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Sample records for ground roasted coffee

  1. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

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    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  2. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

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    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  3. Kinetic modeling of water sorption by roasted and ground coffee

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    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to model the kinetics of water sorption in roasted and ground coffee. Crude Arabica coffee beans with an initial moisture content of 0.1234 kgwkgdm-1 were used. These beans were roasted to a medium roast level (SCCA # 55 and ground at three particle sizes: coarse (1.19 mm, medium (0.84 mm and fine (0.59 mm. To obtain the water sorption isotherms and the isosteric heat, different conditions of temperature and relative humidity were analyzed using the dynamic method at 25ºC (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and 30°C (0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and using the static method at 25ºC (0.332 and 0.438 of RH. The GAB model best represented the hygroscopic equilibrium of roasted coffee at every particle size. Isosteric heat of sorption for the fine particle size increased with increments of equilibrium moisture content, indicating a strong bond energy between water molecules and the product components. The Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in equilibrium moisture content and with temperature.

  4. Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage Part 1: Moisture content and repose angle

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    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluates the influence of the level of roasting and the grind size on the moisture content and repose angle of coffee during storage. Raw coffee beans (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, hulled and dried, were roasted to two different levels: medium light (SCAA#65 and moderately dark (SCAA#45. The beans were then ground into three different grind sizes: fine (0.59 mm, medium (0.84 mm and coarse (1.19 mm. An additional coffee lot was kept whole. Following grinding, samples were stored at two different temperatures (10 and 30 ºC and analyzed after five different storage durations (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. The moderately dark roast was found to have a lower moisture content. Finely ground samples had higher angles of repose. It is concluded that the grind size, level of roasting and duration of storage significantly affect the moisture content and angle of repose of coffee.

  5. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

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    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-field (1)H NMR spectroscopy for distinguishing between arabica and robusta ground roast coffees.

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    Defernez, Marianne; Wren, Ella; Watson, Andrew D; Gunning, Yvonne; Colquhoun, Ian J; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Williamson, David; Kemsley, E Kate

    2017-02-01

    This work reports a new screening protocol for addressing issues of coffee authenticity using low-field (60MHz) bench-top (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Using a simple chloroform-based extraction, useful spectra were obtained from the lipophilic fraction of ground roast coffees. It was found that 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC, a recognized marker compound for robusta beans) gives rise to an isolated peak in the 60MHz spectrum, which can be used as an indicator of the presence of robusta beans in the sample. A total of 81 extracts from authenticated coffees and mixtures were analysed, from which the detection limit of robusta in arabica was estimated to be between 10% and 20% w/w. Using the established protocol, a surveillance exercise was conducted of 27 retail samples of ground roast coffees which were labelled as "100% arabica". None were found to contain undeclared robusta content above the estimated detection limit.

  7. Roasted and Ground Coffee: A Study of Extenders, Substitutes and Alternative Coffee Sources

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    1984-02-01

    with a Kitchenaid Coffee Mill Model KCM set at the coarsest grind setting. As with other equipment used for grinding, a high proportion of small...well as to concentration by evaporation. Real Coffee Flavor. Over the four studies, there were no significant decreases in this attribute after three...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee - like

  8. Behavior of Ochratoxin A during Green Coffee Roasting and Soluble Coffee Manufacture.

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    Blanc; Pittet; Muñoz-Box; Viani

    1998-02-16

    As considerable inconsistencies are found in the literature regarding the influence of roasting and subsequent operations on the ochratoxin A (OTA) content of green coffee, experiments were undertaken to assess the evolution of OTA along an industrial soluble coffee manufacturing line. Both the variability and the amount of OTA naturally present in a lot of Thai Robusta green coffee were drastically reduced during soluble coffee manufacture. A small proportion of OTA was eliminated during green coffee cleaning, but the most significant reduction took place during roasting. The roast and ground coffee contained only 16% of the OTA originally present in the green coffee. Two phenomena are responsible for the elimination of OTA during roasting: a thermal degradation and a removal with chaff. Thermal degradation is the most important route of elimination, with manufacture, so that the powder contained only 13% of the OTA initially present in the green beans.

  9. Molecular and toxigenic characterization of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from commercial ground roasted coffee.

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    Chaves, Jeane Quintanilha; Cavados, Clara de Fátima Gomes; Vivoni, Adriana Marcos

    2012-03-01

    Thirty samples of roasted ground coffee beans from 10 different commercial brands were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and levels of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Strains were evaluated for their genetic diversity by repetitive element sequence polymorphism PCR (Rep-PCR) and for their toxigenic profiles, i.e., the presence of hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, ces, and entFM. Survival and multiplication of B. cereus sensu lato in the ready-to-drink coffee was determined to evaluate this beverage as a possible vehicle for B. cereus infection. B. cereus was detected in 17 (56.7%) of the 30 samples, and B. thuringiensis was detected in 8 (26.7%) of the 30 samples. Five samples did not produce any characteristic growth. The most common gene, entFM, was detected in 23 strains (92%). The NHE complex (nheA, nheB, and nheC genes) was found in 19 strains (76%). The HBL complex (hblA, hblC, and hblD) was found in 16 strains (64%). All strains were negative for ces. The cytK gene was found in 16 strains (64%). The computer-assisted cluster analysis of Rep-PCR profiles using a clustering criterion of 80% similarity revealed four main clusters. Cluster 1 was the predominant and comprised three B. thuringiensis strains with 100% similarity, cluster 2 comprised two B. cereus strains (100% similarity), cluster 3 comprised two B. thuringiensis strains (90% similarity), and cluster 4 comprised one B. thuringiensis strain and one B. cereus strain (85% similarity). The cluster analysis of fingerprints generated by Rep-PCR revealed a high genetic diversity among the B. cereus strains, suggesting that the contamination could have originated from different sources. In our experiments, when sugar was added and the beverage was kept in thermic bottles there was a significant increase in B. cereus sensu lato levels, which may increase the risk of food poisoning. These results highlight the need for additional studies on this subject to better evaluate

  10. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

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    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  11. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A. K.; Ramalakshmi, K.; Nagaraju, V. D.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was ma...

  12. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

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    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  13. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

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    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their melanoidi

  14. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

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    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans.

  15. Teores de compostos bioativos em cafés torrados e moídos comerciais Levels of bioactive compounds in commercial roasted and ground coffees

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    Romilaine Mansano Nicolau de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of nicotinic acid, trigonelline, 5-CQA, caffeine, kahweol and cafestol in 38 commercial roasted coffees ranged from 0.02 to 0.04; 0.22 to 0.96; 0.14 to 1.20; 1.00 to 2.02; 0.10 to 0.80 and 0.25 to 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. Evaluation of color and content of thermo-labile compounds indicated similarity in roasting degree. Differences in the levels of diterpenes and caffeine, components less influenced by the roasting degree, could be mainly explained by the species used (arabica and robusta. Gourmet coffees showed high concentrations of diterpenes, trigonelline and 5-CQA and low levels of caffeine, indicating high proportion of arabica coffee.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

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    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee.

  17. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a major matter affecting coffee quality in Brazil, mainly due to the harvesting method adopted. Brazilian harvests are based on fruits collected from the ground mixed with those that fall on collection cloths. As the Bacillus cereus bacterium frequently uses the soil as its environmental reservoir, it is easily capable of becoming a contaminant. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination and potential of B. cereus enterotoxin genes encoding the HBL and NHE complexes, which were observed in strains of ground and roasted coffee samples sold in Rio de Janeiro. The PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results revealed high potential of enterotoxin production in the samples. The method described by Speck (1984 was used for the isolation of contaminants. The investigation of the potential production of enterotoxins through isolates of the microorganism was performed using the B. cereus enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test-kit (BCET-RPLA, Oxoid, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for hblA, hblD and hblC genes (encoding hemolysin HBL and for nheA, nheB and nheC genes (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. Of all the 17 strains, 100% were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin gene; 52.9% (9/17 were positive for the 3 genes encoding the HBL complex; 35.3% (6/17 were positive for the three NHE encoding genes; and 29.4% (5/17 were positive for

  18. N,N-dimethylpiperidinium (mepiquat) Part 2. Formation in roasted coffee and barley during thermal processing.

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    Wermann, Silke; Theurillat, Viviane; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Hofmann, Jocelyne; Kuchenbecker, Ralf; Constable, Anne; Delatour, Thierry; Stadler, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in model systems has demonstrated that mepiquat can be formed under typical roasting conditions from the amino acid lysine via the Maillard reaction and trigonelline, the latter alkaloid serving as a methyl donor. This study shows for the first time that mepiquat is formed in low mg kg(-1) amounts during the coffee roasting process and consequently can be detected in roast and ground as well as soluble coffee up to levels of 1.4 mg kg(-1). Darker roast coffees contain relatively higher amounts of mepiquat versus light roasted beans, with an excellent correlation of mepiquat formation to roast colour (r(2) = 0.99) in robusta beans. A survey of 20 of the major green coffee origins (robusta and arabica coffees) showed the absence of mepiquat (coffee containing 1.4 mg kg(-1) mepiquat in the coffee powder (the highest amount measured in this study), the resulting intake would exhaust less than 0.2% of the ADI of mepiquat.

  19. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

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    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation.

  20. Use of colour parameters for roasted coffee assessment

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    Natalina Cavaco Bicho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and non-destructive indicators were evaluated as tools to measure the technological quality of Arabica and Robusta coffee. Accordingly, considering the roasting intensity in highly valuable commercial samples, volume, mass, apparent density, moisture, total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and ether extract were characterized. The chromatic parameters L*, C*, Hº were measured using illuminants D65 and C. It was found that in roasted coffee beans, the parameters L*, C*, Hº, and coordinate b* had an antagonist interaction due to an increase in the roasting intensity, whereas after milling, only L* and Hº decreased progressively. Considering that the parameters L* and Hº followed similar patterns using both illuminants, D65 and C, it can be concluded that they are appropriate to evaluate coffee colour changes during roasting, enabling a relationship with coffee quality.

  1. Café torrado e moído em embalagens inertizadas Roasted and ground coffee in nitrogen gas flushing packages

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    Rosa M. Vercelino Alves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito das propriedades de barreira de materiais de embalagem e das condições do enchimento em equipamento flow pack vertical (com e sem injeção de nitrogênio, sobre a vida-útil de café torrado e moído. Avaliou-se três tipos de materiais de embalagem de estrutura composta de um laminado de poliéster metalizado (PETmet e polietileno de baixa densidade linear (PEBDL que diferiam na camada de metalização (TPO2 de 0,5; 2,9 e 5,5cm³(CNTP/m²/dia a 25ºC, a seco e 1atm. Após formação, enchimento e termossoldagem das embalagens, as amostras foram estocadas a 25±2ºC /65±3%UR. Durante a estocagem observou-se redução na concentração de oxigênio residual do espaço-livre das embalagens devido ao consumo em reações de oxidação, o que causou alterações sensoriais no produto e limitou sua vida-útil. Os resultados obtidos sugerem vida-útil para o café de, no mínimo, 6 meses a 25ºC/65%UR em embalagens inertizadas (2 a 3% de O2 residual em um espaço-livre de, em média, 680mL a 25ºC e 0,92atm, enquanto no sistema sem injeção de nitrogênio a vida-útil foi de 3 meses. Também verificou-se que materiais de embalagem com taxas de permeabilidade ao oxigênio próximas aos dos materiais avaliados não diferem no nível de proteção oferecida a café torrado e moído até 6 meses de estocagem em embalagem inertizada.In this paper it was evaluated the effect of the barrier properties of packaging materials and filling conditions in vertical flow pack equipment (without and with nitrogen injection, on the shelf-life of roasted and ground coffee. Three types of packaging materials made by s laminate of metallized polyester (PETmet and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE, that had a different metallization layer (OTR of 0.5; 2.9 and 5.5 cm³(STP/m²/day at 25ºC, 1 atm in dry conditions were evaluated. After formation, filling and heatsealing of the packages, the samples were stored at 25±2ºC/65±3%RH. A decrease

  2. Investigation of CO2 precursors in roasted coffee.

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    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO2. However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee.

  3. Exergoeconomic evaluation of real processes for coffee roasting

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    Vučković Goran D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exergoeconomic methods provide an effective approach for identifying, evaluating and reducing thermodynamic inefficiencies and costs in an energy system. The aim of this paper is to show the potential for cost reduction on the demand side, using the exergoeconomic method in the example of real processes for coffee roasting. More than 6.5•109 kg of coffee beans is roasted worldwide annually, mostly in batch roasters. Near the end of the roast, roasting coffee emits volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and other pollutants, which in many industrialized countries have to be oxidized in afterburners. Afterburners release exhaust gases with a temperature of 250-450°C, depending on the roasting process and the method of exhaust gas cleaning. The aim of this paper is to use exergy analysis and exergoeconomic performance evaluation to determine the energy use for coffee roasting and the afterburning process, and evaluate the way to utilize waste heat and reduce costs in the factory. For roasters with the capacity of up to 4 tons of green coffee beans per hour, the potential of heat recovery is 1.1 MW and the possibility to save money is around 60,000 € per year. This case study is similar to many others worldwide, and the results of this analysis could lead to more general conclusions.

  4. Incidence, level, and behavior of aflatoxins during coffee bean roasting and decaffeination.

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    Soliman, K M

    2002-12-04

    Screening for aflatoxins (Afs), isolation and identification of Aspergillus flavus, and the effect of decaffeination and roasting on the level of contamination in coffee beans are studied. The percent frequency of A. flavus ranged between 4 and 80% in green coffee beans (GCB), whereas in ground roasted coffee beans (GRCB), it ranged between 1 and 71%. Aflatoxins were detected in 76.5 and 54.6% of the infected samples with averages of 4.28 and 2.85 microg/kg of GCB and GRCB, respectively. Roasting was demonstrated to lower the concentration of Afs in GCB. The Afs levels were reduced by approximately 42.2-55.9% depending on the type and temperature of roasting. The highest yields of Afs were detected in the decaffeinated green coffee beans (24.29 microg/kg) and roasted coffee beans (16.00 microg/kg). The growth of A. flavus in liquid medium containing 1 or 2% caffeine was reduced by 50%, and the level of aflatoxin in the medium was undetectable.

  5. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects.

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    Yang, Ni; Liu, Chujiao; Liu, Xingkun; Degn, Tina Kreuzfeldt; Munchow, Morten; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-15

    Coffee beans from the same origin were roasted using six time-temperature profiles, in order to identify volatile aroma compounds associated with five common roast coffee defects (light, scorched, dark, baked and underdeveloped). Thirty-seven volatile aroma compounds were selected on the basis that they had previously been identified as potent odorants of coffee and were also identified in all coffee brew preparations; the relative abundance of these aroma compounds was then evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid phase micro extraction. Some of the 37 key aroma compounds were significantly changed in each coffee roast defect and changes in one marker compound was chosen for each defect type, that is, indole for light defect, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol for scorched defect, phenol for dark defect, maltol for baked defect and 2,5-dimethylfuran for underdeveloped defect. The association of specific changes in aroma profiles for different roast defects has not been shown previously and could be incorporated into screening tools to enable the coffee industry quickly identify if roast defects occur during production.

  6. Physical characterization of coffee after roasting and grinding

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    Gabriel Henrique Horta de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowability is an important characteristic of handling process for efficiency and reliability purpose of post-harvest operations, which are governed by the physical properties of the product. Physical properties determination is an important factor for formulation of machinery projects and sizing of post-harvest operations, which may impact considerably on the products quality, influencing directly the operation cost and company profit. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate and determinate some physical properties (repose angle, unit and bulk density, porosity and color coordinates, particle size, moisture content, water activity, angle of internal friction and effective angle of internal friction of coffee, such as to evaluate the influence of different roast and grinding degrees over these properties. Crude grain coffee (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, dehulled and dried were used. These were roasted at two levels: medium light and medium-dark brown, which Agtron numbers are, respectively, SCAA#65 and SCAA#45. After roasting process, grains were grinded at three particle sizes (thin, medium and thick. Both particle size and roast degree significantly affected physical properties of coffee. Coffee samples roasted at medium dark level obtained lower values of moisture content, water activity, repose angle, bulk and real density. Coffee samples grinded at level thin presented an increase of angle of internal friction and effective angle of internal friction, repose angle, bulk and real density, porosity and decrease of water activity values.

  7. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

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    Ooi Ee Shan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea canephora were subjected to superheated steam roasting at 200, 220 and 240 ˚C for 20-40 min to obtain light, medium and dark roast. The effect of different roasting temperature and time on the total phenolic content (TPC and radical scavenging activity (RSA of Robusta coffee bean was investigated. Total phenolic content of coffee brews decreased with the increase of roasting degree due to the degradation of phenolic compounds. The highest phenolic content was found at 220 ˚C for 20 min. Meanwhile, brews extracted from light roasted coffee and medium roasted at 220 ˚C for 20 min showed a maximum scavenging activity than those from green coffee. Brews from dark roasted coffee showed lowest radical scavenging activity and total phenol content. Hence, based on the results from this study, the best superheated steam roasting condition is at 220 ˚C for 20 min (medium roast to achieve a maximum antioxidant activity and highest phenolic content.

  8. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  9. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  10. Prospective of Innovative Technologies for Quality Supervision and Classification of Roasted Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Hills, B. P.; Bongaers, E.; Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana; Melado Herreros, Angela; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Diaz Barcos, Virginia; Meneses, Beatriz; Oteros, R.

    2011-01-01

    Color sorting is the major procedure employed for establish roast degree of coffee beans. However, color-based procedures have been proven to be ineffective, since coffee beans roasted to different degrees can present the same average readings in light reflectance measurements with significant quality variations. Besides to color, other major changes in beans are volume (swell), mass, form, bean pop and density. Eight samples of arabica coffee from Colombia and Guatemala have been roasted und...

  11. Investigation of optimum roasting conditions to obtain possible health benefit supplement, antioxidants from coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of roasting conditions in antioxidant formation, methanol and hot water extracts from Robusta coffee beans roasted for various lengths of time and at various temperatures were analyzed for total phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine content, as well as for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and malonaldehyde/gas chromatography (MA/GC) assays. The amount of total phenolics in methanol extracts decreased linearly over the roasting temperature from 63.51 ± 0.77 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent (CAE)/g coffee beans (roasted at 200°C) to 42.56 ± 0.33 mg CAE/g coffee beans (roasted at 240°C). The total chlorogenic acid content decreased when the roasting time was increased from 78.33 ± 1.41 mg/g (green coffee beans) to 4.31 ± 0.23 mg/g (roasted for 16 min at 250°C). All methanol extracts from roasted coffee beans possessed over 90% antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts ranged from 41.38 ± 1.77% (roasted at 250°C for 10 min) to 98.20 ± 1.49% (roasted at 230°C for 16 min) as tested by the TBA assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of green coffee beans and roasted coffee beans ranged from 93.01% (green coffee beans) to 98.62 ± 1.32% (roasted at 250°C for 14 min) in the MA/GC assays. All hot water extracts exhibited moderate pro-oxidant activities in TBA and MA/GC assays. The results indicated that roasting conditions of coffee beans play an important role in the formation of antioxidants in brewed coffee, which can be dietary supplements having beneficial effect to human health.

  12. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  13. Studies on acrylamide levels in roasting, storage and brewing of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Ingo; Ternité, Ruediger; Wilkens, Jochen; Hoenicke, Katrin; Guenther, Helmut; van der Stegen, Gerrit H D

    2006-11-01

    The content of acrylamide in coffee reaches a peak early in the roasting process, reflecting occurrence of both formation and destruction of acrylamide during roasting. Levels of acrylamide in the fully roasted product are a small fraction of the peak reached earlier. Glucose and moisture in green coffee do not show a significant correlation with acrylamide in roasted coffee. Pre-roasting levels of asparagine show a correlation only in Arabica coffee. The main factors affecting the level of acrylamide in roasted coffee appear to be the Arabica/Robusta ratio, with Robusta giving higher levels; time and degree of roast, with both shorter and lighter roasting at the edges of the normal roasting range giving higher levels; storage condition and time, with clear reduction at ambient storage. This storage reduction of acrylamide followed second order reaction kinetics with an activation energy of 73 KJ/mole. The acrylamide in roasted coffee is largely extracted into the brew and stable within usual time of consumption. As these four main factors also substantially affect the sensorial characteristics of the brew, and as modifications of the process have to comply with the consumer-accepted boundaries of taste profiles, only small effects on the acrylamide level are expected to be achievable.

  14. Recognition of Roasted Coffee Bean Levels using Image Processing and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Andayani, U.

    2017-03-01

    The coffee beans roast levels have some characteristics. However, some people cannot recognize the coffee beans roast level. In this research, we propose to design a method to recognize the coffee beans roast level of images digital by processing the image and classifying with backpropagation neural network. The steps consist of how to collect the images data with image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method and finally normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The values of decimal scaling features become an input of classifying in backpropagation neural network. We use the method of backpropagation to recognize the coffee beans roast levels. The results showed that the proposed method is able to identify the coffee roasts beans level with an accuracy of 97.5%.

  15. Nanofiltration for concentration of roasted coffee extract: From bench to pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Quyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc

    2017-09-01

    This paper focused on the application of nanofiltration (NF) for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee processing. Three kinds of NF membranes were screened for separation capacity of total dry solid (TDS), polyphenols (PPs) and caffeine in roasted coffee extract and NF99 membrane showed the good performance for the NF of the extract. The crossflow NF with NF99 membrane at pilot scale was investigated for technical assessment of concentration of roasted coffee extract. Maximum theoretical concentration was estimated as 6.06. Recovery yields of TDS, PPs and caffeine were higher than 70% at 4.4 of concentration factor. The content of TDS in accumulative permeate was lower than 2.0 g/L. The fouling of NF was also solved by the suitable cleaning procedure with recovery index being 97.7%. Results of research indicate that it is feasible to apply NF for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee production.

  16. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica.

  17. Modeling weight loss and chlorogenic acids content in coffee during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Raul; Donangelo, Carmen M; Farah, Adriana

    2010-12-08

    Roasting is a key step in the production of a high-quality coffee. Roasting degree is directly related to coffee chemical composition and may be determined objectively by weight loss after roasting. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are thermally labile phenolic compounds that play an important role in the final cup quality and health benefits of coffee. Considering the interest in finding a reliable method to predict weight loss and CGA content in coffee, models have been developed to estimate these parameters during roasting. Weight loss was successfully modeled (r = 0.99) independent of the instant temperature. CGA degradation followed first-order Arrhenius-compliant kinetic models with good predictability (r = 0.98), especially for light to moderately dark samples. In both cases distinct models for Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were calculated, because of differences in chemical composition and cell wall structure between these species. The proposed models may become important predictive tools in the coffee industry.

  18. Effect of roasting conditions on several chemical constituents of Vietnam Robusta coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran VAN CUONG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of roasting conditions on chemical constituents of Vietnam robusta coffee. The contents of acrylamide, chlorogenic acid and tannins were higher in green coffee than in roasted coffee and decreased as roasting condition increased, which ranged from 6.53 to 91.36 μg/100g, 1.54 to 55.51 mg/g and 3.14 to 651.59 mg/10g, respectively. In addition, the content of trigonelline ranged from 1.43 to 64.24 mg/10g, which gave the highest value in green coffee, then decreased rapidly, while in the Italian roast it was not present at all. Caffeine content ranged from 15.30 to 35.91 mg/g and presented the lowest value in the case of green coffee, then increased reaching the highest value at 240 oC, after that decreasing gradually and slowly.

  19. Effect of vacuum roasting on acrylamide formation and reduction in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anese, Monica; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; Verardo, Giancarlo; Munari, Marina; Mirolo, Giorgio; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Coffea arabica beans were roasted in an oven at 200 °C for increasing lengths of time under vacuum (i.e. 0.15 kPa). The samples were then analysed for colour, weight loss, acrylamide concentration and sensory properties. Data were compared with those obtained from coffee roasted at atmospheric pressure (i.e. conventional roasting), as well as at atmospheric pressure for 10 min followed by vacuum treatment (0.15 kPa; i.e. conventional-vacuum roasting). To compare the different treatments, weight loss, colour and acrylamide changes were expressed as a function of the thermal effect received by the coffee beans during the different roasting processes. Vacuum-processed coffee with medium roast degree had approximately 50% less acrylamide than its conventionally roasted counterpart. It was inferred that the low pressure generated inside the oven during the vacuum process exerted a stripping effect preventing acrylamide from being accumulated. Vacuum-processed coffee showed similar colour and sensory properties to conventionally roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Roasting Conditions on Concentration in Elements of Vietnam Robusta Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Tran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam Robusta Coffee was roasted at different roasting degree and roasting temperature and 9 element concentrations (K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb of roasted coffee were analyzed by Flame atomic absorption method (FAAS in this study. The results showed that the concentrations were ranged in 1447.97 ~ 1342.10 (mg/100g, 768.22 ~ 1259.44 (μg/g,10.35 ~ 13.15 (μg/g, and 17.38 ~ 20.97 (μg/g for element of K, Ca, Cu and Mn in green and roasted coffee beans, respectively. All determined elements were the smallest value in green coffee, then increased with increasing roasting level and reached the highest value in Spain roast (roasting temperature of 250°C. Mg concentration ranged in 682.70 ~ 3647.73 (μg/g; Fe concentration ranged in 37.20 ~ 53.44 (μg/g; Zn concentration ranged in 5.97 ~ 6.89 (μg/g and Pb concentration ranged in 2.18 ~ 15.04 (μg/100g. Concentrations of all determined elements didn’t change with the increased roasting process.

  1. Comparative study of polyphenols and caffeine in different coffee varieties affected by the degree of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hečimović, Ivana; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Komes, Draženka

    2011-12-01

    The bioactive composition of coffee, as one of the most popular beverages in the world, has attracted interest as a potential source of beneficial bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols and caffeine. Since the content of these compounds is affected by the processing conditions, the objective of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolic compounds and caffeine in four different coffee varieties: Minas and Cioccolatato (Coffea arabica), and Cherry and Vietnam (Coffea canephora syn. Coffea robusta), roasted by three varying degrees (light, medium and dark). The content of the polyphenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of coffees were determined using UV/Vis spectrophotometric methods, while the content of chlorogenic acid derivatives was determined using HPLC analysis. The caffeine content was determined by means of two spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC analysis. Additionally, raw caffeine was also obtained by an isolation procedure with chloroform. Cherry coffee, a variety of C. canephora exhibited the highest overall content of total phenols (42.37mg GAE/g), followed by Minas coffee, while Cioccolatato contained the lowest TPC (33.12mg GAE/g). Cherry coffee also exhibited the highest content of individual classes of polyphenols (flavan-3-ols, procyanidins and tannins), while the highest content of chlorogenic acid (CQA) derivatives was determined in Minas and Cioccolatato coffees (C. arabica). The highest content of total and individual polyphenolic compounds was determined in coffees roasted in both light and medium roasting conditions, which was also observed for the content of CQA derivatives and antioxidant capacity of roasted coffees. The highest caffeine content in the coffee samples was determined by employing the HPLC analysis (0.06-2.55%). Light roasted Cherry coffee contained the highest overall content of caffeine among all coffees, which exhibited a decrease with intensified roasting.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F

    2013-04-01

    Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase.

  3. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  4. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  5. Activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes by roasted coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazheng, Liu; Kitts, David D

    2012-09-01

    Coffee beans contain numerous bioactive components that exhibit antioxidant capacity when assessed using both chemical, cell free, and biological, cell-based model systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effects of coffee in biological systems are not totally understood and in some cases vary considerably from results obtained with simpler in vitro chemical assays. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of roasted and non-roasted coffee extracts were investigated in both cell free (ORAC(FL)) and cell-based systems. A profile of antioxidant gene expression in cultured human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells treated with both roasted and non-roasted coffee extracts, respectively, was investigated using Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array technology. Results demonstrated that the mechanisms of the antioxidant activity associated with coffee constituents assessed by the ORAC(FL) assay were different to those observed using an intracellular oxidation assay with Caco-2 cells. Moreover, roasted coffee (both light and dark roasted) extracts produced both increased- and decreased-expressions of numerous genes that are involved in the management of oxidative stress via the antioxidant defence system. The selective and specific positive induction of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes, including gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPX2), sulfiredoxin (SRXN1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), peroxiredoxin 4 (PDRX4) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PDRX6) were identified with the activation of the endogenous antioxidant defence system in Caco-2 cells.

  6. Validation of analytical conditions for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatemala-Morales, Guadalupe María; Beltrán-Medina, Elisa Alejandra; Murillo-Tovar, Mario Alfonso; Ruiz-Palomino, Priscilla; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of significant interest due to their genotoxicity in humans. PAHs quantification in coffee is complex since some of its compounds interfere in the chromatographic analysis, which hinders the reliable determination of the PAHs. Analytical conditions for the ultrasound extraction, purification and quantification of 16 PAHs in roasted coffee were studied. The better extraction efficiency of benzo[a]pyrene (68%) from ground-roasted coffee was achieved with a solvent ratio of Hex:MC (9:1 v/v) and three extraction periods of 20 min, followed by alkaline saponification and purification of the extracts. The detection limits were 0.85-39.32 ng mL(-1), and the quantification limits from 2.84 to 131.05 ng mL(-1), obtained for fluoranthene and chrysene, respectively. The extraction was effective for most of the analytes, with recoveries of 39.8% dibenzo[ah]anthracene and 69.0% benzo[b]fluoranthene. For coffee roasted in a spouted bed reactor, the summation of the 16 PAHs ranged from 3.5 to 16.4 μg kg(-1).

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Konstantinopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+)- radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying

  8. Coffee, its roasted form, and their residues cause birth failure and shorten lifespan in dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Ellias, Salbiah Binti; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abang, Fatimah; Ghani, Idris Abd; Noor, Sabina; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Hipolito, Cirilo N; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-06-01

    In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process. We examined whether exposure to coffee during embryonic development could alter larval eclosion and lifespan of dengue vectors. A series of bioassays with different coffee forms and their residues indicated that larval eclosion responses of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were appreciably lower when embryonic maturation occurred in environments containing coffee, especially roasted coffee crude extract (RCC). In addition, the lifespan of adults derived from eggs that hatched successfully in a coffee milieu was reduced, but this effect was less pronounced with roasted and green coffee extracts (RCU and GCU, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggested that coffee and its residues have embryocidal activities with impacts that are carried over onto the adult lifespan of dengue vectors. These effects may significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of these insects. Reutilizing coffee waste in vector control may also represent a realistic solution to the issues associated with its pollution.

  9. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  10. The roasting process does not influence the extent of conjugation of coffee chlorogenic and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Renouf, Mathieu; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the bioavailability and metabolism of coffee compounds will contribute to identify the unknown biological mechanism(s) linked to their beneficial effects. The influence of the roasting process on the metabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids in humans was evaluated. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed four instant coffees namely, high roasted coffee (HRC), low roasted coffee (LRC), unroasted coffee (URC), and in vitro hydrolyzed unroasted coffee (HURC). The sum of areas under the curve (AUC) ranged from 8.65-17.6 to 30.9-126 µM/h (P coffee drinks. Despite different absorption rates, the extent of conjugation was comparable between HRC, LRC, and URC coffees but different for HURC. The most abundant circulating metabolites during the first 5 H were dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate (CA3S) and isoferulic-3'-O-glucuronide (iFA3G). DHFA and 5-4-dihydro-m-coumaric acid (mDHCoA) were the main metabolites in the period of 5-24 H. The phenolic compounds after consumption of HURC were most rapidly absorbed (Tmax 1 H) compared with the other coffees (Tmax between 9 and 11 H). Using coffees with different degrees of roasting we highlighted that in spite of different absorption rates the extent of conjugation of phenolic acids was comparable. In addition, by using a hydrolyzed unroasted coffee we demonstrated an increased absorption of phenolic acids in the small intestine. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):259-267, 2016.

  11. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages.

  12. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  13. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; de Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2013-01-01

    Roasted coffee samples of the two major trade species (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Coffee beans were roasted at 220 + 10 °C, for 7, 9, and 11 min, and the sensory profiles of the beverages were assessed. From descriptive analysis the eigenvalues allowed the identification of two principal components (PCs), being the variance between samples 68.9% and 21.1%. In the first PC the characteristic odor, astringency, body, bitter flavor, burned aroma, and residual, typical, and burned tastes prevailed. The correlation coefficient between the second PC and citric acid flavor and aroma reached 0.96 and 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that in beverages of these species, the descriptors of both components can be separated according to bean roasting time. Considering roasting time, the overall quality was also rated.

  14. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  15. Stability of ochratoxin A (OTA) during processing and decaffeination in commercial roasted coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehad, E A; Farag, M M; Kawther, M S; Abdel-Samed, A K M; Naguib, K

    2005-08-01

    The fate of ochratoxin A (OTA) during the processing of artificially contaminated green coffee beans, the effect of decaffeination on the production of OTA in green and roasted coffee beans, and the effect of caffeine on the growth and OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus were studied. The data indicated that the roasting, milling and decoction (brewing and Turkish coffee making) processes caused different percentage reductions in OTA. Decaffeinated samples showed a significantly higher concentration of OTA production than the caffeinated ones. A significantly higher percentage of OTA was reduced when the decaffeination process was performed before roasting treatment. Caffeine at 1.0 and 2.0% concentrations completely prevented OTA production and completely inhibited A. ochraceus growth in YES medium after 3-21 days.

  16. Understanding the fate of chlorogenic acids in coffee roasting using mass spectrometry based targeted and non-targeted analytical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius F; Golon, Agnieszka; Witt, Matthias; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-09-01

    Coffee is one of mankind's most popular beverages obtained from green coffee beans by roasting. Much effort has been expended towards the chemical characterisation of the components of the roasted coffee bean, frequently termed melanoidines, which are dominated byproducts formed from its most relevant secondary metabolites - chlorogenic acids. However, impeded by a lack of suitable authentic reference standards and analytical techniques sufficiently powerful for providing insight into an extraordinarily complex enigmatic material, unsurprisingly little structural and mechanistic information about the products of coffee roasting is available. Here we report on the characterisation of low molecular weight melanoidine fractions of roasted coffee using a conceptually novel combination of targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometrical techniques. We provide an unprecedented account of the chemical composition of roasted coffee beans. Using a targeted analytical approach we show for the first time, by comparison to authentic reference standards obtained by chemical synthesis, that chlorogenic acids follow four distinct reaction pathways including epimerization, acyl migration, lactonisation and dehydration. The analytical strategy employed in a non-targeted approach uses high resolution mass spectrometry to identify the most abundant molecular formulas present in roasted coffee samples and model roasts followed by van Krevelen and homologous series analysis. We identified the molecular formulas formed from reactions of chlorogenic acids, carbohydrates and proteins, both between classes of compounds and within same classes of compounds. Furthermore, we identified two new classes of compounds formed from chlorogenic acids during roasting, chlorogenic acid acetates and O-phenolic quinoyl and shikimoyl esters of chlorogenic acids.

  17. Isoflavones in coffee: influence of species, roast degree, and brewing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Almeida, Ivone M C; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2010-03-10

    This paper reports the isoflavone contents of roasted coffee beans and brews, as influenced by coffee species, roast degree, and brewing procedure. Total isoflavone level is 6-fold higher in robusta coffees than in arabica ones, mainly due to formononetin. During roasting, the content of isoflavones decreases, whereas their extractability increases (especially for formononetin). Total isoflavones in espresso coffee (30 mL) varied from approximately 40 microg (100% arabica) to approximately 285 microg (100% robusta), with long espressos (70 mL) attaining more than double isoflavones of short ones (20 mL). Espressos (30 mL) prepared from commercial blends contained average amounts of 6, 17, and 78 microg of genistein, daidzein, and formononetin, respectively. Comparison of different brewing methods revealed that espresso contained more isoflavones ( approximately 170 microg/30 mL) than a cup of press-pot coffee ( approximately 130 microg/60 mL), less than a mocha coffee ( approximately 360 microg/60 mL), and amounts similar to those of a filtered coffee cup ( approximately 180 microg/120 mL).

  18. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  19. Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyczka, Christine; Boettler, Ute; Lang, Roman; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris; Somoza, Veronika

    2011-10-01

    Recent results from prospective cohort studies have shown that moderate coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes mellitus type II or Alzheimer's disease. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, antioxidants in coffee might contribute to this risk reduction. We aimed at elucidating whether a dark roast coffee beverage (CB) rich in N-methylpyridinium ions (NMP: 785 μmol/L) and low in chlorogenic acids (CGA: 523 μmol/L) has stronger antioxidant effects on human erythrocytes than a CB prepared from a light roast with opposite proportions (CGA: 4538 μmol/L; NMP: 56 μmol/L). Following a 2-wk wash out period, 500 mL of the respective CB was administered to 30 subjects daily for 4-wk. Blood and spot urine samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. Intake of the dark roast CB most effectively improved the antioxidant status of erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 5.8 and 15%, respectively, whereas tocopherol and total glutathione concentrations increased by 41 and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, administration of the NMP-rich CB led to a significant body weight reduction in pre-obese subjects, whereas the CGA-rich CB did not.

  20. Influence of roasting and brew preparation on the ochratoxin A content in coffee infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De Obanos, A; González-Peñas, E; López De Cerain, A

    2005-05-01

    A study of the effect of coffee processing in the ochratoxin A (OTA) level has been carried out from the green beans to the drinking form. The analysis of OTA has been carried out by an in-house validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection were 0.04 microg/kg for green and roasted coffee, and 0.01 microg/L for coffee brew. Thirty-six green coffee samples of different origin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Brazil, Vietnam, India and Uganda) were analysed. The highest concentrations of OTA were found in Vietnamese samples -- Robusta species treated by dry processing -- (range 0.64-8.05 microg/kg), that also showed the highest percentage of defective beans (7.6%). These contaminated samples were roasted in a process that controlled loss of weight and color, as in the industry. A mean reduction of 66.5% was obtained, but the reduction seems to be heterogeneous. Coffee brew was prepared by the three brewing processes more utilized in Europe: moka, auto-drip and espresso. A reduction of the OTA level has been attained, being greater when using a espresso coffee maker (49.8%) than when using auto-drip (14.5%) or moka brewing (32.1%). Therefore, the method of coffee brew preparation plays a key role in the final OTA human exposure.

  1. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  3. Rapid authentication of coffee blends and quantification of 16-O-methylcafestol in roasted coffee beans by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Elisabetta; Finotello, Claudia; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mammi, Stefano; Navarini, Luciano

    2014-12-24

    Roasted coffee is subject to commercial frauds, because the high-quality Coffea arabica species, described as "100% Arabica" or "Highland coffee", is often mixed with the less expensive Coffea canephora var. Robusta. The quantification of 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) is useful to monitor the authenticity of the products as well as the Robusta content in blends. The German standard method DIN 10779 is used in the determination of 16-OMC in roasted coffee beans to detect C. canephora in blends, but it is laborious and time-consuming. Here, we introduce a new method that provides a quantitative determination of esterified 16-OMC directly in coffee extracts by means of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, which are adequate to detect the presence of Robusta at percentages lower than 0.9%. The proposed method is much faster, more sensitive, and much more reproducible than the DIN standard method.

  4. Isotopic and Elemental Composition of Roasted Coffee as a Guide to Authenticity and Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James F; Yates, Hans S A; Tinggi, Ujang

    2015-06-24

    This study presents the stable isotopic and elemental compositions of single-origin, roasted coffees available to retail consumers. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(18)O compositions were in agreement with those previously reported for green coffee beans. The δ(15)N composition was seen to be related to organic cultivation, reflected in both δ(2)H and δ(18)O compositions. The δ(13)C composition of extracted caffeine differed little from that of the bulk coffee. Stepwise discriminant analysis with jackknife tests, using isotopic and elemental data, provided up to 77% correct classification of regions of production. Samples from Africa and India were readily classified. The wide range in both isotopic and elemental compositions of samples from other regions, specifically Central/South America, resulted in poor discrimination between or within these regions. Simpler X-Y and geo-spatial plots of the isotopic data provided effective visual means to distinguish between coffees from different regions.

  5. Role of water state and mobility on the antiplasticization of green and roasted coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocculi, Pietro; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Venturi, Luca; Cremonini, Mauro; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Pittia, Paola

    2011-08-10

    The effect of water on "antiplasticization" and plasticization of green and roasted coffee was studied by textural analysis, sorption isotherms, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From BET monolayer value to a(w) = 0.61 and 0.75 for green and roasted coffee, respectively, the solid matrix hydration occurred and water induced hardening. Very short NMR T(2) values and the concomitant absence of any DSC endothermic peak assignable to water freezing were observed at these a(w) values. When solid matrix hydration was completed, water started to act as a plasticizing agent, the compressive modulus started to decrease, and NMR revealed the appearance of a new proton pool with increased mobility. According to DSC, only when the plasticizing effect became important did water present enough mobility to freeze. Above this moisture value (a(w) = 0.78 and 0.86 for green and roasted coffee, respectively), water determined a decrease of bean hardness and a further decrease of the elastic modulus.

  6. Identification of nutritional descriptors of roasting intensity in beverages of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, Antóanto Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; De Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2011-12-01

    Arabica and Robusta coffee beans were roasted at 220 ± 10°C for 7, 9 and 11 min to identify chemical descriptors in the beverages. The pH of the beverages showed the lowest value in the medium roasting level. In each degree of browning, the soluble solids content remained slightly higher in Arabica drinks. The contents of caffeine did not vary, but trigonelline decreased with burning up intensity. Chlorogenic acids also decreased with increasing roasting time. The 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid prevailed in Arabica and Robusta beverages, but the isomers of dicaffeoylquinic and feruolilquínic acids remained higher in Robusta. It was concluded that trigonelline and total caffeoylquinic, fatty dicaffeoylquinic and fatty feruolilquínic acids detached the beverages according to roasting intensity. Caffeine and pH allowed drinks separation between both species. Soluble solids take apart Arabica and Robusta drinks in each degree of roasting. All the individual groups of chlorogenic acids also explained 90% of the variance among samples.

  7. Avaliação físico-química de cafés torrados e moídos, de diferentes marcas comerciais, da região sul de Minas Gerais Levels of aqueous extract, ethereal extract and caffeine in roasted and ground coffees of different brands, from the south of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Licciardi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção das características sensoriais de uma determinada marca de café torrado e moído, a cada produção de um novo lote, tem sido uma das maiores dificuldades enfrentadas pelas torrefadoras, devido à heterogeneidade da matéria-prima utilizada na elaboração dos blends. A composição química do café cru é responsável pelos atributos sensoriais da bebida, que são formados durante o processo de torração e variações nestes componentes acarretam bebidas diferenciadas. Com base neste fato, amostras de onze marcas comerciais de café torrado e moído, comercializadas na região Sul de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas nos meses de janeiro, abril e julho, e avaliadas quanto aos teores de extrato aquoso, extrato etéreo e cafeína. Os resultados demonstraram existir diferenças entre as marcas avaliadas e as épocas de coleta; cuja interação foi significativa para todas as variáveis analisadas. Apenas o teor de cafeína não apresentou diferença entre as marcas, durante o mês de janeiro. Os resultados obtidos para extrato aquoso, extrato etéreo e cafeína encontram-se dentro dos limites estipulados pela legislação vigente. Foram observadas diferenças nos valores das variáveis estudadas para uma mesma marca, em função da época de coleta, demonstrando a necessidade de maior padronização da matéria-prima utilizada e do processo de elaboração de blends para a fabricação do café torrado e moído.The maintenance of the sensorial characteristics of a certain brand of roasted and ground coffee, to each production of a new lot, has been one of the largest difficulties faced by the roasted processors, due to the heterogeneity of the raw material used in the elaboration of the blends. The chemical composition of the raw coffee is responsible for the sensorial attributes of the drink. The flavour is formed during the roasted process and variations in these components cart differentiated drink. Based on to this fact, samples

  8. Componentes voláteis do café torrado. Parte I: compostos heterocíclicos Volatile components in roasted coffee. Part I: heterocyclic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of heterocyclic compounds in roasted coffee is presented. The contents, precursors and sensorial properties of furans, pyrroles, oxazoles, thiazoles, thiophenes, pyrazines and pyridines are discussed. The impact heterocyclic compounds of coffee aroma are described.

  9. In-line monitoring of the coffee roasting process with near infrared spectroscopy: Measurement of sucrose and colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Viegas, Olga; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Rangel, António O S S; Lopes, João Almeida

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a real-time and in-situ analytical tool based on near infrared spectroscopy is proposed to predict two of the most relevant coffee parameters during the roasting process, sucrose and colour. The methodology was developed taking in consideration different coffee varieties (Arabica and Robusta), coffee origins (Brazil, East-Timor, India and Uganda) and roasting process procedures (slow and fast). All near infrared spectroscopy-based calibrations were developed resorting to partial least squares regression. The results proved the suitability of this methodology as demonstrated by range-error-ratio and coefficient of determination higher than 10 and 0.85 respectively, for all modelled parameters. The relationship between sucrose and colour development during the roasting process is further discussed, in light of designing in real-time coffee products with similar visual appearance and distinct organoleptic profile.

  10. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Cämmerer, B.; Kroh, L.W.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by chlor

  11. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies on the Formation of Roasting-Induced Antioxidative Structures in Coffee Brews at Different Degrees of Roast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Cämmerer, B.; Kroh, L.W.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative properties of coffee brew fractions were studied using electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and Fremy¿s salt (nitrosodisulfonate) as stabilized radicals. TEMPO was scavenged by antioxidants formed during roasting and not by

  12. How does roasting affect the antioxidants of a coffee brew? Exploring the antioxidant capacity of coffee via on-line antioxidant assays coupled with size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Vovk, Irena; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-07-01

    During coffee roasting major changes occur in coffee bean composition. Among others dark coloured melanoidins are formed, which are high molecular weight Maillard reaction products. A new approach is presented here to monitor the influence of roasting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of melanoidins and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in a coffee brew. Validated Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and ABTS assays were used as on-line antioxidant assays coupled (post-column) with high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). HPSEC enabled the separation of melanoidins from CGAs and the determination of the antioxidant capacity of each fraction, within a total elution time of 25 min. Besides the on-line assay measurements, both assays were also applied off-line with flow injection analysis (FIA). The maximum antioxidant capacity was determined to be at a light-to-medium roast degree, measured with both ABTS-FIA and FC-FIA assays as well as on-line ABTS assay. With FC on-line assay the maximum was found to be at a very light roast degree. Based on the peak areas obtained with the new coupled technique the roasting effects on the variability of melanoidin and CGA contents in coffee brews were studied. The majority of melanoidins are already formed in the early stage of the roasting process and the relative contribution of melanoidins to the total antioxidant capacity increases towards darker roasts, mainly because CGAs degrade during roasting. A new parameter, the ratio of melanoidin to CGA peak area, was introduced as a possible predictor of the roast degree.

  13. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  14. Furan in coffee: pilot studies on formation during roasting and losses during production steps and consumer handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, H; Hoenicke, K; Biesterveld, S; Gerhard-Rieben, E; Lantz, I

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of furan in some food products has already been known for a few decades, and it has been reconfirmed in more recent investigations that furan is present in a variety of foodstuffs. This list of products includes roasted coffee, which has been shown to generate furan as a result of the heat treatment at roasting which is applied to achieve the desired aroma and flavour profile of a roasted coffee. The objective of this study is to provide data to allow a better understanding of the available data of furan in coffee, the kinetics of furan generated during roasting, and to estimate the reduction of furan levels afterwards due to subsequent processing steps and consumer handling. Finally, the study is meant as a contribution to establish exposure data on the basis of scientific data at the stage of coffee consumption. This paper shows that the formation of furan during roasting is dependent on roasting conditions and is, therefore, directly linked to achieving targeted flavour profiles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that modifications in process conditions potentially to reduce furan levels may have the opposite effect on other undesired reaction products of the roasting chemistry such as, for example, acrylamide. Due to the high volatility of furan, any subsequent processing step or consumer handling has an impact on the level of furan. As a guidance from this study and in consideration of the identified losses of each process and handling step on the basis of the trial conditions, it is estimated that only approximately 10% of the initially generated furan during roasting gets into the cup of coffee for consumption.

  15. Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante do café conilon submetido a diferentes graus de torra Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of conilon coffee submitted to different degrees of roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity presented by Conilon coffee (C. Canephora variety, produced in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were quantified. The light roast coffee showed the highest level of total phenols, trigonelline, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. The proanthocyanidin level was the highest for dark roast coffee, while caffeine level didn't show significative changes for the light and middle roast coffees. All the Conilon coffee extracts showed antioxidant activity depending on bioactive compounds concentration and roasting degree. The coffee samples submitted to a light roasting degree showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  16. Laser mass spectrometry as on-line sensor for industrial process analysis: process control of coffee roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Kettrup, Antonius; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the project is to develop on-line, real-time, and noninvasive process control tools of coffee roasting that help deliver a consistent and high-quality coffee aroma. The coffee roasting process was analyzed by direct injection of the roaster gas into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and ionized either by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) at 266 and 248 nm or vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization (VUV-SPI) at 118 nm. The VUV ionization scheme allows detecting mainly the most volatile and abundant compounds of molecular mass below 100 m/z, while REMPI ionizes mainly aromatic compounds of molecular mass larger than 100 m/z. Combining the compounds ionized by resonant and single-photon ionization, approximately 30 volatile organic compounds are monitored in real time. Time-intensity profiles of 10 important volatile coffee compounds were discussed in connection with their formation chemistry during roasting. Applying multivariate statistics (principle component analysis) on time-intensity traces of nine volatile coffee compounds, the roasting degree could be traced as a consistent path in the score plot of the two most significant principle components (including 68% of the total variance), for a range of roasting temperatures (200-250 degrees C).

  17. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion.

  18. Viability analysis of heat recovery solution for industrial process of roasting coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial heat recovery solution is specific engineering challenge but not because predicted energy rationalization or achieved energy savings but potential unavoidable technological deviations and consequences on related processes and for sure, high investment because of delicate design and construction. Often, the energy savings in a particular segment of the industrial process is a main goal. However, in the food industry, especially roasting coffee, additional criteria has to be strictly observed and fulfilled. Such criteria may include prescribed and uniform product quality, compliance with food safety standards, stability of the processes etc., and all in the presence of key process parameters variability, inconsistency of raw material composition and quality, complexity of measurement and analytical methods etc. The paper respects all circumstances and checks viability of proposed recovery solution. The paper analyzes the possibility of using waste heat from the roasting process to ensure shortening of roasting cycle, reduction of fuel consumption and increasing capacity of roasting lines on daily basis. Analysis concludes that effects are valuable and substantial, although the complete solution is on the threshold of economic sustainability with numerous opportunities to improve of both technical and economic indicators. The analysis combines measuring and analytical methods with standard cost-benefit analysis. Conclusions are derived from measurements and calculations of key parameters in the operating conditions and checked by experimental methods. Test results deviate from 10 to 15%, in relation with parameters in main production line.

  19. Influence of the degree of roasting on the antioxidant capacity and genoprotective effect of instant coffee: contribution of the melanoidin fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-10-24

    The roasting process induces chemical changes in coffee beans that strongly affect the antioxidant activity of coffee. In this study, the polyphenol and melanoidin contents and the antioxidant activity of three instant coffees with different roasting degrees (light, medium, and dark) were assessed. Coffee brews were separated into fractions, and the potential biological activity of the melanoidins was evaluated by simulating their gastrointestinal digestion. Total antioxidant capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenger activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, and protection against DNA oxidative damage (in vitro and ex vivo genoprotective effects) were determined. We report that instant coffee has a high total antioxidant capacity and protective effect against certain oxidative stress biomarkers (lipids and DNA), although this capacity decreases with the roasting degree. Our study confirms the hypothesis that several of the polyphenols present in coffee may become part of the melanoidins generated during roasting. Furthermore, the elevated genoprotective effect of melanoidin-digested fractions is noteworthy.

  20. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry.

  1. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Adriene R.; Rosemary G. F. A. Pereira; Abrahão,Sheila A.; Zangeronimo,Márcio G.; Paula,Fernanda B. A.; Duarte,Stella M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted) by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes as...

  2. Exploratory and discriminative studies of commercial processed Brazilian coffees with different degrees of roasting and decaffeinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Souza Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprints of the volatile compounds of 21 commercial Brazilian coffee samples submitted to different industrial processing i.e. decaffeinated or different roasting degrees (traditional and dark were studied. The volatiles were collected by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The chromatographic data matrices (fingerprints obtained were explored by the principal component analysis (PCA and partial least squares - discriminative analysis (PLS-DA. Initially the chromatographic profiles were aligned by the algorithm correlation optimized warping (COW. The PCA showed the discrimination of the decaffeinated coffees from the others with both the SPME fibres used. This separation probably occurred due to the loss of some volatile precursors during the decaffeination process, such as sucrose. For both the fibres tested, PDMS/DVB and CX / PDMS SPME, the PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% of the samples according to their roasting degree: (medium and dark, the main differences being the concentrations of some of the volatile compounds such as 2-methyl furan, 2-methylbutanal, 2,3-pentanedione, pyrazine, 2-carboxyaldehyde pyrrole, furfural and 2-furanmethanol.

  3. Role of degradation products of chlorogenic acid in the antioxidant activity of roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of brewed coffees prepared from six commercial brands ranged from 63.13 ± 1.01 to 96.80 ± 1.68% at the highest levels tested. Generally, the degree of antioxidant activity of the brewed coffee was inversely proportional to the total chlorogenic acid concentration. A sample obtained from the major chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), heated at 250 °C exhibited potent antioxidant activity (79.12 ± 2.49%) at the level of 10 μg/mL, whereas unheated 5-CQA showed only moderate antioxidant activity (44.41 ± 0.27%) at the level of 100 μg/mL. Heat produced relatively high levels of pyrocatechol (2,809.3 μg/g) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (46.4 μg/g) from 5-CQA, and their antioxidant activity levels were 76.57 ± 3.00 and 98.63 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that roasting degrades chlorogenic acids to form potent antioxidants and thus plays an important role in the preparation of high-antioxidant low-acid coffee.

  4. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.

  5. Two-dimensional 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of roasted coffee bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-09-14

    Coffee was characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To identify the coffee components, a detailed and approximately 90% signal assignment was carried out using various two-dimensional NMR spectra and a spiking method, in which authentic compounds were added to the roasted coffee bean extract (RCBE) sample. A total of 24 coffee components, including 5 polysaccharide units, 3 stereoisomers of chlorogenic acids, and 2 stereoisomers of quinic acids, were identified with the NMR spectra of RCBE. On the basis of the signal assignment, state analyses were further launched for the metal ion-citrate complexes and caffeine-chlorogenate complexes. On the basis of the signal integration, the coffee components were successfully quantified. This NMR methodology yielded detailed information on RCBE using only a single observation and provides a systemic approach for the analysis of other complex mixtures.

  6. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On-line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Goodman, Bernard A; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2017-03-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. To employ post-column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on-line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. By coupling HPSEC on-line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Understanding the Effects of Roasting on Antioxidant Components of Coffee Brews by Coupling On‐line ABTS Assay to High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E.W.; Goodman, Bernard A.; Keller, Marco; Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Schenker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Coffee is a widely consumed beverage containing antioxidant active compounds. During roasting the phytochemical composition of the coffee bean changes dramatically and highly polymeric substances are produced. Besides chlorogenic acids that are already present in green coffee beans, melanoidins show antioxidant capacity as well. Objective To employ post‐column derivatisation by coupling high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to an antioxidant assay to investigate the effect of roasting on the properties of antioxidant active compounds in coffee brews. Methodology We have investigated the antioxidant capacity of Coffea arabica (Arabica) and C. canephora (Robusta) beans that were roasted over the full spectrum of roast conditions (four roasting speeds to three roast degrees) by comparing the results from HPSEC coupled on‐line to the ABTS assay with those from two batch assays, Folin Ciocalteu (FC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Results The antioxidant capacity showed a general decrease towards slower and darker roasted coffee for all three assays, indicative of heat degradation of active compounds. Hence, low molecular weight (LMW) compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGAs) decreased progressively already from relatively mild roasting conditions. In contrast, high molecular weight (HMW) compounds (e.g. melanoidins) increased from light to dark roast degrees with lowering magnitude towards slower roasting profiles. Conclusion By coupling HPSEC on‐line to the ABTS assay we were able to separately quantify the contribution of HMW and LMW compounds to the total antioxidant capacity, increasing our understanding of the roast process. © 2016 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28008674

  8. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance: a randomized, controlled crossover trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were analyzed. The CGA and caffeine contents in the coffees were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. No differences in glucose area under the curve (AUC) were found between treatments. Glucose concentrations were higher at 60 min after ingestion of DAR compared with water, while ingestion of LIR showed similar glucose concentrations as ingestion of water. Insulin AUC was higher after ingestion of DAR compared with water, and both coffees raised insulin concentrations and reduced ISI compared with water, with no difference between the two coffees. Two coffees with different CGA contents did not differentially affect glucose or insulin responses during an OGTT, but both increased the insulin response compared with water.

  9. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  10. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-22

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  11. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  12. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  13. Antioxidant activity and estimation of melanoidin content in commercial roasted coffeeAtividade antioxidante e estimativa do teor de melanoidinas em cafés torrados comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee contains several bioactive compounds, highlighting the antioxidants, whose consumption has been correlated with reduced incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Among 100 known species of the genus Coffea the most important economically in the international trade are Coffea arabica (arabica coffee and Coffea canephora (robusta coffee, usually found as blends in commercial products. Arabica coffees present a higher sensory quality. The components associated with the antioxidant activity (AA of coffee beverages included the class of phenolic compounds (especially 5-CQA and caffeine, which have been most commonly studied, and melanoidins produced in the roasting process, for whom no data are available in the literature. Different methods are used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of foods, but there is no efficient and universal methodology of measurement. In this paper, roast and ground Brazilian coffees, commercialized under different designations (37 samples were analyzed for the level of melanoidins, by spectrophotometry, and the antioxidant activity, by ABTS and total phenolics (Folin- Ciocalteau. All the products evaluated showed significant antioxidant activity. Differences observed in the estimation of the content of melanoidins indicated different roasting processes. Considering the different categories, the Gourmet coffees were characterized for lower values of AA, indicating that besides the degree of roasting, the coffee species used influenced the functionality of the product.O café contém vários componentes bioativos, em destaque os antioxidantes, cujo consumo tem sido correlacionado a redução da incidência de doenças crônicas e degenerativas. Dentre aproximadamente 100 espécies conhecidas do gênero Coffea as mais importantes economicamente no mercado internacional são Coffea arabica (café arábica e Coffea canephora (café conilon, usualmente encontradas como blends em produtos comerciais. O café ar

  14. Crude ethanolic extract from spent coffee grounds: Volatile and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Julio C; Arruda, Neusa P; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-08-30

    Espresso capsule consumption and spent coffee ground (SCG) generation have increased, and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the volatile profile (VP), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the sun protection factor (SPF) of the Crude ethanolic extract obtained from the SCG in capsules. The extract yield was superior to the ether yield because a higher unsaponifiable matter (U.M.) amount was recovered by ethanol. The obtained VP (70 compounds) was typical of roasted coffee oil. Furthermore, chemometric analysis using principal components (PCA) discriminated the extracts and grouped the replicates for each sample, which showed the repeatability of the extraction process. The AA ranged from 18.4 to 23.6 (mg extract mg DPPH(-1)) and the SPF from 2.27 to 2.76. The combination of the coffee VP, AA and SPF gave the espresso SCG's crude ethanolicextract, desirable properties that can be used in cosmetic and food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of decaffeination of green and roasted coffees on the in vivo antioxidant activity and prevention of liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene R. Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decaffeination and roasting affects the composition of the chlorogenic acids in coffee, which have antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of coffee decaffeination on the in vivo antioxidant activity and the prevention of liver damage. The Wistar rats received intraperitoneal doses of carbon tetrachloride and daily doses of Arabica coffee brews (whole and decaffeinated, both green and roasted by gavage for fifteen days. The activity of liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum albumin were measured as well as the quantification of the thiobarbituric acid reactive species and the content of liver total lipids. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are good indicators of liver damage: the results showed that all studied coffee brews decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and total lipids. The compounds presents in coffee brews are able to decrease the hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, making a significant hepatoprotective effect, in accordance with the liver function tests. The coffee brews are hepatoprotective regardless of the decaffeination process and our results suggest a better protection against liver damage for the roasted coffee brews compared with green coffee brews.

  16. Studies of acrylamide level in coffee and coffee substitutes: influence of raw material and manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A

  17. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  18. Effect of coffee combining green coffee bean constituents with typical roasting products on the Nrf2/ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Nadine; Boettler, Ute; Winkler, Swantje; Teller, Nicole; Schwarz, Christoph; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Haupt, Larissa; Griffiths, Lyn R; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika; Marko, Doris

    2012-09-26

    This study investigated Nrf2-activating properties of a coffee blend combining raw coffee bean constituents with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CGA) as a lead component with typical roasting products such as N-methylpyridinium (NMP). In cell culture (HT29) the respective coffee extract (CN-CE) increased nuclear Nrf2 translocation and enhanced the transcription of ARE-dependent genes as exemplified for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)A1, reflected in the protein level by an increase in GST enzyme activity. In a pilot human intervention study (29 healthy volunteers), daily consumption of 750 mL of CN-coffee for 4 weeks increased Nrf2 transcription in peripheral blood lymphocytes on average. However, the transcriptional response pattern of Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes showed substantial interindividual variations. The presence of SNPs in the Nrf2-promoter, reported recently, as well as the detection of GSTT1*0 (null) genotypes in the study collective strengthens the hypothesis that coffee acts as a modulator of Nrf2-dependent gene response in humans, but genetic polymorphisms play an important role in the individual response pattern.

  19. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.

  20. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Gaffney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1 are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2 are likely to exceed some

  1. A GC method for simultaneous analysis of bornesitol, other polyalcohols and sugars in coffee and its substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Montilla, Antonia; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2007-03-01

    A GC method has been developed for the determination of polyalcohols and sugars in aqueous extracts from green coffee beans, ground roasted coffee beans submitted to either conventional or torrefacto processes, coffee blends and soluble instant coffees. Bornesitol was detected in aqueous coffee extracts for the first time. Mannitol, myo-inositol, mannose, fructose, galactose, glucose and sucrose have also been determined. Results seem to indicate that coffee manufacturing processes, such as roasting or decaffeination, do not affect the polyalcohol content. Coffee substitutes based on cereals, carob or chicory, have also been studied. The possibility to characterize their presence in coffee extracts was evaluated.

  2. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Telma Angelina Faraldo; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Oliveira, Daniela Moura de; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Benites, Cibelem Iribarrem; Vinagre, Carmen Guilherme Christiano de Matos; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Tarasoutchi, Daniela; Tuda, Vera Lúcia; César, Luiz Antonio Machado; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2012-09-01

    We compared the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, 20 volunteers consumed 482 ± 61 ml/day of MLR or MR for four weeks. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), oxidized LDL and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at baseline and after the interventions. MLR had higher chlorogenic acids-(CGA; 334 mg/150 mL) and less caffeine (231 mg/150 ml) than MR had (210 and 244 mg/150 ml, respectively). MLR also had fewer Maillard reaction products (MRP) than MR had. Compared with baseline, subjects had an increase of 21 and 26 % in TAS, 13 and 13 % in CAT, 52 and 75 % in SOD, and 62 and 49 % in GPx after MLR and MR consumption (P < 0.001), respectively. ORAC increased after MLR (P = 0.004). No significant alteration in lipid peroxidation biomarkers was observed. Both coffees had antioxidant effects. Although MLR contained more CGA, there were similar antioxidant effects between the treatments. MRP may have contributed as an antioxidant. These effects may be important in protecting biological systems and reducing the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  3. A comparison between enzyme immunoassay and HPLC for ochratoxin A detection in green, roasted and instant coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fujii

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA for ochratoxin A (OTA detection in green, roasted and instant coffees was developed using anti-OTA monoclonal antibody. Immunological reagents prepared were OTA-BSA (4.76 mg/mL, anti-OTA.7 MAb (2x10³-fold dilution and HRP-anti IgG (10³-fold dilution. The detection limit was 3.73 ng OTA/g and correlation coefficients (r between this immunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography were 0.98 for green coffee, 0.98 for roasted and 0.86 for instant. OTA levels detected by ic-ELISA were higher than by HPLC, with ELISA/HPLC ratio of 0.66 - 1.46 (green coffee, 0.96 - 1.11 (roasted and 0.93 - 1.82 (instant. ELISA recoveries for OTA added to coffee (5 - 70 ng/g were 81.53 % for green coffee, 46.73 % for roasted and 64.35 % for instant, while recoveries by HPLC were 80.54 %, 45.91 % and 55.15 %, respectively. Matrices interferences were minimized by samples dilution before carrying out the ELISA assay. The results indicate that MAb-based ic-ELISA could be a simple, sensitive and specific screening tool for OTA detection, contributing to quality and safety of coffee products.ELISA competitivo indireto (ic-ELISA baseado em anticorpos monoclonais foi desenvolvido para a detecção de ocratoxina A (OTA em café verde, torrado e instantâneo. Os reagentes imunológicos necessários à reação consistiram de OTA-BSA (4,76 mg/mL, anti-OTA.7 MAb (diluído 2x10³ e anti IgG-HRP (diluído 10³, apresentando limite de detecção de 3,73 ng OTA/g. Os coeficientes de correlação (r entre o imunoensaio e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foram de 0,98 (café verde, 0,98 (torrado e 0,86 (instantâneo. Ic-ELISA detectou valores superestimados de OTA em relação a CLAE, com valor ELISA/CLAE variando de 0,66 - 1,46 (café verde, 0,96 - 1,11 (torrado e 0,93 - 1,82 (instantâneo. As recuperações médias de OTA adicionada em café (5 - 70 ng/g foram de 81,53 % (café verde, 46

  4. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  5. Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia; Teixeira, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been m...

  6. Spent coffee grounds, an innovative source of colonic fermentable compounds, inhibit inflammatory mediators in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrera, Dunia Maria; Vázquez-Sánchez, Kenia; Loarca-Piña, Ma Guadalupe Flavia; Campos-Vega, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), rich in dietary fiber can be fermented by colon microbiota producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with the ability to prevent inflammation. We investigated SCG anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating its composition, phenolic compounds, and fermentability by the human gut flora, SCFAs production, nitric oxide and cytokine expression of the human gut fermented-unabsorbed-SCG (hgf-NDSCG) fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCG had higher total fiber content compared with coffee beans. Roasting level/intensity reduced total phenolic contents of SCG that influenced its colonic fermentation. Medium roasted hgf-NDSCG produced elevated SCFAs (61:22:17, acetate, propionate and butyrate) after prolonged (24h) fermentation, suppressed NO production (55%) in macrophages primarily by modulating IL-10, CCL-17, CXCL9, IL-1β, and IL-5 cytokines. SCG exerts anti-inflammatory activity, mediated by SCFAs production from its dietary fiber, by reducing the release of inflammatory mediators, providing the basis for SCG use in the control/regulation of inflammatory disorders. The results support the use of SGC in the food industry as dietary fiber source with health benefits.

  7. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  8. Componentes voláteis do café torrado. Parte II. Compostos alifáticos, alicíclicos e aromáticos Volatile components in roasted coffee. Part II. Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is about the aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic compounds (non-heterocyclic compounds that are present in the volatile fractions of roasted coffees. Herein, the contents, aroma precursors and the sensorial properties of volatile phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, anhydrides, esters, lactones, amines and sulphur compounds are discussed. Special attention is given to the compounds of these groups that are actually important to the final aroma of roasted coffees.

  9. Identification of the odour-active cyclic diketone cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione in roasted Arabica coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Hironari; Nakamura, Michiaki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hayashi, Shuichi

    2013-06-15

    We investigated odour-active trace compounds in roasted Brazilian Arabica coffee. Aroma dilution extract analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile oil extracted from roasted coffee brew revealed 34 odour-active compounds. Among these, a pungent-smelling unknown odour-active compound was determined. The volatile oil was fractioned by silica gel column chromatography. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) of the fraction which contained a significant amount of the target unknown compound revealed the cyclic 1,4-diketone, cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, which had a pungent odour, and was thus first identified in roasted coffee. Model experiments revealed that cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione was formed via thermal degradation of sugars, especially monosaccharides, under alkaline conditions. Further, we demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, thermal degradation products of monosaccharides, were closely related to the formation of cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione.

  10. Rapid and reliable QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, S.; Đorđevic, V.; Jelušić, V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to verify the performance characteristics and fitness for purpose of rapid and simple QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and coffee. LC-MS/MS is by far the most suitable analytical technique for acrylamide measurements given its inherent sensitivity and selectivity, as well as capability of analyzing underivatized molecule. Acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips wasextracted with water:acetonitrile mixture using NaCl and MgSO4. Cleanup was carried out with MgSO4 and PSA. Obtained results were satisfactory. Recoveries were in the range of 85-112%, interlaboratory reproducibility (Cv) was 5.8-7.6% and linearity (R2) was in the range of 0.995-0.999. LoQ was 35 μg kg‑1 for coffee and 20 μg kg‑1 for potato chips. Performance characteristic of the method are compliant with criteria for analytical methods validation. Presented method for quantitative determination of acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips is fit for purposes of self-control in food industry as well as regulatory controls carried out by the governmental agencies.

  11. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  13. Coffee grounds emesis: not just an upper GI bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Abdallah, Jad Z; Murthy, Uma K; Mehta, Nilish; Prasad, Heramba N; Kaul, Vivek

    2012-07-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding manifests as hematemesis, melena, or hematochezia. Initial management is identical, irrespective of nasogastric (NG) aspirate results. Current practice includes early upper endoscopy. Significantly fewer high-risk bleeding lesions are found on endoscopy in patients with coffee grounds vs. bloody NG aspirates. We present a case series to illustrate that patients with coffee grounds emesis (CGE) often have other unsuspected illnesses that may be overlooked due to preoccupation with the GI bleed. A retrospective chart review of a series of 6 patients presenting with CGE and admitted for upper GI bleeding was performed. All 6 patients were hemodynamically stable at admission. NG lavage showed coffee grounds that cleared easily. None of the patients required blood transfusions during their hospital stay. Endoscopy in 3 of 6 patients failed to find any significant UGI lesions or stigmata of recent bleed. Although patients were admitted for UGI bleeding, the more significant associated diagnoses included acute myocardial infarction, urosepsis, small bowel obstruction, bilateral pulmonary emboli, and acute renal failure. Hemodynamically stable patients presenting with coffee grounds NG aspirate and no fall in hemoglobin/hematocrit should be evaluated for other non-GI bleeding-related conditions even as the GI bleed is being managed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research status of acrylamide in roasted coffee%焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彤宇; 曾绍东; 王明月; 杨春亮

    2015-01-01

    Coffee can produce a certain amount of acrylamide which is potential carcinogenica during the process of roasting under high temperature (200~250℃ ). Experimental researches showed that short-term contact with a lot of acrylamide could damage nervous centralis of human beings and animals. If human beings were exposed to little doses of acrylamide in long-term, limb numbness and weakness would happen to them. Acrylamide from the process of roasting were created by either asparagine route or acrolein route. The types of coffee, the roasting temperature and the roasting time were the major factors in the formation of acrylamide during roasting coffee beans. The research progresses of controlling the ways of acrylamide formation were reviewed in this article, and suggestions for further researches on the formation of acrylamide were put forward.%咖啡在高温(200~250℃)焙炒加工过程中会产生一定量潜在的致癌物质丙烯酰胺。实验研究表明,短期接触大量丙烯酰胺会对人和动物的中枢神经造成损伤,人体长期小剂量接触丙烯酰胺会表现为四肢末端麻木、无力。咖啡焙炒加工过程中产生的丙烯酰胺除了通过天门冬酰胺途径生成以外,还可以由丙烯醛途径生成。其中影响咖啡中丙烯酰胺形成的主要因素有咖啡类型、咖啡的焙炒温度和时间。本文对控制丙烯酰胺形成途径的研究进展进行了相关阐述,并对焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的进一步研究提出建议。

  15. Integrated volarization of spent coffee grounds to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtu Haile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable energy source produced from natural oils and fats, and is being used as a substitute for petroleum diesel. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and its by-products to produce pelletized fuel, which is expected to help the biodiesel production process achieve zero waste. For this experiment, spent coffee grounds sample was collected from Kaldis coffee, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Extraction of the spent coffee grounds oil was then conducted using n-hexane, ether and mixture of isopropanol to hexane ratio (50:50 %vol, and resulted in oil yield of 15.6, 17.5 and 21.5 %w/w respectively. A two-step process was used in biodiesel production with conversion of about 82 %w/w. The biodiesel quality parameters were evaluated using the American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM D 6751. The major fatty acid compositions found by Gas chromatography were linoleic acid (37.6%, palmitic acid (39.8%, oleic (11.7%, and stearic acid (8.6%. In addition, solid waste remaining after oil extraction and glycerin ratio (glycerin content from 20-40% was evaluated for fuel pellet (19.3-21.6 MJ/Kg applications. Therefore, the results of this work could offer a new perspective to the production of biofuel from waste materials without growing plants and/or converting food to fuel.

  16. Comparison of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector and with Tandem Mass Spectrometry methods for detection and quantification of Ochratoxin A in green and roasted coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte da Costa Cunha Bandeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical methods for the determination and confirmation of ochratoxin A (OTA in green and roasted coffee samples were compared. Sample extraction and clean-up were based on liquid-liquid phase extraction and immunoaffinity column. The detection of OTA was carried out with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined either with fluorescence detection (FLD, or positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS. The results obtained with the LC-ESI-MS/MS were specific and more sensitive, with the advantages in terms of unambiguous analyte identification, when compared with the HPLC-FLD.

  17. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach.

  18. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy.

  19. Removal of lead ions in drinking water by coffee grounds as vegetable biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimoto, Toshimitsu; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Akutagawa, Jyunichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to reuse food waste for useful purposes, we investigated the possibility of using coffee grounds to remove lead ions from drinking water. We studied the lead ion adsorption characteristics of coffee beans and grounds by measuring their fat and protein content, adsorption isotherms for lead ions, and adsorption rates for lead ions. The number of lead ions adsorbed by coffee grounds did not depend on the kind of coffee beans or the temperature at which adsorption tests were performed. The rate of lead ion adsorption by coffee grounds was directly proportional to the amount of coffee grounds added to the solution. When coffee grounds were degreased or boiled, the number of lead ions decreased. When proteins contained in coffee grounds were denatured, the lead ion adsorption was considerably reduced. The lead ion adsorption capacity of coffee grounds decreased with increased concentration of perchloric acid used for treating them and disappeared with 10% perchloric acid. The experiments demonstrated that proteins contained in coffee beans depend upon the adsorption of lead ion. The present study gave an affirmative answer to the possibility of using coffee grounds, an abundant food waste, for removing lead ions from drinking water.

  20. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc; Ana Leahu; Mircea Oroian; Cristina Damian

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom) reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols...

  1. Mixture resolution according to the percentage of robusta variety in order to detect adulteration in roasted coffee by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, C; Esteban-Díez, I; González-Sáiz, J M

    2007-03-07

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), combined with multivariate calibration methods, has been used to quantify the robusta variety content of roasted coffee samples, as a means for controlling and avoiding coffee adulteration, which is a very important issue taking into account the great variability of the final sale price depending on coffee varietal origin. In pursuit of this aim, PLS regression and a wavelet-based pre-processing method that we have recently developed called OWAVEC were applied, in order to simultaneously operate two crucial pre-processing steps in multivariate calibration: signal correction and data compression. Several pre-processing methods (mean centering, first derivative and two orthogonal signal correction methods, OSC and DOSC) were additionally applied in order to find calibration models with as best a predictive ability as possible and to evaluate the performance of the OWAVEC method, comparing the respective quality of the different regression models constructed. The calibration model developed after pre-processing derivative spectra by OWAVEC provided high quality results (0.79% RMSEP), the percentage of robusta variety being predicted with a reliability notably better than that associated with the models constructed from raw spectra and also from data corrected by other orthogonal signal correction methods, and showing a higher model simplicity.

  2. Spent coffee ground extract suppresses ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) ethanol extract on UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. An ethanol extract of SCG (ESCG) was prepared using the residue remaining after extraction of oil from roasted SCG. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the content of caffeine (41.58 ± 0.54 μg/mg) was higher than that of chlorogenic acid isomers (~9.17 μg/mg) in ESCG. ESCG significantly decreased the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin was effectively reduced by ESCG administration; high dose of ESCG (5 g/L) caused the reduction of wrinkle area by 30% compared with UVB-treated control (UVBC). This result correlated with the ESCG-mediated decrease in epidermis thickness (25%). In addition, ESCG administration significantly reduced transdermal water loss (20%) and erythema formation (35%) derived from UVB exposure. Collagen type I (COL-1) level in dorsal skin was effectively recovered by ESCG administration. These results were supported by down-regulation of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) expressions. Our results indicate that ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study suggests that ESCG may be anti-photoaging agent.

  3. Roasting and aroma formation: effect of initial moisture content and steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    Initial moisture of green coffee may vary as a function of green coffee processing and storage conditions. The impact of initial moisture and steam treatment on roasting behavior and aroma formation was investigated. Steam treated coffees as well as coffees with initial moisture content of 5.10, 10.04, and 14.70 g water per 100 g wb were roasted. Light and dark roasting trials were carried out using a fluidizing-bed roaster with a batch size of 100 g of green beans. Differences in roast coffee attributes, that is, color, density, and organic roast loss, and odorant concentrations were more marked in light roasted than in dark roasted coffees. The results of roasting steam treated coffee suggest that this step affects roasting behavior primarily by extracting some aroma precursor compounds.

  4. Effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews Efeito do processamento e da torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. Brews prepared with light, medium and dark roasted coffees were analyzed. The pH, total solids content, polyphenols content, reducing substances and chlorogenic acids content were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts, the guaicol decolorizing and the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. The antioxidant activity of coffee brews were concentration-dependent. A progressive antioxidant activity and polyphenols content was observed decreasing with roasting. The light roasted coffee showed the highest antioxidant activity and dark roasted coffee showed the lowest antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the ingestion of coffee brews prepared with light and medium roasted coffees might protect cells from oxidative stress damages.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processamento e grau de torração sobre a atividade antioxidante da bebida de café. Foram analisadas bebidas preparadas com café nos graus de torração claro, médio e escuro. Foram determinados o pH, o conteúdo de sólidos totais, o conteúdo de polifenóis, o conteúdo de substâncias redutoras e o conteúdo de ácidos clorogênicos. Além disto, foram analisadas a atividade antioxidante dos extratos aquosos, a descoloração do guaiacol e a capacidade de inibição da formação de peróxidos lipídicos. A atividade antioxidante mostrou ser dependente da concentração da bebida de café. Foi observada redução progressiva da atividade antioxidante e de compostos fenólicos com o grau de torração. O café submetido à torra clara apresentou atividade antioxidante máxima e o café com maior grau de torra apresentou a menor atividade antioxidante. Os resultados indicam que a ingestão de bebidas preparadas com cafés de torras clara e média pode proteger a célula contra os efeitos do estresse

  5. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time.

  6. Compostos não voláteis em cafés da região sul de minas submetidos a diferentes pontos de torração Non-volatile compounds in coffee from the south of Minas Gerais state region submitted to different roasting degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Pereira Rodarte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de torração do café induz alterações físicas, químicas e sensoriais na matéria-prima, cuja intensidade e tipo dependem, principalmente, da composição química dos grãos e do tempo e temperatura utilizados na execução do mesmo. Este processo promove a degradação, formação e volatilização de vários compostos. Comercialmente, existem cafés torrados e moídos em diferentes pontos de torração, os quais originam bebidas com diferentes propriedades sensoriais e nutricionais. Os compostos trigonelina, ácidos clorogênicos e cafeína interferem no sabor e aroma do café. A trigonelina e os ácidos clorogênicos vêm sendo estudados também quanto ao aspecto nutricional, uma vez que esses compostos possuem ação benéfica à saúde. Esses compostos são solúveis em água quente, portanto, estarão presentes na bebida em função da sua estabilidade no processo de torração. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar as concentrações dos compostos trigonelina, ácidos clorogênicos e cafeína em cafés da espécie Coffea arabica L. classificados como bebida mole, dura e rio submetidos a três pontos de torração: claro, médio e escuro. As torrações mais acentuadas promoveram uma maior degradação de trigonelina e ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, enquanto que a torração clara promoveu degradação apenas para o ácido clorogênico, não interferindo nas concentrações de trigonelina. A degradação da cafeína não ocorreu em nenhum ponto de torração.The roasting process of coffee induces sensorial, chemical and physical alterations in the raw material. The type and intensity of the process depend mainly on the chemical composition of the grains and on the time and temperature used. This process promotes the degradation, formation and volatilisation of several compounds. There are roast and ground coffees submitted to different roasting conditions available in the market, which give origin to beverages

  7. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Odor-Active (E -4-Methyl-3-hexenoic Acid in Roasted Coffee Generated in the Maillard Reactions of L-Isoleucine with Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironari Miyazato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a novel odor-active unsaturated aliphatic acid in roasted Brazilian Arabica coffee. (E-4-Methyl-3-hexenoic acid -4M3H, which is responsible for a sweaty odor, was identified for the first time using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O, Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (MDGC-MS; its (Z -isomer was also determined. Additionally, we conducted a model formation experiment to detect the presence of 4M3H in coffee and found that it may be produced nonstereoselectively in the Maillard reactions of L-isoleucine with sugars (xylose, fructose, glucose, rhamnose and sucrose. We also found that 2-methylbutanal derived from L-isoleucine and sugar degradation compounds such as α-dicarbonyl compounds (glyoxal, 2-oxopropanal, 2, 3-butanedione and 2, 3-pentanedione and α-hydroxy ketones (1-hydroxy-2-propanone and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone are key factors in the formation of 4M3H. Based on these results, we propose a series of potential nonstereoselective formation pathways for 4M3H.

  9. 基于电子鼻技术检测不同焙烤程度咖啡的特征性香气%Characteristic aroma detection of coffee at different roasting degree based on electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何余勤; 胡荣锁; 张海德; 娜娜; 蔡涛; 彭健; 许英豪

    2015-01-01

    with different roasting degrees. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of coffee into 4 groups which included raw coffee, light roast coffee, medium roast coffee and dark roast coffee. The raw coffee could be divided into the first class which mainly clustered alcohol, esters and alkane. The second species, including 80℃ and 100℃ samples, was likely to cluster the first PC and the first discriminant factor, which was regarded as light roast coffee. A part of coffee may be classified as medium roast coffee at 120℃ and 140℃ owing to esters, phenols, aldehydes, amine, pyrazine and pyrrole. When processing at 160℃, volatile components of coffee mainly contained plenty of aromatic compounds such as heptyl ether, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 5-methylfuran-2-carbaldehyde and 1-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole, in other words, this kind was categorized as dark roast coffee. It was observed that, the higher the baking temperature was, the more easily the samples were discriminated with different volatile compounds. Therefore, the relationships among the roasted coffee volatile compounds, the special fragrance and the roasting degree were determined by the SPME-GC-MS in combination with the electronic nose, which contributed to discriminate different roasting degrees of coffee. The research results can provide scientific basis and technical support for selecting the production process to roast particular aroma of coffee.

  10. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks.

  12. Development and validation of a method for the analysis of Ochratoxin A in roasted coffee by liquid chromatography/electrospray-mass spectrometry in Tandem (LC/ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. C. C. Bandeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method using LC/ESI-MS/MS for the quantitative analysis of Ochratoxin A in roasted coffee was described. Linearity was demonstrated (r = 0.9175. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 and 3.0 ng g-1, respectively. Trueness, repeatability and intermediate precision values were 89.0-108.8%; 2.4-13.7%; 12.5-17.8%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which Ochratoxin A in roasted coffee is analysed by LC/ESI-MS/MS, contributing to the field of mycotoxin analysis, and it will be used for future production of Certified Reference Material.

  13. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents.

  14. Compostos bioativos do café: atividade antioxidante in vitro do café verde e torrado antes e após a descafeinação Coffee bioactive compounds: in vitro antioxidant activity of green and roasted coffees before and after decaffeination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene Ribeiro Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee decaffeination with dichloromethane on the in vitro antioxidant activity of this matrix. It were determined the content of total phenolics, chlorogenic acid and caffeine of the coffee samples. The assessment of the antioxidant potential was investigated by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducer power and Fe2+chelation activity. The process of decaffeination and roasting caused changes in the levels of the compounds investigated. The results show that the decaffeination by the dichloromethane method reduces the in vitro antioxidant potential of coffee.

  15. Hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets from waste coffee grounds for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Park, Min Hong; Hong, Sung Ju; Lee, Min Eui; Park, Yung Woo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2015-02-18

    The nanostructure design of porous carbon-based electrode materials is key to improving the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. In this study, hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets (HP-CNSs) were fabricated using waste coffee grounds by in situ carbonization and activation processes using KOH. Despite the simple synthesis process, the HP-CNSs had a high aspect ratio nanostructure (∼20 nm thickness to several micrometers in lateral size), a high specific surface area of 1945.7 m(2) g(-1), numerous heteroatoms, and good electrical transport properties, as well as hierarchically porous characteristics (0.5-10 nm in size). HP-CNS-based supercapacitors showed a specific energy of 35.4 Wh kg(-1) at 11250 W kg(-1) and of 23 Wh kg(-1) for a 3 s charge/discharge current rate corresponding to a specific power of 30000 W kg(-1). Additionally, the HP-CNS supercapacitors demonstrated good cyclic performance over 5000 cycles.

  16. Recovery of natural antioxidants from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Petrucci, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) were extracted with an environmentally friendly procedure and analyzed to evaluate the recovery of relevant natural antioxidants for use as nutritional supplements, foods, or cosmetic additives. SCG were characterized in terms of their total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and antioxidant activity by the DPPH scavenging assay. Flavonoid content was also determined by a colorimetric assay. The total phenolic content was strongly correlated with the DPPH scavenging activity, suggesting that phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of SCG. An UHPLC-PDA-TOF-MS system was used to separate, identify, and quantify phenolic and nonphenolic compounds in the SCG extracts. Important amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds as well as caffeine (CAF) evidenced the high potential of SCG, a waste material that is widely available in the world, as a source of natural phenolic antioxidants.

  17. Integration of chlorogenic acid recovery and bioethanol production from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Cenian, Katarzyna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are an abundant by-product of the coffee industry with a complex composition that makes them a promising feedstock for a biorefinery. The objective of this study was to evaluate SCG as a substrate for combined chlorogenic acid and bioethanol production after dilute acid...

  18. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  19. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

  20. N-methylpyridinium, a degradation product of trigonelline upon coffee roasting, stimulates respiratory activity and promotes glucose utilization in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Annett; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    N-Methylpyridinium (NMP) is a thermal degradation product of trigonelline formed upon coffee roasting and hypothesized to exert several health benefits in humans. Since for trigonelline evidence for hypoglycemic effects exists, we examined whether NMP also affects mechanisms of glucose utilization and cellular energy formation. For this purpose, the impact of trigonelline and NMP on respiratory activity, extracellular acidification, cellular adenosine nucleotides, energy supply from fatty acids and glucose as well as thermogenesis in HepG2 cells was analyzed. A 24 hour incubation with nanomolar concentrations of NMP enhanced oxygen consumption rates, resulting in increased ATP levels. Glucose was identified as the prevalent energy substrate as its uptake was augmented up to 18.1% ± 7.44% by NMP at 0.09 μM, whereas the uptake of fatty acids decreased upon NMP treatment. Cellular glucose uptake was also stimulated by trigonelline administration; however, a shift to the anaerobic energy production pathway was monitored. Both pyridine derivatives induced thermogenesis, although trigonelline presumably promoted proton leaks, while NMP increased the concentration of the uncoupling protein-2. We provide evidence that both compounds appear to stimulate cellular energy metabolism in HepG2 cells. Human intervention studies are warranted to ensure these effects in vivo.

  1. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5±0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel.

  2. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions.

  3. Kinetic characterization of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion for coffee grounds and waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu-You

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the kinetics of an anaerobic process (hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis) under thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) conditions with coffee grounds and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrates. Special focus was given to the kinetics of propionic acid degradation to elucidate the accumulation of VFAs. Under the thermophilic condition, the methane production rate of all substrates (WAS, ground coffee and raw coffee) was about 1.5 times higher than that under the mesophilic condition. However, the effects on methane production of each substrate under the thermophilic condition differed: WAS increased by 35.8-48.2%, raw coffee decreased by 76.3-64.5% and ground coffee decreased by 74.0-57.9%. Based on the maximum reaction rate (Rmax) of each anaerobic stage obtained from the modified Gompertz model, acetogenesis was found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS. This can be explained by the kinetics of propionate degradation under thermophilic condition in which a long lag-phase (more than 18 days) was observed, although the propionate concentration was only 500 mg/L. Under the mesophilic condition, acidogenesis and hydrolysis were found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS, respectively. Even though reducing the particle size accelerated the methane production rate of coffee grounds, but did not change the rate-limiting step: acetogenesis in thermophilic and acidogenesis in mesophilic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of colour parameters for roasted coffee assessment Utilização dos parâmetros de cor para avaliação do café torrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Cavaco Bicho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and non-destructive indicators were evaluated as tools to measure the technological quality of Arabica and Robusta coffee. Accordingly, considering the roasting intensity in highly valuable commercial samples, volume, mass, apparent density, moisture, total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and ether extract were characterized. The chromatic parameters L*, C*, Hº were measured using illuminants D65 and C. It was found that in roasted coffee beans, the parameters L*, C*, Hº, and coordinate b* had an antagonist interaction due to an increase in the roasting intensity, whereas after milling, only L* and Hº decreased progressively. Considering that the parameters L* and Hº followed similar patterns using both illuminants, D65 and C, it can be concluded that they are appropriate to evaluate coffee colour changes during roasting, enabling a relationship with coffee quality.Avaliaram-se indicadores não destrutivos e de execução rápida, para aferir a qualidade tecnológica de cafés Arábica e Robusta. Neste contexto, considerando a intensidade da torra em amostras com elevado interesse comercial, caracterizaram-se o volume, massa, densidade aparente, umidade, cinzas totais e insolúveis em ácido clorídrico e do extrato etéreo. Foram então analisados os parâmetros cromáticos L*, C*, Hº utilizando os iluminantes D65 e C. Verificou-se que em grãos de café torrado os parâmetros L*, C*, Hº e a coordenada b* mostraram uma interação antagônica face ao acréscimo da intensidade da torra, enquanto, após a moagem, apenas o L* e o Hº decresceram progressivamente. Considerando que a coordenada L* não variou significativamente com a aplicação dos dois iluminantes, concluiu-se que este parâmetro é o mais adequado para estudar a evolução da cor durante a torra, permitindo ainda estabelecer uma correlação com a qualidade.

  5. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  6. Study of the Pigments in Colombian Powdered Coffee Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Bedoya, A.; Marín, E.

    2017-01-01

    Biological pigments are chemical compounds that absorb light in the wavelength range of the visible region. They are present in all living organisms, vegetables being among their main producers. In this work, the photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to investigate some qualitative features related to pigments of ground and roasted coffee. The samples were collected at several Colombian commercial markets from different regions. Colombian coffee is known worldwide for its quality and flavor, being the main agricultural export product of the country. Therefore, it is important to study the composition and color of ground and roasted coffee in order to show quality and special characteristics of local varieties. Studying the content of pigments after roasting and grinding the coffee can allow a better understanding of the coloring process, which can lead to the definition of new criteria for evaluating the quality and other characteristics of the final product by comparing the optical spectra. In this work, the optical absorption spectra obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy show absorption bands that match those of the pigments capsanthin, lutein and chlorophyll. In addition, an absorption peak in the near-infrared region was revealed, which also provides information regarding the composition of roasted and ground coffee.

  7. 咖啡豆的烘焙条件对其成分含量的影响研究%Effect of Roasting Conditions on Several Component Content of Coffee Beans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tran Van Cuong; 张宗玲; 郭康权; 夏南; 商晋; 陈贤情

    2016-01-01

    The effects of roasting conditions on the contents of proteins, sugars, starch, lipids and ashes of Vietnam Robusta green coffee beans and roasting coffee beans were studied using different analytical and detection methods such as Kjeldahl method, visible spectrophotometry method, burette method, muffle furnace method and Soxhlet extraction methods . The data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS17.0. The results demonstrated that Vietnam Robusta coffee variety was rich in protein but lower in fat content. With the increase in roasting degree and roasting temperature , their protein and starch contents were initially increased then decreased slightly, total sugar content was reduced significantly whereas significant increase were observed in fat and ash contents. The ranges of variation in different components were:proteins 14.50%to 17.20%, starch 16.30%to 25.30%, total sugars 0.687%to 4.340%, lipids 7.64%to 12.5%and ash 3.47%to 5.23%.%用凯氏定氮法、可见分光光度法、滴定管法、马弗炉法和索氏抽提法等分析检测手段及SPSS17.0数据统计分析软件,研究了烘焙条件对越南罗巴斯达咖啡生豆和烘焙豆的蛋白质、总糖、淀粉、脂肪和灰分等品质成分的影响。结果表明,越南罗巴斯达咖啡属于蛋白质含量较高、脂肪含量低的咖啡豆品种,随烘焙程度和烘焙温度的增加,其蛋白质和淀粉含量先升高后稍下降、总糖含量却显著降低、脂肪和灰分含量明显增高,各成分变化范围:蛋白质含量14.50%~17.20%、淀粉含量16.30%~25.30%、总糖含量0.687%~4.340%、脂肪含量7.64%~12.50%,灰分含量3.47%~5.23%。

  8. What is the structure of the coffee market: Can the real poor benefit from the coffee trade?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the trade with coffee. The primary aim of the paper is to analyse the international coffee trade. Because coffee belongs to the cash crops we have focus on the production. We have analysed the structure of the trade concerning the green (not roasted) coffee, roasted coffee and coffee extracts, essences or concentrates. The analyses of production show enormous differences between developed and developing countries on the supply side. Dissimilarity appeared in the price ...

  9. Potential of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for analyzing the quality of unroasted and ground coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Varão; Hubinger, Silviane Zanni; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Ferreira, Ednaldo José; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and a very popular beverage around the world. Its economic value as well as beverage quality are strongly dependent of the quality of beans. The presence of defective beans in coffee blends has caused a negative impact on the beverage Global Quality (GQ) assessed by cupping tests. The main defective beans observed in the productive chain has been those Blacks, Greens and Sours (BGS). Chemical composition of BGS has a damaging impact on beverage GQ. That is why analytical tools are needed for monitoring and controlling the GQ in coffee agro-industry. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully applied for assessment of coffee quality. Another potential technique for direct, clean and fast measurement of coffee GQ is Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Elements and diatomic molecules commonly present in organic compounds (structure) can be assessed by using LIBS. In this article is reported an evaluation of LIBS for the main interferents of GQ (BGS defects). Results confirm the great potential of LIBS for discriminating good beans from those with BGS defects by using emission lines of C, CN, C2 and N. Most importantly, some emission lines presented strong linear correlation (r > 0.9) with NIRS absorption bands assigned to proteins, lipids, sugar and carboxylic acids, suggesting LIBS potential to estimate these compounds in unroasted and ground coffee samples.

  10. Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Teixeira, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Extracts rich in polysaccharides were obtained by alkali pretreatment (PA) or autohydrolysis (PB) of spent coffee grounds, and incorporated into a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based film aiming at the development of bio-based films with new functionalities. Different concentrations of PA or PB (up...

  11. Spent coffee grounds as air-propelled abrasive grit for weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) represent a significant food waste residue. Value-added uses for this material would be beneficial. Gritty agricultural residues, such as corncob grit, can be employed as abrasive air-propelled agents for organically-compatible postemergence shredding of weed seedlings sel...

  12. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouaou, N; Sadaoui, Z; Djaafri, A; Mokaddem, H

    2010-12-15

    Adsorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee grounds from cafeterias may act as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, particle size, initial concentration of cadmium and temperature. Three adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyse the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm which provided the best correlation for Cd(2+) adsorption onto coffee grounds, shows that the adsorption was favourable and the adsorption capacity found was equal to 15.65 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was exothermic. The equilibrium was achieved less than 120 min. The adsorption kinetic data was fitted with first and second order kinetic models. Finally it was concluded that the cadmium adsorption kinetic onto coffee grounds was well fitted by second order kinetic model rather than first order model. The results suggest that coffee grounds have high possibility to be used as effective and economical adsorbent for Cd(2+) removal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouaou, N., E-mail: azouaou20@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sadaoui, Z. [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Djaafri, A. [Central laboratory, SEAAL, 97 Parc ben omar, Kouba, Algiers (Algeria); Mokaddem, H. [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Faculty of Mechanical and Processes Genius, University of Sciences and Technology Houari - Boumediene, USTHB, BP no 32 El Alia bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-12-15

    Adsorption can be used as a cost effective and efficient technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee grounds from cafeterias may act as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium. Batch kinetic and equilibrium experiments were conducted to study the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial pH, particle size, initial concentration of cadmium and temperature. Three adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyse the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm which provided the best correlation for Cd{sup 2+} adsorption onto coffee grounds, shows that the adsorption was favourable and the adsorption capacity found was equal to 15.65 mg g{sup -1}. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was exothermic. The equilibrium was achieved less than 120 min. The adsorption kinetic data was fitted with first and second order kinetic models. Finally it was concluded that the cadmium adsorption kinetic onto coffee grounds was well fitted by second order kinetic model rather than first order model. The results suggest that coffee grounds have high possibility to be used as effective and economical adsorbent for Cd{sup 2+} removal.

  14. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG...

  15. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  16. Direct power generation from waste coffee grounds in a biomass fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hansaem; Ocon, Joey D.; Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of direct power generation from waste coffee grounds (WCG) via high-temperature carbon fuel cell technology. At 900 °C, the WCG-powered fuel cell exhibits a maximum power density that is twice than carbon black. Our results suggest that the heteroatoms and hydrogen contained in WCG are crucial in providing good cell performance due to its in-situ gasification, without any need for pre-reforming. As a first report on the use of coffee as a carbon-neutral fuel, this study shows the potential of waste biomass (e.g. WCG) in sustainable electricity generation in fuel cells.

  17. Detection of Corn Adulteration in Brazilian Coffee (Coffea arabica) by Tocopherol Profiling and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Singh, Mukti; Rennick, Kathy A; Bakota, Erica L; Jham, Gulab; Liu, Sean X; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-12-16

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, leading to loss of quality and causing significant loss to consumers. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing methods for detecting coffee adulteration and improving the sensitivity and accuracy of these methods. Corn and other lower value crops are potential adulterants, along with sticks and coffee husks. Fourteen pure Brazilian roasted, ground coffee bean samples were adulterated with 1-20% of roasted, ground corn and were analyzed for their tocopherol content and profile by HPLC. They were also analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Both proposed methods of detection of corn adulteration displayed a sensitivity of around 5%, thus representing simple and fast analytical methods for detecting adulteration at likely levels of contamination. Further studies should be conducted to verify the results with a much larger sample size and additional types of adulterants.

  18. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  19. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  20. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  1. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  2. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yashin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc. in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.. Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  3. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-10-15

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  4. Utilization of oil extracted from spent coffee grounds for sustainable production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Petrik, Sinisa; Benesova, Pavla; Svoboda, Zdenek; Eremka, Libor; Marova, Ivana

    2014-07-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), an important waste product of the coffee industry, contain approximately 15 wt% of coffee oil. The aim of this work was to investigate the utilization of oil extracted from SCG as a substrate for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16. When compared to other waste/inexpensive oils, the utilization of coffee oil resulted in the highest biomass as well as PHB yields. Since the correlation of PHB yields and the acid value of oil indicated a positive effect of the presence of free fatty acids in oil on PHB production (correlation coefficient R (2) = 0.9058), superior properties of coffee oil can be probably attributed to the high content of free fatty acids which can be simply utilized by the bacteria culture. Employing the fed-batch mode of cultivation, the PHB yields, the PHB content in biomass, the volumetric productivity, and the Y P/S yield coefficient reached 49.4 g/l, 89.1 wt%, 1.33 g/(l h), and 0.82 g per g of oil, respectively. SCG are annually produced worldwide in extensive amounts and are disposed as solid waste. Hence, the utilization of coffee oil extracted from SCG is likely to improve significantly the economic aspects of PHB production. Moreover, since oil extraction decreased the calorific value of SCG by only about 9 % (from 19.61 to 17.86 MJ/kg), residual SCG after oil extraction can be used as fuel to at least partially cover heat and energy demands of fermentation, which should even improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  5. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-09-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m2 g-1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm3 g-1 and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ˜4.2 mmol g-1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  6. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  7. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols and the activity of Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs enzyme on 32 samples of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom (top and bottom and subjected to heat treatments (blanching, boiling and freezing. The protein content was ranged between the values of 16.9 and 25.1g/ 100g and the Vitamin C content within the range of values presented 64.32-564.95 mg/100g. The polyphenol content results varied significantly in the analyzed samples varying between 1.887 – 7.667 mg GAE / 100 g vegetable product. The determination of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatically blackening of the fungus presented values in the range 0.274- 0.610mg / 100g.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee grounds with different waste feedstocks for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Baek, Gahyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-10-14

    Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane. Meanwhile, the other co-substrates enhanced the reaction rate while maintaining methane production at a comparable or higher level to that of the mono-digestion of spent coffee ground. The reaction rate increased with the proportion of co-substrates without a significant loss in methanation potential. These results suggest the potential to reduce the reaction time and thus the reactor capacity without compromising methane production.

  9. Sensory evaluation of black instant coffee beverage with some volatile compounds present in aromatic oil from roasted coffee Análise sensorial de bebida preparada com café instantâneo com alguns compostos voláteis presentes no óleo aromático de café torrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oil obtained from Brazilian roasted coffee by supercritical CO2 extraction shows considerable aromatic properties, mainly composed by five aromatic compounds, 2-methylpyrazine; 2-furfurylalcohol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine; γ-butyrolactone and 2-furfurylacetate. Sensory analyses were used to verify the influence of a mixture of these important classes of aromatic coffee compounds (pyrazines, furans and lactones and of the roasted coffee aromatic oil on the coffee aroma and flavour of black instant freeze and spray-dried coffee beverages. In the acceptance evaluation of the aroma, the samples prepared with freeze-dried instant coffee without the mixture of volatile compounds (sample 4 were not significantly different from the freeze-dried instant coffee in which the aromatic coffee oil was added (sample 5 and from the sample prepared with freeze-dried coffee in which the mixture of the five volatile was added (sample 3, coincidentally from the same drying process. Therefore, sample (3 did not differ from samples prepared with spray dried instant coffee without (sample 1 and to which (sample 2 the mixture of volatile was added. Therefore, with respect to this attribute, the addition of this mixture did not interfere in this drink acceptance. Taking into consideration the flavor, samples prepared with freeze-dried instant coffee in which the aromatic coffee oil was added (5 and the samples with (3 and without (4 the mixture of the five volatile was added did not differ significantly, however sample (4 did not differ from samples (1 and (2. Regarding this attribute, the addition of the aromatic oil of roasted coffee or a mixture of volatile in samples of freeze-dried instant coffee had a better acceptance than those dried by spray dryer (1 and (2. Thus, the enrichment of drinks with the aromatic oil of roasted coffee, or even with the mixture of the five components did not influence the consumer acceptance with respect to the aroma, but exerts

  10. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniel P; Monteiro, Mariana C; Ribeiro-Alves, Mirna; Donangelo, Carmen M; Trugo, Luiz C

    2005-03-09

    The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The influence on FRAP due to the degree of roasting (light, medium, and dark), species (Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta), and caffeine content (regular and decaffeinated) was investigated using ground and soluble coffee samples. The concentration of specific chlorogenic acids and caffeine in the beverages was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and related to FRAP using Pearson correlation coefficients. All measurements were expressed per unit of soluble solids. Beverages prepared with ground coffee had, on average, 27% higher FRAP values than those prepared with soluble coffee (p 0.91) was found between FRAP and the total content of chlorogenic acids, particularly that of the caffeoylquinic acid isomers. The iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages was not influenced by caffeine.

  11. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Interação da torra e moagem do café na preferência do consumidor do oeste paranaense Influence of roasting and milling on consumers coffee preference at Paraná west-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Adriana Pizarro Schmidt

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as preferências dos consumidores de café da região oeste do Paraná, em relação ao ponto de torra e à granulometria de moagem. Foram realizadas análises sensoriais de preferência e físico-químicas. As análises físico-químicas foram utilizadas para monitorar as mudanças ocorridas nos produtos ao longo do processo de torra. Os cafés com torras mais leves foram pouco aceitos. O café que apresentou aparência global, aroma e sabor preferido foi o que apresentava uma torra média escura, mais próxima das torras tradicionais brasileiras. A torra mais escura foi bem aceita apenas em relação à aparência. A moagem fina foi preferida em relação à aparência global do produto, mas, apesar de ter apresentado maior acidez, os provadores não diferenciaram seu sabor.This study aimed the evaluation of the consumers preference for coffee in the west region of Paraná State, Brazil, in relation to the roasting degree and grinding granulometry. Sensorial preference and physical-chemichal analysis were made. The physical-chemichal analysis were used to monitor the changes that occurred in the products along the roasting process. The samples of coffee with light toasts were little accepted. The kind of coffee that presented preferred global appearance, aroma and taste was the one which presented average dark toasting, which is the one that is more similar to the traditional Brazilians toastings. The darkest toasting, was well-accepted in relation to appearance. The thin milling was preferred in relation to the global appearance of the product, but in spite of having presented major acidity the tasters did not make difference about its taste.

  13. Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet

    2012-08-30

    Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Malir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B, being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source.

  15. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

  16. PENYANGRAIAN HANCURAN NIB KAKAO DENGAN ENERJI GELOMBANG MIKRO UNTUK MENGHASILKAN COKELAT BUBUK Microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib to produce cocoa powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto Supriyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, energy from a microwave oven adjusted at 20 % scale out of 900 watt for 5 min was applied to roast ground cocoa nib passing through 20 mesh screen for 5 min to produce cocoa powder. Effect of the technique on the physical and chemical properties of the product was compared to that of the conventional roasting at 140oC for 40 min. The result indicated that cocoa powder which was produced by microwave roasting had lower water content (3.48% compared to 3.88%; lower fat content (23.56% compared to 25.18%. It had smaller particle size and more uniform (10-45 µm compared to 20 – 125 µm, however both of them had the same brown intensity. Flavor intensity, color and acceptability of cocoa powder produced by microwave oven did not show a significant difference (p<0.05, however it had more bitter taste, and comprised more flavor components compared to that of resulted by conventional roasting. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of cocoa powder produced by microwave and conventional roasting were not significant difference (p<0.05. ABSTRAK Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan penyangraian hancuran keping biji kakao (nib lolos ayakan 20 mesh, mengguna- kan enerji gelombang mikro (EGM, untuk pengolahan bubuk cokelat. Pengaruh cara penyangraian tersebut dikaji terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia bubuk cokelat yang dihasilkan, dibandingkan dengan penyangraian konvensional. Pe- nyangraian nib kakao menggunakan EGM dilakukan selama 5 menit diatur pada posisi power 20 % dari 900 watt, penyangraian konvensional dilakukan pada suhu 140 oC selama 40 menit. Bubuk cokelat hasil penyangraian meng- gunakan EGM mempunyai kadar air lebih rendah (3,48 % dibanding 3,88 %, kadar lemak lebih rendah (23,56 % dibanding 25,18 %, ukuran partikel hancuran lebih kecil (10 – 45 µm dibanding 20 – 125 µm dan lebih merata, serta intensitas warna cokelat tidak berbeda dibanding bubuk cokelat hasil penyangraian konvensional (p<0,05. Bubuk cokelat dari hasil

  17. Matrix binding of ochratoxin A during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Andrea; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-12-26

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is degraded during coffee roasting by up to 90%. During this process, the two known degradation products, 14R-ochratoxin A and 14-decarboxy-ochratoxin A are formed. However, there is still an unexplained loss of more than 50% ochratoxin A. Here, we describe the binding of ochratoxin A to coffee polysaccharides via esterification as a further thermal reaction. This ester formation was studied by heating ochratoxin A with methyl α-d-glucopyranoside, a model compound to mimic polysaccharides. From this experiment, (22 → 6') ochratoxin A-methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside ester was isolated and characterized as a reaction product, showing the general ability of ochratoxin A for esterification with carbohydrates at roasting temperatures. Subsequently, a sample preparation protocol for the detection of ochratoxin A saccharide esters based on an enzymatic cleavage and purification using immunoaffinity chromatography was developed and applied. The detection was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Using this method, it was possible to detect ochratoxin A polysaccharide esters formed during roasting of artificially contaminated coffee, confirming the results of the previous model experiments. Thus, the formation of ochratoxin A esters is a further explanation for the loss of ochratoxin A during coffee roasting.

  18. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  19. Isolation of polyphenols from spent coffee grounds and silverskin by mild hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Teresa; Mussatto, Solange I

    2016-05-18

    In this study, a new method for isolation of polyphenols (PP) from spent coffee grounds (SCG) and coffee silverskin (CS) is described. The method consisted of a mild hydrothermal pretreatment at 120°C, for 20 min, using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 mL/g. PP (determined as gallic acid equivalents, GAE) were the most abundant components in the extracts produced by this method, corresponding to 32.92 mgGAE/gSCG and 19.17 mgGAE/gCS, among which flavonoids corresponded to 8.29 and 2.73 mg quercetin equivalents/g of SCG and CS, respectively. Both extracts presented antioxidant activity but the results were higher for SCG extract, probably due to the highest content of PP present. Negligible effects (less than 1% solubilization) were caused by the hydrothermal pretreatment on cellulose, hemicellulose, and protein fractions of these materials. Some mineral elements were present in the extracts, with potassium being the most abundant. Hydrothermal pretreatment under mild conditions was demonstrated to be an efficient method to recover antioxidant PP from coffee residues.

  20. Coffee polyphenols protect human plasma from postprandial carbonyl modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Roman; Gorelik, Shlomit; Harris, Raviv; Kohen, Ron; Kanner, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant capability of coffee polyphenols to inhibit red-meat lipid peroxidation in stomach medium and absorption into blood of malondialdehyde (MDA) in humans was studied. Roasted-ground coffee polyphenols that were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in stomach medium are 2- to 5-fold more efficient antioxidant than those found in instant coffee. Human plasma from ten volunteers analyzed after a meal of red-meat cutlets (250 g) revealed a rapid accumulation of MDA. The accumulation of MDA in human plasma modified low-density lipoprotein is known to trigger atherogenesis. Consumption of 200 mL roasted coffee by ten volunteers during a meal of red-meat cutlets, resulted after 2 and 4 h in the inhibition by 80 and 50%, respectively, of postprandial plasma MDA absorption. The results obtained in vitro simulated stomach model on MDA accumulation were predictive for the amount of MDA absorbed into circulating human plasma, in vivo. Timing the consumption of coffee during the meals may make it a very active functional food.

  1. Indonesian palm civet coffee discrimination using UV-visible spectroscopy and several chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, M.; Suhandy, D.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesian palm civet coffee or kopi luwak (Indonesian words for coffee and palm civet) is well known as the world’s priciest and rarest coffee. To protect the authenticity of luwak coffee and protect consumer from luwak coffee adulteration, it is very important to develop a simple and inexpensive method to discriminate between civet and non-civet coffee. The discrimination between civet and non-civet coffee in ground roasted (powder) samples is very challenging since it is very difficult to distinguish between the two by using conventional method. In this research, the use of UV-Visible spectra combined with two chemometric methods, SIMCA and PLS-DA, was evaluated to discriminate civet and non-civet ground coffee samples. The spectral data of civet and non-civet coffee were acquired using UV-Vis spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-Vis, Thermo Scientific, USA). The result shows that using both supervised discrimination methods: SIMCA and PLS-DA, all samples were correctly classified into their corresponding classes with 100% rate for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production.

  3. Spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon preparation for sequestering of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Lam, Keat-Ying; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Yeong, Yin-Fong; Lam, Man-Kee; Ho, Yeek-Chia

    2016-11-01

    The key of reported work was to optimize the fabricating factors of spent coffee grounds-based activated carbon (SCG-bAC) used to sequester Malachite Green (MG) form aqueous solution via adsorption process. The fabricating factors of impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid, activation temperature and activation time were simultaneously optimized by central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) targeting on maximum removal of MG. At the optimum condition, 96.3% of MG was successfully removed by SCG-bAC at the impregnation ratio with ortho-phosphoric acid of 0.50, activation temperature of 554°C and activation time of 31.4 min. Statistical model that could predict the MG removal percentage was also derived and had been statistically confirmed to be significant. Subsequently, the MG adsorption equilibrium data was found well-fitted to Langmuir isotherm model, indicating the predominance of monolayer adsorption of MG on SCG-bAC surface. To conclude, the findings from the this study unveil the potential of spent coffee grounds as an alternative precursor in fabricating low-cost AC for the treatment of wastewater loaded with MG pollutant.

  4. Furanic compounds and furfural in different coffee products by headspace liquid-phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: survey and effect of brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the levels of furan, 2-methylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, vinyl furan, 2-methoxymethyl-furan and furfural in different coffee products were evaluated. Simultaneous determination of these six furanic compounds was performed by a head space liquid-phase micro-extraction (HS-LPME) method. A total of 67 coffee powder samples were analysed. The effects of boiling and espresso-making procedures on the levels of furanic compounds were investigated. The results showed that different types of coffee samples contained different concentrations of furanic compounds, due to the various processing conditions such as temperature, degree of roasting and fineness of grind. Among the different coffee samples, the highest level of furan (6320 µg kg⁻¹) was detected in ground coffee, while coffee-mix samples showed the lowest furan concentration (10 µg kg⁻¹). Levels in brewed coffees indicated that, except for furfural, brewing by an espresso machine caused significant loss of furanic compounds.

  5. Rapid assessment of bioactive phenolics and methylxanthines in spent coffee grounds by FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luís M; Machado, Sandia; Segundo, Marcela A; Lopes, João A; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J

    2016-01-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are a great source of bioactive compounds with interest to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Phenolics and methylxanthines are the main health related compounds present in SCG samples. Content estimation of these compounds in SCGs is of upmost importance in what concerns their profitable use by waste recovery industries. In the present work, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was proposed as a rapid and non-destructive technique to assess the content of three main phenolics (caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and chlorogenic acid) and three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) in SCG samples obtained from different coffee brands and diverse coffee machines. The content of these compounds was determined for 61 SCG samples by HPLC coupled with diode-array detection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression based models were calibrated to correlate diffuse reflectance NIR spectra against the reference data for the six parameters obtained by HPLC. Spectral wavelength selection and number of latent variables were optimized by minimizing the cross-validation error. PLS models showed good linearity with a coefficient of determination for the prediction set (Rp(2)) of 0.95, 0.92, 0.88, 071 and 0.84 for caffeine, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline, respectively. The range error ratio (RER) was higher for caffeine (17.8) when compared to other compounds (12.0, 10.1, 7.6 and 9.2, respectively for caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline). Moreover, the content of caffeine could be used to predict the antioxidant properties of SCG samples (R=0.808, n=61), despite not presenting this property itself. The results obtained confirmed that NIRS is a suitable technique to screen SCG samples unveiling those with high content of bioactive compounds, which are interesting for subsequent extraction procedures.

  6. THE POSSIBILITY OF DISPOSING OF SPENT COFFEE GROUND WITH ENERGY RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Ciesielczuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current policy of waste management requires, above all, a gradual reduction of waste amount and, to a larger extent, forces us to seek new methods of waste disposal. Recycling the energy contained in biomass waste is a more and more universally applied method of thermal converting. Biomass combustion allows saving fossil fuels which fits into sustainable development. This paper checks the possibility of using spent coffee ground (SCG in energy recycling using a combustion process. This particular biomass type up to now has not been widely examined, which inclines to consider its usage as a potential additive to alternative fuels. In the study, we examined the quality of fuel, which was in a form of briquette, made of beech shavings with 10 and 25% of post-exploitation waste obtained during the process of coffee infusion. This waste, if fresh, is distinguished by its high hydration. However, after drying it may constitute a valuable additive to alternative fuels. It increases the calorific value of fuel and reduces briquettes’ hardness what contributes to reducing resistance of conveying screw in stoves.

  7. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers.

  8. Integration of decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to produce green aromatics from coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li; Saffron, Christopher M; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongyu; Munro, Robert W; Kriegel, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to integrate decentralized torrefaction with centralized catalytic pyrolysis to convert coffee grounds into the green aromatic precursors of terephthalic acid, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). An economic analysis of this bioproduct system was conducted to examine BTEX yields, biomass costs and their sensitivities. Model predictions were verified experimentally using pyrolysis GC/MS to quantify BTEX yields for raw and torrefied biomass. The production cost was minimized when the torrefier temperature and residence time were 239°C and 34min, respectively. This optimization study found conditions that justify torrefaction as a pretreatment for making BTEX, provided that starting feedstock costs are below $58 per tonne. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Removal of fluoride ions from water by adsorption onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous material for the removal of fluoride ions from water was prepared from coffee grounds (CGs) by calcination and subsequent HCl treatment. The characteristics of the CGs, including the surface area, mean pore diameter, pore volume, and surface functional groups were determined, and the morphological characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption isotherms, saturated amount of fluoride ions adsorbed, and the effect of contact time and temperature on the adsorption of fluoride ions were investigated for a sample of tap water. The specific surface area of CG calcined at 600° (CG600) was larger than that of CGs calcined at 400, 800, and 1000°. Phenolic, lactonic, and carboxyl groups were detected on the CG600 surface. The adsorption capacity of the carbonized CGs for fluoride was ranked in the order CG400 water.

  10. Development of functional composts using spent coffee grounds, poultry manure and biochar through microbial bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S Aalfin; Yoo, Jangyeon; Kim, Eok-Jo; Chang, Jae-Soo; Park, Young-In; Koh, Sung-Cheol

    2017-09-21

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m(2) g(-1). Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment. Moreover, germination indices for radish also increased by 14-34% through augmentation and biochar amendment. Microbial diversity was also enhanced in the augmented and biochar-amended composts by 7.1-8.9%, where two species of Sphingobacteriaceae were dominant (29-43%). The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were enhanced by 14.1% and 8.6% in the fruits of pepper plants grown in the presence of the TR-2 (augmentation applied only) and TR-3 (both augmentation and biochar amendment applied) composts, respectively. Total phenolic content was also enhanced by 68% in the fruits of the crops grown in TR-3. Moreover, the other compost, TR-L (augmentation applied only), boosted DPPH scavenging activity by 111% in leeks compared with commercial organic fertilizer, while TR-3 increased the phenolic content by 44.8%. Composting facilitated by microbial augmentation and biochar amendment shortened the composting time and enhanced the quality of the functional compost. These results indicate that functional compost has great potential to compete with commercially available organic fertilizers and that the novel composting technology could significantly contribute to the eco-friendly recycling of organic wastes such as spent coffee grounds, poultry manure, and agricultural wastes.

  11. Determination of the alkylpyrazine composition of coffee using stable isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Stephanie; Becker, Irina; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Richling, Elke

    2013-07-03

    A stable isotope dilution analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (SIDA-GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 12 alkylpyrazines found in commercially available coffee samples. These compounds contribute to coffee flavor. The accuracy of this method was tested by analyzing model mixtures of alkylpyrazines. Comparisons of alkylpyrazine-concentrations suggested that water as extraction solvent was superior to dichloromethane. The distribution patterns of alkylpyrazines in different roasted coffees were quite similar. The most abundant alkylpyrazine in each coffee sample was 2-methylpyrazine, followed by 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, respectively. Among the alkylpyrazines tested, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine revealed the lowest concentrations in roasted coffee. By the use of isotope dilution analysis, the total concentrations of alkylpyrazines in commercially available ground coffee ranged between 82.1 and 211.6 mg/kg, respectively. Decaffeinated coffee samples were found to contain lower amounts of alkylpyrazines than regular coffee samples by a factor of 0.3-0.7, which might be a result of the decaffeination procedure.

  12. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Secilmis, S. S.; Yanık, D. Kocak; Gogus, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content bo...

  13. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system.

  15. What is the structure of the coffee market: Can the real poor benefit from the coffee trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pokorná

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trade with coffee. The primary aim of the paper is to analyse the international coffee trade. Because coffee belongs to the cash crops we have focus on the production. We have analysed the structure of the trade concerning the green (not roasted coffee, roasted coffee and coffee extracts, essences or concentrates. The analyses of production show enormous differences between developed and developing countries on the supply side. Dissimilarity appeared in the price system. Our results show that developing countries (especially least developed countries cannot fully benefit from the international trade because they are placed just on the lowest level of the production vertical line. The results prove that there must exist strong influence of the supply chains. This is connected with the export of roasted coffee and import of the green coffee.

  16. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pcountries of each characterized continent. Intercontinental and inter-country discrimination between the major world coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin.

  17. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  18. Spectral identifiers from roasting process of Arabica and Robusta green beans using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirani, Ayu Puspa; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. World coffee consumption is around 70% comes from Arabica, 26% from Robusta , and the rest 4% from other varieties. Coffee beverages characteristics are related to chemical compositions of its roasted beans. Usually testing of coffee quality is subjectively tasted by an experienced coffee tester. An objective quantitative technique to analyze the chemical contents of coffee beans using LIBS will be reported in this paper. Optimum experimental conditions was using of 120 mJ of laser energy and delay time 1 μs. Elements contained in coffee beans are Ca, W, Sr, Mg, Na, H, K, O, Rb, and Be. The Calcium (Ca) is the main element in the coffee beans. Roasting process will cause the emission intensity of Ca decreased by 42.45%. In addition, discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the arabica and robusta variants, either in its green and roasted coffee beans. Observed identifier elements are Ca, W, Sr, and Mg. Overall chemical composition of roasted coffee beans are affected by many factors, such as the composition of the soil, the location, the weather in the neighborhood of its plantation, and the post-harvesting process of the green coffee beans (drying, storage, fermentation, and roasting methods used).

  19. El Nino and ground/underground water decreasing effects on coffee cultivation in DakNong Province, Vietnam by using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Anh Quan; Quy Bui, Ngoc; Luu, The Anh; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    El Nino is one of most common climatic events which are widely spread over the world. In case of Vietnam, the El Nino or ENSO event has various effects on agricultural cultivation over whole country; in the Central Highlands area, the coffee cultivation also has been affected heavily. The coffee is one of most important products of this area. Our study area, the Dak Nong province located in the Central Highlands, the mountainous and highlands in central of Vietnam. The coffee production contributes roughly 40% of total GDP of the province. This province climate is influenced by tropical monsoon and high altitude terrain. The area has two seasons in which dry season from November to end of March and the wet season cover the rest. There is 80-90% of precipitation concentrated in wet season. In El Nino years, the dry season is longer and drier than normal which affects the agricultural cultivation especially coffee. The effects of El Nino phenomenon on coffee cultivation need to clarify in order to help farmers and decision makers making their solutions. The ground/underground water has been decreased by over watering of coffee growers as well as deforestation making water shortage in dry season. The over watering of coffee cultivation wasted more than 80% water resources especially underground water use. In years of 1997-1998, coffee productivity decreased 30%; in years of 2003, the coffee productivity was downed by 25%; both examples show the relation between the combination of ENSO and decreasing of Ground/underground water and the coffee production in Dak Nong province. This is a necessary research to evaluate the effects of the combination. This paper using GIS tools to estimate the effects of El Nino phenomenon combined with ground/underground water and the coffee cultivation in Dak Nong province

  20. Valorization of spent coffee grounds recycling as a potential alternative fuel resource in Turkey: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabani, A E; Mercimek, S M; Arvindnarayan, Sundaram; Shobana, Sutha; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Cadir, Mehmet; Al-Muhatseb, Ala'a H

    2017-08-22

    In this study, recycling of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a potential feedstock for alternative fuels production and compounds of added value in Turkey was assessed. The average oil content was found (≈ 13% w/w). All samples (before and after extraction) were tested for SEM, DSC, TGA, XRD, calorific value, surface analysis and porosity, FT-IR and elemental analysis to assess their potential towards fuel properties. Elemental analysis indicated that carbon represents the highest percentage (49.59% and 46.42% respectively), followed by Nitrogen (16.7% and 15.5%), Hydrogen (6.74% and 6.04%) and Sulfur (0.851% and 0.561%). These results indicate that SCG can be utilized as compost as it is rich in nitrogen. Properties of the extracted oil were examined, followed by biodiesel production. The quality of biodiesel was compared with ASTM D6751 standards and all the properties complied with standard specifications. The fatty acid compositions were analyzed by Gas chromatography. It is observed that coffee waste methyl ester (CWME) is mainly comprised of palmitic (35.8%) and arachidic (44.6%) acids which are saturated fatty acids. The low degree of unsaturation provides an excellent oxidation stability (10.4 h). CWME has also excellent cetane number, higher heating value and iodine value with poor cold flow properties. The studies also investigated blending of biodiesel with euro diesel and butanol. Following this, a remarkable improvement in cloud and pour points of biodiesel was obtained. Spent coffee grounds after oil extraction is an ideal material for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, biogas production and as fuel pellets. The outcome of such research work produces valuable insights on the recycling importance of SCG in Turkey. Implication Coffee is a huge industry that has been widely used due to its refreshing properties. This industry generates large quantities of waste. Therefore, recycling of spent coffee grounds for producing alternative fuels and

  1. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Inst., Ebina, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  2. Coffee aroma: Chemometric comparison of the chemical information provided by three different samplings combined with GC-MS to describe the sensory properties in cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Pellegrino, Gloria; Ruosi, Manuela R; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project aiming to correlate the chemical composition of the coffee volatile fraction to its sensory properties with the end-goal of developing an instrumental analysis approach complementary to human sensory profiling. The proposed investigation strategy compares the chemical information concerning coffee aroma and flavor obtained with HS-SPME of the ground coffee and in-solution SBSE/SPME sampling combined with GC-MS to evaluate their compatibility with the cupping evaluation for quality control purposes. Roasted coffee samples with specific sensory properties were analyzed. The chemical results obtained by the three samplings were compared through multivariate analysis, and related to the samples' sensory attributes. Despite the differences between the three sampling approaches, data processing showed that the three methods provide the same kind of chemical information useful for sample discrimination, and that they could be used interchangeably to sample the coffee aroma and flavor.

  3. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF INDIGO CARMINE BY TiO2/ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM WASTE COFFEE GROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Irwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds (TiO2/WCGAC has been prepared by a sol gel method . Waste coffee ground was chemically activated using hydrochloric acid 0.1 M solution and modified with titanium tetraisopropoxide as TiO2 precursor. The structural features of the photocatalyst was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM EDX,  Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The XRD results showed that TiO2 is anatase and rutile phase, while FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of  Ti-O groups. The specifics surface area of TiO2/WCGAC was higher than that of activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WGCAC has been evaluated for degradation of indigo carmine solution under UV and solar light irradiation. It was found that degradation percentage of indigo carmine under solar light was higher than that of under UV light.

  4. Interactions between volatile and nonvolatile coffee components. 1. Screening of nonvolatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Bernard, Marielle; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Rytz, Andreas; Roberts, Deborah D

    2005-06-01

    This study is the first of two publications that investigate the phenomena of coffee nonvolatiles interacting with coffee volatile compounds. The purpose was to identify which coffee nonvolatile(s) are responsible for the interactions observed between nonvolatile coffee brew constituents and thiols, sulfides, pyrroles, and diketones. The overall interaction of these compounds with coffee brews prepared with green coffee beans roasted at three different roasting levels (light, medium, and dark), purified nonvolatiles, and medium roasted coffee brew fractions (1% solids after 1 or 24 h) was measured using a headspace solid-phase microextraction technique. The dark roasted coffee brew was slightly more reactive toward the selected compounds than the light roasted coffee brew. Selected pure coffee constituents, such as caffeine, trigonelline, arabinogalactans, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, showed few interactions with the coffee volatiles. Upon fractionation of medium roasted coffee brew by solid-phase extraction, dialysis, size exclusion chromatography, or anion exchange chromatography, characterization of each fraction, evaluation of the interactions with the aromas, and correlation between the chemical composition of the fractions and the magnitude of the interactions, the following general conclusions were drawn. (1) Low molecular weight and positively charged melanoidins present significant interactions. (2) Strong correlations were shown between the melanoidin and protein/peptide content, on one hand, and the extent of interactions, on the other hand (R = 0.83-0.98, depending on the volatile compound). (3) Chlorogenic acids and carbohydrates play a secondary role, because only weak correlations with the interactions were found in complex matrixes.

  5. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from spent coffee grounds oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Paiva, Alexandre; Lisboa, Pedro; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Simões, Pedro; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-04-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) oil was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction in a pilot plant apparatus, with an oil extraction yield of 90% at a 35kgkg(-1) CO2/SCG ratio. Cupriavidus necator DSM 428 was cultivated in 2L bioreactor using extracted SCG oil as sole carbon source for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. The culture reached a cell dry weight of 16.7gL(-1) with a polymer content of 78.4% (w/w). The volumetric polymer productivity and oil yield were 4.7gL(-1)day(-1) and 0.77gg(-1), respectively. The polymer produced was a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate with an average molecular weight of 2.34×10(5) and a polydispersity index of 1.2. The polymer exhibited brittle behaviour, with very low elongation at break (1.3%), tensile strength at break of 16MPa and Young's Modulus of 1.0GPa. Results show that SCG can be a bioresource for polyhydroxyalkanoates production with interesting properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential microwave superheated water extraction of mannans from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Moreira, Ana S P; Domingues, M Rosário M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-03-15

    The feasibility of using sequential microwave superheated water extraction (MAE) for the recovery of mannans from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Due to the high contents of mannose still present in the SCG residue left after two consecutive MAE, the unextracted material was re-suspended in water and submitted to a third microwave irradiation (MAE3) at 200 °C for 3 min. With MAE3, mannose recovery achieved 48%, increasing to 56% by MAE4, and reaching a maximum of 69% with MAE5. Glycosidic-linkage analysis showed that in MAE3 mainly galactomannans were recovered, while debranched galactomannans were recovered with MAE4 and MAE5. With increasing the number of extractions, the average degree of polymerization of the mannans decreased, as observed by size-exclusion chromatography and by methylation analysis. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease on cell walls thickness. After final MAE5, the remaining un-extracted insoluble material, representing 22% of the initial SCG, was composed mainly by cellulose (84%).

  7. Effect of oil extracted from coffee grounds in the radiolytic stabilization of PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Commercial Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing oil extracted from coffee grounds (OCG) at concentrations of 0.50; 1.00 and 1.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M{sub v}) was measured for PVC systems without and with oil. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of OCG at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 67% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the OCG were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Decrease of 7% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 31.5% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PVC films exposed to gamma irradiation. However, no significant changes were recorded in mechanical properties of PVC with OCG. (author)

  8. In-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for sustainable biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae W

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses in-situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) for the production of biodiesel. For in-situ transesterification process, the methanol, organic solvent and acid catalyst were mixed with wet SCG in one pot and the mixture was heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. Maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 16.75wt.% based on the weight of dry SCG at 95°C. Comprehensive experiments were conducted with varying temperatures and various amounts of moisture, methanol, co-solvent and acid catalyst. Moderate polar and alcohol-miscible organic solvent is suitable for the high FAME yield. Unsaturated FAMEs are subject to oxidative cleavage by nitric acid and shorter chain (C6 and C10) FAMEs were mainly produced while sulfuric acid yielded long chain unsaturated FAMEs (C16 and C18). Utilization of wet SCGs as a biodiesel feedstock gives economic and environmental benefits by recycling the municipal waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of hazardous Rhodamine dye from water by adsorption onto exhausted coffee ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhausted coffee ground powder (CGP was proved to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine dyes (i.e. Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G from aqueous solutions by batch adsorption experiments. The morphology, chemical structure as well as the surface property of the as-prepared CGP adsorbent were investigated by using SEM, FT-IR and contact angle meter analytical techniques. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm behaviors of Rhodamine molecules onto CGP were studied and compared using pseudo-1st, pseudo-2nd and Langmuir/Freundlich models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of Rh B and Rh 6G were calculated at 5.255 and 17.369 μmol g−1 by Langmuir model fitting. The effects of temperature, ionic strength, solution volume and the co-existing anions on the sorption behavior were also investigated. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism responsible for the efficient removal of dyes is discussed in terms of adsorption process caused by electrostatic and intermolecular forces.

  10. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    machine, French Press or from instant coffee. Medium roasted coffee contained more acrylamide (similar to10 mug l(-1)) than dark roasted coffee (similar to5 mug l(-1)). Males aged 35-45 years, drinking on average 1.11 coffee per day are exposed to the highest doses of acrylamide from coffee. The dietary...... intake of acrylamide from coffee comprises, on an average, 10 mug day(-1) for males and 9 mug day(-1) for females aged 35-45 years. Probabilistic modelling of the exposure of Danish consumers (all adults) to acrylamide from coffee shows a mean exposure of 6.5 mug day(-1) and a 95 percentile of 18 mug day...

  11. Composição físico-química e qualidade do café submetido a dois tipos de torração e com diferentes formas de processamento Physical-chemical composition and quality of coffee submitted to two roasting procedures and to different methods of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Siqueira

    2006-02-01

    preparation and two roasting procedures. The coffees were harvested in a farm at UFLA with a central pivot design. After processing, samples were divided into raw and roasted coffees and the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total titratable acidity, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, polyphenols and color index. Sensorial analysis up test was also performed to determine beverage quality. For the variable polyphenol, there were no significant differences among the methods of preparation, though the light roast coffee showed the greatest polyphenol content. The natural coffee presented the greatest amount caffeine within the type of preparation, while the raw grain achieved the highest caffeine content when all type of grains were compared. The pulped and peeled preparations, as well as the medium roast. The greatest amount of chlorogenic acid was obtained with the natural preparation or when medium roast procedure was performed. For the variable pH, there were no significant differences among the methods of preparation, while from all types of grain, the raw one showed the highest pH value. Regarding total titratable acidity, the natural coffee showed the greatest value for such a variable, as well as the medium roast coffee. There was no difference among the methods of preparation and of roasting procedure during the sensorial analysis and all coffees were classified as hard beverage.

  12. Determination Of Coffee Alkoloids And Their Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAĞLARIRMAK, Necla; Ünal, Kemal

    2000-01-01

    One of the important compounds of coffee is the caffeine playing an important role in human body , whose chemical name is 1.3.7 - Trimetil 2,6 dioxypurin, or 1,3,7 - trimetil xantin. The other important compound is trigonelline, which converts to vitamin masın when green coffee bean is roasted at high temperature. In this study, the change of caffeine and trigonellin amount when green coffee bean roasted, was examined. HPLC (High pressure liquid chromatgrapy) was used to detect two compounds...

  13. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  14. Brazilian roasted coffee oil obtained by mechanical expelling: compositional analysis by GC-MS Óleo de café torrado brasileiro obtido por prensagem dos grãos: análise da composição por GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analysis by GC-MS comparing the mass spectrum of the compounds with the Wiley 275 L mass spectral data base was used to identify the fatty acids and mainly, some volatile compounds responsible for the flavor of the roasted coffee oil. The oil was obtained by mechanical expelling of Brazilian beans (Coffea arabica roasted at 238ºC for 10 minutes. Different sample preparation methodologies such as headspace, adsorbent suction trapping and esterification were used. It was possible to identify pyrazines, pyridines, furan derivatives and other compounds not reported in the literature.Análise preliminar utilizando GC-MS através da comparação dos espectros de massas dos compostos com aqueles da base de dados Wiley 275 L foi feita para identificar ácidos graxos e principalmente componentes voláteis responsáveis pelo aroma e odor do óleo de café torrado. O óleo foi obtido por prensagem dos grãos de café brasileiro (Coffea arabica, torrado a 238ºC por 10 min. Diferentes metodologias de preparo de amostra como "headspace", adsorção por sucção em armadilha com polímero e esterificação foram usadas. Foi possível identificar pirazinas, piridinas, derivados de furanos e outros componentes ainda não apresentados na literatura.

  15. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (pcoffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (pcoffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (pcoffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content.

  16. Effect of different rates of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on composting process, gaseous emissions and quality of end-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia; Fonseca, João; Aires, Alfredo; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) in composting for organic farming is a viable way of valorising these agro-industrial residues. In the present study, four treatments with different amounts of spent coffee grounds (SCG) were established, namely, C0 (Control), C10, C20 and C40, containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% of SCG (DM), respectively; and their effects on the composting process and the end-product quality characteristics were evaluated. The mixtures were completed with Acacia dealbata L. shoots and wheat straw. At different time intervals during composting, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were measured and selected physicochemical characteristics of the composts were evaluated. During the composting process, all treatments showed a substantial decrease in total phenolics and total tannins, and an important increase in gallic acid. Emissions of greenhouse gases were very low and no significant difference between the treatments was registered. The results indicated that SCG may be successfully composted in all proportions. However C40, was the treatment which combined better conditions of composting, lower GHG emissions and better quality of end product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Real-Time PCR as a tool for monitoring the authenticity of commercial coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thiago; Farah, Adriana; Oliveira, Tatiane C; Lima, Ivanilda S; Vitório, Felipe; Oliveira, Edna M M

    2016-05-15

    Coffee is one of the main food products commercialized in the world. Its considerable market value among food products makes it susceptible to adulteration, especially with cereals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a method based on Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of cereals in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees. After comparison with standard curves obtained by serial dilution of DNA extracted from barley, corn and rice, the method was sensitive and specific to quantify down to 0.6 pg, 14 pg and 16 pg of barley, corn and rice DNA, respectively. To verify the applicability of the method, 30 commercial samples obtained in different countries were evaluated and those classified as gourmets or superior did not present the tested cereals DNA. However, barley was detected in various traditional (cheaper) samples from South America. In addition, corn and rice were also detected in different samples. Real-Time PCR showed to be suitable for detection of food adulterants in commercial ground roast and soluble coffees.

  18. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  19. Discrimination between washed Arabica, natural Arabica and Robusta coffees by using near infrared spectroscopy, electronic nose and electronic tongue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Susanna; Sinelli, Nicoletta; Bertone, Elisa; Venturello, Alberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a 'holistic' approach, using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and electronic devices (electronic nose and electronic tongue), as instrumental tools for the classification of different coffee varieties. Analyses were performed on green coffee, on ground roasted coffee and on coffee beverage. Principal component analysis was applied on spectral and sensory data to uncover correlations between samples and variables. After variable selection, linear discriminant analysis was used to classify the samples on the basis of the three coffee classes: Robusta, natural Arabica and washed Arabica. Linear discriminant analysis demonstrates the practicability of this approach: the external test set validation performed with NIR data showed 100% of correctly classified samples. Moreover, a satisfying percentage of correct classification in cross-validation was obtained for the electronic devices: the average values of correctly classified samples were 81.83% and 78.76% for electronic nose and electronic tongue, respectively. NIR spectroscopy was shown to be a very reliable and useful tool to classify coffee samples in a fast, clean and inexpensive way compared to classical analysis, while the electronic devices could assume the role of investigating techniques to depict the aroma and taste of coffee samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-08-13

    Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

  1. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%).

  2. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  3. Coordinating quality practices in Direct Trade coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Emil; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kerndrup, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many food niches have emerged with a specific focus on quality. In specialty coffee, micro roasters have brought about Direct Trade coffee as a way of organising an alternative around new tastes and qualities through ongoing and ‘direct’ relations to farmers...... and cooperatives. But Direct Trade also involves exporters. We ask, how do exporters and roasters work together in these new coffee relations, and what do they work on? We observe and participate in a situation where Colombian coffee exporters visit Danish roasters. They tour the roasting facilities and taste...

  4. Analyzing of coffee quality with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained by the analysis of the samples of coffee mostly consumed on our market showed that the coffee quality corresponds to the values as given in the Law of Health Food. It was not found that any of the parameters which determine food quality exceeded permitted values. Content of heavy metals and aflatoxines is below permitted values. The least content of caffeine was determined in a coffee sample roasted in the private roaster’s shop, and only in it the presence of coffee surrogates/substitutes was not proved. The obtained results of the coffee analysis showed that the coffees of most popular producers are very equal, and results of caffeine analysis are even more equal. This indicates the most probable fact that coffee is of the same origin, and that later, on during production, a different mixture was made, which affects the final product and gives aroma and taste to the liquid.

  5. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve...

  6. Polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds subjected to physico-chemical pretreatments influences lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil, Omar; Choubane, Slimane; Cheba, Ben Amar

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of polyphenols content changes issued after physico-chemical treatments of spent coffee grounds on lignocellulolytic enzymes production by Bacillus sp. R2. Total polyphenols of the collected substrates were extracted with water under autoclaving conditions. Results showed that polyphenols content of spent coffee grounds decreased with continued treatments. Untreated spent coffee grounds were the best substrate for cellulase and pectinase (1.33±0.06μ/ml and 0.32±0.02μ/ml respectively). A strong positive correlation was noticed between polyphenols content and cellulase and pectinase activities. However, xylanase and peroxidase correlated moderately with polyphenols content and their highest activities were registered with spent coffee grounds treated with boiling water and 1% EDTA (0.31±0.002μ/ml and 15.56±0.56μ/ml respectively). The obtained results indicate that polyphenols content of the pretreated substrates influences the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Bacillus sp. R2.

  7. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R

    2006-01-25

    The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study.

  8. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  9. Development and validation of ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from waste spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, Karuppiah; Maran Jeganathan, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    In this current work, Box-Behnken statistical experimental design (BBD) was adopted to evaluate and optimize USLE (ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction) of phytochemicals from spent coffee grounds. Factors employed in this study are ultrasonic power, temperature, time and solid-liquid (SL) ratio. Individual and interactive effect of independent variables over the extraction yield was depicted through mathematical models, which are generated from the experimental data. Determined optimum process conditions are 244W of ultrasonic power, 40°C of temperature, 34min of time and 1:17g/ml of SL ratio. The predicted values were in correlation with experimental values with 95% confidence level, under the determined optimal conditions. This indicates the significance of selected method for USLE of phytochemicals from SCG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  11. In vitro studies on the stability in the proximal gastrointestinal tract and bioaccessibility in Caco-2 cells of chlorogenic acids from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Stalmach, Angelique; de Peña, Maria Paz; Cid, Concepción; Crozier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds are a potential commercial source of substantial amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of spent coffee CGAs using in vitro simulated gastroduodenal digestion and to investigate their potential absorption using an in vitro Caco-2 model of human small intestinal epithelium. During in vitro digestion, lactones were partially degraded while caffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids were much more stable. Transport and metabolism studies showed that 1% of the total CGAs were absorbed and transported from the apical to the basolateral side of a Caco-2 cell monolayer after 1 h. Lactones and coumaroylquinic acids showed the rate of highest absorption. Caco-2 cells possessed low metabolic activity. In conclusion, spent coffee extracts contain large amounts of CGAs, which remained bioaccessible across the intestinal barrier, albeit to a relatively low degree.

  12. Antioxidant activity and free radicals of roasted herbal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtowicz Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Novel raw materials are being constantly searched for chicory coffee, which thanks to their specific composition can influence human health, thus promoting properties and of course the attractive aroma. Prior to their addition herbs – sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia L., lovage roots (Levisticum officinale Koch and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll. – are roasted, which may change their antioxidant properties and generate free radicals with pro-oxidative properties.

  13. Detection of addition of barley to coffee using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Lanteri, Silvia

    2012-09-15

    The current study presents an application of near infrared spectroscopy for identification and quantification of the fraudulent addition of barley in roasted and ground coffee samples. Nine different types of coffee including pure Arabica, Robusta and mixtures of them at different roasting degrees were blended with four types of barley. The blending degrees were between 2 and 20 wt% of barley. D-optimal design was applied to select 100 and 30 experiments to be used as calibration and test set, respectively. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was employed to build the models aimed at predicting the amounts of barley in coffee samples. In order to obtain simplified models, taking into account only informative regions of the spectral profiles, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied. A completely independent external set was also used to test the model performances. The models showed excellent predictive ability with root mean square errors (RMSE) for the test and external set equal to 1.4% w/w and 0.8% w/w, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  15. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term and area (long-term samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013–0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010–0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm–0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007–0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance. These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  16. Review on utilization and composition of coffee silverskin

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Yusaku; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed drinks in the world. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the only by-product produced during the coffee beans roasting process, and large amounts of CS are produced by roasters in coffee-consuming countries. However, methods for the effective utilization of CS have not been developed. Reuse of CS, which is the primary residue from the coffee industry, is important for the environment and economy. Recently, there have been some attempts to reuse CS for biolo...

  17. Adsorption of divalent copper, zinc, cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution by waste tea and coffee adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati Utomo, H; Hunter, K A

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of the divalent cations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by tea leaves and coffee grounds from aqueous solutions is described. Both adsorbents exhibited strong affinity for these ions which could be described by a simple single-site equilibrium model. For coffee, the order of increasing adsorption equilibrium constant K was Cu 10, probably because of anion formation in the case of Zn2+ and also increased leaching of metal-binding soluble materials. The effect of metal ion concentration on the adsorptive equilibria indicated a threshold concentration above which overall adsorption became limited by saturation of the adsorption sites. Competition between two metal ions for the same sites was not observed with Cu(II) and Pb(II), however Zn(II) reacted competitively with Cd(II) binding sites on both tea and coffee. If fresh coffee or tea adsorbents were used, the fraction of metal ion taken up by the adsorbent was diminished by the competitive effects of soluble metal-binding ligands released by the tea or coffee. Experiments with coffee showed that roasting temperature controls the formation of metal ion adsorption sites for this adsorbent.

  18. Coffee dietary fiber contents and structural characteristics as influenced by coffee type and technological and brewing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniechwitz, Diana; Brueckel, Birgit; Reichardt, Nicole; Blaut, Michael; Steinhart, Hans; Bunzel, Mirko

    2007-12-26

    Coffee brews contain considerable amounts of soluble dietary fiber, mainly low substituted galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans. Factors possibly influencing the content and structures of dietary fiber in coffee brews, such as type of coffee, roasting and grinding degree, and brewing procedure, were studied. In addition, several commercial samples such as instant espresso, instant coffee, instant cappuccino, decaffeinated coffees, and coffee pads were analyzed. The dietary fiber contents of the coffee brews ranged from 0.14 to 0.65 g/100 mL (enzymatic-gravimetric methodology), proving an influence of the factors investigated. For example, the drip brew of an arabica coffee contained significantly more soluble dietary fiber than the drip brew of a comparable robusta coffee, and depending on the brewing procedure, the soluble dietary fiber content of beverages obtained from the same coffee sample ranged from 0.26 to 0.38 g/100 mL. Dietary fiber contents of coffee brews were enhanced only up to a certain degree of roast. Drip brews of decaffeinated arabica coffees (commercial samples) contained significantly less dietary fiber than any non-decaffeinated drip brew investigated in this study. The observed differences in the dietary fiber contents were accompanied by changes in the structural characteristics of fiber polysaccharides, such as galactomannan/arabinogalactan ratio, galactose substitution degree of mannans, or galactose/arabinose ratio of arabinogalactans as analyzed by methylation analysis.

  19. Analysis of luwak coffee volatile by using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography (Analisa senyawa volatil kopi luwak dengan menggunakan mikroekstrasi fase padat dan kromatolgi gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The approach to authenticate Luwak coffee is made through analysis of volatile compounds of luwak coffee. Luwak coffee bean from type of arabica obtained from Andungsari Plantation in Bondowoso district, East Java Province Indonesia, was wet processed and sundried prior to roasting step. As many as 120 g green bean was roasted at 170-220°C for 8-12 minutes until reached light brown colour (Agtron scale 65 and was ground prior to extraction. Volatile compounds of roasted Luwak arabica coffee bean were extracted by using solid phase microextraction (SPME at 60°C for 30 minutes. The extracted analyte was subsequently transferred into GC-FID system by splitless injection at 260°C with five minutes sampling time, continued with separation through 50% phenyl 50% dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column and oven temperature programmed from 60°C to 180°C with rate of 5°C/min. Resulted chromatogram shows major peaks mainly in Rt 8.360-9.981, and Rt 9.705-14.778, and minor peaks identified before Rt 10 and after Rt 24. Varied sample quantity ranged within 0.5-2.5 g produced chromatograms which were not significantly different (p=0.08. This research also observed the use of γ-picoline (4-methylpyridine as internal standard. It was showed that γ-picoline appeared at Rt 8.6~ without overlaying other peaks originated from sample. Concentration of γ-picoline at 0.05 μL/g, resulted separable peaks. These findings showed that the use of solid phase microextraction and GC-FID is capable to be apply for identification and quantification of Luwak coffee

  20. Análise de compostos bioativos, grupos ácidos e da atividade antioxidante do café arábica (Coffea arabica do cerrado e de seus grãos defeituosos (PVA submetidos a diferentes torras Bioactive compounds, acids groups and antioxidant activity analysis of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica and its defective beans from the Brazilian savannah submitted to different roasting degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou os compostos bioativos (ácidos clorogênicos, trigonelina, cafeína, fenóis totais e proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos e atividade antioxidante de um café arábica proveniente do Cerrado Mineiro e de seu PVA (grãos pretos, verdes e ardidos. As amostras foram preparadas nas torras clara (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutos, média (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos e escura (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutos. Considerando-se a média das três torras do café e do PVA, a diferença observada no teor de todos os constituintes acima não foi significativa (p > 0,05, exceto com o teor de grupos hidroxila ácidos que foi ligeiramente superior no PVA e cafeína calculada pelo método semiquantitativo que foi superior no café. Portanto, dentre esses constituintes, os compostos com grupos ácidos seriam os únicos que poderiam contribuir para explicar a grande diferença de sabor existente entre o café de grãos sadios e o de PVA. Tanto o café como o PVA apresentaram atividade seqüestradora do radical DPPH. nas três torras, sendo a atividade do café sempre superior. Analisando-se as variações dos teores de cafeína, fenóis totais, proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos, trigonelina e ácidos clorogênicos, não foi possível explicar a atividade antioxidante superior apresentada pelo café da torra média (CE50 de 2,3 mg.mg-1 de DPPH..This work reports the results of the investigation of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total phenolics, and proanthocyanidins, total acid groups, and the antioxidant activity of the Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica from the Brazilian cerrado (vast tropical savannah (Minas Gerais state and its defective beans (Black, green, and sour beans. The samples were prepared using three roasting degrees: light (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutes, medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos, and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutes. Considering the

  1. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  2. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biolo...

  3. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

    2013-12-01

    Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Biomixture Containing Spent Coffee Ground and Milled Egg-shells on The Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and Soil Fertility under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Khoi Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of biomixture including spent coffee ground and milled egg-shells (ratio of 10:2 (w/w on the yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and soil fertility, an experiment was conducted in the greenhouse for 3 months with four replicates for each treatment. The soil sample in this study was collected from the experimental farm of Cantho University. The biomixture was applied with 3 levels: 5, 10 and 15% (w/w. A commonly recommended inorganic fertilizer application rate for Okra was used as control treatment and 15% of used coffee ground as another treatment to study a single effect of used coffee ground on yield of Okra and soil fertility.  Results showed that although the plan performance was much better in the control treatment, the highest yield of Okra was found in the treatments amended with 10 and 5% of the biomixture and was 167 and 161 g/plant/pot, respectively. The yield was much higher in these two treatments than that in the control treatment. The appearance of Okra fruits in the amended biomixture treatments reached the standard quality for selling. Moreover, organic matter, N, P, pH, bacterial and fungal cell counts in soils were enhanced considerably when amended with this biomixture. Five percent of the biomixture performed as the best treatment to enhance Okra yield in the greenhouse experiment.

  6. Ulva biomass as a co-substrate for stable anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds in continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Ulva biomass was evaluated as a co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds at varying organic loads (0.7-1.6g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/Ld) and substrate compositions. Co-digestion with Ulva (25%, COD basis) proved beneficial for SCG biomethanation in both terms of process performance and stability. The beneficial effect is much more pronounced at higher organic and hydraulic loads, with the highest COD removal and methane yield being 51.8% and 0.19L/g COD fed, respectively. The reactor microbial community structure changed dynamically during the experiment, and a dominance shift from hydrogenotrophic to aceticlastic methanogens occurred with increase in organic loading rate. Network analysis provides a comprehensive view of the microbial interactions involved in the system and confirms a direct positive correlation between Ulva input and methane productivity. A group of populations, including Methanobacterium- and Methanoculleus-related methanogens, was identified as a possible indicator for monitoring the biomethanation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon dioxide assisted sustainability enhancement of pyrolysis of waste biomass: A case study with spent coffee ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Cho, Seong-Heon; Song, Hocheol; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-01-01

    This work mainly presents the influence of CO2 as a reaction medium in the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis) of waste biomass. Our experimental work mechanistically validated two key roles of CO2 in pyrolysis of biomass. For example, CO2 expedited the thermal cracking of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of spent coffee ground (SCG) and reacted with VOCs. This enhanced thermal cracking behavior and reaction triggered by CO2 directly led to the enhanced generation of CO (∼ 3000%) in the presence of CO2. As a result, this identified influence of CO2 also directly led to the substantial decrease (∼ 40-60%) of the condensable hydrocarbons (tar). Finally, the morphologic change of biochar was distinctive in the presence of CO2. Therefore, a series of the adsorption experiments with dye were conducted to preliminary explore the physico-chemical properties of biochar induced by CO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-08-24

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  10. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  11. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  12. Heat of Combustion of Dried and Undried Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giso, Mathew; Amanuel, Samuel

    Globally, over two billion cups of coffee are consumed per day. During roasting, 15-20% of the weight of the coffee beans is lost. We studied the gasses released during the roasting process using an IR spectrometer and identified the evaporation profile of water as a function of temperature. The heat of combustion (Hºc) of the beans was also determined using an Isoperibol Oxygen-Bomb calorimeter and the Hºc of dry beans were determined to be 21.24 +/-0.13 MJ/kg while the Hºc of the wet beans were determined to be 19.56 +/-0.12 MJ/kg. This study can potentially lead to developing more economical and environmentally friendly techniques of roasting coffee beans. This work was partially supported by NSF-DMR: 1229142.

  13. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  14. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  15. Analysis of coffee bean extracts by use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel James O’Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    The number of flavour chemicals identified in coffee has reached over 1000 [1], [2]. Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages [3], highly studied for its health-related properties [4], [5], [6]. Studies on coffee associated with human health have focused on the negative aspects, such as the toxicity of caffeine [7], [8]. Complex chemistry happens during coffee roasting and according to the literature, a number of compounds have been detected and quantified in coffee beans samples b...

  16. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  17. Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts Maní tostado y molido conduce a una menor respuesta glicémica postprandial comparado con maní crudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the effect of nuts processing on the glycemic response and satiety. Objective: To evaluate the effect of peanut processing on glycemic response, and energy and nutrients intake. Method: Thirteen healthy subjects (4 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 28.5 ± 10 years, BMI 22.7 ± 2.5 kg/m², and body fat 23.7 ± 5.7% participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial. After 10-12 h of fasting, one of the following types of test meals were consumed: raw peanuts with skin (RPS, roasted peanuts without skin, ground-roasted peanuts without skin (GRPWS or control meal. The test meals had the same nutrient composition, and were consumed with 200 ml of water in 15 minutes. Glycemic response was evaluated 2 hours after each meal. Energy and nutrients intake were assessed through diet records reflecting the habitual food intake and food consumption 24 hours after the ingestion of test meal. Result: The area under the glycemic response curve after GRPWS was lower (p = 0.02 the one obtained for RPS. There was no treatment effect on energy intake, macronutrients and fiber consumption after the test meal. Conclusion: The consumption of ground-roasted peanuts may favor the control and prevention of diabetes due to its reduction on postprandial glucose response. However, more prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.Introducción: Escasos estudios han evaluado el efecto del procesado industrial de los frutos secos sobre la respuesta glicérica y la saciedad. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto del procesamiento de maní sobre la respuesta glicémica y la ingesta de energía y nutrientes. Métodos: Trece sujetos sanos (4 hombres y 9 mujeres, con una edad media de 28,5 ± 10 años, IMC 22,7 ± 2,5 kg/m², y un porcentaje de grasa corporal de 23,7 ± 5,7% participaron en este ensayo clínico aleatorizado y cruzado. Tras 10-12 h de ayuno uno de los siguientes tipos de comidas test fueron consumidas: man

  18. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Donald J.; Robert M. Benck; Merle, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples ...

  19. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples ...

  20. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  1. Identification of Ethyl Formate as a Quality Marker of the Fermented Off-note in Coffee by a Nontargeted Chemometric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindinger, C.; Pollien, P.; Vos, de C.H.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Hageman, J.A.; Lambot, C.; Fumeaux, R.; Voirol-Baliguet, E.; Blank, I.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of coffee is influenced by many factors such as coffee variety, agricultural and postharvest conditions, roasting parameters, and brewing. The pleasure of drinking coffee may be affected by off-notes such as burnt, green, earthy, or fermented. Their presence is related to the variety, fe

  2. Evolution of robusta green coffee redox enzymatic activities with maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, Philippe; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2004-06-02

    Oxidation reactions in coffee involve redox-sensitive polyphenols and appear to control the fragmentation of coffee storage proteins both in solution and during roasting. Coffee-specific nitrogenous flavor precursors may derive from this process. Accordingly, data converge to suggest that the redox status of the green bean before roasting might control the development of subsequent redox reactions during roasting. Consequently, we decided to identify biological events that may trigger or prevent oxidation during maturation of the coffee cherry and set the final redox status of the green bean. In a previous study, we observed that the sensitivity of green coffee to oxidative processes decreased along maturation. By using the very same samples originating from open-pollinated Robusta clones, we followed the activity of three essential redox enzymes: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO). While CAT and POD activities increased with maturation, PPO activities decreased. Thanks to the identification of an atypical immature subclass, it appeared that CAT might be an essential factor in setting the final redox status of the green bean before the roasting event.

  3. Oxisterol determination in selected coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, E; Lercker, G; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of green-coffee processing techniques, such as decaffeination and roasting, is always to maintain a very high level of quality in taste and flavor, the beverage's most important characteristics to consumers. Oxidative alterations of coffee lipids, which can occur in roasting, exert a very marked influence on these quality traits. Determining the extent of oxidation thus can provide an indication of the product's potential shelf-life and reveal traces of any newly-formed oxidative products that might prove nutritionally unsafe. Yet, while much attention has recently been focused on certain by-products induced by cholesterol oxidation and their proven toxicity as risk factors in atherosclerosis and cancer, oxidated phytosterols have largely gone unnoticed, being considered along with beta-sitosterol as not very dangerous in that neither is absorbed by the intestinal tract. The present study investigates the substances derived from phytosterol oxidation (oxisterols) in samples of regular and decaffeinated commercial coffees. The findings show that oxisterols were absent in some samples and that the traces of oxidate phytosterols detected in others were well below the threshold considered as toxicologically active.

  4. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  5. Overview on the mechanisms of coffee germination and fermentation and their significance for coffee and coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V

    2017-01-22

    Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.

  6. Qualitative properties of roasting defect beans and development of its classification methods by hyperspectral imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Hyung-Jin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative properties of roasting defect coffee beans and their classification methods were studied using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The roasting defect beans were divided into 5 groups: medium roasting (Cont), under developed (RD-1), over roasting (RD-2), interior under developed (RD-3), and interior scorching (RD-4). The following qualitative properties were assayed: browning index (BI), moisture content (MC), chlorogenic acid (CA), trigonelline (TG), and caffeine (CF) content. Their HSI spectra (1000-1700nm) were also analysed to develop the classification methods of roasting defect beans. RD-2 showed the highest BI and the lowest MC, CA, and TG content. The accuracy of classification model of partial least-squares discriminant was 86.2%. The most powerful wavelength to classify the defective beans was approximately 1420nm (related to OH bond). The HSI reflectance values at 1420nm showed similar tendency with MC, enabling the use of this technology to classify the roasting defect beans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  8. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology.

  9. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  10. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  11. Optimization of High Solids Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Spent Coffee Ground at Mild Temperature for Enzymatic Saccharification and Microbial Oil Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Huang, Chi-Hao; Huang, Chia-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Soluble coffee, being one of the world's most popular consuming drinks, produces a considerable amount of spent coffee ground (SCG) along with its production. The SCG could function as a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for production of bioproducts. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible optimal condition of dilute acid hydrolysis (DAH) at high solids and mild temperature condition to release the reducing sugars from SCG. The optimal condition was found to be 5.3 % (w/w) sulfuric acid concentration and 118 min reaction time. Under the optimal condition, the mean yield of reducing sugars from enzymatic saccharification of defatted SCG acid hydrolysate was 563 mg/g. The SCG hydrolysate was then successfully applied to culture Lipomyces starkeyi for microbial oil fermentation without showing any inhibition. The results suggested that dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic saccharification has the great potential to convert SCG carbohydrates to reducing sugars. This study is useful for the further developing of biorefinery using SCG as feedstock at a large scale.

  12. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... of the fresh beef weight. Transglutaminase enzyme at levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  14. Factors influencing the norharman and harman contents in espresso coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Beatriz P P

    2007-03-07

    Espresso coffee (EC) brews were analyzed for beta-carboline [norharman (NH) and harman (H)] contents, by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection. The influence of the coffee species (arabica or robusta), the roast degree, and the brew length was studied. The results show that the content of NH and H in EC is dependent primarily on the coffee species, followed by brew length. The roast degree has only a minor influence on the final content of NH and H in EC. When compared with other coffee brews, EC has an amount of these beta-carbolines (in micrograms per liter) similar to that of mocha coffee, both being more concentrated than filter and press-pot coffees. Therefore, the consumer's preferences will determine the amount of NH and H ingested daily. For the caffeinated 30 mL of EC, the arabica coffees contain about 4.08 microg of NH and 1.54 microg of H. Commercial blends (usually with a maximum of 30% robusta) range from the cited arabica values to 10.37 microg of NH and 4.35 microg of H.

  15. Investigation of co-combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and coffee grounds mixtures using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to artificial neural networks modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiacong; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Sun, Jian; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Huang, Shaosong; Ning, Xunan

    2017-02-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was applied to thermal data obtained by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 1000°C at three different heating rates in air to predict the TG curves of sewage sludge (SS) and coffee grounds (CG) mixtures. A good agreement between experimental and predicted data verified the accuracy of the ANN approach. The results of co-combustion showed that there were interactions between SS and CG, and the impacts were mostly positive. With the addition of CG, the mass loss rate and the reactivity of SS were increased while charring was reduced. Measured activation energies (Ea) determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) methods deviated by <5%. The average value of Ea (166.8kJ/mol by KAS and 168.8kJ/mol by OFW, respectively) was the lowest when the fraction of CG in the mixture was 40%.

  16. Free choice profiling sensory analysis to discriminate coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Sorane Good Kitzberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory attributes were evaluated from Arabica coffee genotypes growing in two places in Brazil, Mandaguari and Londrina. Post-harvest and roasted process was standardized. Free choice profiling sensory analysis was apply to investigate the influence of genetic variability and local cultivation (Londrina and Mandaguari, Brazil on the sensory characteristics of coffee genotypes. A sensory panel evaluated coffees from Mandaguari in two groups: one (Sarchimor derived, IPR100, IPR102, IPR105, IPR106 characterized by transparency, coffee colour, green aroma, taste (green, bitter, fermented, astringent and a watery texture, another group (Catuaí, Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR103 was characterized by coffee colour, brightness, aroma (coffee, acid, sweet, chocolate, acidity, bitterness, burnt aroma, sweetness and full-bodied. Coffees from Londrina presented brightness, coffee colour, sweet, green, burnt aroma, astringent, bitter, fermented, green taste; and watery texture (Catuaí, IPR97, IPR98, IPR100. Another group (Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR102, IPR103, IPR105, IPR106 were associated with turbidity, aroma (green, coffee, sweet, acidity, astringency, bitterness, sweetness and full-bodied. Catuaí, Iapar59, IPR99, IPR101, IPR103 and IPR108 exhibited positive attributes when grown in either locale. Edaphoclimatic conditions play a major role in the sensory profiles of coffee.

  17. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation.

  18. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, acid secretion, and blood gastrin after coffee consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deventer, G; Kamemoto, E; Kuznicki, J T; Heckert, D C; Schulte, M C

    1992-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that differences in the processing of raw coffee beans can account for some of the variability in gastric effects of coffee drinking. Coffees were selected to represent several ways that green coffee beans are treated, ie, processing variables. These included instant and ground coffee processing, decaffeination method (ethyl acetate or methylene chloride extraction), instant coffee processing temperature (112 degrees F or 300 degrees F), and steam treatment. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, acid secretion, and blood gastrin was measured in eight human subjects after they consumed each of the different coffees. Consumption of coffee was followed by a sustained decrease in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (P less than 0.05) except for three of the four coffees treated with ethyl acetate regardless of whether or not they contained caffeine. Caffeinated ground coffee stimulated more acid secretion that did decaf ground coffees (P less than 0.05), but not more than a steam-treated caffeinated coffee. Instant coffees did not differ in acid-stimulating ability. Ground caffeinated coffee resulted in higher blood gastrin levels than other ground coffees (P less than 0.05). Freeze-dried instant coffee also tended toward higher gastrin stimulation. It is concluded that some of the observed variability in gastric response to coffee consumption can be traced to differences in how green coffee beans are processed.

  19. Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW, 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.

  20. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid lactones in a model system and in a coffee extract. Application to reduction of coffee bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Page-Zoerkler, Nicole; Mauroux, Olivier; Gartenmann, Karin; Blank, Imre; Bel-Rhlid, Rachid

    2017-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid lactones have been identified as key contributors to coffee bitterness. These compounds are formed during roasting by dehydration and cyclization of their precursors, the chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present study, we investigated an approach to decompose these lactones in a selective way without affecting the positive coffee attributes developed during roasting. A model system composed of (3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone (3-CQAL), 4- caffeoyl quinic acid lactone (4-CQAL), and 4-feruloylquinic acid lactone (4-FQAL)) was used for the screening of enzymes before treatment of the coffee extracts. Hog liver esterase (HLE) hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid lactones (CQALs, FQALs) selectively, while chlorogenate esterase hydrolyzed all chlorogenic acids (CQAs, FQAs) and their corresponding lactones (CQALs, FQALs) in a non-selective way. Enzymatically treated coffee samples were evaluated for their bitterness by a trained sensory panel and were found significantly less bitter than the untreated samples.

  1. Attracting Students to Fluid Mechanics with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.

  2. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, Jennifer Stella; Mandarano, Michael; Shuta, Donna; Vinson, Joe

    2007-03-01

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials.

  4. Rapid approach to identify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ruge, Winfried; Kuballa, Thomas; Ilse, Maren; Winkelmann, Ole; Diehl, Bernd; Thomas, Freddy; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2015-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to verify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee. Lipophilic extracts of authentic roasted and green coffees showed the presence of established markers for Robusta (16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC)) and for Arabica (kahweol). The integration of the 16-OMC signal (δ 3.165 ppm) was used to estimate the amount of Robusta in coffee blends with an approximate limit of detection of 1-3%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 77 commercial coffee samples (coffee pods, coffee capsules, and coffee beans). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectra of lipophilic and aqueous extracts of 20 monovarietal authentic samples. Clusters of the two species were observed. NMR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid prescreening tool to discriminate Arabica and Robusta coffee species before the confirmation applying the official method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  6. Inhibitory effect of a hot water extract of coffee "silverskin" on hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Mina; Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Coffee "silverskin" (CS) is a by-product of the roasting procedure for coffee beans. A CS extract (CS-ext) was found to have a high inhibitory effect against hyaluronidase. It seems that the higher-molecular-weight substances in CS-ext contributed most to the hyaluronidase inhibition, while acidic polysaccharides mainly composed of uronic acid played a major role in this hyaluronidase inhibition by CS-ext.

  7. Volatile compound formation during argan kernel roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Giordano, Manuela; Guillaume, Dominique; Kartah, Badreddine; Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Denhez, Clément; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil.

  8. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  9. Supercritical CO2 decaffeination of unroasted coffee beans produces melanoidins with distinct NF-κB inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Brown, Peter H; Hu, Kang; Black, Richard M; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Chu, Yi-Fang

    2011-09-01

    The supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process causes unroasted coffee beans to turn brown. Therefore, we suspected that the decaffeinated beans contained melanoidins. Decaffeinated unroasted coffee extract absorbed light at 405 nm with a specific extinction coefficient, K(mix 405 nm), of 0.02. Membrane dialysis (molecular weight cut-off, 12 to 14 kDa) increased the K(mix 405 nm) value 15 fold. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the high-MW fraction (MW > 12 kDa) had an elution profile closer to that of melanoidins of medium-roast coffee than to the corresponding fraction of unroasted coffee, indicating the presence of melanoidins in decaffeinated unroasted beans. Using murine myoblast C2C12 cells with a stably transfected nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase reporter gene, we found that the high-MW fraction of decaffeinated unroasted beans had an NF-κB inhibitory activity of IC(50) = 499 μg/mL, more potent than that of regular-roast coffee (IC(50) = 766 μg/mL). Our results indicate that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. We discovered the roasting effect of decaffeination process, reporting the discovery of melanoidins in green (unroasted) decaf coffee beans. Our results indicated that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO2-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. Our results offer new insights into the formation of bioactive coffee components during coffee decaffeination process. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Possible employment of food industry residues in animal feeding: first report on the chemical and bromatological composition of coffee grounds and suggestions for their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarra, C.

    1976-01-01

    The relatively low levels of tannins and caffeine (average 0.36% and 0.191 mg/g, respecitvely) in coffee grounds suggest their possible use as feed. The proximate analysis of 8 samples (average and range given) was: moisture 61.07, 53.91 to 65.25; crude fat 17.78, 14.64 to 23.51; ash 1.66, 1.43 to 1.89; crude fiber 16.62, 14.98 to 17.45; and non-N ext. 51.31, 44.67 to 56.71%. The ash contained an average of 0.14% of both Ca and P. The amino acid component is tabulated; only traces of methionine were found. The major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic, average 43.89 and 30.99%, respectively, and values for other fatty acids C/sub 12:0/-C/sub 22:0/ are tabulated.

  11. Studies of Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Spent Coffee Ground: Equilibrium, Regeneration, and Dynamic Performance in a Fixed-Bed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Davila-Guzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium and dynamic adsorption of heavy metals onto spent coffee ground (SCG were studied. The equilibrium adsorption of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+ in a batch system was modeled by an ion-exchange model (IEM based on an ion-exchange of heavy metals with calcium and protons bonded to active sites on SCG surface. The maximum amount of adsorbed metal ions obtained using the IEM was 0.12, 0.21, and 0.32 mmol/g of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, respectively. Regeneration of SCG was evaluated using citric acid, calcium chloride, and nitric acid. The observed trend of desorption efficiency through four adsorption-desorption cycles was HNO3 > CaCl2 > C6H8O7. The effect of process variables such as flow rate and bed height during the dynamic adsorption was evaluated. Moreover, the applicability of a mass transfer model based on external mass transfer resistance, axial dispersion, and ion-exchange isotherm was evaluated, and the results were in good agreement with the experimental data for the adsorption in SCG packed column. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters showed that axial dispersion coefficient is the most significant parameter in the dynamic simulation. The results obtained showed the potential of SCG as a low-cost material for wastewater metal removal in continuous systems.

  12. Characterization of Alkaline Treatment and Fiber Content on the Physical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Ground Coffee Waste/Oxobiodegradable HDPE Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yee Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of alkali treatment on ground coffee waste/oxobiodegradable HDPE (GCW/oxo-HDPE composites was evaluated using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% volume fraction of GCW. The composites were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, mechanical (tensile and impact test properties, and water absorption. FTIR spectrum indicated the eradication of lipids, hemicellulose, lignin, and impurities after the treatments lead to an improvement of the filler/matrix interface adhesion. This is confirmed by SEM results. Degree of crystallinity index was increased by 5% after the treatment. Thermal stability for both untreated and treated GCW composites was alike. Optimum tensile result was achieved when using 10% volume fraction with enhancement of 25% for tensile strength and 24% for tensile modulus compared to untreated composite. Specific tensile strength and modulus had improved as the composite has lower density. The highest impact properties were achieved when using 15% volume fraction that lead to an improvement of 6%. Treated GCW composites show better water resistance with 57% improvement compared to the untreated ones. This lightweight and ecofriendly biocomposite has the potential in packaging, internal automotive parts, lightweight furniture, and other composite engineering applications.

  13. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles.

  14. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Ramirez, Monica J; Orrego, Carlos E; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2017-12-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve their antioxidant activity was also assessed. The contents of PC and flavonoids (FLA), as well as the antioxidant activity of the encapsulated samples were determined in order to verify the efficiency of each studied condition. Additional analyses for characterization of the samples were also performed. Both the technique and the coating material greatly influenced the encapsulation of antioxidant PC. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Under these conditions, the amount of PC and FLA retained in the encapsulated sample corresponded to 62% and 73%, respectively, and 73-86% of the antioxidant activity present in the original extract was preserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg‑1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg‑1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg‑1) and tea (10–97 μg kg‑1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg‑1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  16. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  17. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  18. Antiradical activity, phenolics profile, and hydroxymethylfurfural in espresso coffee: influence of technological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Jerez, María; Casal, Susana; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María J; Oliveira, Beatriz

    2010-12-08

    The influence of technological factors (decaffeination, brew volume, coffee species, and roast degree) on antiradical activity and phenolics content of espresso coffee is described. The screenings of phenolics profile and other compounds (caffeine and trigonelline), as well as the quantification of hydroxymethylfurfural, were performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Significantly lower (p decaffeinated espressos when compared with regular ones (32 vs 38% and 324 vs 410 mg/30 mL cup, respectively). A long espresso (70 mL) offers more than twice the phenolics amount of a short one (20 mL). Robusta brews showed higher (p 0.05) were observed for scavenging activities of differently roasted robusta brews, whereas an increase in medium-dark brews was observed for arabica samples. Total phenolics in robusta espressos decreased (p 0.05) were found between arabica espressos from different roasts. By LC-DAD-ESI-MS, 23 hydroxycinnamic derivatives were found, including chlorogenic acids, lactones, and cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates. The amount of each compound was differently affected by species and roast. Robusta brews presented superior levels of caffeine and chlorogenic acids, whereas arabica ones contained more trigonelline. Hydroxymethylfurfural contents in the brew (30 mL) varied from 2.60 to 0.84 mg for light- and dark-roasted arabicas and from 1.29 to 0.68 mg for light- and dark-roasted robustas, respectively.

  19. Fungal contamination in green coffee beans samples: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Pacífico, Cátia; Faria, Tiago; de Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2017-05-26

    Studies on the microbiology of coffee cherries and beans have shown that the predominant toxigenic fungal genera (Aspergillus and Penicillium) are natural coffee contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fungi in Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora L. var. robusta (Robusta coffee) green coffee samples obtained from different sources at the pre-roasting stage. Twenty-eight green coffee samples from different countries of origin (Brazil, Timor, Honduras, Angola, Vietnam, Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, India, and Uganda) were evaluated. The fungal load in the contaminated samples ranged from 0 to 12330 colony forming units (CFU)/g, of which approximately 67% presented contamination levels below 1500 CFU/g, while 11% exhibited intermediate contamination levels between 1500 and 3000 CFU/g. Contamination levels higher than 3000 CFU/g were found in 22% of contaminated coffee samples. Fifteen different fungi were isolated by culture-based methods and Aspergillus species belonging to different sections (complexes). The predominant Aspergillus section detected was Nigri (39%), followed by Aspergillus section Circumdati (29%). Molecular analysis detected the presence of Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Circumdati. The% coffee samples where Aspergillus species were identified by culture-based methods were 96%. Data demonstrated that green coffee beans samples were contaminated with toxigenic fungal species. Since mycotoxins may be resistant to the roasting process, this suggests possible exposure to mycotoxins through consumption of coffee. Further studies need to be conducted to provide information on critical points of coffee processing, such that fungal contamination may be reduced or eliminated and thus exposure to fungi and mycotoxins through coffee handling and consumption be prevented.

  20. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  1. The influence of different types of preparation (espresso and brew) on coffee aroma and main bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Cortese, Manuela; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular hot drinks in the world; it may be prepared by several methods, but the most common forms are boiled (brew) and pressurized (espresso). Analytical studies on the substances responsible for the pleasant aroma of roasted coffee have been carried out for more than 100 years. Brew coffee and espresso coffee (EC) have a different and peculiar aroma profile, demonstrating the importance of the brewing process on the final product sensorial quality. Concerning bioactive compounds, the extraction mechanism plays a crucial role. The differences in the composition of coffee brew in chlorogenic acids and caffeine content is the result of the different procedures of coffee preparation. The aim of the present review is to detail how the brewing process affects coffee aroma and composition.

  2. Induction of AhR-mediated gene transcription by coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health.

  3. Induction of AhR-mediated gene transcription by coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells.HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses.All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum.By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health.

  4. Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, B M; Torres, C; Franca, A S; Oliveira, L S; Oliveira, E S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Batch fermentation studies were performed employing whole and ground coffee husks, and aqueous extract from ground coffee husks. It was observed that fermentation yield decreased with an increase in yeast concentration. The best results were obtained for the following conditions: whole coffee husks, 3 g yeast/l substrate, temperature of 30 degrees C. Under these conditions ethanol production was 8.49 +/- 0.29 g/100 g dry basis (13.6 +/- 0.5 g ethanol/l), a satisfactory value in comparison to literature data for other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (5-11 g ethanol/l). Such results indicate that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production.

  5. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J G; Ogawa, M

    2007-04-01

    Six wethers were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12:1.5, respectively, on a DM basis, with timothy hay and alfalfa hay being replaced by WCG at 0, 10, or 20%. All TMR silages, irrespective of WCG addition, were well preserved, with a low pH and ammonia-N content and a high lactic acid content. Intakes by wethers of TMR silages containing 0 and 10% WCG were 96.6 and 94.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), and did not differ (P > 0.05). Intake of TMR silage containing 20% WCG was 76.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), which was equal to 80% of that of the TMR silage with no WCG (quadratic: P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of WCG in the rations decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and energy, and increased that of ether extract (P < 0.05). The TDN and DE contents of the TMR silages with 0 and 10% WCG were similar, but the TMR silage with 20% WCG was lower (P < 0.05). With progressive increases in WCG concentrations, N intake did not differ, but fecal and urinary N increased linearly (P < 0.001), and retained N decreased linearly (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the proportion of WCG to be incorporated into TMR silages should not exceed 10% of the DM.

  6. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  7. In vitro evaluation and determination of responsible fraction of coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves for alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recent studies have identified that hydrophobic phenolic phytochemicals and hydrophilic Amadori compounds have potential for type 2 diabetes management via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Here, we determined the phenolic content, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of water extracts of roasted and unroasted coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves. Sugar beet leaves appeared to have the lowest total phenolic content while unroasted and roasted coffee beans had similar phenolic contents (1.49 and 1.40 mg/mL GAE DW respectively. All tested samples resulted to a dose-dependent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Sugar beet leaves had significant inhibitory activity (78% at the highest dose and after C18 extraction this activity appeared to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compound dependent.  Roasted coffee beans had significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to green coffee beans at all tested doses. Roasted coffee beans were subjected to C18 extraction and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated and determined to be solely hydrophobic compound dependent. When the α-amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated, no inhibition was observed with all tested samples. Our findings indicate that the observed bioactivities in coffee beans is hydrophobic compound dependent, while in sugar beet leaves the observed effect is possibly due to the synergistic effect of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. This is the first report on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of roasted coffee beans and sugar beet leaves.Industrial Relevance. Sugar beets are widely cultivated in Europe and Northern Asia for the production of table sugar. After the harvesting of sugar beets large quantities of sugar beet leaves remain on the field and are either left to become fertilizer or appropriately disposed. Identification of appropriate strategies to

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MeI) and 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4)-tetrahydroxybutyl-imidazole (THI) from ground-coffee with high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray mass spectrometric quantification (HPLC/ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojková, L; Klejdus, B; Moravcová, J; Kubán, V

    2006-10-01

    Two polar analytes, 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MeI) and 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4)-tetrahydroxybutyl-imidazole (THI), were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) modified with aqueous methanol. The method was applied to a roasted coffee powder with good recovery rates. Method efficiency was compared with that of solid-phase extraction using SCX Disc cartridges and validated for spiked solid matrix. The analytes were determined using isocratic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on an Atlantis HILIC Silica column (150 x 2.1 mm, 3 microm) with 80% methanol and 20% 0.01 mol l-1 ammonium formate as the mobile phase. The limit of quantification was around 1.5 pg for 4-MeI and 2.0 pg for THI. The linearity of the calibration curves was satisfactory as indicated by correlation coefficients of >0.999. The coefficient of variation for the intra-day and inter-day precisions was or = 98 and > or = 99% for THI and 4-MeI, respectively. Several samples of Arabica coffee from various locations and commercially available 'off-the-shelf' coffee products (Arabica/Robusta mixtures) were analysed to test the method.

  9. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins in Coffee Using QuEChERS Extraction Combined with Mixed-Mode SPE Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed...... system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50−75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg....../kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However...

  10. Challenges in Specialty Coffee Processing and Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.

  11. Identification of H₂O₂ as a major antimicrobial component in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Weigel, Ingrid; Pichner, Rohtraud; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2011-05-01

    Coffee shows distinct antimicrobial activity against several bacterial genera. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms and active ingredients mediating the antimicrobial effect of coffee. Depending on concentration, roasted, but not raw coffee brew inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. Several coffee ingredients with known antibacterial properties were tested for their contribution to the observed effect. In natural concentration, caffeine, ferulic acid and a mixture of all test compounds showed very weak, but significant activity, whereas trigonelline, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, chlorogenic acid, nicotinic acid, caffeic acid, and methylglyoxal were not active. Antimicrobial activity, however, was completely abolished by addition of catalase indicating that H(2)O(2) is a major antimicrobial coffee component. In accordance with this assumption, bacterial counts during 16 h of incubation were inversely related to the H(2)O(2) concentration in the incubation solution. Pure H(2)O(2) showed slightly weaker activity. The H(2)O(2) dependent antimicrobial activity of coffee could be mimicked by a reaction mixture of d-ribose and l-lysine (30 min 120 °C) indicating that H(2)O(2) is generated in the coffee brew by Maillard reaction products. Identification of H(2)O(2) as major antimicrobial coffee component is important to evaluate the application of coffee or coffee extracts as natural preservatives.

  12. Application of artificial neural engineering and regression models for forecasting shelf life of instant coffee drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Coffee as beverage is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans of the coffee plant. Coffee is the second most important product in the international market in terms of volume trade and the most important in terms of value. Artificial neural engineering and regression models were developed to predict shelf life of instant coffee drink. Colour and appearance, flavour, viscosity and sediment were used as input parameters. Overall acceptability was used as output parameter. The dataset consisted of experimentally developed 50 observations. The dataset was divided into two disjoint subsets, namely, training set containing 40 observations (80% of total observations and test set comprising of 10 observations (20% of total observations. The network was trained with 500 epochs. Neural network toolbox under Matlab 7.0 software was used for training the models. From the investigation it was revealed that multiple linear regression model was superior over radial basis model for forecasting shelf life of instant coffee drink.

  13. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyeom Seo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps residues (APR as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC. The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG, APR, and its fermented form (FAPR. The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01; pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07, especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05; however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW. Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06. Conversely, the fermentation

  14. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  15. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI during 2009–2011. Treatments were Robusta coffee clones and sunlight intensity. Experimental design was split plot design with three replications. Robusta clones used were BP 409, BP 534, BP 936 and BP 939, planted in 2002. The sunligt intensity treatments were 100% (without shade tree, 50—60% (Leucaena leucocephala shade, and 20—30% (Hibiscus macrophyllus and Melia azedarach L. shades. Only red coffee cherries were harvested for flavor and caffeine analysis. Coffee cherries were washed, depulped and sundried until moisture content of less than 12%. The green coffee bean samples were roasted at medium level (Agtron Scale at 65# for cupping test which involved five expert panelists by using ICCRI protocol. Caffeine content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The experiment result indicated that high sunlight intensity resulted in strong aroma of Robusta coffee, while good flavor coffee need medium light intensity. Cafein content had positive correlation with light intensity entering the coffee farm, whereas cafein content had no direct effect on Robusta coffee flavor.Key words: Coffea canephora, clone, sunlight intensity, flavor, caffeine. 

  16. 废弃咖啡渣化学链气化反应特性%Reaction characteristics of chemical-looping gasification for waste coffee grounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云鹏; 刘永卓; 杨勤勤; 郭庆杰

    2016-01-01

    Iron-based composite oxygen carrier (OC) (Fe4ATP6K1) was prepared by sol-gel method, which features Fe2O3 as an active component, and natural attapugite (ATP) as an inert support, as well as being modified by KNO3. Effects of reaction temperature, flow rate of steam and molar ratio of O/C on chemical looping gasification (CLG) of coffee grounds were investigated in a high temperature fluidized bed using steam as gasification agent. It suggests that the Fe4ATP6K1 oxygen carrier as bed material could facilitate carbon conversion in CLG of coffee grounds from 71.38% to 86.25%, compared with that of SiO2. Under optimized conditions for CLG such as 900℃, 0.23 g·min−1of steam flow rate and 1 of molar ratio of O/C, up to 52.75% of average concentration of H2, 83.79 g·kg−1 of H2 production rate, and 1.30 m3·kg−1 of syngas production rate were achieved. The OC samples before and after reaction at 900℃ were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The interactions within phases of Fe, K and Si, and K in presence of KFeSi3O8 phase in the OCs were observed. Twenty redox cycles testing demonstrated that the Fe4ATP6K1 oxygen carrier possessed a good cyclic stability, over 75% of both carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency, while the average concentration of each gas kept almost stable.%利用溶胶-凝胶法制备了以Fe2O3为活性组分,天然凹凸棒土(ATP)为惰性载体,KNO3修饰的Fe4ATP6K1铁基复合载氧体。在高温流化床中考察了反应温度、水蒸气流量和O/C摩尔比对咖啡渣化学链气化过程的影响。结果表明,与以石英砂为床料的咖啡渣气化相比,以Fe4ATP6K1载氧体为床料的咖啡渣化学链气化对应的碳转化率由71.38%提高到86.25%。咖啡渣化学链气化的较优操作条件为:反应温度900℃、水蒸气量0.23 g·min−1、O/C摩尔比1;在此操作条件下,合成气产量达到1.30 m3

  17. Coffee and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the effects of coffee on human health.

  18. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: monica@infim.ro; Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO 77 125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  19. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  20. Coffee Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2010-01-01

    天还是冷冷的,爸爸妈妈下班回家,我们可以为他们做些什么呢?My Mommy‘s favorite就是a cup of coffee。妈妈说每次我端出香香的咖啡给她的时候,她的寒意就完全没有啦。Well,今天就是我们的coffee time,让我给大家转述一下妈妈告诉我的咖啡故事吧。

  1. Quality and flavour stability of coffee substitute prepared by extrusion of wheat germ and chicory roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, H H M; Abdel Mageed, M A; Lotfy, S N

    2008-02-01

    A mixture of roasted chicory roots and wheat germ (1:1 w/w) was subjected to extrusion processing for preparation of coffee substitute. Comparative studies concerning sensory characteristics and headspace volatiles were carried out between genuine coffee and a freshly prepared coffee substitute. The sensory evaluation revealed similarities between the two samples. The comparative odour profile analysis showed that the sweetish/caramel-like note scored higher in our coffee substitute sample than in real coffee, whereas the other odour quality attributes showed an opposite trend. The high quality of the fresh coffee substitute was correlated to the presence of volatiles that are responsible for the fresh coffee aroma, such as: 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylfuran and 2,3-butanedione in high concentration. Storage of coffee substitute samples revealed a noticeable decrease in concentration of the Strecker aldehydes and diketones and a remarkable increase in phenolic compounds, whereas pyrazine and furan derivatives showed no linear changes during storage. The ratio of 2,3-butanedione/2-methylfuran (B/M) was used as an indicator for aging of coffee substitute samples. The variation in this ratio (B/M) during storage for 6 months was consistent with that of the odour profile analysis.

  2. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation.

  3. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  4. Coffee and health

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Hoon Bae; Jae-Hyung Park; Seung-Soon Im; Dae-Kyu Song

    2014-01-01

    Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of th...

  5. Estruturas de governança interna e a capacidade de inovação em pequenas firmas brasileiras de torrefação e moagem de café Estructuras de gobernanza interna y capacidad de innovación en pequeñas empresas brasileñas productoras de café tostado y molido Internal governance structures and capacity for innovation in small Brazilian coffee roasting and grinding firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Feresin Jardim

    2013-06-01

    .0 (RAGIN, 2008. Como resultado, se verificó que las estructuras de gobernanza interna plural, que combinan prácticas de incentivos monetarios, burocráticos y comunitarios, presentaron resultados más consistentes para la innovación de las pequeñas empresas de tostado. Tales resultados, al permitir identificar los requisitos organizacionales que producen mayor innovación, pueden ayudar a definir acciones de políticas públicas y privadas para las empresas brasileñas, con el fin de mejorar su nivel de innovación y competitividad en sus mercados.This study investigates which combinations of internal governance structures (market, bureaucratic, and community allow the greatest scope for developing the innovation capacity of small firms. It draws on the studies by Grandori and Furnari (2008, 2010, which hypothesize that the capacity to innovate is more consistently found in firms that use plural internal governance structures. This hypothesis was tested through a survey of 110 Brazilian roasting and grinding coffee firms. The type of innovation investigated was the product. To determine the combinations of structures we used the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA software fs/QCA, version 2.0 (Ragin, 2008. As a result, we found that plural internal governance structures, which combine monetary, bureaucratic, and community incentives, have more consistent innovation results for small roasting firms. By identifying the organizational requirements that create greater opportunities for innovation, these results can help chart the course of public and private policies which will enable Brazilian companies to improve their rate of innovation and competitiveness in their markets.

  6. In vitro enzymic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Encarnação, Joana Amarante; Farrell, Tracy L; Ryder, Alexandra; Kraut, Nicolai U; Williamson, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is rich in quinic acid esters of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) but also contains some free phenolic acids. A proportion of phenolic acids appear in the blood rapidly after coffee consumption due to absorption in the small intestine. We investigated in vitro whether this appearance could potentially be derived from free phenolic acids in instant coffee or from hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids by pancreatic or brush border enzymes. We quantified six free phenolic acids in instant coffees using HPLC-DAD-mass spectrometry. The highest was caffeic acid, but all were present at low levels compared to the chlorogenic acids. Roasting and decaffeination significantly reduced free phenolic acid content. We estimated, using pharmacokinetic modelling with previously published data, that the contribution of these compounds to small intestinal absorption is minimal. Hydrolysis of certain chlorogenic acids was observed with human-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and with porcine pancreatin, which showed maximal rates on 3- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. The amounts of certain free phenolic acids in coffee could only minimally account for small intestinal absorption based on modelling. The hydrolysis of caffeoylquinic, but not feruloylquinic acids, by enterocyte and pancreatic esterases is potentially a contributing mechanism to small intestinal absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Potential antioxidant response to coffee — A matter of genotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hassmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the −653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the −651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential.

  8. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Andrea P. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mirian C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lemos, Sherlan G. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marcia M.C. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana Rita A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2005-06-30

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  9. Influence of coffee brew in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Sheila Andrade; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; de Sousa, Raimundo Vicente; Lima, Adriene Ribeiro; Crema, Gabriela Previatti; Barros, Bianca Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee drinking on clinical markers of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Zucker rats. Diabetic Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome and control Zucker rats were used for in vivo tests. The animals received daily doses of coffee drink by gavage for 30 days. After the treatment, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, creatinine, uric acid, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were evaluated. Urea and creatinine levels were also analyzed in urine. By collaborating in the modulation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, coffee drink helped in reducing serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The results demonstrate that treatment with roasted coffee drink, because of its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, is efficient in the protection of animals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  10. Temperature dependence of crystal structure and digestibility of roasted diaspore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋生; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 刘桂华

    2004-01-01

    Through X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electronic micrographs, temperature dependence of the crystal structure of roasted diasporic bauxite at different temperatures and the digestibility of roasting production were investigated systematically. The lattice parameters of unit cell for chemically purified diaspore and unequilibrium alumina-contained oxide obtained from the diaspore roasted at different temperatures were determined. It is found that, with roasting temperature increasing, the roasting production changes from the original dense and perfect diaspore crystal into imperfect corundum with many microcracks and small pores on its surface and then into perfect corundum with low digestibility. The optimum roasting temperature with best digestibility is approximately 525 ℃ when residence time is about 25 min. It is thought that the change of crystal structure, formation of microcracks and small pores in the temperature field are the main essential reasons for improving digestibility of diasporic bauxite and its roasting production.

  11. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  12. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such a

  13. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  14. Chemical characterisation of non-defective and defective green arabica and robusta coffees by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Juliana C F; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Marcella

    2008-11-15

    The coffee roasted in Brazil is considered to be of low quality, due to the presence of defective coffee beans that depreciate the beverage quality. These beans, although being separated from the non-defective ones prior to roasting, are still commercialized in the coffee trading market. Thus, it was the aim of this work to verify the feasibility of employing ESI-MS to identify chemical characteristics that will allow the discrimination of Arabica and Robusta species and also of defective and non-defective coffees. Aqueous extracts of green (raw) defective and non-defective coffee beans were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and this technique provided characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra that not only allowed for discrimination of species but also between defective and non-defective coffee beans. ESI-MS profiles in the positive mode (ESI(+)-MS) provided separation between defective and non-defective coffees within a given species, whereas ESI-MS profiles in the negative mode (ESI(-)-MS) provided separation between Arabica and Robusta coffees. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Quality Evaluation of Roasted Cashew Nut Kernel: Effect of Roasting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Kosoko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of two roasting methods on the chemical, microbial as well as the sensory qualities of cashew nut kernels. Raw cashew nut was processed to obtain the plain cashew kernels and was divided into two portions which were subjected to different roasting treatments using conventional-air oven and halogen oven at a temperature of 200°C for 40 min, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the conventional-oven roasted cashew kernel had higher moisture content, protein and crude fiber values of 4.68%±0.18, 18.34±0.94 and 2.11±0.08, respectively than the roasted sample using halogen-oven. In halogen-oven roasted kernel, the fat, carbohydrate, fatty acid and metabolizeable energy contents were higher (45.62±0.98, 2.53±0.08, 30.04±0.95, 39.23±0.85 and 2480.04±21.00, respectively. The mineral analysis indicated that the halogen-oven roasted kernels had higher values except in the case of Magnesium (Mg, which was higher in the conventional-oven roasted cashew nuts. The microbial assessment of the cashew kernels showed that halogen-oven cashew roasted kernel had a reduced value in all the microbiological analysis carried out with the exception of staphylococcus count. However, E. coli was not present in any of the cashew kernel samples. Based on the sensory rating, halogen-oven roasted cashew kernel had the highest overall acceptability sensory rating. It was observed that chemical parameters of fat, fatty acid and metabolizable energy show positive correlation at both (p<0.01 and (p<0.05 for the sensory attributes of colour, taste, crispiness, flavor and overall acceptability while the chemical parameters of moisture content protein and crude fibre showed a negative correlation for all the sensory attributes. The results of this study indicated that halogen-oven will be better option for producing nutritious and wholesome roasted cashew nut kernels with acceptable sensory qualities.

  16. [Coffee and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    The coffee bean contains over 2000 chemical compounds, the health effects of which are known only to a limited extent. Previous coffee researchers and laymen focused solely on caffeine and its positive effect on mental alertness. Other ingredients in coffee, especially its polyphenols, also have an influence on our health. In Finland, coffee is the source of more than half of the so-called antioxidants that are thought to be important for health. Coffee drinkers have lower mortality and morbidity rates than non-drinkers in respect of many common chronic diseases.

  17. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iriondo-DeHond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector’s sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  19. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  20. Coffee and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Pablo; Arauz, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver injury. Animal models and cell culture studies indicate that kahweol, diterpenes and cafestol (some coffee compounds) can function as blocking agents by modulating multiple enzymes involved in carcinogenic detoxification; these molecules also alter the xenotoxic metabolism by inducing the enzymes glutathione-S-transferase and inhibiting N-acetyltransferase. Drinking coffee has been associated with reduced risk of hepatic injury and cirrhosis, a major pathogenic step in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, thus, the benefit that produces coffee consumption on hepatic cancer may be attributed to its inverse relation with cirrhosis, although allowance for clinical history of cirrhosis did not completely account for the inverse association. Therefore, it seems to be a continuum of the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on liver enzymes, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, it seems reasonable to propose experiments with animal models of liver damage and to test the effect of coffee, and/or isolated compounds of this beverage, not only to evaluate the possible causative role of coffee but also its action mechanism. Clinical prospective double blind studies are also needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Ag, Pb) in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nędzarek, Arkadiusz; Tórz, Agnieszka; Karakiewicz, Beata; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kaleta, Agnieszka; Adler, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Technologies involved in roasting coffee beans, as well as the methods used to prepare infusions, vary according to culture, and contribute to differences in the concentration of elements in the drink. Concentrations of six elements: manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag) and lead (Pb) were investigated in coffee infusions from eleven samples of coffee, roasted and purchased in four countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Lebanon and Poland. Metal concentrations were determined using an induction coupled plasma technique in combination with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Perkin Elmer) which measures total metal (ionic and non-ionic) content. Metal intake estimated for individual countries (in the respective order; mean consumption per person per year) was as follows: Mn: 26.8-33.1, 28.3-29.5, 29.7, 12.6-18.9 mg; Co: 0.33-0.48, 0.42-0.35, 0.32, 0.12-0.17 mg; Ni: 3.83-5.68, 4.85-5.51, 4.04, 2.06-2.24 mg; Cr: 0.17-0.41, 0.21-0.47, 0.17, 0.09-0.28 mg; Ag: 0.16-1.13, 0.26-0.70, 0.61, 0.33-1.54 mg, Pb: 4.76-7.56, 3.59-5.13, 3.33, 1.48-2.43 mg. This finding gives new data for Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, and Ag intake from coffee , and suggests that the amounts are negligible. However, the data for Pb consumption in heavy drinkers, for example in Bosnia and Herzegovina, indicate that Pb intake from coffee may contribute to the disease burden. The high lead level in some coffees suggests the need for a more precise control of coffee contamination.

  2. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  3. Marketing Strategies Evolved by Entrepreneurs in Marketing the Coffee Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thangaraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of conjoint analysis showed quality attributes preferred by the entrepreneurs. They were Arabica and Robusta (50:50 mixed variety, mixing of 70:30 coffee, chicory ratio, keeping quality up to 6 months, medium level of taste/aroma, filter size of the powder and roasting time of 15 minutes/ 10 kg of seeds. About 83.00 per cent of entrepreneurs produced coffee powder as a final form of coffee product, nearly two-third (63.00 % of the entrepreneurs did not have any brand name or logo, cent per cent of them reported manual packing only. Major criteria to fix different price rate of coffee product were International daily market price (90.00 %, factors affecting the price policy were market price fluctuation (93.33 %, season (90.00 % and Cent per cent of them had adopted coffee price forecasting broadcasted by various media. Selection of the location depends on nearby town and coffee potential area, techniques to overcome the competitor were better pricing and supply of quality coffee product, attraction of customers depends on personal contact, attractive display boards, quality, taste, aroma and flavor. Promotional activities carried out by the entrepreneurs were developing the customer base (83.33 % and working towards building customer loyalty (76.67%. Relationships followed among stakeholders were good partnership, price and profit sharing, commission basis, service and quality, supply-service and demand. Further, market demand reported by entrepreneurs were: the demand for coffee beans peaked during July to November, coffee powder were more demand in three seasons namely rainy season (June-September, winter season (December- January and summer holidays (April-May. Feedback mechanism reported by coffee entrepreneurs were: quality analysis report received from the export organization, physical analysis, cup test, personal contact through phone, e-mail and also personal letters.

  4. Color and volatile analysis of peanuts roasted using oven and microwave technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-10-01

    Roasted peanut color and volatiles were evaluated for different time and temperature combinations of roasting. Raw peanuts were oven roasted at 135 to 204 °C, microwave roasted for 1 to 3 min, or combination roasted by microwave and oven roasting for various times and temperatures. Volatiles were measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. L* values were used to categorize peanuts as under-roasted, ideally roasted, and over-roasted. The total roasting time in order to achieve ideal color was not shortened by most of the combination treatments compared to their oven roasted equivalents. Oven before microwave roasting compared to the reverse was found to significantly increase the L* value. Peanuts with the same color had different volatile levels. Hexanal concentrations decreased then increased with roasting. Pyrazine levels increased as roasting time increased, although oven at 177 °C treatments had the highest and microwave treatments had the lowest levels. Volatile levels generally increased as roasting time or temperature increased. Oven 177 °C for 15 min generally had the highest level of volatiles among the roasting treatments tested. Soft independent modeling of class analogies based on volatile levels showed that raw peanuts were the most different, commercial samples were the most similar to each other, and oven, microwave, and combination roasting were all similar in volatile profile. Peanuts can be roasted to equivalent colors and have similar volatile levels by different roasting methods. Oven and microwave roasting technologies produced the same roasted peanut color and had similar volatile trends as roasting time increased. Combination roasting also produced ideal color and similar volatile levels indicating that microwave technology could be further explored as a peanut roasting technique. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  6. Incorporation of chlorogenic acids in coffee brew melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-03-26

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the released QA and CA were quantified. For all melanoidin fractions, it was found that more QA than CA was released. QA levels correlated with melanoidin levels, indicating that QA is incorporated in melanoidins. The QA level was correlated with increasing ionic charge of the melanoidin populations, suggesting that QA may contribute to the negative charge and consequently is, most likely, not linked via its carboxyl group. The QA level correlated with the phenolic acid group level, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, indicating that QA was incorporated to a similar extent as the polyphenolic moiety from CGA. The QA and CA released from brew fractions by enzymes confirmed the incorporation of intact CGAs. Intact CGAs are proposed to be incorporated in melanoidins upon roasting via CA through mainly nonester linkages. This complex can be written as Mel=CA-QA, in which Mel represents the melanoidin backbone, =CA represents CA nonester-linked to the melanoidin backbone, and -QA represents QA ester-linked to CA. Additionally, a total of 12% of QA was identified in coffee brew, whereas only 6% was reported in the literature so far. The relevance of the additional QA on coffee brew stability is discussed.

  7. [Coffee and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Kerstin; Martin, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Lack of physical activity and high caloric diet are main causes for increasing diabetes prevalence. Thus, it is possible to influence blood glucose levels by lifestyle modifications. Coffee is an important lifestyle factor in Germany with a mean consumption of about 150 litres per inhabitant. It is important to know that coffee cannot be equated with caffeine. Scientific investigations have shown that caffeine can temporarily have a negative impact on cardiovascular risk factors but does not promote development of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, several international prospective studies demonstrate a protective effect of coffee on the development of type 2 diabetes as coffee consumption can reduce glucose uptake. Coffee components, e.g. chlorogenic acid, play a central role, as they can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation in addition. In the context of lifestyle tasks coffee consumption therefore is an additional option for modifying diabetes risk.

  8. Pulverization of coffee silverskin extract as a source of antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.; Kusumocahyo, S. P.; Widiputri, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is waste from coffee roasting process that has a value as source of antioxidant. In this research, two types of variant coffee Robusta and Arabica CS were extracted for their phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The extraction was done at 40°C for 60 minutes using hydroalcoholic solvent. The phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Robusta CS extract were 816.75 ± 63.24 mg GAE/L and 32.82 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 54.80% inhibition respectively, while for Arabica CS extract were 473.51 ± 56.70 mg GAE/L, 18.58 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 26.30% inhibition respectively. Thus, the Robusta coffee silverskin extract has higher value of total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee silverskin extract. To produce high antioxidant powder of CS extract, the effect of drying method (freeze drying and spray drying) affecting the phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The effect of evaporation prior to both drying processes was also evaluated. Evaporation caused up to 23% of total phenolic content degradation. Spray drying resulted in dried CS extract with degradation of total phenolic content up to 17%. On the other hand, freeze drying resulted no major degradation of total phenolic content. However, the coffee silverskin extract can be directly spray dried without evaporation resulting in higher amount of phenolic content in the powder than the one which was evaporated first.

  9. Coffee seed physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, DA; Castro, de, JFM; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such as C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. racemosa have some interesting genetic characteristics, including resistance to pests and diseases and are used in breeding programs. To satisfy the demand for co...

  10. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    the effect of caffeine on mean birth weight and gestational age in a randomised controlled double-blinded trial with 1,207 women randomised to either caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee. We found no difference in mean birth weight or gestational age between children of mothers randomised...... to caffeinated or women randomised to decaffeinated coffee. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day and were randomised to caffeinated coffee gave birth to children with an average adjusted birth weight of 263 gram (95 % CI: 97,430) less than women randomised to decaffeinated coffee. In a nested case...

  11. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  12. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of coffee melanoidins-a study of their metal-chelating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufián-Henares, José A; de la Cueva, Silvia P

    2009-01-28

    Melanoidins comprise a substantial proportion of severely heat-treated foods such as baked cereals or roasted coffee and are widely consumed dietary components. The antimicrobial activity of coffee melanoidins against different pathogenic bacteria has been studied, finding that such activity is due to their metal-chelating properties. Three different mechanisms have been observed: at low concentrations melanoidins exerted a bacteriostatic activity mediated by iron chelation from the culture medium; in the case of bacterial strains that are able to produce siderophores for iron acquisition, melanoidins chelate the siderophore-Fe3+ complex, which could decrease the virulence of such pathogenic bacteria; and, finally, coffee melanoidins also exerted a bactericide activity at high concentrations by removing Mg2+ cations from the outer membrane, promoting the disruption of the cell membrane and allowing the release of intracellular molecules.

  14. Electrochemical behavior and determination of major phenolic antioxidants in selected coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; Rezende, Stefani Garcia; de Fátima Reis, Carolina; Benjamin, Stephen Rathinaraj; Rocha, Matheus Lavorenti; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The redox behavior of commercial roasted coffee products were evaluated by electroanalysis, whereas high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for determination of cinnamic acid markers, the total phenolic content (TPC) was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the traditional DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method for antioxidant power determination. In turn, an optimized electrochemical index was proposed to estimate the antioxidant power of different samples and it was found a great correlation between all methods. The voltammetric profile of all coffee samples was quite similar, presenting the same number of peaks at the same potential values. Minor differences on current levels were in agreement with the total phenolic and major markers content, as well as, to the antioxidant power. Therefore, the electrochemical methods showed to be practical, low cost and very useful to evaluate the antioxidant properties of coffee samples, which is a relevant quality parameter of this widely consumed beverage.

  15. Anti-cariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Amato, Ivana; Ingenito, Aniello; De Natale, Antonino; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-07-01

    Polyphenols occurring in cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green, oolong and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti-microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin show increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against alpha-haemolytic streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.

  16. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  18. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  19. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  20. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  1. Resilience potential of the Ethiopian coffee sector under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Justin; Williams, Jenny; Baena, Susana; Wilkinson, Timothy; Gole, Tadesse W; Challa, Zeleke K; Demissew, Sebsebe; Davis, Aaron P

    2017-06-19

    Coffee farming provides livelihoods for around 15 million farmers in Ethiopia and generates a quarter of the country's export earnings. Against a backdrop of rapidly increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall, there is an urgent need to understand the influence of climate change on coffee production. Using a modelling approach in combination with remote sensing, supported by rigorous ground-truthing, we project changes in suitability for coffee farming under various climate change scenarios, specifically by assessing the exposure of coffee farming to future climatic shifts. We show that 39-59% of the current growing area could experience climatic changes that are large enough to render them unsuitable for coffee farming, in the absence of significant interventions or major influencing factors. Conversely, relocation of coffee areas, in combination with forest conservation or re-establishment, could see at least a fourfold (>400%) increase in suitable coffee farming area. We identify key coffee-growing areas that are susceptible to climate change, as well as those that are climatically resilient.

  2. The Appreciation of Coffee Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧玲

    2010-01-01

    As a unique culture in human history,the coffee culture originated with a magic story.This paper first tells the origin of coffee culture.Then it illustrates some typical coffee cultures in the world.Moreover,the paper specially describes the Chinese coffee culture before making a conclusion.

  3. Influence of serving temperature on flavour perception and release of Bourbon Caturra coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida; Waehrens, Sandra S; Petersen, Mikael A; Münchow, Morten; Bredie, Wender L P

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50°C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of 'sour', 'tobacco' and 'sweet' were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31-44°C, whereas coffees served between 50°C and 62°C exhibited stronger 'overall intensity', 'roasted' flavour and 'bitter' notes.

  4. Development of ochratoxin A during robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee cherry drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, P; Kanchanomai, C; Meyer, I; Pittet, A

    2000-04-01

    The occurrence and formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Robusta coffee was studied for three consecutive seasons under tropical conditions in Thailand. Sun drying of coffee cherries consistently led to OTA formation in the pulp and parchment (husks) of the cherries. In replicated trials, dried coffee beans (green coffee) were shown to contain on average OTA concentrations that were approximately 1% of those found in husks. OTA contamination of green coffee depended on cherry maturity, with green cherries being the least, and overripe cherries the most susceptible. Defects, and in particular the inclusion of husks, are the most important source of OTA contamination. OTA contamination occurred independently of whether cherries were placed on concrete, on bamboo tables, or on the ground. The study suggests that better raw material quality, an appropriate drying and dehulling procedure combined with a reduction of green coffee defects can effectively contribute to the reduction of OTA in green coffee.

  5. 电子鼻在咖啡产品品质检测中的应用研究%Quality Detection for Coffee Products Based on Electronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂苹; 胡荣锁; 卢少芳; 赵建平; 谭乐和

    2011-01-01

    借助电子鼻检测不同类别咖啡产品的气味在传感器上的响应值,并采用主成分分析(PCA)、判别因子(DFA)和统计质量控制分析法(SQC)进行分析.结果显示,焙炒咖啡和速溶咖啡气味差异明显.电子鼻技术能够有效区分不同类别的咖啡产品,亦能将不同焙炒程度的咖啡气味区分开来,利用该技术可对咖啡产品的质量进行有效监控.%The electronic nose was applied in the coffee flavour quality classification. The values on the sensor response of the coffee products' odor were obtained by electronic nose. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and statistical quality control analysis (SQC). Results indicated that the odor of the roasting coffee was different from that of instant coffee. The use of electronic nose technology was able to distinguish coffee products from different species and roasting degree. The quality of coffee products can be effectively controlled by this technology.

  6. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  7. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  8. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  9. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  10. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  11. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    and ethnomethodology we – researchers - decided to study the interplay between practitioners and researchers negotiating on how a psychiatric patient who drinks too much coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the interlocutors’ different common......-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...

  12. Application of transformational roasting to the treatment of metallurgical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Preston Carl

    Transformational roasting involves the heating of a material along with specific additives to induce mineralogical changes in the starting material. By controlling the chemical composition, roasting atmosphere, temperature and time of reaction, the mineral transformations induced during roasting can be engineered to control the distribution of valuable or harmful metals and to produce new mineral assemblages that are more amenable to conventional methods of metals recovery or to environmentally safe disposal. However, to date, transformational roasting processes have only been applied to the recovery of a limited number of metals from a limited number of materials. A generalized procedure for the application of transformational roasting techniques to the treatment of new materials was proposed that utilized a combination of thermodynamic analysis, scoping tests, Design of Experiments (DOE) testing, mineralogical studies, process optimization and analysis of the deportment of minor elements to identify promising roasting systems for further study. This procedure was developed, tested and refined through the application of these techniques to four different industrial metallurgical wastes, including oil sands fly ash from Suncor in northern Alberta, zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru, electric are furnace (EAF) dust from Altasteel's operations in Edmonton, Alberta, and copper-nickel-arsenic sulphide residue from Inco's refinery in Thompson, Manitoba. A large number of potential reagents were identified and tested for the latter three materials and transformational roasting was effectively used to induce mineral transformations during the roasting of these wastes which increased the solubility of valuable elements, decreased the solubility of major impurities, produced a differential solubility between valuable and harmful elements or controlled the volatilization of harmful elements. Comprehensive studies of these mineralogical transformations and the solubility

  13. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  14. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-08-01

    Coffee beverages are so popular all over the world that there is hardly any need to describe them. But underlying this seemingly commonplace beverage there is a whole realm worth serious scientific study. The complexity of the raw seed matrix, made even more intricate when roasted, requires a deep understanding of its chemical nature. While coffee is not consumed for nutritional purposes, it is appreciated for its taste appeal along with its stimulating effects on mental and physical activity. The attention to quality is of paramount importance to both of these aspects to supply the customers with a pleasant and wholesome product. The chemical approach to the sensory sphere has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated analytical methods where the parts per billion of volatile aromas are not the ultimate frontier of detection limits. In spite of the progress of instrumental techniques, the cup-testing approach still remains the final assessment tool to obtain the approval for choosing the right plant and for conveying the product to the market. This is even truer when espresso, the fashionable type of coffee brewing methods, is considered.

  15. Coffee silverskin: characterization, possible uses, and safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cardenia, Vladimiro; Bonaga, Giorgio; Mandrioli, Mara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-05

    The reuse of coffee silverskin (CS), the main waste product of the coffee-roasting industry, could be an alternative to its environmental disposal. However, CS could also contain undesirable compounds, such as ochratoxin A (OTA) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs). A study on the composition of CS (caffeine, moisture, dietary fibers, carbohydrates, and polyphenol contents) was carried out, with emphasis on OTA and POPs for safety reasons. The lipid fraction showed significant amounts of linoleic acid and phytosterols (7.0 and 12.1% of lipid fraction). Noticeable levels of POPs (114.11 mg/100 g CS) were found, and the phytosterol oxidation rate varied from 27.6 to 48.1%. The OTA content was 18.7-34.4 μg/kg CS, which is about 3 times higher than the European Commission limits for coffee products. The results suggest that CS could be used as a source of cellulose and/or bioactive compounds; however, the contents of POPs and OTA might represent a risk for human safety if intended for human or livestock use.

  16. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...... non-case study in DNBC with 141 cases (stillbirth) and 157 controls (singleton live birth) we examined if slow metabolisers of caffeine had higher risk of stillbirth and whether genotype related to oxidative stress was associated with the risk of stillbirth. Slow metabolisers of caffeine had no higher...

  17. Reliable characterization of coffee bean aroma profiles by automated headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the support of a dual-filter mass spectra library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Costa, Rosaria; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Lo Presti, Maria; Festa, Saverio; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Giovanni

    2005-06-01

    This investigation is based on the automated solid phase microextraction GC-MS analysis of the volatile fraction of a variety of coffee bean matrices. Volatile analytes were extracted by headspace (HS)-SPME which was achieved with the support of automated instrumentation. The research was directed towards various important aspects relating to coffee aroma analysis: monitoring of the volatile fraction formation during roasting; chromatographic differentiation of the two main coffee species (Arabica and Robusta) and of a single species from different geographical origins; evaluation of the influence of specific industrial treatments prior to roasting. Reliable peak assignment was carried out through the use of a recently laboratory-constructed "flavour and fragrance" library and a dual-filter MS spectral search procedure. Further emphasis was placed on the automated SPME instrumentation and on its ability to supply highly repeatable chromatographic data.

  18. Validated HPLC-Diode Array Detector Method for Simultaneous Evaluation of Six Quality Markers in Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Anastasia; Leyva, Vanessa E; Gonzalez, Ana E; Maruenda, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, and trigonelline are well studied nutritional biomarkers present in coffee, and they are indicators of thermal decomposition during roasting. However, no method is yet available for their simultaneous determination. This paper describes a rapid and validated HPLC-diode array detector method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural that is applicable to three coffee matrixes: green, roasted, and instant. Baseline separation among all compounds was achieved in 30 min using a phenyl-hexyl RP column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), 0.3% aqueous formic buffer (pH 2.4)-methanol mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and a column temperature at 30°C. The method showed good linear correlation (r2>0.9985), precision (less than 3.9%), sensitivity (LOD=0.023-0.237 μg/mL; LOQ=0.069-0.711 μg/mL), and recovery (84-102%) for all compounds. This simplified method is amenable for a more complete routine evaluation of coffee in industry.

  19. Inhibition of clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by buffered vinegar and lemon juice concentrate during chilling.....of ground turkey road containing minimal ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey roast containing minimal ingredients (salt and sugar), by buffered vinegar (MoStatin V) and a blend (buffered) of lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) was evaluated. Ground turkey roast was formulat...

  20. Should Traditional Roast Ducks Follow The Fast Food Pattern?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It had to happen.Fast food has crept into every facet of life in China,but one area of culinary delight was thought too sacred to tamper with. The time-honored cooking process of Peking roast duck,has finally succumbed to modernity. Quanjude,Beijing’s most famous Peking roast duck brand,has been cooking the juicy birds hung on a pole over a wood fire since

  1. Espresso coffee residues: a valuable source of unextracted compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cardoso, Maria M; Fernandes, Luana; Oliveira, Marta; Mendes, Eulália; Baptista, Paula; Morais, Simone; Casal, Susana

    2012-08-15

    Espresso spent coffee grounds were chemically characterized to predict their potential, as a source of bioactive compounds, by comparison with the ones from the soluble coffee industry. Sampling included a total of 50 samples from 14 trademarks, collected in several coffee shops and prepared with distinct coffee machines. A high compositional variability was verified, particularly with regard to such water-soluble components as caffeine, total chlorogenic acids (CGA), and minerals, supported by strong positive correlations with total soluble solids retained. This is a direct consequence of the reduced extraction efficiency during espresso coffee preparation, leaving a significant pool of bioactivity retained in the extracted grounds. Besides the lipid (12.5%) and nitrogen (2.3%) contents, similar to those of industrial coffee residues, the CGA content (478.9 mg/100 g), for its antioxidant capacity, and its caffeine content (452.6 mg/100 g), due to its extensive use in the food and pharmaceutical industries, justify the selective assembly of this residue for subsequent use.

  2. Recovery and Reutilization of Waste Matter from Coffee Preparation. An Experiment for Environmental Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2001-12-01

    This work is designed as an experience for organic and analytical chemistry laboratories in environmental science courses. Coffee grounds were chosen because they are easily available, they are a fine example of a waste product, and the students are familiar with them. The coffee bean is a source of a number of by-products. By comparing the physicochemical characteristics of coffee oil (from the grounds) with those of common oils, it is found that coffee oil shows similarity to palm oil. We hydrolysed the coffee oil and obtained a soap that had good detergent and foaming properties similar to olive oil soap or commercial products. Another beneficial aspect of the coffee bean results from the high content in organic matter (C = 48.9%) of the degreased coffee grounds, which allows their utilization to improve the fertility of soils. The total nitrogen content of the residue is higher than that of many composts and is similar to the nitrogen content of some commercial products employed for house plants. The economical, technical, and environmental advantages that frequently can derive from the recovery of some by-products of foods and beverages, such as the coffee grounds in this example, are evident.

  3. Matching in Vitro Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Soluble Coffee by Boosted Regression Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Natalia S; López-Froilán, Rebeca; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Bertrand, Lidwina; Baroni, María V; Pérez-Rodríguez, María L; Sánchez-Mata, María-Cortes; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of five soluble coffees throughout a simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, including absorption through a dialysis membrane. Our results demonstrate that both polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were characteristic for each type of studied coffee, showing a drop after dialysis. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in coffee by HPLC-MS, while only 14 of them were found after dialysis. Green+roasted coffee blend and chicory+coffee blend showed the highest and lowest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity before in vitro digestion and after dialysis, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol profile before digestion and after dialysis. Furthermore, boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that only four polyphenol compounds (5-p-coumaroylquinic acid, quinic acid, coumaroyl tryptophan conjugated, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) appear to be the most relevant to explain the antioxidant capacity after dialysis, these compounds being the most bioaccessible after dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report matching the antioxidant capacity of foods with the polyphenol profile by BRT, which opens an interesting method of analysis for future reports on the antioxidant capacity of foods.

  4. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  5. MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF COFFEE IN HIGH SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE SANTINATO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian coffee farming is carried out both on flat and steep lands. In flat areas, mechanized operations are intensive; however, in steep slope areas, certain mechanized operations cannot be performed, such as harvesting. Based on this, the industry has developed machinery to harvest coffee in areas with up to 30% slope. However, harvesters have their efficiency and operational performance influenced by land slope. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the operational performance and harvesting efficiency of a steep-slope harvester under different situations, using different speed settings. The experiment was carried out in the county of Santo Antônio do Amparo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using five coffee stands with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% slope. Evaluations were performed with a self-propelled harvester (Electron, TDI®, Araguari, MG, Brazil at three rotation speeds (600, 800 and 1.000 rpm and two ground speeds (800 and 1.000 m h-1. The results showed the lower speed (800 m h-1 was suitable for 10% slope areas since the amount of fallen coffee berries. For areas of 20% slope, harvesting time was 21.6% longer than in flatter areas. Downtime varied from 10.66 to 29.18% total harvest due to a higher number of maneuvers.

  6. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar or black (metacinnabar coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbejžene trate was performed in order to characterize the solid forms of Hg in applied sampling material. Mercuric sulphide HgS was found to be the main mercury compound present in the samples. Analysis of earthen vessels fragmentsshowed abundant HgS coatings on the surface of ceramics, forming either crust-like aggregates on matrix or isolated grains. Some well-shaped grains with indicated structure and the size of up to 200 μm could also be observed. In soil HgS was present as powder-like concentrations scattered in soil samples, frequently coating silicate and quartz crystals and clay-minerals. Polycristalline, mercury- and sulphur- rich particles comprising silica, clay mineralsand Al-, Fe- and Mg-oxides that were also observed in the samples were interpreted as soil aggregates infiltrated by mercuric and sulphur vapours and by liquid mercury spilled during roasting. These particles suggest a possible presence of mercury-sulphur associations other than HgS.

  7. Behavior of yeast inoculated during semi-dry coffee fermentation and the effect on chemical and sensorial properties of the final beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luciana Silva; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Martins, Pamela Mynsen Machado; van Mullem, Joshua; Belizario, Maisa Honorio; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Pulped Mundo Novo and Ouro Amarelo coffee beans were inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200 and CCMA 0543) during semi-dry coffee fermentation and compared with a non-inoculated control. Samples were collected throughout the fermentation process (12days) to evaluate the persistence of the inoculum by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Also, the chemical composition of the beans was determined by HPLC and GC-MS and the roasted beans were sensorial evaluated using the cupping test. S. cerevisiae CCMA 0543 had an average population of 5.6logcell/g (Ouro Amarelo cultivar) and 5.5logcell/g (Mundo Novo cultivar). Citric, malic, succinic and acetic acid were found in all samples, along with sucrose, fructose, and glucose. There were 104 volatile compounds detected: 49 and 55 in green and roasted coffee, respectively. All coffee samples scored over 80 points in the cupping test, indicating they were specialty-grade. Inoculation with the CCMA 0543 strain performed better than the CCMA 0200 strain. This is the first time that qPCR has been used to assess the persistence of the inoculated strains populations during coffee processing. Strain CCMA 0543 was the most suitable as an inoculant due to its enhanced persistence during the process and number of volatile compounds produced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  9. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  10. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  11. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  12. Honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts from Argentina. Sensorial and chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical and sensory aspects of Honey Roasted (HRP and Roasted Peanuts (RP. These products were evaluated for sensory analysis: overall acceptance using a consumer test and a descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Percentages of protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash was analyzed in HRP and RP. The contents of carbohydrate, oil and protein in HRP were 28.22%, 45.56% and 21.06%, respectively. RP showed higher percentages of lipids and protein and lower percentages of carbohydrate content than HRP. The total energetic value was lower in HRP. Values of 8 (like very much were chosen by a higher number of consumer panelist for HRP while values of 6 (like slightly were found in a higher proportion for RP. The trained panel described 11 attributes: brown color, roughness, roasted peanutty, oxidized, cardboard, sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hardness and crunchiness. The roasted peanutty intensity in RP was higher than in HRP. The intensities of roughness, sweet and salty in HRP were higher than in RP.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente al Maní Tostado con Miel (MTM y Maní Tostado (MT. Estos dos productos fueron evaluados sensorialmente analizando su aceptabilidad por parte de consumidores (test de aceptabilidad y sus atributos sensoriales por el uso de un panel de jueces entrenados (prueba descriptiva. Por otra parte se describió la composición química porcentual: porcentajes de proteínas, aceites, hidratos de carbonos y cenizas. Los contenidos de hidratos de carbonos, aceites y proteínas en MTM fueron de 28,22%, 45.56% y 21,06%. MT presentó mayores porcentajes de lípidos y proteínas y menor contenido de hidratos de carbono que MTM. El valor energético total de MTM es levemente menor que en MT. La aceptabilidad de los productos mostró mayor número de consumidores que le asignaron un valor de 8 ( me gusta mucho dentro de una escala hedónica de 9 puntos a MTM y

  13. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  14. Effects of hydroxyhydroquinone-reduced coffee on vasoreactivity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Chikama, Akiro; Kataoka, Kiyoshi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that chlorogenic acids, which are the main components of the polyphenol class in coffee, decrease blood pressure, and that hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), which is generated by roasting coffee beans, inhibits the antihypertensive effect of chlorogenic acids in brewed coffee. Here, we examined the vasoreactivity and antihypertensive effects of HHQ-reduced coffee in mild hypertension. The study design was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study, with a 4-week run-in period, followed by an 8-week test beverage ingestion period. The subjects were Japanese men and women with mild hypertension and vascular failure, who were not taking any antihypertensive drugs. During the test beverage ingestion period, the subjects ingested either active or placebo HHQ-reduced coffee (chlorogenic acids per 184 ml of coffee: active, 300 mg; and placebo, 0 mg) daily. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: active group (n=9) and placebo group (n=12). In the active beverage group, endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation impairment was significantly ameliorated and systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased from the baseline, but not in the placebo group. There were no test beverage consumption-related changes in other parameters that may influence blood pressure, such as pulse, cardiac output, body weight or 24-h urine volume. Ingestion of the active beverage significantly decreased urinary isoprostane levels, suggesting a reduced oxidative stress. These findings indicate that HHQ-reduced coffee decreased blood pressure in subjects with mild hypertension. The decreased blood pressure was associated with improved vascular endothelial function.

  15. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK POLIFENOL KASAR DARI KAKAO HASIL PENYANGRAIAN MENGGUNAKAN ENERJI GELOMBANG MIKRO [Antioxidant activity of crude polyphenol extract from microwave roasted cocoa bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto 1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave heating is faster than the conventional way, therefore it is interesting to apply for cocoa roasting. This research was aimed at gaining information on the effect of microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib on the antioxidative properties of crude polyphenol extract from the product.The results indicated that microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib for 5 min, adjusted at 20% of the full power (900W gave no significant difference in inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and scavenging of DPPH radical activity of the crude polyphenol extract compared to that of the conventional roasting at 140 oC for 40 min. But having reduction of ferric ion activity more greater and chelating ferro ion activity more lower. The crude polyphenol extract inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and scavenged DPPH free radical. The inhibition was lower than that of either BHT or a-tocoferol at concentration lower than 400 ug/ml for linoleic acid oxidation and that lower than 40 ug/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging. The crude polyphenol extract reduced ferric ion, though lower than BHT did.

  16. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  17. Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Alamilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During cocoa beans roasting, there are physicochemical changes that develop the chocolate quality attributes. Roasting systems have a particular influence on the development of these characteristics, and the effects of operation variables for each system must be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of roasting time and temperature in a rotatory system on cocoa beans physicochemical parameters of quality as moisture, water activity, pH, total acidity, color (L⁎,a⁎,b⁎, total phenolic content (TPC, and DPPH radical capacity. Cocoa beans were roasted as a function with a central rotatable design with 22 + 5 central points and 4 axial points (-1.414, -1, 0, +1, and +1,414 and a response surface methodology was applied. Temperature and time levels were 110–170°C and 5–65 minutes, respectively. The effect of the variables was nonlinear and modeled with a second-order response polynomial. Roasting time and temperature presented a significative effect (p<0.05 on the response variables except for both TPC and DPPH radical capacity in aqueous extract.

  18. Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-23

    The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone.

  19. The Effect of Grinding and Roasting Conditions on the Selective Leaching of Nd and Dy from NdFeB Magnet Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pretreatment processes consisting of grinding followed by roasting were investigated to improve the selective leaching of Nd and Dy from neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB magnet scraps. The peaks of Nd(OH3 and Fe were observed in XRD results after grinding with NaOH as the amount of water addition increased to 5 cm3. These results indicate that the components of Nd and Fe in NdFeB magnet could be changed successfully into Nd(OH3 and Fe, respectively. In the roasting tests using the ground product, with increasing roasting temperature to 500 °C, the peaks of Nd(OH3 and Fe disappeared while those of Nd2O3 and Fe2O3 were shown. The peaks of NdFeO3 in the sample roasted at 600 °C were observed in the XRD pattern. Consequently, 94.2%, 93.1%, 1.0% of Nd, Dy, Fe were leached at 400 rpm and 90 °C in 1 kmol·m−3 acetic acid solution with 1% pulp density using a sample prepared under the following conditions: 15 in stoichiometric molar ratio of NaOH:Nd, 550 rpm in rotational grinding speed, 5 cm3 in water addition, 30 min in grinding time, 400 °C and 2 h in roasting temperature and time. The results indicate that the selective leaching of Nd and Dy from NdFeB magnet could be achieved successfully by grinding and then roasting treatments.

  20. Separation and Recovery of Iron and Rare Earth from Bayan Obo Tailings by Magnetizing Roasting and (NH42SO4 Activation Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for recovery of iron and rare earth elements (REEs from Bayan Obo tailings of Baotou, China, was developed by combining magnetizing roasting, magnetic separation, (NH42SO4 activation roasting, and water leaching. Thermodynamic analysis of carbothermal reduction was conducted to determine the temperature of magnetizing roasting, and it agreed well with the experimental results. The maximum recovery of Fe reached 77.8% at 600 °C, and the grade of total Fe in the magnetic concentrate was 56.3 wt. %. An innovative approach, using water to leach REEs after (NH42SO4 activation roasting, was used to extract REEs from magnetic separation tailings. The main influence factors of the leaching recovery during (NH42SO4 activation roasting, were investigated with the mass ratio of (NH42SO4 to magnetic separation tailings, roasting temperature and roasting time. The leaching recoveries of La, Ce and Nd reached 83.12%, 76.64% and 77.35%, respectively, under the optimized conditions: a mass ratio of 6:1, a roasting temperature of 400 °C and a roasting time of 80 min. Furthermore, the phase composition and reaction process during the (NH42SO4 activation roasting were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy & scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM and thermogravimetry & differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and the leaching solution and leaching residue were also characterized.

  1. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Kinetics of color development of peanuts during dry roasting using a batch roaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetics of color development during peanut roasting were investigated at roasting temperatures from 149 to 204 °C which produced Hunter L color values of 25 to 65. Preliminary and equivalent roasting trials were conducted using a batch roaster simulating the parameters of an industrial continuo...

  3. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  4. Recovering indium with sulfating roasting from copper-smelting ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A technology for recovering indium from Jinchuan copper-smelting ash was developed. Indium in the ash was first enriched to the leaching-slag in leaching process, and then recovered by sulfating roasting. The method included mixing the leaching-slag with sulfuric acid, making them into particles, roasting the mixture, and then leaching the calcine with hot water. Above 90% of indium in calcine could be dissolved into the leaching solution. The optimized conditions were determined as follows: the mass ratio of sulfuric acid to leaching slag was 0.1, the roasting time was about 1 to 1.5 h in the temperature range of 200-250 ℃, and the calcine was leached for 1 h with 5:1 of liquid/solid ratio at 60℃. Over 99% of indium in leaching solution was finally enriched by Zn substitution or sulfide precipitation.

  5. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  6. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.

  7. Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

    2010-11-24

    In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (∼20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis.

  8. A simple method to measure effective catalase activities: optimization, validation, and application in green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, Philippe; Kukic, Koraljka Rade; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2007-01-15

    Oxidative metabolism in coffee cherries during maturation appears to be regulated by the timely expression of redox enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Among these enzymes, CAT is suspected to contribute significantly in setting the redox status of the healthy cherry and the processed bean. The initial redox status of the green bean might further control the nature and dynamics of reactions induced by roasting and eventually quality aspects of the end product. In this respect, Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) typically differ by their cup coffee flavor profiles. We developed an assay that allowed us to screen numerous green coffee samples for effective CAT activities. The proposed assay, which monitors CAT activities by online oxygen sensing in green coffee crude suspensions incubated with H2O2, seeks to integrate potential effects of endogenous inhibitors and activators. After optimization and validation of the assay, 23 Arabicas, 23 Robustas, and 8 Arabustas were analyzed. Nearly all Arabicas (22 of 23) harbored high CAT activity levels, whereas all Robustas harbored low ones. Arabustas performed like Arabicas of the lower CAT activity range. The traditional spectrophotometric assay did not reveal these specificities. Because of its simplicity, our assay might be valuable for assessing effective CAT activities in various plant tissues.

  9. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  10. Extraction of coffee silverskin to convert waste into a source of antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangguh, Patrick; Kusumocahyo, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is a thin layer of coffee bean, and is regarded as a waste during coffee roasting process. In this work, coffee silverskin was extracted by three types of method: conventional extraction (CE) with agitation, conventional extraction (CE) without agitation and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract were analyzed. It was found that the type of extraction method, the extraction time and the extraction temperature strongly influenced the total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract. Comparison between conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA test. The optimum extraction time and temperature for each method were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA test. It was found that the optimum condition to obtain a high antioxidant activity of 68.9% was by using CE with agitation with the extraction time and temperature of 60 minutes and 60˚C, respectively.

  11. Authentication of Italian Espresso coffee blends through the GC peak ratio between kahweol and 16-O-methylcafestol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Boselli, Emanuele; Balzano, Michele; Frega, Natale G

    2012-12-01

    Since the price of Arabica is currently more than twice higher than Robusta, a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the roasted coffee blend composition is fundamental for the authentication of commercial blends used for the Italian Espresso coffee. A GC-FID method based on the ratio between the integrated peak areas of kahweol (K) divided by the sum of K and 16-O-methylcafestol (16MCF) was developed. No internal/external standard was used. Moreover, the quantitation of the unsaponifiable compounds is not necessary, as well as the calculation of any response factors. The percentage of Robusta in 34 samples of coffee blends with known composition, and in 48 samples of pure varieties was used to build a cubic polynomial function with R(2)=0.998. The roasting conditions did not affect the results. Considering eight commercial blends (ranging 0-90% Robusta), no significant difference (two-tailed P=0.817) was registered between the claimed and the predicted composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiation of Chinese robusta coffees according to species, using a combined electronic nose and tongue, with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Rongsuo; Dong, Yunping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-08-15

    Electronic nose and tongue sensors and chemometric multivariate analysis were applied to characterize and classify 7 Chinese robusta coffee cultivars with different roasting degrees. Analytical data were obtained from 126 samples of roasted coffee beans distributed in the Hainan Province of China. Physicochemical qualities, such as the pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), total solids (TS), and TSS/TA ratio, were determined by wet chemistry methods. Data fusion strategies were investigated to improve the performance of models relative to the performance of a single technique. Clear classification of all the studied coffee samples was achieved by principal component analysis, K-nearest neighbour analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and a back-propagation artificial neural network. Quantitative models were established between the sensor responses and the reference physicochemical qualities, using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The PLSR model with a fusion data set was considered the best model for determining the quality parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    OpenAIRE

    J. Snel; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumption, sensitivity and health complaints were significant but were of low importance to health. Coffee consumption was significantly related to intestinal complaints (r=0.15) and sensitivity to coffee ...

  14. Microstructural and mechanical properties of camel longissimus dorsi muscle during roasting, braising and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmand, M S; Nikmaram, P; Djomeh, Z Emam; Homayouni, A

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various heating methods, including roasting, braising and microwave heating, on mechanical properties and microstructure of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of the camel. Shear value and compression force increased during microwave heating more than roasting and braising. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed more damage from roasting than in either braising or microwave heating. Granulation and fragmentation were clear in muscle fibers after roasting. The perimysium membrane of connective tissue was damaged during braising, while roasting left the perimysium membrane largely intact. The mechanical properties and microstructure of muscle can be affected by changes in water content during cooking.

  15. Microbiological diversity associated with the spontaneous wet method of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of the microbiota present during coffee wet fermentation was done in two distinct regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil: one farm in the South of Minas Gerais (Lavras=L) and another farm in the savannah region (Monte Carmelo=MC). The yeast population ranged from 2.48 to 4.92 log CFU/g and from 2 to 4.81 log CFU/g, the mesophilic bacteria population ranged from 3.83 to 8.47 log CFU/g and from 5.37 to 7.36 log CFU/g, and the LAB population ranged from 2.57 to 5.66 log CFU/g and from 3.40 to 4.49 log CFU/g in the L and MC farms, respectively. Meyerozyma caribbica and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the dominant yeasts in coffee wet fermentation at L farm, and Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast at MC farm. The species Staphylococcus warneri and Erwinia persicina were the predominant bacteria at L farm, and Enterobacter asburiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant species at MC farm. Lactic acid was the principal acid detected, reaching 2.33 g/kg at L farm and 1.40 g/kg at MC farm by the end of the process. The volatiles composition was similar for roasted coffee from the two different regions and furans, acids, and alcohol were the main groups detected. Temporal Dominance Sensation (TDS) analyses showed that the coffee beverage from L farm was dominated by citrus and herbaceous sensory characteristics, while the coffee from MC farm was dominated by citrus, herbaceous, and nuts sensory characteristics. Evaluating the microbiota in these two regions was important in improving the knowledge of the microbial species present during coffee wet fermentation in Brazil.

  16. Effect of MW-assisted roasting on nutritional and chemical properties of hazelnuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the flavor, texture, color, and appearance of hazelnuts, they are roasted during postharvest processing. In this study, raw hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L. were roasted using microwave (MW and MW-assisted hot air methods under various roasting conditions. The hazelnuts roasted were then examined to determine the percent DPPH radical scavenging activity, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, resistant starch, non-resistant starch, total starch, and protein concentration. The roasting experiments were done using a completely randomized factorial arrangement of two roasting types by three roasting times (9, 15, and 21 min by three roasting temperatures (70, 90, and 110°C using three replications within each experiment. These roasting methods were found to yield significant differences in antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, resistant starch, non-resistant starch, and protein concentration between MW and MW-assisted hot air roasting processes, while no difference was found in percent DPPH radical scavenging activity and total starch. The results obtained may be of great importance to the food research community and industrial hazelnut roasting technologies.

  17. The effects of water absorption and roasting conditions on fracture properties and internal structure of sesame seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Nakako; Fujimura, Makoto; Hanya, Akira; Nishizu, Takahisa

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of soaking, residence time before roasting and roasting conditions on the fracture properties and structure of the cross-section of sesame seeds. Soaking time affected only the size of the side voids of the seed cross-section. The fracture force and strain of the roasted seeds decreased as residence time increased. The center void of the roasted seeds, important for seed crispness increased as residence time increased. In contrast, the side void of the roasted seeds only increased with residence time during the first 10 min. Seeds roasted at higher temperatures had smaller fracture forces and larger central voids than those roasted at lower temperatures. During roasting at 300 °C, the fracture force and strain decreased as the center void ratio increased. Overall, both a sufficient time for moisture diffusion in the seeds and a high roasting temperature were necessary to produce crisp roasted seeds.

  18. Volatile compounds of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) from microwave-heating and conventional roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiralan, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    The volatile compounds in raw, conventionally roasted and microwave roasted black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds at 0.45 kW for 2, 4, and 8 min, were analyzed by headspace-SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 38 volatile compounds identified, the major compounds were thymoquinone and p-cymene in all samples. The levels of these compounds decreased with roasting. However, concentrations of pyrazines and furans increased significantly as a result of roasting and these compounds may affect the flavor of roasted black cumin seeds. Methyl pyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were major pyrazines, formed at high concentration in seeds roasted for 8 min and in conventional roasting.

  19. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  20. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  1. Titania preparation from soda roasted slag using sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. Manaa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with treatment of the sodium titanate cake results from roasted titania slag using 60% sulfuric acid solution. The working sample produced by roasting titania slag with NaCO3 at 850 °C. After roasting V and Cr species as impurities in the roasted sample are converted to water soluble species as NaVO3 and Na2CrO4 before acid treatment however, the insoluble sodium titanate products (NaFeTiO4, Na8Ti5O14, Na6Ti2O7 and Na2TiO4 are then subjected to H2SO4 acid dissolution. The produced sulfate solution is subjected to hydrolysis step in presence of oxalic acid as a reducing agent. The hydrolyzed precipitate after filtration and washing with H2SO4 solution and warm water is dried at 100 °C and calcinated at 850 °C to prepare high pure TiO2 (99.8% besides removing ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 as a byproduct from the sulfate solution.

  2. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  3. Determination of the 2H/1H and 15N/14N ratios of Alkylpyrazines from coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephoravar. robusta) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richling, Elke; Preston, Christina; Kavvadias, Dominique; Kahle, Kathrin; Heppel, Christopher; Hummel, Silvia; König, Thorsten; Schreier, Peter

    2005-10-05

    The delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) data for several alkylpyrazines formed during the roasting process of coffee are reported. Samples of commercially available roasted (n = 9) as well as self-roasted (n = 8) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora var. robusta) of different origins were investigated. By use of extracts prepared by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and subsequently fractionated by liquid chromatography on silica gel, on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) values, respectively. In addition to the constituents of coffee beans, data for commercial synthetic alkylpyrazines and substances declared to be "natural" were determined. The delta15N(AIR) data for coffee alkylpyrazines under study-2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine (1) and 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine (2) (measured as sum 1/2), 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine (3), 2-methylpyrazine (4), 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (5) and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (6) (measured as sum 5/6), and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (7), as well as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (8)-varied in the range from +8.3 to -10.2 per thousand, thus revealing their biogeneration from amino acids (delta15N(AIR) ranging from +8 per thousand to -10 per thousand). The delta2H(VSMOW) values were determined in the range from -5 per thousand to -127 per thousand. Owing to the analytical differentiation observed between coffee alkylpyrazines and synthetic/"natural" samples of 3, 4, and 7, authenticity assessment of coffee-flavored products seems to be promising, provided that extended data will be available in the future. In the literature, there were no IRMS data available for the alkylpyrazines (1-8) under study.

  4. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  5. Coffee parchment in fluidisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All coffee is harvested as cherry grains which are then crushed and extracted traditionally or by applying the Becolsub method. Once the coffee parchment obtained has been washed, it is naturally or mechanically dried. Static dryers are the most used mechanical dryers, generally producing lack of uniformity in the grain’s final humidity content which must range from 10% to 12% b.h. Drying by fluidization was used in the present research work; this turns a solid particle bed into a suspended and expanded mass, possessing many of the properties of a liquid. A 5,000 g capacity prototype was designed and constructed in which coffee was dried at three air drying temperatures: 42°C, 46°C and 49°C; drying time lasted 6 to 8 hours. Good uniformity in final grain humidity content was obtained, differences being less than 0.86%. As well as the grain test, a control cup test was used, finding that the product presented good organoleptic qualities.

  6. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means.

  7. Evaluation of spent coffee obtained from the most common coffeemakers as a source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jimena; Juániz, Isabel; Monente, Carmen; Caemmerer, Bettina; Kroh, Lothar W; De Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2012-12-26

    The main hydrophilic antioxidant compounds (3-, 4-, and 5-monocaffeoylquinic and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeine, and browned compounds, including melanoidins) and the antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ABTS, DPPH, Fremy's salt, and TEMPO) were evaluated in Arabica and Robusta spent coffee obtained from the preparation of coffee brews with the most common coffeemakers (filter, espresso, plunger, and mocha). All spent coffee grounds, with the exception of those from the mocha coffeemaker, had relevant amounts of total caffeoylquinic acids (6.22-13.24 mg/g of spent coffee), mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids (3.31-5.79 mg/g of spent coffee), which were 4-7-fold higher than in their respective coffee brews. Caffeine ranged from 3.59 to 8.09 mg/g of spent coffee. The antioxidant capacities of the aqueous spent coffee extracts were 46.0-102.3% (filter), 59.2-85.6% (espresso), and coffee brews. This study obtained spent coffee extracts with antioxidant properties that can be used as a good source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

  8. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  9. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  10. Comparative physico-chemical, proximate and mineral analysis on raw and roasted seeds of groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Saravan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.

  11. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  12. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumptio

  13. Developing qualitative extraction profiles of coffee aromas utilizing polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings in headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Darias, Jessica; Anderson, Jared L; Pino, Verónica; Afonso, Ana M

    2011-11-01

    Two solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent coatings based on polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) have been utilized for the analysis of complex coffee aroma samples. The PIL-based SPME coatings examined, namely, poly(1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide) [poly(VBHDIm(+) NTf(2)(-))], with ~14-μm thickness, and poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium chloride) [poly(ViHIm(+)Cl(-))], with ~8-μm thickness, were employed for the headspace determination of up to 49 analytes from four different coffee beans: two French roast coffees of different brands, Sumatra coffee, and decaffeinated Sumatra coffee. The analysis was conducted using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For comparative purposes, the commercial polyacrylate (PA, 85-μm film thickness) SPME coating was utilized under the same extraction conditions. The three SPME coatings tested behaved quite differently as a function of the families of compounds extracted. Thus, the poly(VBHDIm(+) NTf(2)(-) ) coating was extremely selective for aldehydes while also exhibiting good extraction efficiencies for acids. The poly-(ViHIm(+) Cl(-)) coating exhibited superior performance for aromatic alcohols, and the PA coating worked better for heterocyclic aromatics. Both PIL-based SPME sorbent coatings demonstrated exceptional selectivity and extraction efficiency when dealing with complex coffee aromas in spite of their small film thicknesses.

  14. Analysis of coffee bean extracts by use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Daniel James

    2014-01-01

    The number of flavour chemicals identified in coffee has reached over 1000 [1], [2]. Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages [3], highly studied for its health-related properties [4], [5], [6]. Studies on coffee associated with human health have focused on the negative aspects, such as the toxicity of caffeine [7], [8]. Complex chemistry happens during coffee roasting and according to the literature, a number of compounds have been detected and quantified in coffee beans samples by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS [9], [10], [11], [12]. The following method offers a simple approach for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of coffee bean extracts using a Waters Acquity G2 UPLC-Q-TOF/MS instrument adapted from the method by Kenny et al., [12]. The following modifications were made:•The method by Kenny et al. was developed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the below method was developed on a Q-TOF MS.•A combination of utilising both base peak index and mass extraction at 0.05 Da allows for a sensitive, quantitative technique amidst poor background noise and poor separation with high mass accuracy (<5 ppm).•By use of MS(E) centroid experiment, greater mass spectral information for metabolite profiling could be obtained.

  15. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  16. Statistical tools applied for the reduction of the defect rate of coffee degassing valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Olmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a very common beverage exported all over the world: just after roasting, coffee beans are packed in plastic or paper bags, which then experience long transfers with long storage times. Fresh roasted coffee emits large amounts of CO2 for several weeks. This gas must be gradually released, to prevent package over-inflation and to preserve aroma, moreover beans must be protected from oxygen coming from outside. Therefore, one-way degassing valves are applied to each package: their correct functionality is strictly related to the interference coupling between their bodies and covers and to the correct assembly of the other involved parts. This work takes inspiration from an industrial problem: a company that assembles valve components, supplied by different manufacturers, observed a high level of defect rate, affecting its valve production. An integrated approach, consisting in the adoption of quality charts, in an experimental campaign for the dimensional analysis of the mating parts and in the statistical processing of the data, was necessary to tackle the question. In particular, a simple statistical tool was made available to predict the defect rate and to individuate the best strategy for its reduction. The outcome was that requiring a strict protocol, regarding the combinations of parts from different manufacturers for assembly, would have been almost ineffective. Conversely, this study led to the individuation of the weak point in the manufacturing process of the mating components and to the suggestion of a slight improvement to be performed, with the final result of a significant (one order of magnitude decrease of the defect rate.

  17. Effect of roasting on tocopherols of gourd seeds (Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier, Montet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roasting at high temperatures on the Vitamin E in hulled gourd seeds of Cucurbita pepo was studied. Roasting at 140°C for 5 min induced a swelling of the seed with an increase in volume of 43 %, and a weight loss of 6.5 %.The seed acquired the desired puffed-up appearance. The water activity of raw seeds was 0.544 and decreased during roasting to 0.105. Cucurbita pepo seeds contained 51.0 % fat. Tocopherol content of roasted seeds was 68mg/100g oil and of non roasted seeds was 107mg/100g oil. γ-tocopherol represented 96% of the total tocopherols. Total tocopherol loss during roasting was 36%. β-tocopherol loss was the highest at 50%; for α-tocopherol it was 41% and for γ-tocopherol it was 36%.Se ha estudiado el efecto del tostado a alta temperatura sobre la vitamina E en semillas de calabaza Cucurbita pepo. El tostado a 140°C durante 5 min indujo una hinchazón de la semilla con un aumento en el volumen del 43 %, y una pérdida de peso del 6,5 %. La semilla adquirió la apariencia deseada después del tostado. La actividad del agua en la semilla cruda fue de 0,544 y disminuyó durante el tostado a 0,105. Las semillas de Cucurbita pepo contenían un 51,0 % de grasa. El contenido de tocoferol de las semillas tostadas fue de 68mg/100g y el de las semillas no tostadas de 107mg/100g de aceite. El γ-tocoferol representó el 96% de los tocoferoles totales. La pérdida de tocoferoles totales durante el tostado fue del 36% siendo la má alta la del β-tocoferol con un 50%; la del α-tocoferol fue del 41% y la del γ-tocoferol del 36%.

  18. MARKETING STRATEGY OF CHOSEN COFFEE SHOP

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to make a marketing strategy of chosen coffee shop, which is situated in Slovakia. Therefore the analysis needed to achieve the given aim were analysis of macroenvironment in Slovakia, current trends in coffee drinking, coffee shop business (in Europe), competition in the town. Interviews with the owner of given coffee shop, owners of other successful coffee shops and the summarization of related theory, also contributed to the achievement of the aim. A partial aim wa...

  19. Changes in oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Pistacia terebinthus oil with roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Gökhan; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-09-15

    The effect of roasting on oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant phytochemicals in Pistacia terebinthus oil was investigated. Oils were extracted from P. terebinthus fruits roasted at 180°C for 0-40min. Roasting was found to cause an increase in the passage of phenolic compounds to the oil whereas the level of tocopherols, lutein and β-carotene was decreased. Antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of P. terebinthus oil increased with roasting. As an indicator of the presence of Maillard reaction products in oil, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) level and colour intensity was measured and found to increase with increasing roasting time. Fatty acid composition was not affected significantly by roasting.

  20. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  1. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  2. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  3. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  4. Flavoromics approach in monitoring changes in volatile compounds of virgin rapeseed oil caused by seed roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracka, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2016-01-08

    Two varieties of rapeseed (one high oleic - containing 76% of oleic acid, and the other - containing 62% of oleic acid) were used to produce virgin (pressed) oil. The rapeseeds were roasted at different temperature/time combinations (at 140-180°C, and for 5-15min); subsequently, oil was pressed from the roasted seeds. The roasting improved the flavour and contributed to a substantial increase in the amount of a potent antioxidant-canolol. The changes in volatile compounds related to roasting conditions were monitored using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS), and the key odorants for the non-roasted and roasted seeds oils were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The most important compounds determining the flavour of oils obtained from the roasted seeds were dimethyl sulphide, dimethyltrisulfide, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2,3-butenedione, octanal, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and phenylacetaldehyde. For the oils obtained from the non-roasted seeds, the dominant compounds were dimethylsulfide, hexanal and octanal. Based on GC×GC-ToFMS and principal component analysis (PCA) of the data, several compounds were identified that were associated with roasting at the highest temperatures regardless of the rapeseed variety: these were, among others, methyl ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2-octanone).

  5. The Influence of Roasting Temperature on the Flotation Properties of Muscovite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayan Tang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roasting and flotation are common techniques used in mineral processing, and they have increasingly been combined for the pre-concentration of muscovite from stone coal. The research was mainly to study flotation properties of muscovite after roasting at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C, respectively. The changes of chemical and physical properties of muscovite during the roasting process were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Zeta potential measurements, particle size analysis, and the BET surface area measurements. The results indicated that the dehydroxylation of crystal structure took place at temperatures over 600 °C. A large number of hydroxyl groups were removed from the crystal structure of muscovite at 600–1000 °C. The layer structure, surface element distribution, and electrical properties of muscovite remained after roasting. The flotation recovery of roasted muscovite samples increased with the increase in roasting temperature in the same flotation system, because the specific surface and the adsorption capacity of dodecylamine (DDA were reduced when roasting temperature was over 600 °C. A suitable roasting temperature and dosage of reagents can be provided for the roasting-flotation of muscovite.

  6. Ecological factors influencing incidence and severity of Coffee Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The importance of coffee in economies of many African countries like Uganda, presents ... estimated 2.97% of its crop to the world .... coffee fields sampled in the Arabica coffee growing regions of Uganda ..... coffee-banana intercropping in.

  7. Discrimination between arabica and robusta coffee species on the basis of their amino acid enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Susana; Alves, M Rui; Mendes, Eulália; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2003-10-22

    This work reports the results for the composition of robusta and arabica coffee species in terms of their amino acid enantiomers in the green and roasted states. The analyses were conducted for the free amino acids, as well as for the amino acids obtained after acid hydrolysis. The amino acids were extracted/hydrolyzed and isolated by SPE on strong cation exchange columns, derivatized to their N-ethoxycarbonylheptafluorobutyl esters, and analyzed by gas chromatography/FID on a Chirasil l-Val column. Multivariate analyses applied to the results showed that the free amino acids can be used as a tool for discrimination between coffee species, with a special reference to l-glutamic acid, l-tryptophan, and pipecolic acid. There is also some evidence that these compounds can be used for discrimination between green coffees subjected to different postharvest processes. It is also shown that the amino acid levels observed after acid hydrolysis can be used for the same purposes, although displaying less discriminatory power.

  8. Chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrid domains in coffee melanoidins: Evidences from a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Passos, Cláudia P; Santos, Sónia A O; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, André M N; Rangel, Maria; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2015-10-15

    Arabinose from arabinogalactan side chains was hypothesized as a possible binding site for chlorogenic acids in coffee melanoidins. To investigate this hypothesis, a mixture of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the most abundant chlorogenic acid in green coffee beans, and (α1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose, structurally related to arabinogalactan side chains, was submitted to dry thermal treatments. The compounds formed during thermal processing were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and characterized by tandem MS (ESI-MS(n)). Compounds composed by one or two CQAs covalently linked with pentose (Pent) residues (1-12) were identified, along with compounds bearing a sugar moiety but composed exclusively by the quinic or caffeic acid moiety of CQAs. The presence of isomers was demonstrated by liquid chromatography online coupled to ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n). Pent1-2CQA were identified in coffee samples. These results give evidence for a diversity of chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrids formed during roasting, opening new perspectives for their identification in melanoidin structures.

  9. Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante do café (Coffea arabica L. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Abrahão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com a proposta de avaliar o potencial antioxidante de dois padrões da bebida do café (rio e mole, verdes e torrados, utilizando modelos in vitro. Foram determinados o teor de fenólicos totais, ácido clorogênico (ácido 5-cafeoilquínico e cafeína das bebidas. A avaliação in vitro do potencial antioxidante foi investigada pelos métodos de captação do radical DPPH e pelo poder redutor de metais. Os dois padrões de bebida do café analisados não apresentaram diferenças quanto aos parâmetros cor, ácido clorogênico e cafeína. Observou-se que houve redução nos valores de ácido clorogênico à medida que os grãos foram torrados. O café verde bebida rio apresentou maior teor de fenólicos totais que o café bebida mole. Nos grãos torrados não foi observada diferença. A bebida do café independente da qualidade sensorial apresentou alto poder redutor e importante atividade sequestrante de radicais livres. A atividade sequestrante de radicais livres foi significativamente superior nas amostras obtidas a partir dos grãos torrados, quando comparados aos extratos dos grãos verdes. A torração, porém, reduziu o poder redutor das bebidas do café. Os dados obtidos permitem sugerir que, independente da classificação sensorial da bebida, o café apresenta expressiva capacidade sequestrante de radicais livres e poder redutor de metais.The present work intended to evaluate the antioxidant potential of two coffee sorts (soft and river, green and roasted, in vitro. Phenolic compounds content, chlorogenic acid (5-cafeoyolquinic and caffeine of the beverages were evaluated. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential was investigated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and by reducing the power of metals. Both sorts of coffee did not present statistical differences for color, chlorogenic acid and caffeine. After roasting, 5-cafeoyolquinic acid levels decreased. River coffee beverage presented greater content

  10. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smallholder commercialisation and market integration. , .... Coffee growers in Ethiopia have been exposed to price fluctuations and impacts of ...... also indirectly indicates the cropping mix (staple versus cash crops) is also important in.

  11. New approaches on the analyses of thermolabile coffee diterpenes by gas chromatography and its relationship with cup quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fábio Junior Moreira; Oigman, Silvia Siag; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2015-07-01

    A new gas chromatography method using pulsed split injector (PS-GC) was validated to quantify thermolabile diterpenes cafestol, kahweol and isokahweol in methanolysed Arabica coffee oils. Linearity was 0.99 from 8 to 69mgmL(-1), recovery ranged from 99% to 101% and precision of less than 4% was obtained. Besides, Soxhlet extraction time was evaluated and Tukey׳s test indicated that the mass of diterpenes obtained in 4h is equivalent to a 16h period, which represents a space-time yield four times higher. The microwave assisted methanolysis proved to be efficient to quantitatively convert the natural diterpene esters in their respective alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters, accompanied by PS-GC. Also, the intact diterpene esters were analyzed by GC for the first time by the comparison between cold on-column (COC) and PS injection techniques. In all these stages, the molecular integrity of the thermolabile furokaurane diterpenes was maintained. The methanolysed oils from 13 samples of green Brazilian Arabica coffees were analyzed by PS-GC and the diterpenes composition varied from 8 to 12% w/w in oil and 0.7-1% in coffee beans. The ratio between cafestol and kahweol was successfully used to predict the quality of coffee even before the roasting and brewing processes.

  12. Turkish Coffee Shop

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A black and white copy of an original photograph showing Turkish men sitting outside a Turkish coffee shop, Cyprus - Μαυρόασπρο αντίγραφο από μια φωτογραφία που δείχνει Τούρκους άντρες να κάθονται έξω από ένα τούρκικο καφενεία στην Λευκωσία.

  13. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Islam, Anowarul; Pal, Tarun K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME), ethanolic (GEE), and chloroform (GCE) extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO) from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  14. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. Material and methods. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME, ethanolic (GEE, and chloroform (GCE extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Results. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Conclusions. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  15. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy.

  16. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumpt......In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea...... consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected...... at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were...

  17. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  18. Is coffee a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.

  19. Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grembecka, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Ewa; Szefer, Piotr. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl

    2007-09-20

    The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Co, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) were determined in market coffee samples after dry mineralisation of both dry samples and infusions evaporated to dryness. The total metal contents were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) using deuterium-background correction. Phosphorus was determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Tea (NCS DC 73351), Cabbage (IAEA-359) and Spinach leaves (NIST-1570). It was concluded, based on RDA calculated for essential metals, that coffee infusions are not an important source of bioelements in human diet. In the case of toxic elements Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) was estimated and there is no health hazard associated with exposure to Cd and Pb via coffee consumption. Significant correlation coefficients (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) were found between concentrations of some metals in coffee. Factor analysis and canonical analysis were applied to the data processing in order to characterise the market coffee samples. The 12 metals determined were considered as chemical descriptors of each sample. Based on the mineral composition, it was possible to differentiate chemometrically particular types of coffee distinguishing arabica from robusta, ground from instant coffee, and their infusions.

  20. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  2. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  3. Beijing Bianyifang,No.1 of the 600-year "Kiln-roast Duck"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The brand of Bianyifang was established in A.D.1416 (Yongle 14th, Ming dynasty), 590 years ago. It is one of the oldest restaurants in China, famous for its roast duck. Its unique method of kiln-roasting has been its trademark all throughout its history.

  4. Study of the possibility of iron extraction from waste coal by magnetizing roasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynkina, E. P.; Zorya, V. N.; Korovushkin, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of magnetizing roasting of waste coal in converting iron, contained in the mineral part, from weak-magnetic and non-magnetic minerals (siderite, pyrite, marcasite) into high-magnetic ones (magnetite, maghemite) is shown. Products of magnetizing roasting are used as raw material for the subsequent magnetic separation.

  5. Quality control of flaxseed grain processed with microwave roasting heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Puvača, Nikola M.; Stanaćev, Vidica; Jajić, Igor; Lević, Jovanka D.; Glamočić, Dragan; Krstović, Saša Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate effects of microwave roasting on basic chemical composition, crude protein solubility and amino acid composition of flaxseed grain. Flaxseed was microwaved in a microwave oven Samsung GE82N-B with LED display at 450W for 0, 1, 3 and 5 minutes. Microwave roasting during 5 minutes led to statistically significant (P

  6. Roasting Properties of Pellets With Iron Concentrate of Complex Mineral Composition%Roasting Properties of Pellets With Iron Concentrate of Complex Mineral Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jian-jun; QIU Guan-zhou; JIANG Tao; GUO Yu-feng; CAI Mei-xia

    2011-01-01

    Investigation was conducted on roasting properties of pellets with an iron concentrate of complex mineral composition. The results indicated that the pellets of complex mineral composition concentrate required higher pre- heating temperature and longer pr

  7. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  8. Coffee's Impact a Matter of Genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161626.html Coffee's Impact a Matter of Genes? Study seeks to ... Why can some people enjoy a cup of coffee just before bed and sleep peacefully, while others ...

  9. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  10. Environmental characterization of a coffee processing workplace with obliterative bronchiolitis in former workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Kreiss, Kathleen; Martin, Stephen B; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-10-02

    Obliterative bronchiolitis in five former coffee processing employees at a single workplace prompted an exposure study of current workers. Exposure characterization was performed by observing processes, assessing the ventilation system and pressure relationships, analyzing headspace of flavoring samples, and collecting and analyzing personal breathing zone and area air samples for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione vapors and total inhalable dust by work area and job title. Mean airborne concentrations were calculated using the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the arithmetic mean. Workers in the grinding/packaging area for unflavored coffee had the highest mean diacetyl exposures, with personal concentrations averaging 93 parts per billion (ppb). This area was under positive pressure with respect to flavored coffee production (mean personal diacetyl levels of 80 ppb). The 2,3-pentanedione exposures were highest in the flavoring room with mean personal exposures of 122 ppb, followed by exposures in the unflavored coffee grinding/packaging area (53 ppb). Peak 15-min airborne concentrations of 14,300 ppb diacetyl and 13,800 ppb 2,3-pentanedione were measured at a small open hatch in the lid of a hopper containing ground unflavored coffee on the mezzanine over the grinding/packaging area. Three out of the four bulk coffee flavorings tested had at least a factor of two higher 2,3-pentanedione than diacetyl headspace measurements. At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, we found the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generate simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione that were well in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs and similar in magnitude to those in the areas using a flavoring substitute for diacetyl. These findings require physicians to be alert for obliterative bronchiolitis and employers, government, and public health consultants to assess the similarities and differences across the industry to

  11. Ugandan Coffee Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Despite losing global market share over the last 20 years, Uganda remains a major coffee producer, accounting for approximately 2.5 percent of global coffee production. In 2008-2009, coffee exports accounted for almost a quarter of Uganda's formal export earnings and were estimated to generate income and employment for up to 1.3 million Ugandan households. As such, the coffee industry is e...

  12. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  13. Mathematical Model for the Mexican Coffee Market

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Gustavo Guerra; Charles B. Moss

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that the production of quality coffee is more expensive than the production of coffee of less quality, also that market failures in the transmission of quality signals to producer lower the average quality of coffee produced industry. Used its simultaneous equations in three stage lest square we have found that some variable were significant; the size of the producer affects the share of sold cherry, the quality affects the international green coffee price of México and the qua...

  14. Risk and Finance in the Coffee Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Millions of coffee farmers and coffee trading enterprises lack sufficient credit. This is partly due to myriad challenges and considerable costs that formal lending institutions face serving rural, often isolated markets. A better understanding of coffee sector risks is needed to respond with strategies, training, and tools that can help farmers and enterprises, mitigate their exposure to ...

  15. Wake up and Stop Smelling the Coffee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳

    2005-01-01

    The next time someone tells you to wake up and smell the coffee don't take it literally, instead go ahead and chuck2 your coffee making machine as a new study has revealed3 that having more than one cup of coffee a day increases the risk of heart disease and even one cup is ‘risky.'

  16. Effect of explosion-puffed coffee on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong Soo; Ahn, So Hyun; Noh, Dong Ouk; Hong, Ki-Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that the administration of explosion-puffed coffee, containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would be associated with a reduction of the caffeine effect on sleep behavior and behavioral patterns, which was investigated in a Drosophila model. The effects of feeding roasted coffee beans (RB), explosion-puffed coffee beans puffed at 0.75MPa and 0.9MPa (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0, respectively), or decaffeinated coffee beans (DeRB) on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns of Drosophila was analyzed. In the decreasing order, the total chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids, CQA) content was PB 7.5>PB 9.0>RB. PB content analysis showed high levels of GABA and 5-HTP, compared with that of RB, which corresponded with the sleep-wake behavior of Drosophila. The RB and PB (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0) groups were not significantly different with respect to an activity count during the subjective night and day period compared with the normal controls. Sleep bout numbers of the normal, PB, and DeRB groups showed significant differences as compared with the caffeine and RB groups (ptest; the average distance covered by the normal, PB 7.5, and DeRB groups was HTP with explosive puffing process carried out at 0.75MPa. Results of the underlying mechanism of the behavioral change patterns of explosive puffed with or without caffeine in Drosophila models, transcript level for the Dop1-R1 receptor in caffeine group was significantly higher than normal, PB, and DePB groups. Flies exposed to the caffeine had significantly decreased transcript levels for the GABA receptors. PB 7.5 and DePB showed higher level of GABA content than RB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; O'Keeffe, M; O'Leary, D.; Russ, N

    1986-01-01

    In a residential research ward coffee drinking was studied in 9 volunteer human subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. A series of five experiments was undertaken to characterize adlibitum coffee consumption and to investigate the effects of manipulating coffee concentration, caffeine dose per cup, and caffeine preloads prior to coffee drinking. Manipulations were double-blind and scheduled in randomized sequences across days. When cups of coffee were freely available, coffee drink...

  18. Policy Simulation of the International Coffee Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    HIGH7 ROUT I NE 1>COFFEE0QUTA2= COFFE §UTA2 EXCEPT tQHD5,C 2>ENAEO05 XSMO 5 EXAFREQH CEXBAEQ5Exl 4> COFFEE @QUOtA2= COFF W OCT7R Q0 >EXNME EXSAI4OT1HEE , 5...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  20. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  1. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  2. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  3. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. PMID:28230792

  4. Impact of Roasting on Fatty Acids, Tocopherols, Phytosterols, and Phenolic Compounds Present in Plukenetia huayllabambana Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Chirinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roasting of Plukenetia huayllabambana seeds on the fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds was evaluated. Additionally, the oxidative stability of the seed during roasting was evaluated through free fatty acids, peroxide, and p-anisidine values in the seed oil. Roasting conditions corresponded to 100, 120, 140, and 160°C for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Results indicate that roasting temperatures higher than 120°C significantly affect the content of the studied components. The values of acidity, peroxide, and p-anisidine in the sacha inchi oil from roasted seeds increased during roasting. The treatment of 100°C for 10 min successfully maintained the evaluated bioactive compounds in the seed and quality of the oil, while guaranteeing a higher extraction yield. Our results indicate that P. huayllabambana seed should be roasted at temperatures not higher than 100°C for 10 min to obtain snacks with high levels of bioactive compounds and with high oxidative stability.

  5. Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. in relation to the degree of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, G C; Chuang, D Y

    2000-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) prepared under different degrees of roasting were investigated. The water extracts of unroasted C. tora L. (WEUCT) showed 94% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid at a dose of 0.2 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (82%). Water extracts prepared from C. tora L. roasted at 175 degrees C for 5 min and at 200 degrees C for 5 min exhibited 83% and 82%, respectively, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. This result indicated that the antioxidant activities of WECT decreased with longer roasting time or higher roasting temperature. The IC(50) of WEUCT in liposome oxidation induced by the Fenton reaction was 0.41 mg/mL, which was higher than that of alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL). WEUCT also exhibited good antioxidant activity in enzymatic and nonenzymatic microsome oxidative systems. The water extracts of roasted C. tora L. increased in the degree of browning and produced chemiluminescence when compared with the unroasted sample. However, the total polyphenolic compounds of WECT decreased after the roasting process finished. In conclusion, the decrease in the antioxidant activity of water extracts from roasted C. tora L. might have been due to the degradation of Maillard reaction products and the decrease of polyphenolic compounds.

  6. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-09

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol.

  7. Optimation of Temperature and Duration of Cocoa Beans Roasting in a CylindricalRoaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnwai Jati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110–140 C for the former and 20–60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature profile, peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder and microbial con tamination. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean’s temperature at the first 2–8 minute roasting was 30–50 C, before increased as high 10 C per minute to the adjusted temperature. Temperature and duration of roasting influenced interactively on peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder. An optimum roasting for cocoa powder preparation was obtained at temperature of 140 C and roasting time of 20 minute. Roasting treatment significantly reduced number of microbe in total plate count, however most probable number (MPN of coliform in term of Escherichia coli was not detected. Key words : Cocoa bean, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, roasting, small scale cylindrical roaster, sensory properties, Escherichia coli.

  8. Modulatory effect of coffee on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A

    2010-01-01

    Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P production from membrane arachidonic acid and it was decreased in coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.

  9. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  10. Good News About Coffee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕芳

    1997-01-01

    美国是一个咖啡消费大国,同时也是一个对咖啡与健康作了最彻底研究的国家。此文洋洋洒洒,令我们窥见其可贵的探索精神。此研究领域涉及之广叫人咋舌,它竟与心脏、癌症、妊娠、骨质、以及减肥联系起来。本文一个值得注意的名词是caffeine(咖啡因),一个值得注意的句子是:…caffeine is one of a class of methylxanthine compounds found in more than 60 plant products, including tea leaves…。我国是茶叶生产与消费大国,饮茶益处在本文也随处可见。当然,香烟的处境越来越尴尬,本文也意想不到地“横扫”香烟“一脚”:…heavy coffee drinking is associated with behaviors such as cigarette smoking, which is linked to serious illnesses,此外,本文的标题与本文的结尾从不同的侧面遥相呼应,大有“辩证”的味道。最后,阅读此文,尚可学到英语构词方面的知识,本文下附的注释第10,21与24都值得玩味一番。

  11. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.H. A.H. Farah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting process and it has generally been agreed that the main flavor components, pyrazines formation is associated within this reaction involving amino acids and reducing sugars. The effect of cocoa nib roasting conditions on sensory properties and colour of cocoa beans were investigated in this study. Roasting conditions in terms of temperature ranged from 110 to 160OC and time ranged from 15 to 40 min were optimized by using Response Surface Methodology based on the cocoa sensory characteristics including chocolate aroma, acidity, astringency, burnt taste and overall acceptability. The analyses used 9- point hedonic scale with twelve trained panelist. The changes in colour due to the roasting condition were also monitored using chromameter. Result of this study showed that sensory quality of cocoa liquor increased with the increase in roasting time and temperature up to 160OC and up to 40 min, respectively. Based on the Response Surface Methodology, the optimised operating condition for the roaster was at temperature of 127OC and time of 25 min. The proposed roasting conditions were able to produce superior quality cocoa beans that will be very useful for cocoa manufactures.Key words : Cocoa, cocoa liquor, flavour, aroma, colour, sensory characteristic, response surface methodology.

  13. Leaching of a gold bearing partially roasted sulphide. Laboratory scale studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Almeida

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at defining a route for recovering precious metals from a very heterogeneous gold bearing sulphide and arsenide concentrate that was partially roasted and dumped by the 1960s when Santo António mine closed. Gold occurs in this concentrate as free particles in the range of 10-100 mum, most of them still enclosed in the pyrite and arsenopyrite matrix. Its content varies from 20 to 150 g of Au/ton, being higher at the dump upper levels and in the finer concentrate fractions. Preliminary tests demonstrated the refractoriness of this product, since the leaching with conventional cyanide solutions and with other leaching solutions gave very low recoveries. However, high concentrated cyanide solutions recover more than 60% of Au, although with high NaCN and lime consumptions and poor settling characteristics. Iron was shown to be highly dissolved in these solutions. Some prior treatments clearly favoured the cyanidation process, in particular a roasting step. Thus, a large number of roasting experiments was carried out to define the most favourable conditions for recovering gold. However, no clear relationship between roasting conditions and gold dissolution was found due to the heterogeneity of the product and high variance of gold experimental recoveries. These recoveries were calculated considering gold contained in both the leaching residues and leachates, and uncertainties of these results are relatively high. Roasting the product at 450-700 °C for 1 h guarantees a high probability to dissolve at least 74% Au in a highly concentrated NaCN solution stirred for 24 h. The 600-700 °C roasting range is clearly preferable for consuming less cyanide and lime. Pre-washing the roasted product seems not to reduce the cyanide consumption. Regarding the silver recovery, the NaCN and lime consumption are higher while using the products roasted at the lowest tested temperatures. Products roasted at higher temperatures have better settling

  14. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaobo, E-mail: zhuxiaobo0119@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China); Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na{sub 6}CaAl{sub 6}Si{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})O{sub 24}·2H{sub 2}O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol.

  15. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  16. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  17. Static subcritical water extraction of antioxidativecomponents from defatted coffee grounds%静态亚临界水提取脱脂咖啡渣中抗氧化活性成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 高彦祥

    2011-01-01

    研究了静态亚临界水不同提取温度(110、130、150、170、190℃)、时间(15、30、45、60、75min)、料液比(1:10、1:20、1:30、1:40、1:50、1:60、1:70)对脱脂咖啡渣中多酚类物质提取效果的影响,并对不同提取液的抗氧化活性进行研究。结果表明,提取液中总酚、总黄酮含量及其清除自由基(ABTS·+、DPPH·)能力均随着提取温度、时间、液料比升高先增加后减少,当提取温度达到170℃、时间达到45min、料液比达到1:50时,提取液中总酚和总黄酮含量均达到最高,其抗氧化活性也达到最高值。170℃、45min、1:50是亚临界水提取脱脂咖啡渣中的多酚类物质的最佳提取条件,脱脂咖啡渣提取液可以作为一种天然的抗氧化剂来源。%The effect of temperature(110 ℃, 130 ℃, 150 ℃, 170 ℃, 190 ℃, ), time(15, 30, 45, 60, 75 min)and solid to liquid ratio(1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:60, 1:70) of static subcritical water extract(SSWE) on the extraction efficiency and antioxidant activity of defatted coffee grounds(DCGs) was investigated in this paper. The results showed that the content of total phenols and flavonoids and antioxidant activities of the DCGs extracts were increased with the elevating temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio firstly but then decreased. The extracts by 170 ℃, 45 min and 1:50 contain the highest content of total phenols and flavonoids and also have the strongest antioxidant activity. 170 ℃, 45 min, 1:50 is the optimal extraction condition of polyphenols from DCGs, and the extracts of DCGs can be a source of natural antioxidant.

  18. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  19. Influence of argan kernel roasting-time on virgin argan oil composition and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Bader; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2011-06-01

    Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fa