improvement evaluated by balloon expulsion test, EMG, and defecography ranged between(37.5%-80%),(54%-86.7%), and(25%-86.6%), respectively. Fourteen(7.4%) patients developed complications after injection of BTX-A. Complication rates across the studies ranged from 0% to 22.6%. CONCLUSION: Initial satisfactory improvement of symptoms after BTX-A injection remarkably

  7. Endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review of safety and effectiveness compared to esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Darren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several new endoscopic treatments have been used to treat patients with Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia. This systematic review aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these treatments compared with esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify studies of endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus or early stage esophageal cancer. Information from the selected studies was extracted by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed and information was tabulated to identify trends or patterns. Results were pooled across studies for each outcome. Safety (occurrence of adverse events and effectiveness (complete eradication of dysplasia were compared across different treatments. Results The 101 studies that met the selection criteria included 8 endoscopic techniques and esophagectomy; only 12 were comparative studies. The quality of evidence was generally low. Methods and outcomes were inconsistently reported. Protocols, outcomes measured, follow-up times and numbers of treatment sessions varied, making it difficult to calculate pooled estimates. The surgical mortality rate was 1.2%, compared to 0.04% in 2831 patients treated endoscopically (1 death. Adverse events were more severe and frequent with esophagectomy, and included anastomotic leaks (9.4%, wound infections (4.1% and pulmonary complications (4.1%. Four patients (0.1% treated endoscopically experienced bleeding requiring transfusions. The stricture rate with esophagectomy (5.3% was lower than with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (18.5%, but higher than aminolevulinic acid (ALA 60 mg/kg PDT (1.4%. Dysphagia and odynophagia varied in frequency across modalities, with the highest rates reported for multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC. Photosensitivity, an adverse event that occurs only with photodynamic therapy, was experienced by 26.4% of patients who received porfimer sodium. Some

  8. Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J.; O'Grady, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There appears to be very little in the research literature on the safety of thrust joint manipulation (TJM) when applied to the thoracic spine. Purpose: To retrospectively analyze all available documented case reports in the literature describing patients who had experienced severe adverse events (AE) after receiving TJM to their thoracic spine. Data Sources: Case reports published in peer reviewed journals were searched in Medline (using Ovid Technologies, Inc.), Science Direct, Web of Science, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), Index of Chiropractic literature, AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine Database), PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) from January 1950 to February 2015. Study Selection: Case reports were included if they: (1) were peer-reviewed; (2) were published between 1950 and 2015; (3) provided case reports or case series; and (4) had TJM as an intervention. Articles were excluded if: (1) the AE occurred without TJM (e.g. spontaneous); (2) the article was a systematic or literature review; or (3) it was written in a language other than English or Spanish. Data Extraction: Data extracted from each case report included: gender; age; who performed the TJM and why; presence of contraindications; the number of manipulation interventions performed; initial symptoms experienced after the TJM; as well as type of severe AE that resulted. Results: Ten cases, reported in 7 case reports, were reviewed. Cases involved females (8) more than males (2), with mean age being 43.5 years (SD=18.73, Range = 17 -71). The most frequent AE reported was injury (mechanical or vascular) to the spinal cord (7/10), with pneumothorax and hematothorax (2/10) and CSF leak secondary to dural sleeve injury (1/10). Limitations: There were only a small number of case reports published in the literature and there may have been discrepancies between what was reported and what actually occurred, since physicians dealing with the

  9. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  10. Hypofractionated radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic alternatives can improve the safety and efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. To assess whether hypofractionated radiation therapy results in better safety and efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Systematic review of the literature through searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, CRD, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan, collecting indicators of safety and efficacy. We included 2 systematic reviews and a clinical trial. In terms of efficacy, there is considerable heterogeneity among the studies, and no conclusive results were found concerning the superiority of the hypofractionated option over the normal fractionated option. In terms of safety, there were no significant differences in the onset of acute genitourinary complications between the 2 treatments. However, one of the reviews found more acute gastrointestinal complications in patients treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy. There were no significant differences in long-term complications based on the type of radiation therapy used, although the studies did have limitations. To date, there are no conclusive results that show that hypofractionated radiation therapy is more effective or safer than normal fractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Teamwork, communication and safety climate: a systematic review of interventions to improve surgical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Greg D; Shannon, Evan M; Dawes, Aaron J; Rollo, Johnathon C; Nguyen, David K; Russell, Marcia M; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda A

    2015-07-01

    To define the target domains of culture-improvement interventions, to assess the impact of these interventions on surgical culture and to determine whether culture improvements lead to better patient outcomes and improved healthcare efficiency. Healthcare systems are investing considerable resources in improving workplace culture. It remains unclear whether these interventions, when aimed at surgical care, are successful and whether they are associated with changes in patient outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2015. We included studies on interventions that aimed to improve surgical culture, defined as the interpersonal, social and organisational factors that affect the healthcare environment and patient care. The quality of studies was assessed using an adapted tool to focus the review on higher-quality studies. Due to study heterogeneity, findings were narratively reviewed. The 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria (4 randomised trials and 10 moderate-quality observational studies) reported on interventions that targeted three domains of culture: teamwork (n=28), communication (n=26) and safety climate (n=19); several targeted more than one domain. All moderate-quality studies showed improvements in at least one of these domains. Two studies also demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes, such as reduced postoperative complications and even reduced postoperative mortality (absolute risk reduction 1.7%). Two studies reported improvements in healthcare efficiency, including fewer operating room delays. These findings were supported by similar results from low-quality studies. The literature provides promising evidence for various strategies to improve surgical culture, although these approaches differ in terms of the interventions employed as well as the techniques used to measure culture. Nevertheless, culture improvement appears to be associated with other positive effects, including

  12. Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in food safety evaluation and control: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Ma, Ji; Pu, Hongbin; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a critical public concern, and has drawn great attention in society. Consequently, developments of rapid, robust, and accurate methods and techniques for food safety evaluation and control are required. As a nondestructive and convenient tool, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely shown to be a promising technique for food safety inspection and control due to its huge advantages of speed, noninvasive measurement, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation requirement. This review presents the fundamentals of NIRS and focuses on recent advances in its applications, during the last 10 years of food safety control, in meat, fish and fishery products, edible oils, milk and dairy products, grains and grain products, fruits and vegetables, and others. Based upon these applications, it can be demonstrated that NIRS, combined with chemometric methods, is a powerful tool for food safety surveillance and for the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems. Some disadvantages that need to be solved or investigated with regard to the further development of NIRS are also discussed.

  13. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community.Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized.Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks.Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied.   The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks.Key words: labour risk; forestry; accident rates; preventive measures; entrepreneurial risk management.

  14. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  15. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  16. Omalizumab for treating chronic spontaneous urticaria: an expert review on efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the recurrence of itchy hives and/or angioedema for greater than six weeks, with no known external trigger. Omalizumab, a humanized, recombinant, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, is the only approved add-on therapy for H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. Areas covered: The objective of this article is to discuss the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of omalizumab for the treatment of CSU. The review also summarizes efficacy and safety data from proof-of-concept, phase II (X-CUISITE, MYSTIQUE), and pivotal phase III omalizumab studies (ASTERIA I, ASTERIA II, and GLACIAL). Expert opinion: Omalizumab is a clinically effective and safe biological therapy for treating H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. It significantly reduces CSU symptoms (hives, itch and angioedema), and improves patient health-related quality of life. While omalizumab is already integral to the treatment of antihistamine refractory CSU, widespread use will depend on legal and economic factors, as well as improvements in the early and accurate diagnosis of CSU patients who would benefit from treatment.

  17. Safety of sumatriptan in pregnancy: a review of the data so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of migraine in women during their reproductive years means that new drug treatments for migraine, such as the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists (the 'triptans'), are likely to be widely used by women of childbearing potential. Scrutiny of these agents in an effort to detect any signal of teratogenicity is thus important. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted to identify information regarding the safety of sumatriptan during pregnancy. This agent was chosen to be investigated because it has been available for the longest and is the most widely used of the triptan class. Information was obtained regarding the impact of migraine on pregnancy outcome, and data on sumatriptan use in pregnancy were obtained from animal studies, preclinical drug trials, postmarketing surveillance efforts, prospective pregnancy registries, national birth registries and teratogen information services. Synthesis of information from these sources is sufficient to rule out a large increase in birth defects from sumatriptan use during pregnancy and is reassuring for cases where inadvertent exposure to sumatriptan during pregnancy has occurred. However, current information is not sufficient to rule out small increases in the risk for birth defects. For this reason, caution should be exercised in making a positive recommendation for the use of sumatriptan during pregnancy.

  18. Towards a review of computational fluid dynamic models for safety assessment of vapour-cloud explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is the most promising method for safety assessment of hazardous fluid releases around oil and gas installations. By resolving several fluctuating quantities of such flows, these models have the potential to become a widely used decision tool for rapid assessment of explosion overpressures resulting from spilled hydrocarbons. The present paper reviews the current state of the art in vapour cloud or gas explosion modelling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. Description of six recognisable CFD-based explosion codes currently used by industry and research communities in explosion hazard analysis will be presented. Appraisal of geometry or sub-grid modelling using porosity/distributed resistances (PDRs) will be made. This paper also explains how the unstructured adaptive gridding approach can become a viable alternative for better-resolved predictions of gas or vapour cloud explosions in complex geometries. A brief but comprehensive analysis of combustion and turbulence models used within the codes including their limitations will be presented. The paper concludes by suggesting key areas for further work. (orig.)

  19. Safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Li, Bin; Xu, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Summary Huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon at clinical presentation, and the surgical outcomes of such tumors are poor. This systematic review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge HCC. We performed a search on Medline and PubMed databases for all relevant studies published prior to December 2009. After exclusions, 21 studies remained for appraisal and data extraction. All studies were classified as level-4 evidence. The median overall perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 29.2% (range: 13.6–72%) and 3.5% (range: 0–18.2%), respectively. The overall median survival since the partial hepatectomy was 20.7 months (range: 10.1–32 months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year survival of 60.7% (range: 41–72.2%), 34% (range: 0–60.3%) and 28.6% (range: 0–54%), respectively. The median disease-free survival since the partial hepatectomy was 11.3 months (range: 5.5–32months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates of 48.7% (range: 32–65.4%), 27.5% (range: 14.1–49%) and 20.7% (range: 9.5–43%), respectively. Partial hepatectomy can be performed safely and is associated with long-term survival in a subset of patients with huge HCC, but the evidence of benefit is currently weak. PMID:21358616

  20. Efficacy and safety of topical herbal medicine treatment on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lei; Huang, He-Long; Wang, Wan-Chun; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical treatment with natural herbal medicines on recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Nine electronic databases were searched to identify the randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials that reported the potential effect of natural herbal medicines on RAS published in Chinese or English. Ulcer size and duration, and remission of pain were assessed as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systemic Review of Interventions and Rev Man software. Thirteen trials with a total of 1,515 patients were included in the present analysis, which showed that topical treatment with natural herbal medicines seemed to benefit RAS patients by reducing ulcer size, shortening ulcer duration, and relieving pain without severe side effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence of the efficacy of topically applied natural herbal medicines with regards to improved RAS outcome measures and fewer side effects. However, given the limitations of this study, the evidence remains insufficient. Well-designed and high-quality randomized controlled trials are required for further exploration.

  1. Safety and outcomes of cochlear implantation in the elderly:A review of recent literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zao Yang; Maura Cosetti

    2016-01-01

    Global demographic changes related to longevity are leading to increasing numbers of the elderly, for whom hearing loss is a significant cause of morbidity and disability. Once met with reticence, severely hearing impaired older adults are increasingly being considered for cochlear implantation (CI). Significant data indicate that CI in the elderly population is safe, well-tolerated, and effective. Risks from CI surgery and anesthesia are low and generally comparable to rates in other age groups. Outcomes studies regarding CI in older adults have shown excellent improvements to speech perception, quality of life, and even cognition. Overall, currently available data suggests that advanced age should not, in itself, be considered a barrier to implantation. This review paper will highlight selected articles from recent medical literature regarding the safety and efficacy of CI in the elderly population. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  2. Public health safety and environment in inadequate hospital and healthcare settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma, D

    2017-03-01

    Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of the quality of silage on animal health and food safety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driehuis, F; Oude Elferink, S J

    2000-10-01

    This paper reviews the microbiological aspects of forage preserved by ensilage. The main principles of preservation by ensilage are a rapid achievement of a low pH by lactic acid fermentation and the maintenance of anaerobic conditions. The silage microflora consists of beneficial micro-organisms, i.e. the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the silage fermentation process, and a number of harmful micro-organisms that are involved in anaerobic or aerobic spoilage processes. Micro-organisms that can cause anaerobic spoilage are enterobacteria and clostridia. Clostridium tyrobutyricum is of particular importance because of its ability to use lactic acid as a substrate. Silage-derived spores of C. tyrobutyricum can cause problems in cheese making. Aerobic spoilage of silage is associated with penetration of oxygen into the silage during storage or feeding. Lactate-oxidizing yeasts are generally responsible for the initiation of aerobic spoilage. The secondary aerobic spoilage flora consists of moulds, bacilli, listeria, and enterobacteria. Mycotoxin-producing moulds, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes in aerobically deteriorated silage form a serious risk to the quality and safety of milk and to animal health.

  4. Efficacy and safety of local anaesthetics for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Dong Xia; You-Feng Han; Liu-Hua Zhou; Yun Chen; Yu-Tian Dai

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of local anaesthetics for premature ejaculation (PE),a systematic review of the literature was performed using the Cochrane Library,PUBMED and EMBASE.We screened and retrieved the randomized controlled trials on the treatment of PE with local anaesthetics.End points included intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT),patient-reported outcome assessments and adverse events.Meta-analyses were conducted with Stata 11.0.In total,seven publications involving 566 patients with local anaesthetics and 388 with placebos strictly met our eligibility criteria.Meta-analyses showed that after the patients were treated with the local anaesthetics,the value of the standardized mean difference of the changes in IELT was 5.02 (95% CI:3.03-7.00).A higher rate of adverse events occurred compared with placebos (odds ratio:3.30,95% CI:1.71-6.36),but these events were restricted to local side effects.In addition,significantly greater improvement was observed in patient-reported outcomes.In summary,local anaesthetics can prolong IELT and improve ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction.

  5. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  6. Optical biosensors for food quality and safety assurance-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Sharma, Rajiv; Kumar, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    Food quality and safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food serves as a growth medium for microorganisms that can be pathogenic or cause food spoilage. Therefore, it is imperative to have stringent laws and standards for the preparation, packaging and transportation of food. The conventional methods for detection of food contamination based on culturing, colony counting, chromatography and immunoassay are tedious and time consuming while biosensors have overcome some of these disadvantages. There is growing interest in biosensors due to high specificity, convenience and quick response. Optical biosensors show greater potential for the detection of pathogens, pesticide and drug residues, hygiene monitoring, heavy metals and other toxic substances in the food to check whether it is safe for consumption or not. This review focuses on optical biosensors, the recent developments in the associated instrumentation with emphasis on fiber optic and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors for detecting a range of analytes in food samples, the major advantages and challenges associated with optical biosensors. It also briefly covers the different methods employed for the immobilization of bio-molecules used in developing biosensors.

  7. Hospital board oversight of quality and patient safety: a narrative review and synthesis of recent empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross; Mannion, Russell; Freeman, Tim; Davies, Huw T O

    2013-12-01

    Recurring problems with patient safety have led to a growing interest in helping hospitals' governing bodies provide more effective oversight of the quality and safety of their services. National directives and initiatives emphasize the importance of action by boards, but the empirical basis for informing effective hospital board oversight has yet to receive full and careful review. This article presents a narrative review of empirical research to inform the debate about hospital boards' oversight of quality and patient safety. A systematic and comprehensive search identified 122 papers for detailed review. Much of the empirical work appeared in the last ten years, is from the United States, and employs cross-sectional survey methods. Recent empirical studies linking board composition and processes with patient outcomes have found clear differences between high- and low-performing hospitals, highlighting the importance of strong and committed leadership that prioritizes quality and safety and sets clear and measurable goals for improvement. Effective oversight is also associated with well-informed and skilled board members. External factors (such as regulatory regimes and the publication of performance data) might also have a role in influencing boards, but detailed empirical work on these is scant. Health policy debates recognize the important role of hospital boards in overseeing patient quality and safety, and a growing body of empirical research has sought to elucidate that role. This review finds a number of areas of guidance that have some empirical support, but it also exposes the relatively inchoate nature of the field. Greater theoretical and methodological development is required if we are to secure more evidence-informed governance systems and practices that can contribute to safer care. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  8. Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruzzone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The world market of mobile robotics is expected to increase substantially in the next 20 yr, surpassing the market of industrial robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security, surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture. The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments is generally complex, particularly when they are required to move on uneven or soft terrains, or to climb obstacles. This paper sets out to analyse the state-of-the-art of locomotion mechanisms for ground mobile robots, focussing on solutions for unstructured environments, in order to help designers to select the optimal solution for specific operating requirements. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled – W, tracked – T and legged – L and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by combining these main locomotion systems are discussed with reference to maximum speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains, energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness. The current and future trends of mobile robotics are also outlined.

  9. Processes and mechanisms of multi-collapse of loess roads in seasonally frozen ground regions:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoYu Li; Wei Ma; Fei Wang; YanHu Mu; YunCheng Mao; Xin Hou; Hui Bing

    2015-01-01

    Usually, the collapsible loess widely distributed across the world can serve as a type of foundation soil that meets its strength requirement after dense compaction and elimination of collapsibility. However, many problems such as cracks and differential settlement still occur in loess roads in the seasonally frozen ground regions after several years of op-eration. Many studies have demonstrated that these secondary or multiple collapses primarily result from the repeated freezing-thawing, wetting-drying, and salinization-desalinization cycles. Therefore, we conducted a research program to (1) monitor the in-situ ground temperatures and water content in certain loess roads to understand their changes, (2) study the effects of freezing-thawing, wetting-drying, and salinization-desalinization cycles on geotechnical properties and mi-cro-fabrics of compacted loess in the laboratory, and (3) develop mitigative measures and examine their engineered ef-fectiveness,i.e., their thermal insulating and water-proofing effects in field and laboratory tests. Our results and advances are reviewed and some further research needs are proposed. These findings more clearly explain the processes and mechanisms of secondary and multiple collapse of loess roads. We also offer references for further study of the weakening mechanisms of similar structural soils.

  10. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where...

  11. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  12. Efficacy and safety of innovator versus generic drugs in patients with epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ripple; Scholle, Jennifer M; Phung, Olivia P; Baker, Erika L; Baker, William L; Ashaye, Ajibade; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I; White, C Michael

    2012-04-01

    Generic antiepileptic drugs achieve blood concentrations similar to those of innovator drugs in healthy volunteers, but their comparative effectiveness has not been well evaluated. Thus, we assessed the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of innovator versus generic antiepileptic drugs. We searched the MEDLINE database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science for studies that evaluated innovator and generic antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy and reported data on prespecified outcomes. We extracted data on study design, interventions, quality criteria, study population, baseline characteristics, and outcomes. Compared with initiation of innovator antiepileptic drugs, initiation of generic antiepileptic drugs did not significantly alter seizure occurrence (relative risk [RR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.18; strength of evidence: low) or frequency (standardized mean difference 0.03, 95% CI -0.08-0.14; strength of evidence: low), withdrawals due to lack of efficacy (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.41-2.54; strength of evidence: low) or adverse events (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.28-2.20; strength of evidence: low), pharmacokinetic concentrations (maximum, minimum, or area under the curve [strength of evidence: low]), or a myriad of adverse events (strength of evidence: low or insufficient) in clinical trials. In qualitatively evaluated observational studies, switching between forms of antiepileptic drug (innovator to generic, generic to generic) may increase the risk of hospitalization (strength of evidence: low), hospital stay duration (strength of evidence: low), and a composite end point of medical service utilization (strength of evidence: insufficient) but may not increase outpatient service utilization (strength of evidence: low). Data are limited predominantly to carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid. Clinical trials are limited by small sample size, short-term nature, and lack of

  13. Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, S.M.

    1977-02-01

    In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it was necessary to continuously review the Phase I recommended performance specification in relation to ongoing design/test activities. This document contains the results of analyses of the Phase I specifications. The RSV is expected to satisfy all of the producibility and safety related specifications, i.e., handling and stability systems, crashworthiness, occupant protection, pedestrian/cyclist protection, etc.

  14. The regulatory review of safety-related information regarding underground radioactive waste disposal in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Williams, C.R. [Environment Agency of England and Wales, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This paper builds upon earlier related contributions to the ESREL/PSAM Conference series and elsewhere, to outline the nature of a safety case based upon probabilistic risk analysis and the options for its assessment by a regulatory authority. Much has been published since the late 1970`s concerning the methods and tools used to perform technical analyses of radiological performance for any single party in a democratic society. However, little attention seems to have been given in the literature to the way in which such analyses, undertaken independently by a regulator, are best used to probe the safety case and its underlying arguments in a coherent and traceable manner. Recent experience from the review of preliminary safety-related information for a proposed deep repository in England indicates that further consideration should be given to the regulatory methodology, to possible difficulties due to oversimplified analyses, and to careful preparation for Public Hearings. (author).

  15. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  16. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  17. Usability and Safety in Electronic Medical Records Interface Design: A Review of Recent Literature and Guideline Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Kaber, David B; Swangnetr, Manida

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) review electronic medical record (EMR) and related electronic health record (EHR) interface usability issues, (b) review how EMRs have been evaluated with safety analysis techniques along with any hazard recognition, and (c) formulate design guidelines and a concept for enhanced EMR interfaces with a focus on diagnosis and documentation processes. A major impact of information technology in health care has been the introduction of EMRs. Although numerous studies indicate use of EMRs to increase health care quality, there remain concerns with usability issues and safety. A literature search was conducted using Compendex, PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases to find EMR research published since 2000. Inclusion criteria included relevant English-language papers with subsets of keywords and any studies (manually) identified with a focus on EMR usability. Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results revealed EMR and EHR usability problems to include violations of natural dialog, control consistency, effective use of language, effective information presentation, and customization principles as well as a lack of error prevention, minimization of cognitive load, and feedback. Studies focusing on EMR system safety made no objective assessments and applied only inductive reasoning methods for hazard recognition. On the basis of the identified usability problems and structure of safety analysis techniques, we provide EMR design guidelines and a design concept focused on the diagnosis process and documentation. The design guidelines and new interface concept can be used for prototyping and testing enhanced EMRs. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  19. INFLUENZA AND PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION IN HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF EFFICACY, EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To asses flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in scientific literature about flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 23 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI = 6.2- 61% for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI = 23.2 – 63.3 % and 39.6 % (95% CI = 26%- 54.1% for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI = 19.7-51.2% for H1N1, 23% (95% CI = 16.6-31.5% for H3N2, 29% (95% CI = 21.3- 37% for B. Conclusion Despite low rate of response, flu and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines.

  20. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. Copyright © 2016

  1. Systematic review on safety and drug interaction of herbal therapy in hyperlipidemia: a guide for internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Saeed; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-09-14

    Because of reporting high side effects related to biosynthetic drugs, recent attention has been paid to the use of herbs instead of chemical drugs to balance serum lipids. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines and also to assess drug interaction in herbal therapy in treating hyperlipidemia. The international research databases including MEDLINE; Google scholar, Web of Science SciVerse Scopus (SCOPUS); EBSCO Academic Search; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched from their respective inceptions up to September 2014 with the search terms of "hyperlipidemia", "herbal medicine", "medicine traditional", "extract plant", "Traditional Medicine" and "Chinese Herbal Medicine" without narrowing or limiting search elements. A total of 85 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies were finally assessed on human subjects. A notable number of herbal drugs that are commonly used as an anti-hyperlipidemia agent may be interacted with a variety of biosynthetic drugs. In this regard, the most common reported herb-drug reactions were related to anticoagulants, antidepressants, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, and/or even antihypertension and anti-lipidemic drugs. Also, a considerable number of anti-lipidemic drugs of plants origin may be accompanied with metabolic disturbances and serious complications within pregnancy and breast feeding. The main fundamental principles for administration of these drugs include physicians' complete awareness of the effects and interactions of these drugs, educating people not taking these drugs arbitrarily, and closely monitoring the verification and distribution of the drugs in the society.

  2. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks.

  3. Efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao Hua; Guan, Yang; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

    2014-06-01

    The current treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is primarily based on surgical excision using laser, a loop electrosurgical procedure, or a cold knife technique. Unfortunately, these treatments often lead to obstetrical problems during the subsequent pregnancy, particularly in young women. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which uses a topical or intravenous photosensitizer (PS) activated by a light source to ablate abnormal tissue, offers a minimally invasive alternative. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess the effectiveness and safety of PDT in the treatment of CIN. Following Cochrane guidelines, a comprehensive systematic review of all clinical studies and reports examining the use of PDT for CIN was conducted. Study quality was assessed using the Oxford Levels of Evidence Scale. The 14 studies included two randomized control trials (RCTs), one case-control study, and 11 case series. Among the 506 patients studied, 472 were included to study the effectiveness of PDT on CIN and 10 were lost to follow-up. An assessment of clinical effectiveness included the response of the lesion to treatment (may include lesion recurrence) reported by all 14 studies. The complete response rate (CRR) of PDT on CIN ranged from 0% to 100%. HPV eradication rate (HER) was reported in seven studies, with rates ranging from 53.4% to 80.0%. PDT is a safe and tolerable treatment for CIN. Evidence regarding the efficacy of PDT for CIN is conflicting, which may, in part, be explained by the limited number of controlled comparative clinical trials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 75 FR 42818 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology... Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request: Approval of a new information collection. OMB... separate OMB approval for the collection of the remaining safety culture surveys because of changes to the...

  5. Impact of Safety-Related Regulatory Action on Clinical Practice A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Vries, Jonie T. N.; van der Elst, Menno E.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: After market approval, new serious safety issues are regularly identified for drugs that lead to regulatory action to inform healthcare professionals. However, the effectiveness of these safety-related regulatory actions is under question. We currently lack a comprehensive overview of th

  6. Safety of Patient Mobilization and Rehabilitation in the Intensive Care Unit. Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, Peter; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Chandra, Saurabh; Kundt, Firuzan Sari; Huang, Minxuan; Fischill, Magdalena; Needham, Dale M

    2017-05-01

    Early mobilization and rehabilitation of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may improve physical function, and reduce the duration of delirium, mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. However, safety concerns are an important barrier to widespread implementation. To synthesize safety data regarding patient mobilization and rehabilitation in the ICU, including falls, removal of endotracheal tubes, removal or dysfunction of intravascular catheters, removal of other catheters/tubes, cardiac arrest, hemodynamic changes, and desaturation. Systematic literature review, including searches of five databases. Eligible studies evaluated patients who received mobilization-related interventions in the ICU. Exclusion criteria included: (1) case series with fewer than 10 patients; (2) majority of patients under 18 years of age; and (3) data not reported to permit calculation of incidence of safety events. Number of patients, mobilization/rehabilitation sessions, potential safety events, and events with negative consequences (e.g., requiring intervention or additional therapy). Heterogeneity was assessed by I(2) statistics, and bias assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane risk of bias assessment. The literature search identified 20,660 titles. There were 48 eligible publications evaluating 7,546 patients, with 583 potential safety events occurring in 22,351 mobilization/rehabilitation sessions. There was a total of 583 (2.6%) potential safety events with heterogeneity in the definitions for these events. For the safety event types that could be meta-analyzed, pooled incidences per 1,000 mobilization/rehabilitation sessions (95% confidence interval), were: hemodynamic changes, 3.8 (1.3-11.4), and desaturation, 1.9 (0.9-4.3). A total of 24 studies of 3,404 patients reported on any consequences of potential safety events (e.g., needing to increase dose of vasopressor due to mobility-related hypotension), with a frequency of 0.6% in 14,398 mobilization

  7. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  8. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  9. Safety design for enclosed ground flare at gas transportation station%封闭式地面火炬在天然气长输管道站场中的安全设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of enclosed ground flare are introduced in this paper along with the risks in accidents. The design for safety facilities of it are discussed as well.%介绍了封闭式地面火炬的特点、事故状态下可能存在的风险,并针对封闭式地面火炬的主要安全设施设计进行了分析和探讨.

  10. Opinions on SKB's Safety Assessments SR 97 and SFL 3-5. A Review by SKI Consultants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has presented their safety assessment 'Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, SR 97 - Post-closure safety'. SKB's report is part of the documentation that has been required by the Government before the start of site investigations. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is reviewing SR 97 according to earlier Government decisions. In its review work SKI has asked several consultants, that recently have been performing research work for SKI, to give their opinions on SR 97. SKI and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) have used these reports from the consultants as one complementary basis for the formulation of the SKI/SSI review report. This is a compilation of the reports from the different consultants, and therefore the different contributions vary in length, style and language. Included are also two consultant reports, giving comments on SKB's preliminary safety assessment for SFL 3-5 (deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste). The 17 contributions have all been separately indexed.

  11. Peer review of the National Transportation Safety Board structural analysis of the I-35W bridge collapse.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinn, Kenneth West; Redmond, James Michael; Wellman, Gerald William

    2008-10-01

    The Engineering Sciences Center at Sandia National Laboratories provided an independent peer review of the structural analysis supporting the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the August 1, 2007 collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis. The purpose of the review was to provide an impartial critique of the analysis approach, assumptions, solution techniques, and conclusions. Subsequent to reviewing numerous supporting documents, a SNL team of staff and management visited NTSB to participate in analysis briefings, discussions with investigators, and examination of critical elements of the bridge wreckage. This report summarizes the opinion of the review team that the NTSB analysis effort was appropriate and provides compelling supporting evidence for the NTSB probable cause conclusion.

  12. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  13. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiene Helmut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L extracts (VAE, mistletoe and isolated mistletoe lectins (ML have immunostimulating properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are frequently used in complementary cancer treatment, mainly to improve quality of life, but partly also to influence tumour growth, especially by injecting VAE locally and in high dosage. The question is raised whether these higher dosages can induce any harm or immunosuppressive effects. Methods Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions. Results 69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS, fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases. Conclusions Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.

  14. The safety of isotretinoin in patients with lupus nephritis: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziołek, Bartosz; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Stańkowska, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2017-03-01

    Oral isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoinc acid) is a derivative of vitamin A and belongs to the first generation of retinoids, which act as synthetic isomers of retinoic acid (RA). It is a very effective agent in a treatment of acne vulgaris; however, multiple side effects related to therapy with retinoids preclude the use of isotretinoin in less severe acne vulgaris. A significant limitation for the administration of isotretinoin appears in case of concomitant kidney disease with a special attention regarding the safety of the agent in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). The aim of this review is an assessment of the safety of isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris in patients with LN. We searched both MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, as well as several dermatological textbooks, to present all limitations and benefits of therapy with isotretinoin or its isomer (ATRA) for patients with kidney diseases. Several mouse models of SLE revealed a significant modulatory influence of retinoids on autoimmune injury of the glomerular unit. Retinoids were demonstrated to affect mononuclear cell infiltrations of renal tissue allowing for a reduction in the overall glomerular damage. Presumptively, they can affect a synthesis of autoantibodies significantly limiting their deposition in the glomerular unit. Moreover, retinoids were also shown to affect the synthesis of different cytokines specific both for lymphocytes Th1 (IL-2, IL-12, INFγ) ant Th2 (IL-4, IL-10). The influence of retinoids on the course of LN seems to be more multidimensional than only restricted to immune aspects and these synthetic RA isomers manifest also antiproteinuric activity in comparable extent to steroidal agents. The agents were demonstrated to counteract a loss of podocytes after the injury of the glomerular unit. They can promote a differentiation of renal progenitor cells (RPCs) within the Bowman capsule into mature podocytes leading to regeneration of podocyte number. Additionally, retinoids can

  15. Safety, Efficacy, and Bioavailability of Fixed-Dose Combinations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Thangavel Mahalingam; Jayram, Jayasutha; Meghana Cheekireddy, Vishnu; Himaja, Dasari; Dharma Teja, Yalamanchili; Narayanasamy, Damodharan

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease characterized by insulin resistance. As time progresses, monotherapy often does not provide effective glycemic control, generating the need for an add-on therapy. Hence, multiple oral hypoglycemic agents formulated as a single-dose form called fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) play an essential role in glycemic control. The purpose of this systematic review is to appraise the recently published evidence on the safety, efficacy, and bioavailability of FDCs. A comprehensive literature search of PUBMED, Scopus, ScienceDirect.com, ProQuest, SpringerLink, clintrials.gov, Embase, and EBSCO using the key words FDCs, combination therapy, T2DM management, and add-on therapy was conducted. Studies on the safety profile/tolerability, efficacy, and bioavailability of various FDCs of oral hypoglycemic agents were preferred. The systematic review of all the publications suggests that FDCs of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) significantly reduce HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values, thereby efficiently reducing hyperglycemia in patients in whom monotherapy fails. FDCs are the bioequivalent of the concomitant drugs administered as individual components. Improved adherence to FDCs and the absence of serious adverse drug reactions compared with dual therapy play an important role in decreasing the incidence of hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM. From this updated review, it was found that metformin was the most widely used component of FDCs with other OHAs. Studies on the safety and efficacy of newly approved OHAs such as sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors were limited. An increasing number of randomized trials on the safety and efficacy of newly emerging FDCs suggests that they would be better treatment options for T2DM patients.

  16. Vaccines against human papillomavirus in low and middle income countries: a review of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Mirembe, Florence M; Banura, Cecily

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of human papillomavirus vaccines in Low and Middle income countries (LMIC). The review aims to summarize the current status from published HPV vaccine safety, immunogenicity and efficacy studies in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and HINARI) were searched for peer reviewed English language articles on HPV vaccination in LMIC that have so far been published from 1st January 2006 up to 30th January 2015. Eligible studies were included if they had used the bivalent (bHPV) or quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccines in a LMIC and investigated safety, immunogenicity and/or efficacy. The main findings were extracted and summarized. A total of fourteen HPV vaccine studies assessing safety, Immunogenicity and efficacy of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines in LMIC were included. There are only ten published clinical trials where a LMIC has participated. There was no published study so far that assessed efficacy of the HPV vaccines in Sub-Saharan Africa. From these studies, vaccine induced immune response was comparable to that from results of HICs for all age groups. Studies assessing HPV vaccine efficacy of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine within LMIC were largely missing. Only three studies were found where a LMIC was part of a multi center clinical trial. In all the studies, there were no vaccine related serious adverse events. The findings from the only study that investigated less than three doses of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine suggest that even with less than three doses, antibody levels were still comparable with older women where efficacy has been proven. The few studies from LMIC in this review had comparable safety, Immunogenicity and efficacy profiles like in HIC. Overall, the LMIC of Africa where immune compromising/modulating situations are prevalent, there is need for long term immunogenicity as well as surveillance studies for long term clinical

  17. High-dose rate brachytherapy as monotherapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2017-03-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is an increasingly popular treatment for patients with localised prostate cancer (PC). To assess the safety and efficacy of HDR-BT as monotherapy in PC. A systematic literature review was conducted through searches on MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, CDR, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan. We assessed safety and efficacy indicators. We selected 2 reviews and 12 uncontrolled studies, included in these 2 reviews. In terms of efficacy, local control in 6 studies was 97-100%. The biochemical progression-free survival varied as follows: 85-100% for low risk and 79-92% for high risk. Survival free of metastases was >95% at 8 years, except in one study where the survival rate was 87% at 5 years. The overall survival was ≥95% in 8 studies. In terms of safety, most of the studies recorded acute and long-term genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications, especially grade ≥2. Only 3 studies found grade 4 complications. All studies, except for one without complications, observed genitourinary complications that were more frequent and severe than the gastrointestinal complications. Two studies assessed the quality of life and showed an initial reduction in various domains and subsequent partial or total recovery, except in the sexual domain. HDR-BT is effective as monotherapy, especially in cases of low to intermediate risk. There is insufficient information on high-risk patients. The short to medium-term toxicity was acceptable. Further research needs to be funded to provide more information on the long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dukjin-dong 150, Yusung-gu, Daejon, R.O., 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Go, D. Y. [Kyung Hee Univ., Kyung Hee daero 26, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul, R.O., 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  19. 77 FR 50723 - Verification, Validation, Reviews, and Audits for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... and auditing of digital computer software used in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. In... part, that a quality assurance program be established and implemented to provide adequate assurance...

  20. 78 FR 18965 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert H. Squibb, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission... collection to the federal government is $344,618. Dated: March 25, 2013. Todd A. Stevenson,...

  1. 77 FR 76003 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request- Safety Standard for Automatic Residential Garage Door...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...: Robert H. Squibb, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814... industries: http://www.bls.gov/ncs ). Dated: December 20, 2012. Todd A. Stevenson, Secretary,...

  2. Measuring Safety Climate in Aviation: A Review and Recommendations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    state ’’, at a particular moment in time (Cox and Flin, 1998). Wiegmann and colleagues (Wiegmann et al., 2004) report that ‘‘few formally documented...previous safety climate research and in- put from aviation safety experts. Data from half of the sample were used in an exploratory factor analysis ( EFA ...responses obtained. Fol- lowing an EFA an eight factor questionnaire resulted (see Table 1 for a description of the factors). Gordon et al. (2007

  3. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM

  4. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lores, Marta, E-mail: marta.lores@usc.es; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  5. 77 FR 43811 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... http://www.regulations.gov , under Docket No. CPSC-2010-0088, or by mail/hand delivery/courier (for...

  6. Safety of efalizumab in patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis: review of clinical data. part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim A; Camisa, Charles; Stone, Stephen P; Caro, Ivor; Wang, Xiaolin; Compton, Peter; Walicke, Patricia A; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of efalizumab have been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the safety profile of efalizumab during the clinical trials. Twelve-week data from four placebo-controlled trials were pooled and analyzed. Data from patients receiving 13-60 weeks of efalizumab therapy were pooled to evaluate longer-term safety. The most common adverse events were mild to moderate, self-limiting, flu-like symptoms that were most frequent following the first two efalizumab doses; by the third dose the incidence was comparable to placebo. Serious adverse events were observed in 2.2% and 1.7% of efalizumab- and placebo-treated patients, respectively. Nonserious adverse events leading to withdrawal were infrequent and similar to placebo (2.8% vs 1.8%). There does not appear to be increased risk of end-organ toxicity, infection, or malignancy in efalizumab-treated patients. Efalizumab was well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile.

  7. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  8. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  9. 5% Lidocaine Medicated Plaster for the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Review of the Clinical Safety and Tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navez, Marie Louise; Monella, Christopher; Bösl, Irmgard; Sommer, Daniela; Delorme, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common, very painful, and often long-lasting complication of herpes zoster which is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. It mainly affects the elderly, many of whom are already treated for comorbidities with a variety of systemic medications and are thus at high risk of drug-drug interactions. An efficacious and safe treatment with a low interaction potential is therefore of high importance. This review focuses on the safety and tolerability of the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, a topical analgesic indicated for the treatment of PHN. The available literature (up to June 2014) was searched for publications containing safety data regarding the use of the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in PHN treatment; unpublished clinical safety data were also included in this review. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster demonstrated good short- and long-term tolerability with low systemic uptake (3 ± 2%) and minimal risk for systemic adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs related to topical lidocaine treatment were mainly application site reactions of mild to moderate intensity. The treatment discontinuation rate was generally below 5% of patients. In one trial, the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster was better tolerated than systemic treatment with pregabalin. The 5% lidocaine medicated plaster provides a safe alternative to systemic medications for PHN treatment, including long-term pain treatment.

  10. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  11. Improving the quality and safety of care on the medical ward: A review and synthesis of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannick, Samuel; Beveridge, Iain; Wachter, Robert M; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Despite its place at the heart of inpatient medicine, the evidence base underpinning the effective delivery of medical ward care is highly fragmented. Clinicians familiar with the selection of evidence-supported treatments for specific diseases may be less aware of the evolving literature surrounding the organisation of care on the medical ward. This review is the first synthesis of that disparate literature. An iterative search identified relevant publications, using terms pertaining to medical ward environments, and objective and subjective patient outcomes. Articles (including reviews) were selected on the basis of their focus on medical wards, and their relevance to the quality and safety of ward-based care. Responses to medical ward failings are grouped into five common themes: staffing levels and team composition; interdisciplinary communication and collaboration; standardisation of care; early recognition and treatment of the deteriorating patient; and local safety climate. Interventions in these categories are likely to improve the quality and safety of care in medical wards, although the evidence supporting them is constrained by methodological limitations and inadequate investment in multicentre trials. Nonetheless, with infrequent opportunities to redefine their services, institutions are increasingly adopting multifaceted strategies that encompass groups of these themes. As the literature on the quality of inpatient care moves beyond its initial focus on the intensive care unit and operating theatre, physicians should be mindful of opportunities to incorporate evidence-based practice at a ward level. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the self-controlled case-series method in vaccine safety studies: review and recommendations for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Y G; Whitaker, H J; Farrington, C P

    2011-12-01

    The self-controlled case-series method was originally developed to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, and is now commonly used for this purpose. This study reviews applications of the method to vaccine safety investigations in the period 1995-2010. In total, 40 studies were reviewed. The application of the self-controlled case-series method in these studies is critically examined, with particular reference to the definition of observation and risk periods, control of confounders, assumptions and potential biases, methodological and presentation issues, power and sample size, and software. Comparisons with other study designs undertaken in the papers reviewed are also highlighted. Some recommendations are presented, with the emphasis on promoting good practice.

  13. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard.

  14. Systematic review of published studies on safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of thoracoscopic and robot-assisted lobectomies for primary lung cancer were reviewed in the literature. Thoracoscopic surgery is less invasive compared to thoracotomy, and it has been reported to be superior with regard to the outcome. In addition, the operability of a surgical robot (da Vinci) is favorable and supplements the disadvantages of conventional endoscopic surgery. Robot-assisted lobectomy has been reported to be comparable to thoracoscopic surgery with regard to the safety and efficacy based on analysis of perioperative results and superior with regard to the operability and length of the learning curve. However, a high cost and a long operative time are of concern. Since robot-assisted surgery has been performed only in early cases, the continuation of a comparative investigation may be necessary.

  15. The relationship between physician burnout and quality of healthcare in terms of safety and acceptability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Trojanowski, Lucy

    2017-06-21

    This study reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to physician burnout and two quality of care dimensions. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question, 'How does physician burnout affect the quality of healthcare related to the dimensions of acceptability and safety?' Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review is based on publically available peer-reviewed studies published between 2002 and 2017. Six electronic databases were searched: (1) MEDLINE Current, (2) MEDLINE In-process, (3) MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, (4) PsycINFO, (5) Embase and (6) Web of Science. Physicians practicing in civilian settings. Practicing physicians who have completed training. Quality of healthcare related to acceptability (ie, patient satisfaction, physician communication and physician attitudes) and safety (ie, minimising risks or harm to patients). 4114 unique citations were identified. Of these, 12 articles were included in the review. Two studies were rated as having high risk of bias and 10 as having moderate risk. Four studies were conducted in North America, four in Europe, one in the Middle East and three in East Asia. Results of this systematic literature review suggest there is moderate evidence that burnout is associated with safety-related quality of care. Because of the variability in the way patient acceptability-related quality of care was measured and the inconsistency in study findings, the evidence supporting the relationship between burnout and patient acceptability-related quality of care is less strong. The focus on direct care-related quality highlights additional ways that physician burnout affects the healthcare system. These studies can help to inform decisions about how to improve patient care by addressing physician burnout. Continued work looking at the relationship between dimensions of acceptability-related quality of care measures and burnout is needed to

  16. Barriers and facilitators related to the implementation of surgical safety checklists: a systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergs, Jochen; Lambrechts, Frank; Simons, Pascale; Vlayen, Annemie; Marneffe, Wim; Hellings, Johan; Cleemput, Irina; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the user-related barriers against, and facilitators for, the implementation of surgical safety checklists. We searched MEDLINE for articles describing stakeholders' perspectives regarding, and experiences with, the implementation of surgical safety checklists. The quality of the papers was assessed by means of the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Thematic synthesis was used to integrate the emergent descriptive themes into overall analytical themes. The synthesis of 18 qualitative studies indicated that implementation requires change in the workflow of healthcare professionals as well as in their perception of the checklist and the perception of patient safety in general. The factors impeding or advancing the required change concentrated around the checklist, the implementation process and the local context. We found that the required safety checks disrupt operating theatre staffs' routines. Furthermore, conflicting priorities and different perspectives and motives of stakeholders complicate checklist implementation. When approaching the checklist as a simple technical intervention, the expectation of cooperation between surgeons, anaesthetists and nurses is often not addressed, reducing the checklist to a tick-off exercise. The complex reality in which the checklist needs to be implemented requires an approach that includes more than eliminating barriers and supporting facilitating factors. Implementation leaders must facilitate team learning to foster the mutual understanding of perspectives and motivations, and the realignment of routines. This paper provides a pragmatic overview of the user-related barriers and facilitators upon which theories, hypothesising potential change strategies and interactions, can be developed and tested empirically. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Ten years of clinical experience with biosimilar human growth hormone: a review of safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Pérez, Maria Victoria; Kriström, Berit; Romer, Tomasz; Walczak, Mieczyslaw; Höbel, Nadja; Zabransky, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Safety concerns for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatments include impact on cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and the formation of antibodies to endogenous/exogenous GH. Omnitrope(®) (biosimilar rhGH) was approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2006, with approval granted on the basis of comparable quality, safety, and efficacy to the reference medicine (Genotropin(®)). Additional concerns that may exist in relation to biosimilar rhGH include safety in indications granted on the basis of extrapolation and the impact of changing to biosimilar rhGH from other rhGH treatments. A substantial data set is available to fully understand the safety profile of biosimilar rhGH, which includes data from its clinical development studies and 10 years of post-approval experience. As of June 2016, 106,941,419 patient days (292,790 patient-years) experience has been gathered for biosimilar rhGH. Based on the available data, there have been no unexpected or unique adverse events related to biosimilar rhGH treatment. There is no increased risk of cancer, adverse glucose homeostasis, or immunogenic response with biosimilar rhGH compared with the reference medicine and other rhGH products. The immunogenicity of biosimilar rhGH is also similar to that of the reference and other rhGH products. Physicians should be reassured that rhGH products have a good safety record when used for approved indications and at recommended doses, and that the safety profile of biosimilar rhGH is in keeping with that of other rhGH products.

  18. Aspirated safety pin requiring thoracotomy: report of a case and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, A L; Talton, D S; Miller, R C; Warren, E T

    1997-12-01

    Foreign body aspirations in children are relatively uncommon occurrences, but they can be a serious events, causing respiratory distress, atelectasis, chronic pulmonary infections, or death. Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects and account for less than 3% of all foreign bodies found in the tracheobronchial tree. Fewer than 2% of patients require thoracotomy, and most aspirated materials can be removed by bronchoscopy, with low morbidity and mortality. A discussion of airway foreign bodies follows the presentation of a case of an older child who aspirated a safety pin, which required open thoracostomy for removal.

  19. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  20. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s