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Sample records for ground red chili

  1. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

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    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  2. Aflatoxin contamination of dried red chilies: Contrasts between the United States and Nigeria, two markets differing in regulation enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried red chilies are among the world’s most consumed spices. From farm to fork, chilies go through cropping, harvest, drying, processing and storage. Chilies are susceptible to infection by aflatoxin producing fungi and subsequent contamination by aflatoxins at every stage. Aflatoxins are highly re...

  3. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  4. Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) a...

  5. Sunchang gochujang (Korean red chili paste: The unfolding of authenticity

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    Soon-Hee Kim

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The outstanding flavor and functional effects of Sunchang gochujang are due to the geographical characteristics that provide a congenial climate for fermentation and a great environment for growing high-quality red peppers.

  6. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopan, Mustafa; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to 1994. The frequency of hot red chili pepper consumption was measured in 16,179 participants at least 18 years of age. Total and cause-specific mortality were the main outcome measures. During 273,877 person-years of follow-up (median 18.9 years), a total of 4,946 deaths were observed. Total mortality for participants who consumed hot red chili peppers was 21.6% compared to 33.6% for those who did not (absolute risk reduction of 12%; relative risk of 0.64). Adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio was 0.87 (P = 0.01; 95% Confidence Interval 0.77, 0.97). Consumption of hot red chili peppers was associated with a 13% reduction in the instantaneous hazard of death. Similar, but statistically nonsignificant trends were seen for deaths from vascular disease, but not from other causes. In this large population-based prospective study, the consumption of hot red chili pepper was associated with reduced mortality. Hot red chili peppers may be a beneficial component of the diet.

  7. Kicking Bear, John Trudell, and Anthony Kiedis (of the Red Hot Chili Peppers): "Show Indians" and Pop-Cultural Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    For twenty-eight years, the Red Hot Chili Peppers have evolved beyond their beginnings as yet another 1980s alternative band giving voice to its generation's disaffected youth into a modern symbol (among others) of tribal identity for displaced Native Americans. These young Native people span communities both on and off reservations and reserves…

  8. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  9. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

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    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  10. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chopan, Mustafa; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to...

  11. The generalized STAR(1,1) modeling with time correlated errors to red-chili weekly prices of some traditional markets in Bandung, West Java

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    Nisa Fadlilah F., I.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni; Fahmi, Fauzia

    2015-12-01

    The observations at a certain location may be linearly influenced by the previous times of observations at that location and neighbor locations, which could be analyzed by Generalized STAR(1,1). In this paper, the weekly red-chili prices secondary-data of five main traditional markets in Bandung are used as case study. The purpose of GSTAR(1,1) model is to forecast the next time red-chili prices at those markets. The model is identified by sample space-time ACF and space-time PACF, and model parameters are estimated by least square estimation method. Theoretically, the errors' independency assumption could simplify the parameter estimation's problem. However, practically that assumption is hard to satisfy since the errors may be correlated each other's. In red-chili prices modeling, it is considered that the process has time-correlated errors, i.e. martingale difference process, instead of follow normal distribution. Here, we do some simulations to investigate the behavior of errors' assumptions. Although some of results show that the behavior of the errors' model are not always followed the martingale difference process, it does not corrupt the goodness of GSTAR(1,1) model to forecast the red-chili prices at those five markets.

  12. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

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    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples.

  13. In vitro investigation of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from raw, frozen and boiled red chili peppers (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessandro; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Tundis, Rosa; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-rich foods are associated with antioxidant activity and the ability to alleviate chronic diseases. The present study investigated the effect of processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from 13 cultivars of red chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). Carotenoids in chili peppers were analyzed before an in vitro digestion process. The portion of carotenoid transferred to the micelle fraction (bioaccessibility) was also quantified. β-Carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, capsanthin and antheraxanthin were the most abundant carotenoids. Zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein were detected at lower concentrations. In general, freezing and boiling reduced carotenoid contents. Capsanthin and zeaxanthin had the highest bioaccessibility at an average value from 36 to 40%, followed by antheraxanthin (26%). Bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene was lower, averaging 6.1, 4.8 and 4.0%, respectively. Neoxanthin and lutein were not detected in micelles. Freezing increased the bioaccessibility of capsanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin bioaccessibility increased and capsanthin and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility decreased following boiling. Differences in the contents and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in 13 C. annuum cultivars and between the processed methods were herein evidenced.

  14. Generic characterization of apolar metabolites in red chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) by orbitrap mass spectrometry.

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    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Zhani, Kaouther; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-05-21

    The aim of the present study was to develop a generic analytical method for the identification and quantitation of apolar plant metabolites in biomass using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS). During this study, a single generic sample preparation protocol was applied to extract apolar plant metabolites. Compound identification was performed using a single generic screening method for apolar compounds without the need for dedicated fractionation. Such a generic approach renders vast amounts of information and is virtually limited by only the solubility and detector response of the metabolites of interest. Method validation confirmed that this approach is applicable for quantitative purposes. Furthermore, an identification-quantitation strategy based on amMS and molar extinction coefficients was used for carotenoids, eliminating the need for reference standards for each carotenoid. To challenge the validated method, chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) were analyzed to unravel their complex phytochemical composition (carotenoids, glycolipids, glycerolipids, capsaicinoids, lipid-soluble vitamins).

  15. Effect of different Thai traditional processing of various hot chili peppers on urethane-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: assessment of the role of glutathione transferase activity.

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    Laohavechvanich, P; Kangsadalampai, K; Tirawanchai, N; Ketterman, A J

    2006-08-01

    Four different Thai traditional chili peppers, namely bird pepper (Capsicum frutescens), red chili spur peppers (Capsicum annuum), green bell peppers and sweet pepper (C. annuum) were investigated for their antimutagenic properties. Each chili was prepared in three formulations commonly used for chili food processing; raw paste (chili ground in water), pickled in vinegar or stir-fried in palm oil. Each sample was tested for its antimutagenic effect against urethane by using the somatic mutation and recombination of wing hair of Drosophila melanogaster as an indicator. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers, multiple wing hairs mwh and orrigon (ORR;flr3), were exposed to urethane alone or in combination with each chili formulation. The various processing methods for chilies differentially extracted the antimutagenic chili components. The specific chili as well as the method of processing influenced the observed antimutagenic properties against urethane. This suggested each chili contains a unique complex mixture of many antimutagens. Co-treatment and pre-treatment experiments showed that both direct and indirect protective mechanisms are involved in an 'activation' process to give antimutagenesis effects. An association between antigenotoxicity and glutathione transferase activity could not be established.

  16. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  17. So Much Depends upon a Red Chili Pepper: A Faculty Perspective on the Bringing Theory to Practice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The author had a conversation one late afternoon with an untenured colleague from another department regarding chili pepper ratings. Her colleague explained that the popular RateMyProfessor.com Web site allows students to rate faculty members not only according to standards of "clarity," "helpfulness," and something called "easiness," but also in…

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus Spores on Red Chili Peppers Using a Combined Treatment of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Hot-Air Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Songyi; Lee, Huyong; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2017-08-01

    The effect of a combined treatment using aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and hot-air drying to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores on red chili peppers was evaluated. Ten washed and dried pepper samples, each comprising half of a single pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), were inoculated with B. cereus spore suspension. The inoculated samples were washed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) or ClO2 (50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) solution for 1 min and then air-dried (25 ± 1 °C, 47 ± 1% relative humidity), which was followed by drying with hot air at 55 °C for up to 48 h. The spore populations on the samples were enumerated and their aw and chromaticity values were measured. The spore numbers immediately after treatment with NaOCl and ClO2 were not significantly different. A more rapid reduction in spore numbers was observed in the samples treated with ClO2 than those treated with NaOCl during drying. A combined treatment of ClO2 and hot-air drying significantly reduced the spore populations to below the detection limit (1.7 log CFU/sample). B. cereus spores on chili peppers were successfully inactivated by washing with ClO2 solution followed by hot-air drying whereas the pepper color was maintained. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. A model for implementation of HACCP system for prevention and control of mycotoxins during the production of red dried chili pepper

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    Sebnem OZTURKOGLU-BUDAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP is a process control system describes the potential hazards during food production flow chart. In contrast to the conventional way of ensuring product safety by end-product testing, HACCP establishes control systems, focuses mainly on preventive measures. Quality of red dried chili pepper (RDCP should be assured by taking special care from harvesting of the peppers to retailing of the packaged product. RDCP is susceptible to fungi growth and mycotoxin contamination depending on the atmospheric and processing conditions such as humidity, temperature, storage and drying. Mycotoxins, are toxic metabolites to human health and strict control measures are required for preventing their occurrence in RDCP. In this study, HACCP system was implemented during the production of RDCP to ensure the food safety and quality characteristics of products and to expand the market. The most important critical control points (CCPs during the production of RDCP was determined as sorting and drying. It is evident that development and use of the GMP, GAP, GSP and hygienic rules as well as HACCP during handling and processing of dry chili pepper are a must for processing plants.

  20. Application of manure, nitrogen fertilizer, and EM4 to improve growth and yield of red chili (Capsicum annuum L on an Alfisol

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    J . A . Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red chili is commodity of vegetable that has high economic value, but still has low productivity. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of goat manure and Urea application with EM4 and to obtain the best dose of combination in order to improve growth and yield of red chili. The study was conducted at Jatikerto-Malang from January to June 2015. The research applied Factorial Randomized Block Design that comprised of two factors by three replications. First factor: Goat manure and Urea, 25% N PKK + 75% N Urea (A1, 50% N PKK + 50% N Urea (A2 and 75% N PKK + 25% N Urea (A3. Second factor: Doses of EM4 0 L/ha(E0, 30 L/ha (E1, 40 L/ha (E2 and 50 L/ha (E3, and one control treatment (100% N Urea. Results of the study showed that combination of 50% N PKK + 50% N Urea and EM4 at levels 30 and 40 L/ha produced the best and optimal plant height, numbers of branches and number of flowers. Separately, application of 25% N PKK + 75% N Urea produced 292.67 fruits per plant, fruits weight per plant 389.08 g per plant and fruits weight per hectare 10.92 t/ha. EM4 at level 30 L/ha showed the best and optimal fruits weight per hectare, 12.27 t/ha. The control showed better growth but not significant compared with combination of 25% N PKK + 75% N Urea with EM4 at level 30 and 40 L/ha. Combination treatment produced number of fruits 26.01%, fruits weight per plant 21.53% and fruits weight per hectare 25.15% higher than control.

  1. Detection of contaminated hazelnuts and ground red chili pepper flakes by multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are the toxic metabolites of certain filamentous fungi and have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. Among them, the aflatoxins have received greater attention because they are potent carcinogens and are responsible for many...

  2. Lack of an Apparent Association between Mycotoxin Concentrations in Red Chili Peppers and Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer in India : an Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Behari, Anu; Mishra, Kumudesh; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Endoh, Kazuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Our recent studies conducted in South America have shown that mycotoxin contamination of red chili peppers (RCPs) may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Whether this relationship exists in India, a country with a high incidence of GBC and high consumption of RCPs, is unclear. We therefore measured concentrations of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in RCPs from areas of low, medium, and high incidence of GBC in India, and compared these concentrations with GBC incidence in each area. Twentyone RCP samples were collected from nine cities (eight from a lowincidence area, five from a mediumincidence area, and eight from a highincidence area). Concentrations of AFs and OTA were measured using highperformance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in mean concentrations of AFs and OTA were found in the three areas. AFB1 levels in the lowincidence area (10.81 ?g/kg) and highincidence area (12.00 ?g/kg) were more than 2.2 and 2.4 times higher compared with the maximum permitted level of AFB1 in spices (5.0 ?g/kg) set by the Commission of the European Communities, or that (4.4 ?g/kg) obtained in our previous study in Chile. Our results show that the mean concentrations of mycotoxins in RCPs are similar among the three areas in India with different incidences of GBC. Further studies with human subjects are needed to evaluate any association between AFB1 and GBC.

  3. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial Efeito da pimenta vermelha nos sintomas de pacientes com fissuras anais agudas

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    Pravin J. Gupta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. AIM: To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. METHODS: Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group. The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group. Patient’s mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. CONCLUSION: Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.RACIONAL: A pimenta vermelha e outras especiarias têm sido responsabilizadas por agravar a sintomatologia das doenças anais, tais como fissuras e hemorróidas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se o consumo de pimentas vermelhas aumentaria os sintomas em fissuras anais agudas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram recrutados e randomizados para receber cápsulas contendo pimenta ou placebos por 1 semana, somadas a analgésicos e suplementos de fibras. Foi solicitado que anotassem um escore de sintomas, tais como dor, queimação anal, prurido durante o per

  4. Ultra high pressure in the second dimension of a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for carotenoid separation in red chili peppers.

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    Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Giuffrida, Daniele; Torre, Germana; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-09-14

    A comprehensive normal-phase × reversed-phase (NP-LC × RP-LC) liquid chromatography system was developed, and applied for analysis of the intact carotenoid composition of red chili peppers, with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. A micro-bore cyano column (250 mm × 1.0 mm, 5 μm d.p.) was chosen for the first dimension ((1)D) separation, interfaced to a second dimension ((2)D) C18 column (30 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm d.p.) packed with fused-core particles. Subsequently, two columns of the same stationary phase were coupled serially for second dimension separation, and operated under ultra high pressure LC conditions (UHPLC), within a cycle time of 1.50 or 1.00 min, and equal modulation times. Performances of the three different set-ups were evaluated, in terms of peak capacity values (n(c)), and afterwards corrected by taking into account both the under-sampling, and the orthogonality effects. After these adjustments, the peak capacity values were estimated as follows: n(c) 526, for the NP-LC × RP-LC system, n(c) 373, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system with a 1.50 min modulation time, n(c) 639, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system, with a 1.00 min modulation time. A total of 33 compounds were separated into 10 different chemical classes in the two-dimensional space, and identified by accurate IT-TOF (ion trap-time of flight) MS detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

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    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  6. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  7. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  8. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-09-16

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  9. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  10. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-22

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  11. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  12. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  13. Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Reagan, Karen M; Machnicki, Noelle J; Carlo, Tomás A; Haak, David C; Peñaloza, Alejandra Lorena Calderón; Levey, Douglas J

    2008-08-19

    The primary function of fruit is to attract animals that disperse viable seeds, but the nutritional rewards that attract beneficial consumers also attract consumers that kill seeds instead of dispersing them. Many of these unwanted consumers are microbes, and microbial defense is commonly invoked to explain the bitter, distasteful, occasionally toxic chemicals found in many ripe fruits. This explanation has been criticized, however, due to a lack of evidence that microbial consumers influence fruit chemistry in wild populations. In the present study, we use wild chilies to show that chemical defense of ripe fruit reflects variation in the risk of microbial attack. Capsaicinoids are the chemicals responsible for the well known pungency of chili fruits. Capsicum chacoense is naturally polymorphic for the production of capsaicinoids and displays geographic variation in the proportion of individual plants in a population that produce capsaicinoids. We show that this variation is directly linked to variation in the damage caused by a fungal pathogen of chili seeds. We find that Fusarium fungus is the primary cause of predispersal chili seed mortality, and we experimentally demonstrate that capsaicinoids protect chili seeds from Fusarium. Further, foraging by hemipteran insects facilitates the entry of Fusarium into fruits, and we show that variation in hemipteran foraging pressure among chili populations predicts the proportion of plants in a population producing capsaicinoids. These results suggest that the pungency in chilies may be an adaptive response to selection by a microbial pathogen, supporting the influence of microbial consumers on fruit chemistry.

  14. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  15. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  16. Stull Repeats as Chili Champ | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Staff Writer Jim Stull, winner of the ninth annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff in January of last year, proved that he’s no one-trick pony; he brought a brand new recipe to the 2013 event and won again! And he did it decisively. His Black Bean ‘n Pumpkin Chili garnered 107 points; the second place winner netted less than half that with 52. “For me, a good chili is just not hot and spicy. It has to have a distinctive flavor that makes you want to come back for more.”

  17. A study on health hazards in dry chili market workers in the age group of 16 to 55 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash P Tekade, Gullapalli HS , Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workers who are involved in the handling dry chili face some occupational hazards. In this industry there is always danger of polluting the environment with very small irritating particle. Inhalation of this fine particulate matter is responsible for the various respiratory symptoms which include chronic obstructive disease (COPD and allergic rhinitis and associated ocular symptoms like itchy eye, red eye and conjunctivitis. Exposure of this fine chili particle is associated with the skin problems like burning sensation, irritation and dermatitis. Methods and material: This is the case-control observation study in which 378 male workers who are involved in handling the chili powder were selected after they meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 203 control subjects are selected who are not associated with the chili market at all. Detail history taking and physical examination done all study and control subjects to see for the respiratory, eye and skin problem. The symptoms are compared between the study and control subjects. Results: The incidence of the respiratory, eye and skin related problems are significantly at a higher level than the control subjects. Conclusion: The worker in the dry chili market significantly facing the health hazards due to the exposure of the finest chili powder which can be prevented with the some measures such as using face masks, socks and cotton shirts and pants which will prevent the contact of the body with the fine irritating particles.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Drying Kinetics of Bird’s Eye Chilies in a Convective Hot-Air Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of red bird’s eye chilies and the color of the product were investigated in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer under 3 air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C. The 6 mathematical models (Lewis model; Page model; Henderson and Pabis model; Logarithmic model; Modified Page model; and Wang and Singh model were used to fit the experimental data obtained in order to estimate the moisture ratio as the function of drying time. The results showed that operating temperature enhanced the kinetics of the drying of chilies; the drying times of chilies at 55, 60 and 65 °C were 510, 360 and 330 min, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained at all operating conditions took place in the falling rate period. Comparing the dried products, it was observed that the red bird’s eye chilies dried at a lower temperature had higher Hunter L (lightness, a* (redness and b* (yellowness values. The experimental data were fitted to different drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Among the 6 mathematical models, the Wang and Singh model satisfactorily described the drying kinetics of chilies.

  19. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia.Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  20. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  1. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  2. GROUND SURFACE VISUALIZATION USING RED RELIEF IMAGE MAP FOR A VARIETY OF MAP SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chiba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008 to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  3. Ground Surface Visualization Using Red Relief Image Map for a Variety of Map Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T.; Hasi, B.

    2016-06-01

    There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  4. Two-Time Champion Wins Again at Chili Cookoff | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer For the third year in a row, Jim Stull’s chili recipe was the winner at the annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff, now in its 11th year. And for the third year, Stull, an animal care supervisor in the Laboratory Animal Sciences Program, brought a brand new recipe to the competition—Hawaiian Chili.

  5. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  7. Chili Cookoff: Unique Ingredients Prove Successful in Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer If the past is any indication, judges at the Protective Services Chili Cookoff give high marks for chili recipes containing unique or uncommon ingredients. Previous winning recipes have included ingredients such as black beans, pumpkin, pineapple, pork loin, and even bourbon. Judges at the 12th annual event, held Jan. 5, continued this tradition by voting for Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili, which featured three types of meat, four different sauces, baker’s chocolate, and parmesan rind.  

  8. [Beliefs about chili pepper consumption and health in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, L; Fernández-Ortega M, C; Costa-Dias, R; Franco-Marina, J; Alejandre-Badillo, T

    1995-01-01

    Eating chili peppers is a cultural tradition in Mexico. Controversial characteristics have been empirically associated to chili pepper consumption and human health. In this paper, the beliefs about the health impacts of chili pepper consumption in two independent groups of Mexico City residents are described. The results confirm, on the one hand, that there is a wide variety of health benefits and damages associated with chili pepper consumption, but on the other hand, that the levels of chili pepper consumption are not related to beliefs about its human health impact.

  9. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  10. Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Trivero

    Full Text Available No hace mucho tiempo apareció en el mercado anticuario italiano un libro extremadamente raro e interesante para el mundo chileno y, particularmente mapuche. Se trata de la primera edición del "Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili", del jesuita Giovanni Ignazio Molina, publicado en Bologna en el año 1787.

  11. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  12. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  13. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  14. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  15. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  16. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  17. The color and size of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) influence Hep-G2 cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, David G; Sia, Sharon Y; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Mon L

    2014-11-01

    Four types of chili (Capsicum annuum) extracts, categorized according to color; green and red, and size; small and large were studied in Hep-G2 cells. Red small (RS) chili had an LC50 value of 0.378 ± 0.029 compared to green big (GB) 1.034 ± 0.061 and green small (GS) 1.070 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Red big (RB) was not cytotoxic. Capsaicin content was highest in RS and produced a greater percentage sub-G1 cells (6.47 ± 1.8%) after 24 h compared to GS (2.96 ± 1.3%) and control (1.29 ± 0.8%) cells. G2/M phase was reduced by GS compared to RS and control cells. RS at the LC50 concentration contained 1.6 times the amount of pure capsaicin LC50 to achieve the same effect of capsaicin alone. GS and GB capsaicin content at the LC50 value was lower (0.2 and 0.66, respectively) compared to the amount of capsaicin to achieve a similar reduction in cell growth.

  18. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  19. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  20. Where did the chili get its spice? Biogeography of capsaicinoid production in ancestral wild chili species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Manchego, Carlos; Haak, David C; Levey, Douglas J

    2006-03-01

    The biogeography of pungency in three species of wild chili in the chaco and surrounding highland habitats of southeastern Bolivia is described. We report that Capsicum chacoense, C. baccatum, and C. eximium are polymorphic for production of capsaicin and its analogs, such that completely pungent and completely nonpungent individuals co-occur in some populations. In C. chacoense, the density of plants and the proportion of pungent plants increased with elevation. Above 900 m, all individuals in all populations except two were pungent; nonpungent individuals in at least one of the two polymorphic populations were likely a result of spreading by humans. The occurrence of pungent and nonpungent individuals in three species of ancestral Capsicum and the geographic variation of pungency within species suggest that production of capsaicin and its analogs entails both costs and benefits, which shift from one locality to another. Determining the selection pressures behind such shifts is necessary to understand the evolution of pungency in chilies.

  1. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  2. Damage caused by red deer (Cervus elaphus & wild boar (Sus scrofa in forest hunting grounds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study and assessment of the damage by big game in forest hunting grounds in Serbia was infrequent, although the damage was evident. The objective of this paper is to identify the rates and types of damage by red deer and wild boar at three localities: (1 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Crni Lug' (Srem, (2 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Podunavsko Lovište Plavna' (Southwestern Bačka, and (3 fenced rearing centre 'Lomnička Reka' (Mt. Veliki Jastrebac. The damage was not recorded on locality (1. The damage on locality (2 (new polar plantations and locality (3 (beech forests was caused by red deer. The main causes of the damage were excessive density and disturbed population structure (sex and age, nonharmonised forest and hunting management, shortage of natural food, especially of pasture areas.

  3. Molecular detection of mycobiota and aflatoxin contamination of chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherbawy Youssuf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum grows in warm areas. Pepper production conditions require the drying of fruits by sunlight. During the drying processes, the crop is exposed to contamination by microorganisms, especially fungi. In this article, the isolation of mycobiota from retail markets and food restaurants of Taif city was studied. Crushed chili showed a high fungal load compared to chili sauce and chili powder, while chili powder showed a high occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs. Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium were the most common genera isolated from chili samples. Thirty-four samples (out of 60 were naturally contaminated with AFs ranging from 20 to 200 ppb. The total aflatoxin potential of 35 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. tamarri were studied. Seventy percent of A. flavus isolates were aflatoxigenic. The frequencies of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes aflR, nor-1, ver-1 and omtA were studied in aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus species collected in this study. All aflatoxigenic isolates (21 and 1 non-aflatoxigenic isolate of A. flavus showed DNA fragments that correspond to the complete set of the targeted genes. In conclusion, the high co-occurrence of Aspergillus species capable of producing aflatoxins, particularly in chili samples, suggests the need for more efficient control during processing and storage to reduce fungal contamination.

  4. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3. Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVetere, Sara H.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, Ann S.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water quality data for 100 wells in the Red River Valley between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station (08265000), near Questa, and Placer Creek east of the town of Red River, New Mexico, were compiled and reviewed. The tabulation included 608 water-quality records from 23 sources entered into an electronic database. Groundwater quality data were first collected at the Red River wastewater-treatment facility in 1982. Most analyses, however, were obtained between 1994 and 2002, even though the first wells were developed in 1962. The data were evaluated by considering (a) temporal consistency, (b) quality of sampling methods, (c) charge imbalance, and (d) replicate analyses. Analyses that qualified on the basis of these criteria were modeled to obtain saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, fluorite, gibbsite, manganite, and rhodocrosite. Plots created from the data illustrate that water chemistry in the Red River Valley is predominantly controlled by calcite dissolution, congruent gypsum dissolution, and pyrite oxidation.

  5. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  6. REVENUE ANALYSIS AND EFFICIENCY FARMING RED CHILLI IN MINGGIR DISTRIC,T SLEMAN SUB-PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Saputro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Red chili farm is potentially to develops because can increase the earning of farmer, but how much the farmer earning and factors that it’s production are not known. This research aim to know earnings of farmer of red chili, knowing factors any kind of influencing red chili production and efficiency usage of factors produce at red chili of farming. Basic method which is used in this research is descriptive analysis method. Research location determined with sampling purposive that is in District Stand aside. Farmer of sample determined with systematic random sampling and taken by 30 samples. Data analyze with: (1 revenue analysis, (2 multiple linear regression, (3 function of CobbDouglas. Result of research was indicated that farmer mean earning per hectare of red chili is IDR 80.098.297, 00 wide of factors of production of farm, seed, phonska fertilizer, cage manure, pesticide, and labor have an effect significant at 95 percent level while manure of urea have an effect not significant. Efficiency usage of factors produce inefficient red chili of farming for example wide of farm, seed, urea fertilizer, phonska fertilize, cage manure, pesticide, and labor.

  7. Degradation dynamics of chlorfenapyr residue in chili, cabbage and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditya, Papia; Das, S P; Sarkar, P K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole group of insecticide, [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile]used as broad spectrum insecticide/acaricide to control whitefly, thrips, caterpillars, mites, leafminers, aphids, etc., chlorfenapyr 10% SC formulation was applied on chili and cabbage twice @ 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr was dissipated in chili, cabbage and soil following the first-order kinetics (logC/C(0) = -kt). The half lives of chlorfenapyr in chili, cabbage and soil were varying from 2.93 to 2.96 days, 2.98 to 3.62 days and 4.06 to 4.36 days respectively, according to the application rate.

  8. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  9. The "RED Versa NIR" Plane to Retrieve Broken-Cloud Optical Depth from Ground-Based Measurements"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Evans, K.; Wiscombe, W.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for retrieving cloud optical depth from ground-based measurements of zenith radiance in the RED and near infrared (MR) spectral regions is introduced. Because zenith radiance does not have a one-to-one relationship with optical depth, it is absolutely impossible to use a monochromatic retrieval. On the other side, algebraic combinations of spectral radiances such as NDCI while largely removing nouniquiness and the radiative effects of cloud inhomogeneity, can result in poor retrievals due to its insensitivity to cloud fraction. Instead, both RED and NIR radiances as points on the 'RED vs. NIR' plane are proposed to be used for retrieval. The proposed retrieval method is applied to Cimel measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site in Oklahoma. Cimel, a multi-channel sunphotometer, is a part of AERONET - a ground-based network for monitoring aerosol optical properties. The results of retrieval are compared with the ones from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) located next to Cimel at the ARM site. In addition, the performance of the retrieval method is assessed using a fractal model of cloud inhomogeneity and broken cloudiness. The preliminary results look very promising both theoretically and from measurements.

  10. Role of mangroves as a nursery ground for juvenile reef fishes in the southern Egyptian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abu El-Regal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the importance of mangrove area as nursery grounds for the juvenile of reef fishes in the Red Sea. Juvenile fishes were collected during three seasons in 2010 from three mangrove swamps by a beach seine net. The net was dragged on the bottom for 100 m three times. A total of 269 juvenile fishes were collected, representing 21 species in 19 families. The most abundant species formed about 86% of all collected fishes. Nine species were collected for the first time from mangrove areas in the Egyptian Red Sea. Most of the collected fishes are economically important fishes. Moreover, eleven families were belonging to coral reef fishes. The highest species richness value was recorded in Hamata mangroves. This finding showed that how mangroves could support the life history of many coral reef fishes.

  11. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Lee, S S

    1996-03-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent ingredient of the Capsicum fruits such as hot green and red peppers. Besides its use as a food additive in various spicy cuisines, capsaicin is currently utilized for therapeutic purposes to treat various peripheral painful conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic neuropathy. Considering consumption of capsaicin as a food additive and its current medicinal application in humans, correct evaluation and precise assessment of any harmful effects of this compound are essential from the public health standpoint. Numerous investigations have been conducted to determine the potential mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of capsaicin and chili pepper, but results are discordant. This review briefly examines findings in the literature of studies testing mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of capsaicin and presents a possible mechanistic basis for the dual effects exerted by the compound.

  12. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of spiromesifen in chili and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Rao, Cherukuri Sreenivasa; Dubey, J K; Patyal, S K; Parihar, N S; Battu, R S; Sharma, Vandana; Gupta, Pratigya; Kumar, Anoop; Kalpana; Jaya, Maisnam; Singh, Balwinder; Sharma, I D; Nath, Amit; Gour, Tej Bahadur

    2007-09-01

    In a field study carried out at three different locations, the dissipation of spiromesifen on cotton and chili was studied and its DT50, and DT99 were estimated at each location. Spiromesifen was sprayed on chili at 96 and 192 g a.i. ha(-1) and cotton at 120 and 240 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of chili fruits were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21, 30 days after treatment and that of cotton seed and lint at first picking and harvest. Soil samples were drawn 30 days after treatment from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm layer. Quantification of residues was done on GC-MS in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode in mass range 271-274 m/z. The LOQ of this method was found 0.033 microg g(-1), LOD being 0.01 microg g(-1). The DT50 of spiromesifen when applied at recommended doses in chili fruits was found to be 2.18-2.40 days. Ninety-nine percent degradation was found to occur within 14.5-16.3 days after application. Residues of spiromesifen were not detected in cotton seed and lint samples at the first picking. In soil, no residues of spiromesifen were detectable 15 days after treatment.

  13. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting c

  14. Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, D. D.; Ades, P. K.; Crous, P. W.; Taylor, P. W J

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum

  15. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting

  16. Difference in capsaicinoid biosynthesis gene expression in the pericarp reveals elevation of capsaicinoid contents in chili peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Kirii, Erasmus; Goto, Tanjuro; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yasuba, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    This research reveals that the up-regulated expression of multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pericarp tissue leads to the elevation of total capsaicinoid content in chili pepper fruit. Capsaicinoids are health-functional compounds that are produced uniquely in chili pepper fruits. A high capsaicinoid level is one of the major parameters determining the commercial quality and health-promoting properties of chili peppers. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for its high contents, we compared an extremely pungent cultivar 'Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Yellow' (MY) with other cultivars of different pungency levels (Fushimi-amanaga, Takanotsume, Red Habanero). Capsaicinoid concentrations were markedly higher in MY fruit (23.9 mg/g DW) than in other pungent cultivars including 'Red Habanero' (HB) fruit (14.3 mg/g DW). Comparative analysis of MY and HB reveals that both cultivars accumulated similar capsaicinoid concentrations in the placental septum, with that in the HB pericarp (1.8 mg/g DW) being markedly lower than that in the placental septum (69.1 mg/g DW). The capsaicinoid concentration in HB fruit is dependent on the placental septum, as reported in other accessions. Therefore, even though placental septum tissue contains high capsaicinoid concentrations, those in the pericarp and seeds attenuated its total content. In contrast, the MY pericarp exhibited a markedly higher concentration (23.2 mg/g DW). A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that multiple capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway genes (Pun1, pAMT, KAS, and BCAT) were strongly up-regulated in placental septum of pungent cultivars. The genes were expressed exclusively in the MY pericarp, but were barely detected in the pericarps of other pungent cultivars. Collectively, the present study indicates that the up-regulated expression of these genes not only in placental septum but also in pericarp plays an important role in driving capsaicinoid accumulation in the whole fruit.

  17. Market-Based Instruments for the Conservation of Underutilized Crops: In-Store Experimental Auction of Native Chili Products in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Native chilies ( Capsicum spp. ) are currently underutilized in Bolivia, one of this crop’s centers of diversity. Fewer local farmers cultivate native chilies annually due to low market demand. Increasing its private use value can lead to the in-situ conservation of this crop. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the market acceptability of three native chili products: (a) chili marmalade; (b) chili cooking paste; and (c) pickled chilies. Multi-product Becker-DeGroot-Marschak experimenta...

  18. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  19. Dynamics of the chili pepper transcriptome during fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The set of all mRNA molecules present in a cell constitute the transcriptome. The transcriptome varies depending on cell type as well as in response to internal and external stimuli during development. Here we present a study of the changes that occur in the transcriptome of chili pepper fruit during development and ripening. Results RNA-Seq was used to obtain transcriptomes of whole Serrano-type chili pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.; ‘Tampiqueño 74’) collected at 10, 20, 40 and 60 days after anthesis (DAA). 15,550,468 Illumina MiSeq reads were assembled de novo into 34,066 chili genes. We classified the expression patterns of individual genes as well as genes grouped into Biological Process ontologies and Metabolic Pathway categories using statistical criteria. For the analyses of gene groups we added the weighted expression of individual genes. This method was effective in interpreting general patterns of expression changes and increased the statistical power of the analyses. We also estimated the variation in diversity and specialization of the transcriptome during chili pepper development. Approximately 17% of genes exhibited a significant change of expression in at least one of the intervals sampled. In contrast, significant differences in approximately 63% of the Biological Processes and 80% of the Metabolic Pathways studied were detected in at least one interval. Confirming previous reports, genes related to capsaicinoid and ascorbic acid biosynthesis were significantly upregulated at 20 DAA while those related to carotenoid biosynthesis were highly expressed in the last period of fruit maturation (40–60 DAA). Our RNA-Seq data was validated by examining the expression of nine genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis by qRT-PCR. Conclusions In general, more profound changes in the chili fruit transcriptome were observed in the intervals between 10 to 20 and 40 to 60 DAA. The last interval, between 40 to 60 DAA, included 49% of all

  20. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylant, Cortney L.; Keller, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair) and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip) at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations. PMID:25337458

  1. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney L. Pylant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations.

  2. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraig H. Kraft; Cecil H. Brown; Gary P. Nabhan; Eike Luedeling; José de Jesús Luna Ruiz; Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge; Robert J. Hijmans; Paul Gepts

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data...

  3. Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Linda; Flannery, Kent V

    2007-07-17

    Excavations at Guilá Naquitz and Silvia's Cave, two dry rockshelters near Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico, yielded the remains of 122 chili peppers dating to the period A.D. 600-1521. The chilies can be assigned to at least 10 cultivars, all belonging to the species Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens. The specimens are well enough preserved to permit an evaluation of the criteria used to separate wild and domestic chilies and to distinguish among cultivated races. In addition, they provide the opportunity to assess the reliability of starch grains for documenting the presence of chilies in archaeological sites where no macrobotanical remains are preserved.

  4. Photometry of the Variable Bright Red Supergiant Betelgeuse from the Ground and from Space with the BRITE Nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Robert; Guinan, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Robert B. Minor, Edward Guinan, Richard Wasatonic Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a large, luminous semi-regular red supergiant of spectral class M1.5-2Iab. It is the 8th brightest star in the night sky. Betelgeuse is 30,000 times more luminous than the Sun and 700 times larger. It has an estimated age of ~8 +/- 2 Myr. Betelgeuse explode in a Type II supernova (anytime within the next million years). When it explodes, it will shine with about the intensity of a full moon and may be visible during the day. However, it is too far away to cause any major damage to Earth. Photometry of this pre-supernova star has been ongoing at Villanova for nearly 45 years. These observations are being used to define the complex brightness variations of this star. Semi-regular periodic light variations have been found with periods of 385 days up to many years. These light variations are used to study its unstable atmosphere and resulting complex pulsations. Over the last 15 years, it has been observed by Wasatonic who has accumulated a large photometric database. The ground-based observations are limited to precisions of 1.5%, and due to poor weather, limit observations to about 1-2 times per week. However, with the recent successful launch of the BRITE Nano-satellites (http://www.brite-constellation.at) during 2013-14, it is possible to secure high precision photometry of bright stars, including Betelgeuse, continuously for up to 3 months. Villanova has participated in the BRITE guest investigators program and has been awarded observing time and data rights many bright stars, including Betelgeuse. BRITE blue and red observations of Betelgeuse were carried out during the Nov-Feb 2013-14 season and the 2014-15. These datasets were given to Villanova and have been combined with coexistent photometry from Wasatonic. Although BRITE's red data is saturated, the blue data is useable. The BRITE datasets were combined with our ground-based V, red, and near-IR photometry. Problems were

  5. The potential of a fluorescent-based approach for bioassay of antifungal agents against chili anthracnose disease in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutrakul, Chanikul; Khaokhajorn, Pratoomporn; Auncharoen, Patchanee; Boonruengprapa, Tanapong; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-01-01

    Severe chili anthracnose disease in Thailand is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. To discover anti-anthracnose substances we developed an efficient dual-fluorescent labeling bioassay based on a microdilution approach. Indicator strains used in the assay were constructed by integrating synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) and Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRedExp) genes into the genomes of C. gloeosporioides or C. capsici respectively. Survival of co-spore cultures in the presence of inhibitors was determined by the expression levels of these fluorescent proteins. This developed assay has high potential for utilization in the investigation of selective inhibition activity to either one of the pathogens as well as the broad-range inhibitory effect against both pathogens. The value of using the dual-fluorescent assay is rapid, reliable, and consistent identification of anti-anthracnose agents. Most of all, the assay enables the identification of specific inhibitors under the co-cultivation condition.

  6. Reversal of innate aversions: attempts to induce a preference for chili peppers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Gruss, L; Berk, G

    1979-12-01

    Although humans frequently develop preferences for innately unpalatable bitter or irritant substances, such preferences are extremely rare in animals. An attempt was made to understand the nature of this difference by systematic experiments with laboratory rats, with chili pepper as the unpalatable substance. In parallel with major aspects of the human experience with chili pepper, rats were exposed to it as a flavoring in all their food for periods up to 11 mo from birth, without significant preference enhancement. Gradual introduction of chili into the diet also had no effect, nor did a series of poisoning and safety experiences designed to teach the rats that only chili-flavored foods were safe to eat. A sequence of seven pairings of chili-flavored diet with prompt recovery from thiamine deficiency did significantly attenuate the innate aversion and may have induced a chili preference in at least one case. Extensive experience with chili did not reliably make rats much less sensitive to its oral effects. The only reliable way to eliminate chili aversion in rats is to destroy their chemical irritant sense, which was accomplished in one group of rats. It is concluded that in contrast to humans, it is extremely difficult to reverse innate aversions in rats.

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  8. SUPPORT MODEL FOR BREEDING THE RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS, L. IN THE OPEN HUNTING GROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Degmečić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish support systems which would resolve the supervision and control of the management plan, ensure sustainability of quality products and create conditions for stability of income. The study was carried out over five hunting seasons (2004/2005 to 2008/2009. Research area was hunting ground „Podunavlje - Podravlje XIV / 9," lowland type, altitude 65 to 120 m, situated between the rivers Danube and Drava in Baranja. The total area within the boundaries of the hunting ground is 26,810 ha. Field data are classified into the following age and sex classes: calves, yearling females, hinds, yearling males, males 3, 4 and 5 years old, males 6, 7 and 8 years old, and males 9 years old and older. The observed parameters were: the net body weight, fertilization, fetus length and weight, the length of the antler branches, the length of the third tine, the number of tines, weight and value of the antlers in the CIC. Statistical data processing and distribution of values of the parameters were established for each age and sex class. The values of parameters are the selection standards that should be reached by deer of every age and gender, or standards within which the values of certain parameters should be in order to enable support with which, together with selection shooting, clear standards can be set for the observed population. Parameter selection for calves is body weight. The accuracy of selection is monitored according to net body weight. Arithmetic mean of net body weight of calves is 37.77 kg. Yearling females were selected on estimates of body mass. A kind of threshold net body weight was established that is required for mating and successful fertilization. Net body weight that yearling females must achieve in order to be fertilized is 55 kg to 60 kg. Arithmetic mean of net body mass for yearling females is 53.13 kg, and the fertilization rate 47%. For hinds it is essential to maintain body weight around the mean

  9. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 17. Geomorphology of the Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, and Influence on Ground-Water Flow in the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kirk R.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north-central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The bedrock of the Taos Range surrounding the Red River is composed of Proterozoic rocks of various types, which are intruded and overlain by Oligocene volcanic rocks associated with the Questa caldera. Locally, these rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity. The alteration zones that contain sulfide minerals are particularly important because they constitute the commercial ore bodies of the region and, where exposed to weathering, form sites of rapid erosion referred to as alteration scars. Over the past thousand years, if not over the entire Holocene, erosion rates were spatially variable. Forested hillslopes eroded at about 0.04 millimeter per year, whereas alteration scars eroded at about 2.7 millimeters per year. The erosion rate of the alteration scars is unusually rapid for naturally occurring sites that have not been disturbed by humans. Watersheds containing large alteration scars delivered more sediment to the Red River Valley than the Red River could remove. Consequently, large debris fans, as much as 80 meters thick, developed within the valley. The geomorphology of the Red River Valley has had several large influences on the hydrology of the shallow alluvial aquifer, and those influences were in effect before the onset of mining within the watershed. Several reaches where alluvial ground water emerges to become Red River streamflow were observed by a tracer dilution study conducted in 2001. The aquifer narrows

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 21. Hydrology and water balance of the Red River basin, New Mexico 1930-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McAda, Douglas P.; Myers, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the hydrology of the Red River Basin of northern New Mexico, including development of a pre- mining water balance, contributes to a greater understanding of processes affecting the flow and chemistry of water in the Red River and its alluvial aquifer. Estimates of mean annual precipitation for the Red River Basin ranged from 22.32 to 25.19 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration for the Red River Basin ranged from 15.02 to 22.45 inches or 63.23 to 94.49 percent of mean annual precipitation. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated using regression equations ranged from 45.26 to 51.57 cubic feet per second. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated by subtracting evapotranspiration from mean annual precipitation ranged from 55.58 to 93.15 cubic feet per second. In comparison, naturalized 1930-2004 mean annual streamflow at the Red River near Questa gage was 48.9 cubic feet per second. Although estimates developed using regression equations appear to be a good representation of yield from the Red River Basin as a whole, the methods that consider evapotranspiration may more accurately represent yield from smaller basins that have a substantial amount of sparsely vegetated scar area. Hydrograph separation using the HYSEP computer program indicated that subsurface flow for 1930-2004 ranged from 76 to 94 percent of streamflow for individual years with a mean of 87 percent of streamflow. By using a chloride mass-balance method, ground-water recharge was estimated to range from 7 to 17 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from wells in Capulin Canyon and the Hansen, Hottentot, La Bobita, and Straight Creek Basins and was 21 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from the Red River. Comparisons of mean annual basin yield and measured streamflow indicate that streamflow does not consistently increase as cumulative estimated mean annual basin yield increases. Comparisons of estimated mean annual yield and

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Clad Steel Bars with Unclad Two-End Faces for Grounding Grids in the Red Clay Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yupei; Mu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Bing; Nie, Kaibin; Liao, Qiangqiang

    2017-02-01

    Iron-aluminum oxides in the red soil have a significant impact on the corrosion behavior of the metal for grounding grids. Effects of iron-aluminum oxides on the corrosion behavior of the cross section of copper-clad steel in the red soil have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization. All the data indicate that the iron-aluminum oxides can promote the corrosion of copper-clad steel in the red soil. The corrosivity of the red soil greatly increases after iron-aluminum oxides are added into the soil. Iron-aluminum oxides promote galvanic corrosion of copper-clad steel and increase the corrosion degree of the center steel layer. The iron-aluminum oxides stimulate corrosion process of copper-clad steel acting as a cathodic depolarizing agent. XRD results further validate that the corrosion products of the copper-clad steel bar mainly consist of Fe3O4 and Cu2O.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Copper-Clad Steel Bars with Unclad Two-End Faces for Grounding Grids in the Red Clay Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yupei; Mu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Bing; Nie, Kaibin; Liao, Qiangqiang

    2017-04-01

    Iron-aluminum oxides in the red soil have a significant impact on the corrosion behavior of the metal for grounding grids. Effects of iron-aluminum oxides on the corrosion behavior of the cross section of copper-clad steel in the red soil have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization. All the data indicate that the iron-aluminum oxides can promote the corrosion of copper-clad steel in the red soil. The corrosivity of the red soil greatly increases after iron-aluminum oxides are added into the soil. Iron-aluminum oxides promote galvanic corrosion of copper-clad steel and increase the corrosion degree of the center steel layer. The iron-aluminum oxides stimulate corrosion process of copper-clad steel acting as a cathodic depolarizing agent. XRD results further validate that the corrosion products of the copper-clad steel bar mainly consist of Fe3O4 and Cu2O.

  13. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  14. Chili Peppers, Curcumins, and Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.

  15. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  16. Starch fossils and the domestication and dispersal of chili peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Linda; Dickau, Ruth; Zarrillo, Sonia; Holst, Irene; Pearsall, Deborah M; Piperno, Dolores R; Berman, Mary Jane; Cooke, Richard G; Rademaker, Kurt; Ranere, Anthony J; Raymond, J Scott; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Scaramelli, Franz; Tarble, Kay; Zeidler, James A

    2007-02-16

    Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) are widely cultivated food plants that arose in the Americas and are now incorporated into cuisines worldwide. Here, we report a genus-specific starch morphotype that provides a means to identify chili peppers from archaeological contexts and trace both their domestication and dispersal. These starch microfossils have been found at seven sites dating from 6000 years before present to European contact and ranging from the Bahamas to southern Peru. The starch grain assemblages demonstrate that maize and chilies occurred together as an ancient and widespread Neotropical plant food complex that predates pottery in some regions.

  17. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  18. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  19. Processed Chili Peppers for Export Markets: A Capital Budgeting Study on the AgroFood Company

    OpenAIRE

    Shelaby, Ayman A.; Semida, Wael M.; Warnock, Daniel F.; Hahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The AgroFood Company, which currently exports fresh chili peppers to European clients, desires to expand the product mix offered. The company, as it expands its production of fresh peppers for export, has an increasing supply of grade 2 peppers that are unmarketable in Egypt. However, an attractive market for processed frozen chili peppers exists in Europe. To expand their client base, capitalize on a value added product, and minimize product waste, the AgroFood Company desires to develop pro...

  20. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  1. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  2. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry G Powis

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE. Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin. No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE. Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  3. Ground Reaction Force and Mechanical Differences Between the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and Smith Machine While Performing a Squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, William E.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Schneider, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal unloading in microgravity has been shown to induce losses in bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength. Currently, an Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is being flown on board the ISS to help counteract these losses. Free weight training has shown successful positive musculoskeletal adaptations. In biomechanical research, ground reaction forces (GRF) trajectories are used to define differences between exercise devices. The purpose of this evaluation is to quantify the differences in GRF between the iRED and free weight exercise performed on a Smith machine during a squat. Due to the differences in resistance properties, inertial loading and load application to the body between the two devices, we hypothesize that subjects using iRED will produce GRF that are significantly different from the Smith machine. There will be differences in bar/harness range of motion and the time when peak GRF occurred in the ROMbar. Three male subjects performed three sets of ten squats on the iRED and on the Smith Machine on two separate days at a 2-second cadence. Statistically significant differences were found between the two devices in all measured GRF variables. Average Fz and Fx during the Smith machine squat were significantly higher than iRED. Average Fy (16.82 plus or minus.23; p less than .043) was significantly lower during the Smith machine squat. The mean descent/ascent ratio of the magnitude of the resultant force vector of all three axes for the Smith machine and iRED was 0.95 and 0.72, respectively. Also, the point at which maximum Fz occurred in the range of motion (Dzpeak) was at different locations with the two devices.

  4. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  5. Shallow ground-water quality beneath cropland in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1993-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    1997-01-01

    During 1993-95, the agriculture on two sandy, surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin affected the quality of shallow ground water in each aquifer differently. The Sheyenne Delta aquifer, in the western part of the basin, had land-use, hydrogeological, and rainfall characteristics that allowed few agricultural chemicals to reach or remain in the shallow ground water. The Otter Tail outwash aquifer, in the eastern part of the basin, had characteristics that caused significant amounts of nutrients and pesticides to reach and remain in the shallow ground water. Shallow ground water from both aquifers is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. During the respective sampling periods, water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer was mostly anoxic and water from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer had a median dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.6 mg/L (milligrams per liter). The median nitrate concentration was 0.03 mg/L as nitrogen (mg/L-N) in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 6.1 mg/L-N in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Of 18 herbicides and 4 insecticides commonly used in the aquifer areas and for which analyses were done, 5 herbicides and 1 herbicide metabolite were detected in the shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 8 herbicides and 2 metabolites were detected in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. The total herbicide concentration median was less than the detection limit in shallow ground water from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer and 0.023 μg/L (micorgrams per liter) in that from the Otter Tail outwash aquifer. Triazine herbicides were the most commonly detected herbicides and were detected at the highest concentrations in the shallow ground water from both study areas. One sample from the Sheyenne Delta aquifer contained a high concentration of picloram. Agricultural chemicals in both aquifers were stratified vertically and their concentration correlated inversely with ground-water age. The

  6. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, L; Hernández Avila, M; Dubrow, R

    1994-02-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that capsaicin, the hot-tasting component of chili peppers, may be carcinogenic. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Mexico City during 1989-1990 to evaluate the relation between chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer risk. The study included 220 incident cases and 752 controls randomly selected from the general population. Information was collected by interview. Chili pepper consumers were at high risk for gastric cancer compared with nonconsumers (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio = 5.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.72-11.06). Among consumers, there was a highly significant trend of increasing risk with increasing self-rated level of consumption (low, medium, and high) (p = 2 x 10(-7). The odds ratio for high-level consumers compared with nonconsumers was 17.11 (95% CI 7.78-37.59). However, when consumption was measured as frequency per day, a significant trend among consumers was not observed. Multivariable adjustment increased the magnitude of the chili pepper-gastric cancer association, but a significant trend among consumers (measured as frequency per day) was still not observed. Chili pepper consumption may be a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, but further studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  7. Consumption of Chilies, but not Sweet Peppers, Is Positively Related to Handgrip Strength in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Wei, M; Zhang, Q; Du, H; Xia, Y; Liu, L; Wang, C; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Bao, X; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yang, H; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Zhao, H; Song, K; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Chili consumption may have a beneficial effect on muscle strength in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frequency of chili consumption and handgrip strength in adults. Population-based cross-sectional study. This study used baseline data from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study. A total of 3 717 subjects were recruited to the study. Frequency of chili consumption during the previous month was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between muscle strength and frequency of chili consumption. Handgrip strength was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, significant relationships were observed between different categories of chili consumption and handgrip strength in males, the means (95% confidence interval) for handgrip strength across chili consumption categories were 44.7 (42.1, 47.2) for pepper consumption. This study reveals a positive correlation between frequency of chili consumption and muscle strength in adult males. Further studies are necessary in order to determine whether there is a causal relationship between chili consumption frequency and muscle strength.

  8. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, K.L.; Reif, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The 54-square-mile Red Clay Creek Basin, located in the lower Delaware River Basin, is underlain primarily by metamorphic rocks that range from Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic in age. Ground water flows through secondary openings in fractured crystalline rock and through primary openings below the water table in the overlying saprolite. Secondary porosity and permeability vary with hydrogeologic unit, topographic setting, and depth. Thirty-nine percent of the water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 79 percent are within 200 feet. The fractured crystalline rock and overlying saprolite act as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The water table is a subdued replica of the land surface. Local ground-water flow systems predominate in the basin, and natural ground-water discharge is to streams, comprising 62 to 71 percent of streamflow. Water budgets for 1988-90 for the 45-square-mile effective drainage area above the Woodale, Del., streamflow-measurement station show that annual precipitation ranged from 43.59 to 59.14 inches and averaged 49.81 inches, annual streamflow ranged from 15.35 to 26.33 inches and averaged 20.24 inches, and annual evapotranspiration ranged from 27.87 to 30.43 inches and averaged 28.98 inches. The crystalline rocks of the Red Clay Creek Basin were simulated two-dimensionally as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The model was calibrated for short-term steady-state conditions on November 2, 1990. Recharge was 8.32 inches per year. Values of aquifer hydraulic conductivity in hillside topographic settings ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 feet per day. Values of streambed hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.08 to 26.0 feet per day. Prior to simulations where ground-water development was increased, the calibrated steady-state model was modified to approximate long-term average conditions in the basin. Base flow of 11.98 inches per year and a ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2.17 inches per

  9. From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, Not G. W.): Common Ground between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon's "Novum organon" and his "New Atlantis" in the seventeenth century. The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in…

  10. Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsatchakul, Premsiri; Chaiseri, Siree; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2008-01-23

    Three forms of Thai fried chili pastes (CP) were prepared, consisting of an unheated CP (UH-CP), a CP heated at 100 degrees C for 25 min (H25-CP, typical product), and a CP excessively heated for 50 min (H50-CP). The potent odorants in the CPs were investigated by two gas chromatography-olfactometry methods: dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). DHDA revealed that the predominant odorants in heated CPs were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, followed by lipid-derived compounds, Strecker aldehydes, and Maillard reaction products. Dimethyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, 2- (or 3-) methylbutanal, ally methyl sulfide, 2,3-butanedione, 3,3'-thiobis(1-propene), and methyl propyl disulfide were among the most potent headspace odorants detected by DHDA. By AEDA, 2-vinyl-4 H-1,3-dithiin and diallyl trisulfide had the highest FD factors in H25-CP. On the basis of their high FD factors by both GCO methods, the predominant odorants in H25-CP were 3-vinyl-4 H-1,2-dithiin, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl trisulfide. Furthermore, dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide had the highest odor activity values in H25-CP, suggesting that these were also potent odorants in CP. In addition, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2 H)-furanone, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2( 5H)-furanone (sotolon) were indicated as potent thermally derived odorants of H25-CP.

  11. Genotype x environment interaction on experimental hybrids of chili pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, N S S; Medeiros, A M; Neves, L G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Coelho, V J; Serafim, M E; Rodrigues, R

    2017-04-20

    In Brazil, cultivation of hybrid plants comprise near 40% of the area grown with vegetables. For Capsicum, hybrids of bell and chili peppers have already exceeded 50% and over 25% of all are commercialized seeds. This study aimed to evaluate new pepper hybrids in two environments, Cáceres, MT, and Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. Nine experimental hybrids of C. baccatum var. pendulum were tested and trials were performed in a randomized block design, with three replications and eight plants per plot. In each environment, plants were assessed for canopy diameter, plant height, number of fruit per plant, mean fruit mass per plant, fruit length and diameter, pulp thickness, and content of soluble solids. Seven of the eight traits have differed significantly due to environment variation. Furthermore, genotype and environment interaction was highly significant for number of fruit per plant, mean fruit mass per plant, fruit length, and fruit diameter. Choosing a hybrid to be grown in one of the studied locations must be in accordance with the sought characteristics since there is a complex interaction for some studied traits.

  12. Functional differentiation of trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch in the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch the ground during terrestrial locomotion, the influence of a horizontal branch on limb function has never been explored. To determine the functional differences between trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch, X-ray motion analysis and force measurements were carried out in two European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). The differences observed between trailing and leading forelimbs were minimal during terrestrial locomotion, where both limbs fulfill two functions and go through a shock-absorbing phase followed by a generating phase. During locomotion on a horizontal branch, European red squirrels reduce speed and all substrate reaction forces transmitted may be due to the reduction of vertical oscillation of the center of mass. Further adjustments during locomotion on a horizontal branch differ significantly between trailing and leading forelimbs and include limb flexion, lead intervals, limb protraction and vertical displacement of the scapular pivot. Consequently, trailing and leading forelimbs perform different functions. Trailing forelimbs function primarily as shock-absorbing elements, whereas leading forelimbs are characterized by a high level of stiffness. This functional differentiation indicates that European red squirrels 'test' the substrate for stability with the trailing forelimb, while the leading forelimb responds to or counteracts swinging or snapping branches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 contamination in ground red peppers commercialized in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Mehmet; Arslanğray, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatogenic, teratogenic, imunosuppressive, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites found in feeds, nuts, wine-grapes, spices, and other grain crops. Humans are exposed to AFs via consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AF contamination in powdered red peppers sold in Sanliurfa. A total of 42 samples were randomly collected from retail shops, supermarkets, open bazaars, and apiaries and examined for the occurrence and levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 toxins. AFs were determined by using an HPLC system after pre-separation utilizing immunoaffinity columns. AFs levels were below 2.5 μg/kg in 16 samples, between 2.5 and 10 μg/kg in 13 samples while 13 samples had AFs higher than the tolerable limit (10 μg/kg) according to the regulations of Turkish Food Codex and European Commission. The occurrence of AF fractions during powdered red pepper processing steps was also evaluated. According to the results obtained in this study, it was found that the highest AF accumulations in powdered red peppers start during perspiration and final drying of the products processed on soil contacted surfaces while there was no limit exceeding aflatoxin contamination in the samples produced on concrete surfaces.

  14. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�). Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for the...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  16. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 23. Quantification of mass loading from mined and unmined areas along the Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Runkel, Robert L.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    Along the course of the Red River, between the town of Red River, New Mexico, and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Questa, New Mexico, there are several catchments that contain hydrothermally altered bedrock. Some of these alteration zones have been mined and others have not, presenting an opportunity to evaluate differences that may exist in the mass loading of metals from mined and unmined sections. Such differences may help to define pre-mining conditions. Spatially detailed chemical sampling at stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in 2001 and 2002, and during the synoptic sampling, stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution. Discharge from most catchments, particularly those with alteration scars, occurred as ground water in large debris fans, which generally traveled downstream in an alluvial aquifer until geomorphic constraints caused it to discharge at several locations along the study reach. Locations of discharge zones were indicated by the occurrence of numerous inflows as seeps and springs. Inflows were classified into four groups, based on differences in chemical character, which ranged from near-neutral water showing no influence of mining or alteration weathering to acidic water with high concentrations of metals and sulfate. Acidic, metal-rich inflows occurred from mined and unmined areas, but the most-acidic inflow water that had the highest concentrations of metals and sulfate only occurred downstream from the mine. Locations of ground-water inflow also corresponded to substantial changes in stream chemistry and mass loading of metals and sulfate. The greatest loading occurred in the Cabin Springs, Thunder Bridge, and Capulin Canyon sections, which all occur downstream from the mine. A distinct chemical character and substantially greater loading in water downstream from the mine suggest that there could be impacts from mining that can be distinguished from the water draining from unmined

  17. INTEGRATED DESEASE MANAGEMENT FOR CHILI FARMING IN BREBES AND MAGELANG - CENTRAL JAVA: SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the impact of an integrated disease management (IDM on chilli. Chili disease control technologies that include crop barrier with corn and Crotalaria, and compost tea have been introduced to farmers in Magelang and Brebes. A qualitative approach was used to assess and estimate the socio-economic impact of agricultural research. The study was conducted in 2011. The results showed that based on land use chili, the net economic benefits generated was relatively low. There were only a few farmers who have adopted the technology on chili peppers. Furthermore, the survey also illustrates that three years after its introduction in 2007 the technology status at farm level was just at consciousness phase. Learning of this fact, a thorough evaluation of the technology on chili pepper should be done immediately. Research institutions which have developed the technology should encourage bottom-up initiatives and build a shared commitment to complete the implementation of a clear strategic plan. The adoption of the strategic plan should include the integration of research activities with promotional activities for example by revitalizing participatory approaches to awareness of farmers.

  18. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  19. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  1. 吸湿剂及添加量对冷藏鲜辣椒品质的影响%Effect of Moisture Absorber and Its Additive Amount on Quality of Refrigerated Fresh Chilies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月; 陶乐仁; 陈娟娟

    2014-01-01

    The moisture absorption capacity of three kinds of moisture absorbers ( thin paper, non-woven fabric and silica gel) was examined, and the suitable moisture absorber and its optimum additive amount for the refrigerated fresh chilies were screened out.Different kinds or different amount of moisture absorbers were added into the package of refrigerated fresh chilies, and their effects on the mass loss rate, moisture content, rotting rate, red-turning rate, and chilling injury rate of fresh chilies in refrig-erated period were investigated.The results showed that the application of moisture absorber could increase the mass loss rate of re-frigerated fresh chilies, but could effectively reduce the rotting rate, red-turning rate, and chilling injury rate.20% thin paper, 20% non-woven fabric and 30%non-woven fabric had better inhibitory effect on the rot.Non-woven fabric and lower amount of thin paper had better inhibitory effect on the red-turning.Non-woven fabric and little amount of thin paper had obvious inhibitory effect on the chilling injury.%研究了3种吸湿材料(薄型纸、无纺布、硅胶)的吸湿能力,并筛选出冷藏鲜辣椒的适宜吸湿剂及添加量。将吸湿剂以不同添加量添加到冷藏鲜辣椒的包装中,探讨其对冷藏鲜辣椒贮藏期间质量损失率、水分含量、腐烂率、转红率和冷害率的影响。结果表明,吸湿剂的使用会增加冷藏鲜辣椒质量损失率,但有效抑制了其腐败、转红和冷害;吸湿剂为20%薄型纸、20%无纺布与30%无纺布对腐烂的抑制效果较好;无纺布与较低含量薄型纸对转红的抑制效果很好;无纺布与少量薄型纸对冷害的抑制效果明显。

  2. Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuqiang; Liu, Dongling; Zhu, Xinyue; Su, Along; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD) DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG), astrazon orange G (AOG), and astrazon orange R (AOR) in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v); the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL); extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL) were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2-2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2-105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods.

  3. Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG, astrazon orange G (AOG, and astrazon orange R (AOR in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v; the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL; extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2–2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2–105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods.

  4. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the factors influencing the price premiums’ magnitudes related to different label information conditions, such as information about the farmer community, traditional cooking recipes, organic certification, and Fairtrade certification. A face-to-face survey was conducted with 200 international tourists at the airport in Cuzco, Peru. The data were analyzed using a probit and tobit models with sample selection. The results suggest that dried native chilies would have a relatively good acceptance among international tourists. About 62% of the respondents indicated they would buy dried native chilies, and of them, 62%–74% would pay an average price premium ranging from S/1.16–1.58 for different label information conditions. Nevertheless specific marketing campaigns should be designed for different types of international tourists in order to maximize the economic benefits for small-holder farmers.

  5. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  6. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  7. Physicochemical properties and volatile profile of chili shrimp paste as affected by irradiation and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Sobhi, Babak; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Ab Karim, Muhammad Shahrim; Ghazali, Zulkafli

    2017-02-01

    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy. EBI at 10kGy effectively decontaminated the samples with no significant effects on phenolic and capsaicinoids contents compared to the fresh samples. From 24 compounds, irradiated CSP retained 23 volatile compounds, while thermally treated CSP has only 19 compounds. EBI at 10kGy is effective for decontamination in CSP with lesser destructive effect on volatile compounds and texture compared to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photophysical and photochemical parameters of octakis (benzylthio) phthalocyaninato zinc, aluminium and tin: Red shift index concept in solvent effect on the ground state absorption of zinc phthalocyanine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpe, Victor; Brismar, Hjalmar; Nyokong, Tebello; Osadebe, P. O.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the synthesis of octa-substituted benzylthio metallophthalocyanines (OBTMPcs) that contain the central metal ions of Zn 2+, Al 3+ and Sn 4+. The ground state absorption of ZnPc(SR) 8 (OBTZnPc) along with the ZnPc derivatives, well documented in literature were used to study a new concept called the red shift index ( R sI ). The concept is based on the empirical values of R sI of the different complexes in solvent media. Unequivocally, parameters used in this paper show strong correlations that are consistent with the results obtained. For instance, R sI of the complexes tend to increase as the refractive index, n D, and solvent donor, DN, of solvent increases. Photodegradation (photobleaching) quantum yield, ϕ d measurements of these compounds show that they are highly photostable, ϕ d (0.03-0.33 × 10 -5). The triplet quantum yield, ϕ T (0.40-0.53) and the triplet lifetime, τ T (610-810 μs) are within the typical range for metallophthalocyanines in DMSO. The photosensitisation efficiency, SΔ, is relatively high for all the molecules (0.74-0.90).

  9. BODY AND REPRODUCTIVE CONDITIONS OF RED DEER YOUNG HINDS (CERVUS ELAPHUS L. IN THE HUNTING GROUND PODUNAVLJE-PODRAVLJE (BARANJA REGION, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Degmečić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine inter-relation between body and reproductive conditions of young hinds of red deer living in the environmental conditions of wetland habitats. The research was carried out during the five hunting years: 2004/05 – 2008/09, on 62 young hinds in the hunting ground XIV/9 Podunavlje - Podravlje, situated in Baranja region of the eastern Croatia. Net body weight and presence of foetus in the womb were determined after the game culling. The highest net body weight was achieved during 2007/08 and 2008/09. Statistical significance (P<0.05 was confirmed in relation between years 2007/08 and 2005/06 and 2006/07. Mean net body weight of the pregnant young hinds is indicatively higher than of the non-pregnant hinds. Correlation between net body weight and fertilization is statistically significant (pregnant 66.13 kg; non-pregnant 50.71 kg. Favourable climatic and hydrological conditions during the hunting years 2007/08 and 2008/09 resulted in the above average body development of calves and young hinds, which is the requisite for reproductive conditions improvement in females and trophy potential in males.

  10. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began.

  11. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper as Affected by Weed Based Organic Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility improvement of Ultisol is inevitable to increase growth and yield of chili pepper since the nutrient availability and organic matter of this soil is relatively low. Application of organic fertilizer will enhance microorganism activity in soil, thereafter will improve the availability of nutrients as well as other chemical, physical, biological properties of the soil. Most of manure releases nutrient quite slowly; therefore, addition of nitrogen to soil is expected to speed up the availability of nutrient to plant. Weed based organic fertilizers from Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata biomass have potential to substitute inorganic fertilizer. The objective of the experiment was to compare the effects of weed based organic compost and dry leaves compost with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of chili pepper. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with treatments of 200 kg urea ha-1; Wedelia compost (WDC 20 ton ha-1; WDC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; Siam weed compost (SWC 20 ton ha-1, SWC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of  200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; and dry leaves compost (DLC 20 ton ha-1, DLC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively. The result revealed that composts with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer had similar responses on the growth of chili pepper. Wedelia and Siam weeds compost at 20 ton ha-1 tended to give better yield of chili pepper as compared to application of urea alone. This result indicated that weed based organic fertilizers could substitute nitrogen fertilizer.

  12. Protecting vegetable cultivars in Brazil: a chili pepper case-study research

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta,Samy; RODRIGUES,ROSANA; Sudré,Cláudia P; Moraes,João GT; Bento,Cíntia S; Medeiros,Artur M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In all countries, members of the UPOV (Union Internationale pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales), of which Brazil is a signatory, to protect a new plant variety is necessary to carry out DUS (Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability) tests. DUS testing forCapsicum spp. is based on 48 descriptors, which involve qualitative and quantitative traits, observed from germination to fruit harvest. This paper describes the performance of DUS tests on lines of chili peppers, which are c...

  13. Characterization of genetic diversity of native 'Ancho' chili populations of Mexico using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Toledo-Aguilar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Ancho' type chilis (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum are an important ingredient in the traditional cuisine of Mexico and so are in high demand. It includes six native sub-types with morphological and fruit color differences. However, the genetic diversity of the set of these sub­types has not been determined. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of native Mexican ancho chili populations using microsatellites and to determine the relationship among these populations. Twenty-four microsatellite loci were used to analyze 38 native populations of 'Ancho' chilis collected in seven states of Mexico; three populations different from the ancho type ('Piquin', 'Guajillo', and 'Chilaca' and three hybrids (Capulin, Abedul, and green pepper were included as controls. The number of alleles per locus, number and percentage of polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC, expected heterozygosity, and Wright F statistics were obtained. Moreover, an analysis of principal components and a cluster analysis were carried out. We detected 220 alleles, with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus; PIC varied between 0.07 and 1, and expected heterozygosity was between 0.36 and 0.59. Also we identified 59 unique alleles and eight alleles common to all of the populations. The F statistics revealed broad genetic differentiation among populations. Both the analysis of principal components and the cluster analysis were able to separate the populations by origin (southern, central, and northern Mexico. The broad genetic diversity detected in the native ancho chili populations of Mexico was found in greater proportion within the populations than between populations.

  14. Why are not all chilies hot? A trade-off limits pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, David C; McGinnis, Leslie A; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2012-05-22

    Evolutionary biologists increasingly recognize that evolution can be constrained by trade-offs, yet our understanding of how and when such constraints are manifested and whether they restrict adaptive divergence in populations remains limited. Here, we show that spatial heterogeneity in moisture maintains a polymorphism for pungency (heat) among natural populations of wild chilies (Capsicum chacoense) because traits influencing water-use efficiency are functionally integrated with traits controlling pungency (the production of capsaicinoids). Pungent and non-pungent chilies occur along a cline in moisture that spans their native range in Bolivia, and the proportion of pungent plants in populations increases with greater moisture availability. In high moisture environments, pungency is beneficial because capsaicinoids protect the fruit from pathogenic fungi, and is not costly because pungent and non-pungent chilies grown in well-watered conditions produce equal numbers of seeds. In low moisture environments, pungency is less beneficial as the risk of fungal infection is lower, and carries a significant cost because, under drought stress, seed production in pungent chilies is reduced by 50 per cent relative to non-pungent plants grown in identical conditions. This large difference in seed production under water-stressed (WS) conditions explains the existence of populations dominated by non-pungent plants, and appears to result from a genetic correlation between pungency and stomatal density: non-pungent plants, segregating from intra-population crosses, exhibit significantly lower stomatal density (p = 0.003), thereby reducing gas exchange under WS conditions. These results demonstrate the importance of trait integration in constraining adaptive divergence among populations.

  15. Why are not all chilies hot? A trade-off limits pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Haak, David C.; McGinnis, Leslie A.; Levey, Douglas J.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists increasingly recognize that evolution can be constrained by trade-offs, yet our understanding of how and when such constraints are manifested and whether they restrict adaptive divergence in populations remains limited. Here, we show that spatial heterogeneity in moisture maintains a polymorphism for pungency (heat) among natural populations of wild chilies (Capsicum chacoense) because traits influencing water-use efficiency are functionally integrated with traits cont...

  16. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  17. Effects of oral chemical irritation on tastes and flavors in frequent and infrequent users of chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Stevenson, R J

    1995-12-01

    The studies reported here addressed the question of whether the pungent principle in chilies, capsaicin, suppresses taste and flavor intensity. Over a period of several minutes, groups of frequent and infrequent eaters of chili repeatedly rated the taste and flavor intensities of sweet and sour solutions that also contained either orange or vanilla flavor, and capsaicin at 0, 2, 4, and 16 ppm. As well as the intensity of the qualities while in the mouth, measures of the number of rating periods for the intensity to dissipate to zero, and the summed total intensity were also derived. Infrequent chili users rated the capsaicin burn as more intense than did the frequent users. With few exceptions, and for groups, sweetness was suppressed by the presence of capsaicin. By contrast, sourness was unaffected by capsaicin. Flavor intensities also showed suppression by capsaicin. High correlations between ratings of sweetness and flavor were found, suggesting that perceptual confusion between the two qualities may have been responsible for the flavor suppression. A second experiment examined the effects of capsaicin on ratings of strawberry flavor alone. This study produced little evidence of flavor suppression by capsaicin. These results are discussed in terms of an attentional model of capsaicin's effects.

  18. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  19. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. X-235, var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. X-235 responded better than the var. PC-1 and var. Pusa Jwala. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.800.16 (var. X-235, 5.000.19 (var. PC-1 and 4.800.12 (var. Pusa Jwala. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  20. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  1. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  3. Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2000-02-01

    A laboratory experiment for a junior- or senior-level college instrumental analysis course has been designed and tested. The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods. Taste tests can be used to verify the relative pungency of the products. The experiment is designed to be completed in less than four hours. A letter from Paul Vorndam in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  4. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE) were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L). A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12). Band no. (11) and (5,12) are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100%) between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the...

  5. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  6. Analysis of the ground-water flow system, geochemistry, and underseepage in the vicinity of the Red Rock Dam near Pella, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates the Red Rock Dam on the Des Moines River in Marion County, Iowa. The dam consists of a gravity concrete control structure between two earthen embankments and has an impoundment storage capacity of 1,700,000 acre-feet. Since the impoundment of Lake Red Rock commenced during 1969, water seepage beneath the dam has been significant enough to cause continuing investigation by the Corps of Engineers of its source and implications.

  7. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ismail, M. R.; Malek, M. A.; Abdul Latif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23–0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes. PMID:25478590

  8. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  9. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-21

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 4. Historical surface-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 1965 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maest, Ann S.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; LoVetere, Sara H.

    2004-01-01

    Historical water-quality samples collected from the Red River over the past 35 years were compiled, reviewed for quality, and evaluated to determine influences on water quality over time. Hydrologic conditions in the Red River were found to have a major effect on water quality. The lowest sulfate concentrations were associated with the highest flow events, especially peak, rising limb, and falling limb conditions. The highest sulfate concentrations were associated with the early part of the rising limb of summer thunderstorm events and early snowmelt runoff, transient events that can be difficult to capture as part of planned sampling programs but were observed in some of the data. The first increase in flows in the spring, or during summer thunderstorm events, causes a flushing of sulfide oxidation products from scars and mine-disturbed areas to the Red River before being diluted by rising river waters. A trend of increasing sulfate concentrations and loads over long time periods also was noted at the Questa Ranger Station gage on the Red River, possibly related to mining activities, because the same trend is not apparent for concentrations upstream. This trend was only apparent when the dynamic events of snowmelt and summer rainstorms were eliminated and only low-flow concentrations were considered. An increase in sulfate concentrations and loads over time was not seen at locations upstream from the Molycorp, Inc., molybdenum mine and downstream from scar areas. Sulfate concentrations and loads and zinc concentrations downstream from the mine were uniformly higher, and alkalinity values were consistently lower, than those upstream from the mine, suggesting that additional sources of sulfate, zinc, and acidity enter the river in the vicinity of the mine. During storm events, alkalinity values decreased both upstream and downstream of the mine, indicating that natural sources, most likely scar areas, can cause short-term changes in the buffering capacity of the Red

  12. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of traces of peanut allergens in chili pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Marjolein; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; De Loose, Marc; Taverniers, Isabel; Daeseleire, Els; Gevaert, Philippe; Lapeere, Hilde; Van Poucke, Christof

    2017-07-26

    The recent detection of nuts (including peanut) in spices across the globe has led to enormous recalls of several spices and food products in the last two years. The lack of validated detection methods specific for spices makes it difficult to assess allergen presence at trace levels. Because of the urgent need for confirmation of possible peanut presence in chili peppers, an LC-MS/MS method was optimized and developed for this particular food matrix. Although several studies optimized LC-MS detection strategies specific for peanuts, the presence of complex components in the spices (e.g., phenolic components) makes method optimization and validation necessarily. Focus was laid on validation of the method with real incurred chili peppers (whereby a known amount of peanut is added) at low concentrations, to deal with possible matrix interferences. LC-MS/MS proves to be a good alternative to the currently most applied methods (ELISA and RT-PCR) and can be used as a complementary method of analysis when results are unclear. Peanut marker peptides were selected based on their abundancy in digested incurred chili peppers. The limit of detection was determined to be 24 ppm (mg peanut/kg), a level whereby the risk for potential allergic reactions is zero, considering the typical portion size of spices. The chili pepper powder under investigation proved to contain low levels of peanuts after LC-MS/MS, ELISA, and RT-PCR testing. Graphical abstract Standard curve of the detected peanuts in chili pepper samples using the novel LC-MS/MS method.

  13. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments

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    SUTARNO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili and Fantastic (curly chili. The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java in September 2006 to March 2007. The study used a complete block design with two factorial of chili varieties and fertilizer treatment. Fertilization treatments includes no fertilizer (control (P1; manure 2 kg/plant (P2, manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (ZA, SP-36, KCl = 2: 1: 1 + NPK (P3; and manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1:1 + liquid organic fertilizer (P4. Chlorophyll content was measured refers to Harborne (1987, whereas leaf nitrogen concentration was measured with Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by DMRT. The results showed that on the Fantastic chili fertilizer treatment affected the biomass and chlorophyll a, but gave no effect on chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen. On the curly chili fertilizer treatment effected plant fresh weight, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, but gave no effect on dry weight, fresh fruit weight, chlorophyll b and leaf nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended to use the formulation of manure + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1: 1 + liquid organic fertilizer in the cultivation of chili.Key words: biomass, chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, chili, Capsicum annum, fertilizing.Abstrak. Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomassa, kandungan klorofil dan nitrogen daun dua varietas cabai (Capsicum annum pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai perlakuan pemupukan terhadap biomassa

  14. Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus Infection on Growth and Yield Component of Chilli

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    ENDANG NURHAYATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A research was undergone to study the effect of single and double infection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus (ChiVMV on the growth and yield of five chilli cultivars, i.e. Prabu, Taro, Jatilaba, Laris, and Keriting Bogor. Mechanical inoculation was conducted to transmit the virus. Infection of the virus was then confirmed with DAS-ELISA. Severe symptom was observed on plant given double infection compared to those given single infection. The rate of plant growth and the amount and weight of fruits were reduced. The type of interaction between CMV and ChiVMV on most chilli cultivar can be considered as interference and additive. Synergism interaction was only observed on cultivar Laris. Based on symptom expression and reduction on yield, it can be concluded that all chilli cultivars used in this study could not hold up the virus infection.

  15. Mutagenesis of the Bacillus edaphicus Strain NBT and Its Effect on Growth of Chili and Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xia-fang; XIA Juan-juan; CHEN Jue

    2003-01-01

    A strain NBT capable of dissolving silicate minerals and promoting plant growth was treatedwith UV+LiCl. Thirty-two mutants tolerable to 2% NaCl solution were obtained. However, through the sur-vival experiments in high osmatic pressure, high temperature and different acidities, two mutants of NBT-6and NBT-19 were finally obtained. They could survive from 10 % NaCl solution and tolerate 55℃, acidic (pH4) and alkalic (pH 10) conditions. The mutants had the same ability to release K from silicate minerals as thestarting strain NBT. Pot experiments with chili and cotton showed that both the mutants developed in the rhi-zosphere soils. The available P and K contents in the rhizosphere soils and plant biomass increased through in-oculating these bacteria.

  16. Molecular basis for species-specific sensitivity to "hot" chili peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Sven-Eric; Julius, David

    2002-02-08

    Chili peppers produce the pungent vanilloid compound capsaicin, which offers protection from predatory mammals. Birds are indifferent to the pain-producing effects of capsaicin and therefore serve as vectors for seed dispersal. Here, we determine the molecular basis for this species-specific behavioral response by identifying a domain of the rat vanilloid receptor that confers sensitivity to capsaicin to the normally insensitive chicken ortholog. Like its mammalian counterpart, the chicken receptor is activated by heat or protons, consistent with the fact that both mammals and birds detect noxious heat and experience thermal hypersensitivity. Our findings provide a molecular basis for the ecological phenomenon of directed deterence and suggest that the capacity to detect capsaicin-like inflammatory substances is a recent acquisition of mammalian vanilloid receptors.

  17. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  18. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes �CA18�, �CA21� and �CA27� represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between �CA2� and �CA8� genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  19. Market-Based Instruments for the Conservation of Underutilized Crops: In-Store Experimental Auction of Native Chili Products in Bolivia

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    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Native chilies (Capsicum spp. are currently underutilized in Bolivia, one of this crop’s centers of diversity. Fewer local farmers cultivate native chilies annually due to low market demand. Increasing its private use value can lead to the in-situ conservation of this crop. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the market acceptability of three native chili products: (a chili marmalade; (b chili cooking paste; and (c pickled chilies. Multi-product Becker-DeGroot-Marschak experimental auctions and hedonic tests were conducted with 337 participants in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Data were analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results suggest that consumers are willing to pay price premiums of about 25–50 percent. Biodiversity conservation and improvements in farmers’ quality of life statements would not have influence on first purchase decisions but rather on repurchase decisions and therefore on consumers’ product loyalty. This in turn could lead to sustainable agro-biodiversity conservation, centered on consumers’ purchase of these products over time.

  20. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from chili bo, a Malaysian food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J J; Pot, B; Christensen, H; Rusul, G; Olsen, J E; Wee, B W; Muhamad, K; Ghazali, H M

    1999-02-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28 degreesC with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg-1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR DRIER INTEGRATED WITH GRAVEL AS HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL FOR CHILI DRYING

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    M. MOHANRAJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An indirect forced convection solar drier integrated with different sensible heat storage maternal has been developed and tested its performance for drying chili under the metrological conditions of Pollachi, India. The system consists of a flat plate solar air heater with heat storage unit, a drying chamber and a centrifugal blower. Drying experiments have been performed at an air flow rate of 0.25 kg/s. Drying of chili in a forced convection solar drier reduces the moisture content from around 72.8% (wet basis to the final moisture content about 9.1% in 24 h. Average drier efficiency was estimated to be about 21%. The specific moisture extraction rate was estimated to be about 0.87 kg/kWh.

  2. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

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    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  3. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

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    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  4. National Outbreak of Type A Foodborne Botulism Associated With a Widely Distributed Commercially Canned Hot Dog Chili Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao, Patricia C.; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P.; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Methods Investigators reviewed patients’ medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Results Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Conclusions Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities. PMID:23097586

  5. Defense-Related Responses in Fruit of the Nonhost Chili Pepper against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Infection

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    Sung Pae Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of the soybean that causes bacterial pustules and is a nonhost pathogen of the chili pepper. In the current study, chili pepper fruit wound inoculated in planta with Xag 8ra formed necrotic lesions on the fruit surface and induced several structural and chemical barriers systemically in the fruit tissue. The initial defense response included programmed cell death of necrotizing and necrotized cells, which was characterized by nuclear DNA cleavage, as detected by TUNEL-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and phosphatidylserine exposure on cell walls distal to the infection site, as detected by Annexin V FLUOS-CLSM. These two responses may facilitate cell killing and enhance transportation of cell wall materials used for cell wall thickening, respectively. The cells beneath the necrotic tissue were enlarged and divided to form periclinal cell walls, resulting in extensive formation of several parallel boundary layers at the later stages of infection, accompanying the deposition of wall fortification materials for strengthening structural defenses. These results suggest that nonhost resistance of chili pepper fruit against the nonhost necrotrophic pathogen Xag 8ra is activated systematically from the initial infection until termination of the infection cycle, resulting in complete inhibition of bacterial pathogenesis by utilizing organ-specific in situ physiological events governed by the expression of genes in the plant fruit organ.

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqun Liu

    Full Text Available The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.. We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT, which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies.

  8. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%–90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%–95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin, indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water

  10. Determination of Polyphenols, Capsaicinoids, and Vitamin C in New Hybrids of Chili Peppers

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    Zsuzsa Nagy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six hybrids were subjected to chromatographic analyses by HPLC for the determination of phytochemicals such as capsaicinoid, polyphenol, and vitamin C. The dynamics of ripening of 4 of the hybrids were also characterised. Seven capsaicinoids could be separated and determined; the major compounds were nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin, while homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin derivatives were detected as minor constituents. Capsaicin content ranged between 95.5 ± 4.15 and 1610.2 ± 91.46 μg/g FW, and the highest value was found in Bandai (C. frutescens at the green ripening stage. The major capsaicinoids had a decreasing tendency in Bandai and Chili 3735 hybrids, while no change was observed in Beibeihong and Lolo during ripening. Nine polyphenol compounds were detected including 8 flavonoids and a nonflavonoid compound in the pods of all hybrids. The major components were naringenin-diglucoside, catechin, and vanillic acid-derivative and luteolin-glucoside. Naringenin-diglucoside ranged from 93.5 ± 4.26 to 368.8 ± 30.77 μg/g FW. Except vanillic acid-derivative, dominant polyphenols increased or remained unchanged during ripening. As for vitamin C, its content tended to increase with the advance in ripening in all hybrids included in this study. The highest value of 3689.4 ± 39.50 μg/g FW was recorded in Fire Flame hybrid.

  11. Determination of Polyphenols, Capsaicinoids, and Vitamin C in New Hybrids of Chili Peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zsuzsa; Daood, Hussein; Ambrózy, Zsuzsanna; Helyes, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Six hybrids were subjected to chromatographic analyses by HPLC for the determination of phytochemicals such as capsaicinoid, polyphenol, and vitamin C. The dynamics of ripening of 4 of the hybrids were also characterised. Seven capsaicinoids could be separated and determined; the major compounds were nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin, while homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin derivatives were detected as minor constituents. Capsaicin content ranged between 95.5 ± 4.15 and 1610.2 ± 91.46 μg/g FW, and the highest value was found in Bandai (C. frutescens) at the green ripening stage. The major capsaicinoids had a decreasing tendency in Bandai and Chili 3735 hybrids, while no change was observed in Beibeihong and Lolo during ripening. Nine polyphenol compounds were detected including 8 flavonoids and a nonflavonoid compound in the pods of all hybrids. The major components were naringenin-diglucoside, catechin, and vanillic acid-derivative and luteolin-glucoside. Naringenin-diglucoside ranged from 93.5 ± 4.26 to 368.8 ± 30.77 μg/g FW. Except vanillic acid-derivative, dominant polyphenols increased or remained unchanged during ripening. As for vitamin C, its content tended to increase with the advance in ripening in all hybrids included in this study. The highest value of 3689.4 ± 39.50 μg/g FW was recorded in Fire Flame hybrid.

  12. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra P Singh; Duggirala Pallamraju

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6∘N, 72.8∘E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm−1 and 1024×1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80∘ along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, $c_{z}$, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period ‘$\\tau$’, the vertical wavelength, $\\lambda _{z}$, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, $\\lambda _{y}$, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters ($\\tau$, $c_{z}$, $\\lambda _{z}$, and $\\lambda _{y}$), and results on the

  13. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6°N, 72.8°E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm^{-1} and 1024× 1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80° along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, cz, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period `τ ', the vertical wavelength, λ z, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, λ y, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters (τ , cz, λ z, and λ y), and results on the statistical study of MTIs that exist in the earth's mesospheric

  14. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  15. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment of flubendiamide on chili at different agro-climatic conditions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Balwinder; Sahoo, Sanjay K; Mandal, Kousik; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Sharma, Debi; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Walunj, A R

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation pattern and risk assessment of flubendiamide and its metabolite (desiodo flubendiamide) on chili were studied at four different agro-climatic locations of India at the standard and double dose at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) at 10 days interval. Quantification of residues was done on a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with a photo diode array detector. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method was found to be 0.01 mg kg(-1) while limit of detection (LOD) being 0.003 mg kg(-1). Residues of flubendiamide were found to be below the determination limit in 15 days at both the dosages in all locations. Half-life of flubendiamide when applied at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) ranged from 0.85 to 1.80 and from 0.95 to 2.79 days, respectively. On the basis of data generated under the All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 1 day has been recommended and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for use on chili in India by the Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on chili has been fixed by the Food Safety Standard Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, as 0.02 μg g(-1) after its risk assessment.

  16. HYDRA VULGARIS PALLAS, 1766 (HYDROZOA: HYDRIDAE AS BIOINDICATOR OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE RIVER CHILI, AREQUIPA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Huarachi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  17. Pratiques de recrutement et formes de discrimination des femmes diplômées – le cas du Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Undurraga, Rosario; Barozet, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Cet article analyse les rapports entre les pratiques de sélection du personnel et la faible présence des femmes diplômées à des postes de direction dans le cas du Chili. Nous problématisons le discours sur les pratiques de recrutement et de sélection du personnel, par comparaison avec la législation en vigueur. L’article met en lumière l’existence de différentes formes de discrimination de genre, qu’elles soient directes ou indirectes, selon les secteurs de production. Malgré la standardisati...

  18. Trichoderma sp Native from Chili Region of Poanas, Durango, Mexico Antagonist against Phytopathogen Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Valencia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Presence of Trichoderma spp. in agricultural soils decrease incidence of diseases by phytopathogen fungi. Sanity diagnostic require to know if exist beneficial microorganism and what agricultural practices help to their propagation. Approach: Samples (30 were taken from soils and sick plants of ten sites in four localities of Valley of Poanas. Phytophthora capsici Leo, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Trichoderma sp were isolated in agar V8 and were identified by microscopy. Results: In the 30 samples analyzed the presence of Phytophthora capsici Leo and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn was determined. Two isolations of Trichoderma sp were obtained from soil, they had antagonist activity against to P. capsici and R. solani on agar-V8 medium and showed chitinase activity. Sugar production in chitinase (10 mg.mL-1 by crude extract of Trichoderma growth in basal medium more chitin was determined. The average of sugar production from strains were 0.1175 and 0.1125 mg.mL-1 and standard deviations were 0.0567 and 0.0567 in four repetition. Interviews were applied to fifty farmers about cultivars and cultivation practices. At least seven types of chili were cultivated in the region of the Valley of Poanas, inorganic fertilization, irrigation systems by channel, gates and pumps were used. One hundred percent of farmers reported diseases of Damping off and Phytophthora root. Biocides were not used to control these diseases. Conclusion: The natural presence of Trichoderma spp was detected in Valley of Poanas, but some practices as inorganic fertilization and irrigation system can be contributing to propagation of phytopathogen fungi.

  19. Market Participation and Agro-Biodiversity Loss: The Case of Native Chili Varieties in the Amazon Rainforest of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Policies for promoting the in situ conservation of underutilized crop varieties include the provision of economic incentives to farmers for their market commercialization. Nevertheless, market participation could also have the counter-effect of favoring the cultivation of uniform commercial crop varieties and inducing the erosion of crop genetic diversity. The objective of this research was to identify the determinants of the in situ conservation of native chili varieties, including market participation. To this end, 128 farmers were surveyed in the Amazon rainforest region of Ucayali in Peru. The data were analyzed using probit, multinomial logit and truncated Poisson models with covariance matrix correction for cluster errors by rural community. Results suggest that participation in commercial agriculture statistically significantly increases the in situ conservation of native chili varieties; only when farmers sell their products to local retailers, but not when they supply wholesalers. In particular, this result implies that policies designed to encourage specific forms of market participation could have a positive effect on farmers’ economic well-being and simultaneously could help to achieve crop genetic diversity conservation goals.

  20. Breeding of Dushanzhoujiao 3, A New Linear Chili Pepper Variety with Fresh and Dry Purpose%干鲜兼用线椒新品种独山皱椒3号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆忠权; 李兴龙; 罗荣兰; 王大文; 兰英

    2011-01-01

    Dushanzhoujiao 3, a finest local conventional linear chili pepper variety which was selected from Yaosuo township, Dushan from the representative individuals in local original chili pepper population, and bred for many years of purification, rejuvenation, and direct selection. Since 2000,regional investigation and mixed field selection of Dushanzhoujiao 3 were conducted to protect and develop its fine germplasm resources, renew and keep its excellent characters. It was authorized by Guizhou Crop Variety Approval Committee in July 2010. The variety has 85. 0cma of plant height, 70. 0cm of plant canopy, 26.0cm of fruit length, 1.20cm of fruit diameter, 8. 3g of fresh weight of single fruit, 1.7g of dry weight, and 33 fruits per plant. The color of fruit is yellow-green at early mature stage and bright deep red at mature stage with bright slightly-wrinkly surface, medium pungent flavor, dense fragrant taste, and the plant with high lodging resistance. It could be grown in areas with altitude less than 1 500 m in Guizhou and other areas with similar climate conditions.%独山皱椒3号是从尧梭乡地方原始辣椒群体中选择较具代表性的多个单株,经多年提纯复壮和系统选育、定向选择,选育出的一个地方优良常规品种.为了保护和开发这一优良种质资源,恢复和保持其优良性状,从2000年开始,采用区域调查和田间混合选择法进行品种的优良类型选择,2010年7月通过贵州省农作物品种审定委员会审定定名.该品种株高85.0 cm,株幅70.0 cm,果长26.0 cm,横径1.20 cm,单果鲜重8.3g,干重1.7g,单株结果33个.青果黄绿色,老熟果鲜红色,干果色泽深红,果面皱缩,皱纹浅,辣味中等,香味浓烈,杭倒性较强.适宜贵州省海拔1500m以下及气候条件相似区域栽培.

  1. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  2. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA M. AGUILERA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy templates for the preparation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuli; Ji, Wenhua; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, dummy molecularly imprinted polymers with high selectivity and affinity to capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are designed using N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template. The performance of dummy molecularly imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers was evaluated using adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and selective recognition capacity. Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers were found to exhibit good site accessibility, taking just 20 min to achieve adsorption equilibrium; they were also highly selective toward capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. We successfully used dummy molecularly imprinted polymers as a specific sorbent for selectively enriching capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili pepper samples. In a scaled-up experiment, the selective recovery of capsaicinoids was calculated to be 77.8% using solid-phase extraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template in molecularly imprinted polymers to simultaneously enrich capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin.

  4. Birthmarks - red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are 2 main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  5. Chili peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvesting of New Mexico's signature crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico-type chile (Capsicum annuum L.), often referred to as ‘Anaheim’, is the signature crop of New Mexico. Both the red and green (fully sized, but physiologically immature) crops are celebrated in local cuisine, culture and art, and production and processing of chile is an integral contributo...

  6. The Effect of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Application on the Resistance of Chili Plants Against the Attack of Ralstonia Solanacearum and Fusarium Oxysporum in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuryandari Yenny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chili (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the vegetable commodities with high economic value. Until now, the necessity rate of chili is still high but the production is still low. One of the obstacles, which highly influence chili production, is wilt disease due to Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum. This study aims at identifying the best fluorescent pseudomonads isolate in suppressing the development of the primary wilt disease due to Ralstonia solanacearum and F. oxysprorum in the field. This study employs Completely Randomized Design that comprises 3 treatments. The three treatments are the type of fluorescent pseudomonads which is Pf-122 isolate, Pf-160 isolate, and Pf-B isolate. The observation parameter on suppressing the disease development is perceived from incubation period of the initial appearance of symptoms, disease index and the change of stem tissue color. The result of the study shows that the longest incubation period is treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate. The chili is treated with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate, the initial appearance of symptoms at the 8th day after inoculation. In the treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate compared to control, is able to delay the appearance of symptom for 3 days. The disease development starts from 10th to 30th day, the treatment with Pf-122 isolate shows the slowest development compared to other treatment and control. In the last observation, the disease index with treatment of Pf-122 isolate is the lowest which is 37%, then it is followed by Pf-B and Pf-160 which are 39% and 40% respectively, whereas in the control it reaches 67%. For the color change on stem tissue, there is no real difference of the three treatments of fluorescent pseudomonads application but it differs and smaller from the control.

  7. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono......) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three...

  8. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper under Different Time Application of Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low content of soil organic matter and low availability of nutrients in Ultisol are major constraints of this soil to support growth and development of chili pepper. Application of organic fertilizer is required to increase content of soil organic matter as well as to improve other chemical, biological, physical properties of this soil. Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata  and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata  are potential sources of organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to compare growth and yield of chili pepper under different time application of Wedelia and Siam Weed based organic fertilizers. Greenhouse house experiment was conducted employing Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors namely Wedelia and Siam Weed composts as first factor and 5 (five different time of application as second factor. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. The study showed that most variables observed in this experiment were not affected by types of compost. Only were plant height, canopy width and dry weight of biomass significant difference between the two composts. Siam weed compost applied two weeks before planting resulted in plant canopy wider than Wedelia compost. However, Wedelia compost applied at planting resulted in longer chili pepper as compared to Siam weed compost. The experiment also revealed that Wedelia compost produced higher plant height and root dry weight as compared to Siam weed compost.

  9. Isolation of Mexican Bacillus Species and Their Effects in Promoting Growth of Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jalapeño).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Yam, Laura P; Ruíz-Sánchez, Esaú; Barboza-Corona, José E; Reyes-Ramírez, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to isolate and identify native bacteria from plants collected in the State of Yucatán, México with the ability to promote growth of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jalapeño). We identified nine bacterial isolates that belong to five species of Bacillus (i.e. Bacillus subtilis, B. flexus, B. cereus, B. megaterium and B. endophyticus) that produced indoleacetic acid (4.0-24.3 µg/mL) with solubilization index of 1.3-1.6. All the bacterial isolates were evaluated based on their ability to promote growth of chili pepper. Plants inoculated with B. subtilis ITC-N67 showed an increase in stem diameter and root volume, whereas inoculation with B. cereus ITC-BL18 increased the number of flower buds, fresh biomass of roots and total fresh biomass. Conversely, B. flexus ITC-P4 and B. flexus ITC-P22 showed deleterious effect on root volume and total biomass. In summary, our data showed that native B. cereus TC-BL18 and B. subtilis ITC-N67 have potential to be used as growth promoting microorganism for chili pepper, particularly in the state of Yucatán, México.

  10. Virus-induced silencing of Comt, pAmt and Kas genes results in a reduction of capsaicinoid accumulation in chili pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario Abraham-Juárez, Ma; del Carmen Rocha-Granados, Ma; López, Mercedes G; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael Francisco; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2008-02-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the pungent taste of chili pepper fruits of Capsicum species. Capsaicinoids are biosynthesized through both the phenylpropanoid and the branched-fatty acids pathways. Fragments of Comt (encoding a caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), pAmt (a putative aminotransferase), and Kas (a beta-keto-acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase) genes, that are differentially expressed in placenta tissue of pungent chili pepper, were individually inserted into a Pepper huasteco yellow veins virus (PHYVV)-derived vector to determine, by virus-induced gene silencing, irrespective of whether these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids. Reduction of the respective mRNA levels as well as the presence of related siRNAs confirmed the silencing of these three genes. Morphological alterations were evident in plants inoculated with PHYVV::Comt and PHYVV::Kas constructs; however, plants inoculated with PHYVV::pAmt showed no evident alterations. On the other hand, fruit setting was normal in all cases. Biochemical analysis of placenta tissues showed that, indeed, independent silencing of all three genes led to a dramatic reduction in capsaicinoid content in the fruits demonstrating the participation of these genes in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Using this approach it was possible to generate non-pungent chili peppers at high efficiency.

  11. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  12. RED HOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 在Jimi Hendrix的这首《Red House》中,我们可以领略到非常多紧密、连贯、经典的吉他乐句,尤其是乐曲中众多给人以胁迫感的乐句更是另人回味无常。 在我们学习这首《Red House》的时候,就像学习Jimi Hendrix的其他曲目一样,最有效的办法就是先用心聆听几遍这首歌曲,然后再拿起吉他跟随着原曲一起反复弹奏。无论何时学习Jimi的歌曲,我们一定要意识到

  13. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  14. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial safety and quality of stir fry chicken dices with hot chili during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Cao, Mei; Chen, Hao; Gao, Peng; Fu, Yi; Liu, Mianxue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Min

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of irradiation with different doses on microbial safety, sensory quality and protein content of ready-to-eat stir fry chicken dices with hot chili (FCC) during one year storage. Fresh chicken meat was cut into small dices and fried at approximately 180 °C for 10 min for preparation of FCC samples. The samples were vacuum-packaged and gamma irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy. The results suggest that irradiation with the doses of 10 and 20 kGy could ensure microbiological safety of the samples without deterioration of sensory quality. Microbial counts, sensory qualities and protein contents of the samples were investigated during one year storage. No viable cells were observed and the samples were completely sterilized. Sensory qualities showed no significant difference after irradiated at the doses of 10 and 20 kGy during the storage period. Protein contents were also not affected by irradiation at the same doses. Our results indicate that gamma irradiation of 10 and 20 kGy are effective to maintain shelf stability of ready-to-eat FCC products with microbial safety, sensory quality and nutritional value.

  16. Coal-burning roasted corn and chili as the cause of dental fluorosis for children in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun-li; Li, Ling; Zhang, Shi-xi

    2011-01-30

    To find the pathologic cause of the children's dental fluorosis in southwestern China, diet structure before the age of 6 and prevalence rate of dental fluorosis (DF) of 405 children were investigated, and the fluorine and arsenic content of several materials were determined. The prevalence rate of DF of children living on roasted corn before the age of 6 is 100% with nearly 95% having the mild to severe DF; while that of children living on non-roasted corn or rice is less than 5% with all having very mild DF. The average fluorine and arsenic concentration are 20.26 mg/kg and 0.249 mg/kg in roasted corn, which are about 16 times and 35 times more than in non-roasted corn, respectively. The average fluorine concentration is 78 mg/kg in coal, 1116 mg/kg in binder clay and 313 mg/kg in briquette (coal mixed with clay). The average arsenic concentration of coal is 5.83 mg/kg, the binder clay is 20.94 mg/kg, with 8.52 mg/kg in the briquette. Living on roasted corn and chili is the main pathologic cause of endemic fluorosis in southwestern China. The main source of fluorine and arsenic pollution of roasted corn and chill is the briquette of coal and binder clay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers II: Commercial and home-grown specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Dávila, E.; Miranda, J.; Pineda, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    Elemental analyses of samples of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers were carried out using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Several specimens of Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens were analyzed and the results compared to previous studies of elemental contents in other varieties of Capsicum annuum (ancho, morita, chilpotle, guajillo, pasilla, and árbol). The first set of samples was bought packaged in markets. In the present work, the study focuses on home-grown samples of the árbol and chilpotle varieties, commercial habanero (Capsicum chinense), as well as commercial and home-grown specimens of manzano (Capsicum pubescencs). Samples were freeze dried and pelletized. XRF analyses were carried out using a spectrometer based on an Rh X-ray tube, using a Si-PIN detector. The system detection calibration was performed through the analysis of the NIST certified reference materials 1547 (peach leaves) and 1574 (tomato leaves), while accuracy was checked with the reference material 1571 (orchard leaves). Elemental contents of all elements in the new set of samples were similar to those of the first group. Nevertheless, it was found that commercial samples contain high amounts of Br, while home-grown varieties do not.

  19. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessandro; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora

    2013-12-01

    The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (-20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of the extraction conditions of the volatile compounds from chili peppers by headspace solid phase micro-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Stanislau Bogusz; de Marchi Tavares de Melo, Arlete; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2011-05-27

    A method involving headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized to investigate the volatile composition of Capsicum chili peppers. Five SPME fibers were tested for extraction: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS-75μm), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-100μm), divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS-65μm), carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB-70μm), and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS-50/30μm), the last of which was shown to be the most efficient fiber to trap the volatile compounds. Optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out using multivariate strategies such as factorial design and response surface methodology. Eighty three compounds were identified by GC-MS when using the optimized extraction conditions, the majority of which were esters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 15.-Methods of Phase II and III Well Installation and Development and Results of Well Logging, Hydraulic Testing, and Water-Level Measurements in the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.; Bartolino, James R.; Donohoe, Lisa C.; McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.; Morin, Roger H.

    2007-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico Environment Department began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north- central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Weathering of hydrothermally altered bedrock in the study area has resulted in steep, highly erosive, and sparsely vegetated scar areas that are clearly visible from the ground and in aerial photographs. Runoff from intense summer rainfall over tributary drainages containing scar areas can transport large quantities of sediment and form debris fans where these tributaries join the Red River. Twenty-nine observation wells were installed in three phases as part of this study in the Red River Valley and tributary drainages. Eight Phase II observation wells were drilled using an air-rotary/hammer rig. Three Phase II and 10 phase III small-diameter wells were installed using a direct-push rig. Lithologic logs were recorded for all eight Phase II drilled wells. Borehole geophysical logging (including natural gamma, induction, and single-detector neutron) was conducted in three Phase II wells. Aquifer tests conducted during 2003 to estimate the hydraulic properties of debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits in and near Straight Creek included a flow-meter survey, slug tests, and a pumping test. Results of a flow-meter survey in well SC-7A indicated that about 77 percent of the water entered the well from a 10-foot-thick zone near the top of the screened interval and about 23 percent of the water entered the well from a 15-foot-thick zone near the bottom of the screened interval. Slug tests, performed in 11 wells during June 3-5, 2003, indicated that the mean and median estimated hydraulic conductivities for debris-flow deposits were 15.25 and 15.35 feet per day, respectively, for bedrock were 0.12 and

  3. INCREASED NUTRIENT SOLUTION CONCENTRATION DURING EARLY FRUIT DEVELOPMENT STAGES ENHANCES PUNGENCY AND PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE ACTIVITY IN HOT CHILI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Dittakit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased nutrient concentration during different fruit development stages on the yield, pun-gency and PAL enzyme activity in hot chili cv. ‘Super hot’ was studied during August 2009-January 2010. The seedlings were planted in plastic containers containing 20 L of coconut-coir-dust substrate placed inside a plastic-roofed net house and received Resh’s Tropical Dry Summer nutrient solution at a constant concentration (measured by Electrical Conductivity, EC of 1.2 mS cm-1 during the vegetative stage and 2.4 mS cm-1 during the first week of blooming. Then, they were divided into treatments: Treatment 1 (control, plants continuously received nutrient solution at a constant concentration of 2.4 mS cm-1 until end of harvest, while treatments 2-6 received nutrient solution with a change in concentration from EC 2.4 to 3.6 mS cm-1 at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after the week of first bloom, respectively. The results showed that the increase in nutrient concentration at different fruit development stages did not significantly influence chili fruit characteristics and yield. However, the oleoresin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and capsaicinoid contents increased significantly when hot chili plants received the nutrient concentration increase at the 1st and 2nd week after first bloom. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in the full-ripening fruits increased significantly when the nutrient solution concentration increase occurred at 1st and 2nd weeks after first bloom. The highest PAL activity of 827.48 mmole mg-1 protein was recorded in full-ripened fruits, when the nutrient concentration increase occurred at the 2nd week after bloom."

  4. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 2. Low-flow (2001) and snowmelt (2002) synoptic/tracer water chemistry for the Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Steiger, Judy I.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2003-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 259 samples collected from the Red River, New Mexico, and its tributaries during low-flow(2001) and spring snowmelt (2002) tracer studies. Water samples were collected along a 20-kilometer reach of the Red River beginning just east of the town of Red River and ending at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located east of Questa, New Mexico. The study area was divided into three sections where separate injections and synoptic sampling events were performed during the low-flow tracer study. During the spring snowmelt tracer study, three tracer injections and synoptic sampling events were performed bracketing the areas with the greatest metal loading into the Red River as determined from the low-flow tracer study. The lowflow tracer synoptic sampling events were August 17, 20, and 24, 2001. The synoptic sampling events for the spring snowmelt tracer were March 30, 31, and April 1, 2002. Stream and large inflow water samples were sampled using equal-width and depth-integrated sampling methods and composited into half-gallon bottles. Grab water samples were collected from smaller inflows. Stream temperatures were measured at the time of sample collection. Samples were transported to a nearby central processing location where pH and specific conductance were measured and the samples processed for chemical analyses. Cations, trace metals, iron redox species, and fluoride were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. Cations and trace metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, iron redox species were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and fluoride concentrations were determined using an ion-selective electrode. Alkalinity was measured by automated titration, and sulfate

  5. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%, nerol (17.28%, citronellol (10.03%, geranyle acetate (4.44%, elemol (4.38%, limonene (3.98%, and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%. The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1. Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that

  6. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  7. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  8. The Red Capitalist's Red Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROGER CHEUNG

    2008-01-01

    @@ A disastrous derivatives investment has seen Citic Pacific chairman Rong Zhijian lose hundreds of millions of dollars - not to mention his reputation Rong Zhijian may well go down in the history books as the last of China's "Red Capitalists," a group of pre-revolutionary tycoons who stayed on post-1949. His family owned one of China's largest private enterprises before 1949 and his father, Rong Yiren, who served as China's vice-president from 1993 to 1998, was hand-picked by Deng Xiaoping to oversee China's economic opening and reform during the 1980s.

  9. Chemoprotective properties of some pungent ingredients present in red pepper and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Lee, E; Lee, J M

    1998-06-18

    There has been a substantial body of data, supporting that dietary factors have a profound impact on prevention as well as etiology of human cancer. Capsaicin has been tested by many investigators for its effects on experimental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Data in the literature indicate that capsaicin has dual effects on carcinogenic and mutagenic processes. At present, there is no solid evidence that hot red and chili peppers or their principal pungent ingredient capsaicin are carcinogenic in humans although results of early investigations with experimental animals exhibit the moderate tumorigenicity of this compound. In contrast, recent studies reveal substantial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of capsaicin, suggesting this compound as another important dietary phytochemical with a potential chemopreventive activity. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some of them exhibit anti-tumor promotional activity in experimental carcinogenesis. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Gut passage and secondary metabolites alter the source of post-dispersal predation for bird-dispersed chili seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Evan C; Haak, David C; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2016-07-01

    Plants can influence the source and severity of seed predation through various mechanisms; the use of secondary metabolites for chemical defense, for example, is well documented. Gut passage by frugivores can also reduce mortality of animal-dispersed seeds, although this mechanism has gained far less attention than secondary metabolites. Apart from influencing the severity of seed predation, gut passage may also influence the source of seed predation. In Bolivia, we compared impacts of these two mechanisms, gut passage and secondary metabolites, on the source of seed predation in Capsicum chacoense, a wild chili species that is polymorphic for pungency (individual plants either produce fruits and seeds containing or lacking capsaicinoids). Using physical exclosures, we isolated seed removal by insects, mammals, and birds; seeds in the trials were from either pungent or non-pungent fruits and were either passed or not passed by seed-dispersing birds. Pungency had little influence on total short-term seed removal by animals, although prior work on this species indicates that capsaicin reduces mortality caused by fungi at longer time scales. Gut passage strongly reduced removal by insects, altering the relative impact of the three predator types. The weak impact of pungency on short-term predation contrasts with previous studies, highlighting the context dependence of secondary metabolites. The strong impact of gut passage demonstrates that this mechanism alone can influence which seed predators consume seeds, and that impacts of gut passage can be larger than those of secondary metabolites, which are more commonly acknowledged as a defense mechanism.

  11. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  12. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red River, New Mexico, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Runkel, Robert L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Reactive-transport processes in the Red River, downstream from the town of Red River in north-central New Mexico, were simulated using the OTEQ reactive-transport model. The simulations were calibrated using physical and chemical data from synoptic studies conducted during low-flow conditions in August 2001 and during March/April 2002. Discharge over the 20-km reach from the town of Red River to the USGS streamflow-gaging station near the town of Questa ranged from 395 to 1,180 L/s during the 2001 tracer and from 234 to 421 L/s during the 2002 tracer. The pH of the Red River ranged from 7.4 to 8.5 during the 2001 tracer and from 7.1 to 8.7 during the 2002 tracer, and seep and tributary samples had pH values of 2.8 to 9.0 during the 2001 tracer and 3.8 to 7.2 during the 2002 tracer. Mass-loading calculations allowed identification of several specific locations where elevated concentrations of potential contaminants entered the Red River . These locations, characterized by features on the north side of the Red River that are known to be sources of low-pH water containing elevated metal and sulfate concentrations, are: the initial 2.4 km of the study reach, including Bitter Creek, the stream section from 6.2 to 7.8 km, encompassing La Bobita well and the Hansen debris fan, Sulphur Gulch, at about 10.5 km, the area near Portal Springs, from 12.2 to 12.6 km, and the largest contributors of mass loading, the 13.7 to 13.9 km stream section near Cabin Springs and the 14.7 to 17.5 km stream section from Shaft Spring to Thunder Bridge, Goathill Gulch, and Capulin Canyon. Speciation and saturation index calculations indicated that although solubility limits the concentration of aluminum above pH 5.0, at pH values above 7 and aluminum concentrations below 0.3 mg/L inorganic speciation and mineral solubility controls no longer dominate and aluminum-organic complexing may occur. The August 2001 reactive-transport simulations included dissolved iron(II) oxidation, constrained

  13. Bromatologia da pimenta malagueta in natura e processada em conserva Bromatology of fresh and processed chili pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiyoko NH Rebouças

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sendo uma das especiarias mais consumidas no mundo, a pimenta malagueta está presente na culinária brasileira há mais de 500 anos. A crescente procura do mercado interno e externo pelas pimentas provocou a expansão da área cultivada em vários estados brasileiros. Seus teores de vitamina C são superiores aos encontrados no pimentão e demais olerícolas. Obteve-se a caracterização físico-química da pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens in natura e processadas em conserva e, definiu-se, se após o processamento, a hortaliça apresentou perda na qualidade nutricional, para fornecer subsídios ao desenvolvimento da pesquisa tecnológica e divulgar a espécie. O estudo foi realizado no período de dezembro de 2010 a março de 2011, na UESB. Para a determinação das propriedades físico-químicas da matéria-prima foram avaliados o pH, acidez titulável e atividade de água (Aw. Da composição química foram determinados a umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteína bruta e vitamina C. Foram escolhidas pimentas in natura e processadas em conservas em estádio de maturação fisiológica completa (maduras, adquiridas dos produtores do Município de Barra do Choça-BA. As análises foram realizadas com três repetições. Foi realizada análise estatística dos dados que foram expressos como média e desvio padrão. Os resultados obtidos para amostras de pimenta in natura e processada para análise de atividade de água, pH e acidez foram (0,9893; 0,9832; (5,48; 3,76 e (0,0353%, 0,2046% respectivamente. Para umidade, lipídios, proteínas e cinzas foram (29,4%, 15,3%;(0,636%; 0,620%; (4,8%; 4,76% e (0,039%; 0,043% respectivamente e para a vitamina C 121,5 mg/100 g para a in natura e 14,5 mg/100 g para a processada. Conclui-se que, após o processamento, ocorreu perda considerável na qualidade nutricional da pimenta malagueta.Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens, which is one of the most widely consumed spices in the world, has been present in

  14. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  15. Localization of 5S and 25S rRNA genes on somatic and meiotic chromosomes in Capsicum species of chili pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2009-02-28

    The loci of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes were localized on chromosomes in five species of Capsicum, namely, annuum, chacoense, frutescens, baccatum, and chinense by FISH. The 5S rDNA was localized to the distal region of one chromosome in all species observed. The number of 45S rDNA loci varied among species; one in annuum, two in chacoense, frutescens, and chinense, and four in baccatum, with the exceptions that 'CM334' of annuum had three loci and 'tabasco' of frutescens had one locus. 'CM334'-derived BAC clones, 384B09 and 365P05, were screened with 5S rDNA as a probe, and BACs 278M03 and 262A23 were screened with 25S rDNA as a probe. Both ends of these BAC clones were sequenced. FISH with these BAC probes on pachytenes from 'CM334' plant showed one 5S rDNA locus and three 45S rDNA loci, consistent with the patterns on the somatic chromosomes. The 5S rDNA probe was also applied on extended DNA fibers to reveal that its coverage measured as long as 0.439 Mb in the pepper genome. FISH techniques applied on somatic and meiotic chromosomes and fibers have been established for chili to provide valuable information about the copy number variation of 45S rDNA and the actual physical size of the 5S rDNA in chili.

  16. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  17. Chip-based molecularly imprinted monolithic capillary array columns coated GO/SiO2 for selective extraction and sensitive determination of rhodamine B in chili powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zuanguang; Su, Zihao; Yuan, Kaisong; Liang, Guohuan; Pan, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction chip embedded with array columns of molecularly imprinted polymer-coated silanized graphene oxide (GO/SiO2-MISPE) was established to detect trace rhodamine B (RB) in chili powder. GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic columns for RB detection were prepared by optimizing the supporting substrate, template, and polymerizing monomer under mild water bath conditions. Adsorption capacity and specificity, which are critical properties for the application of the GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic column, were investigated. GO/SiO2-MIP was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The recovery and the intraday and interday relative standard deviations for RB ranged from 83.7% to 88.4% and 2.5% to 4.0% and the enrichment factors were higher than 110-fold. The chip-based array columns effectively eliminated impurities in chili powder, indicating that the chip-based GO/SiO2-MISPE method was reliable for RB detection in food samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Accordingly, this method has direct applications for monitoring potentially harmful dyes in processed food.

  18. Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Owen J; Grey, John B; Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Redmond, Wayne A; Porter, Noel G

    2003-08-13

    Ginger, black pepper, and chili powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO(2) and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at approximately 10% of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO(2), but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Near-Isogenic Restorer Line in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yong; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. Results We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. Conclusions Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations. PMID:23750245

  20. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  1. Analysis of Microbial Survival in Heat-Treated Pixian Chili Sauce during Storage%热处理辣椒酱贮藏过程中残留微生物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文; 汪先丁; 高鹏; 杨虎; 赵敏; 孙群

    2012-01-01

    Heat treatment is often used to inhibit microbial growth in Pixian chili sauce for extending its shelf-life, but some microorganisms are still likely to survive, causing Pixian Chili Sauce to spoil during storage. In this study, Pixian chili sauce treated at 80℃ for 30 min was enumerated for total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, moulds and yeasts during storage at room temperature for 120 days. Bacterial and fungal strains isolated from chili sauce were identified by 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively, and PCR-DGGE technique was used to analyze the bacterial community at the end of the storage period. The total number of bacteria in chili sauce decreased more than 90% after heat treatment at 80 ℃ for 30 min, and the majority of surviving microbes were Bacillus sp. During the storage period of 120 days, the total number of bacteria in heat treated chili sauce increased at first and then decreased. The dominant surviving bacteria in chili sauce at the end of the storage period, as detected by PCR- DGGE, were Pediococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus. These results demonstrate that partial microorganisms in chili sauce are killed or presented in VBNC (viable but non-culturable) state after heat treatment, and surviving Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria may be the reason for the spoilage of heat-treated chili sauce. Consequently, effectively controlling the survival Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria is the key to extend the shelf-life of chili sauce.%四川郫县辣椒酱多采用热处理控制微生物生长以延长货架期,但热处理后残留微生物仍会导致辣椒酱腐败。辣椒酱经80℃、30min热处理后室温贮藏120d期间检测其中菌落总数、大肠菌群、霉菌和酵母数,分别采用16SrDNA和ITS序列鉴定分离的细菌和真菌菌株,并运用PCR-DGGE法分析贮藏终点辣椒酱中细菌群落结构。结果表明:热处理后辣椒酱中微生物减少了90%以上,残留微

  2. Volatile Analysis of Chili Fermented by Different Lactobacillus Species%不同乳酸菌强化接种发酵辣椒挥发性风味成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩江雪; 丁筑红; 李仲军; 黄卫星

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the effect of artificial inoculation on the flavor characteristics of fermented chili, SPME-GC- MS was used to analyze the flavor composition of different types of fermented chili (natural fermentation and inoculated fermentation with 4 different Lactobacillus species). A total of 191 volatile flavor compounds were found belonging to 20 categories. Chili fermented by different strains contained very different types and amounts of volatile flavor compounds. Seventy-six flavor compounds (15 categories) were found in Lactobacillusfermentum fermented chili, 20 (8 categories) in Streptococcus lactis fermented chili, 84 (13 categories) in Lactobacillus plantarum, and 73 (11 categories) in Pediococcus acidilactici fermented chili. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the comprehensive scores for volatile flavor compounds in chilis fermented by inoculation of Lactobacillusfermentum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum or Streptococcus lactis or naturally fermented were 11.28, 3.65,- 0.08, - 11.30 and - 3.56, respectively. Five kinds of chili could be ranked in decreasing order of comprehensive score for volatile flavor compounds as follows: Lactobacillus fermentum 〉 Pediococcus acidilactici 〉 Lactobacillus plantar urn 〉natural fermentation 〉Streptococcus lactis. Fermented chili prepared by artificial inoculation had more outstanding flavor quality than naturally fermented chili.%为更好地了解强化接种发酵对辣椒的风味特征影响,采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱技术检测4株乳酸菌强化接种发酵辣椒风味成分。结果共检出挥发性风味物质20类191种。不同菌种发酵样品风味物质的种类及含量有较大差异,发酵乳杆菌共检出挥发性风味物质15类76种,乳链球菌共检出8类20种,植物乳杆菌共检出13类84种,乳酸片球菌共检出11类73种。经主成分分析方法统计显示,发酵乳杆菌的

  3. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know You’re Safe – Use Red Cross App and Website » Returning Home – Use Red Cross Flood Safety Steps » Red Cross Relief Efforts in the Caribbean & Mexico » At-a-Glance: Red Cross Response to Harvey, ...

  4. 电子鼻在辣椒粉风味评价中的应用%Application of Electronic Nose in Flavor Evaluation of Chili Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知松; 丁筑红; 蒋智纲; 高瑞萍; 张孝刚

    2014-01-01

    Select chili powder of vacuum packaging by polyethylene (PE)membrane,PE and Alumi-num-plastic composite membrane at atmospheric pressure,and contaminated by Aspergillus niger, Lactobacillus salivarius,Ruminant Eubacterium as the samples for analysis.Using the electronic nose to analyze and test its flavor quality.The results show that electronic nose sensor response for chili powder volatile flavor compounds has high sensitivity and stability.The similarity among chili powder samples is 100%,61.85%,56.16%,26.69%,21.64%,31.17% by vacuum packaging of PE mem-brane,PE and Aluminum-plastic composite membrane at atmospheric pressure and contaminated by Aspergillus niger,Lactobacillus salivarius,ruminant Eubacterium.The analysis results reflect the re-al flavor characteristics among samples.%实验选取聚乙烯(PE)膜真空包装、PE膜常压包装、铝塑复合膜常压包装,黑曲霉、唾液乳杆菌、反刍真杆菌沾染的辣椒粉为分析样品,采用电子鼻对其风味品质进行测试。结果显示:电子鼻传感器对辣椒粉挥发性风味物质具有较高的灵敏度和稳定性。PE膜真空包装、PE膜常压包装、铝塑复合膜常压包装,黑曲霉、唾液乳杆菌、反刍真杆菌沾染的辣椒粉样品之间的相似度分别为100%,61.85%,56.16%,26.69%,21.64%,31.17%,其分析结果较为真实地反映了样品间的风味特性。

  5. 酱卤鸭制品辣椒辣度分析方法的研究%Analysis methods for pungency of chili pepper with pot-stewed duck products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 陈季旺; 黄迪; 胥伟; 王宏勋

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasonic-assisted method was used to extract the capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in chili pepper and the effect of Chili pepper size, solvent types, ratio of chili pepper to solvent (g/mL), ultrasonic conditions (fre-quency and time ) on the yield of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were investigated to optimize the process , then high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) method for analyzing the capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin of chili pepper was established .The results showed that the chili pepper powder with 100 mesh sieve , methanol-tetrahydro-furan solution (60:40, v/v), ratio of chili pepper powder to methanol-tetrahydrofuran solution (1:10, g/mL), ul-trasonic conditions (25 and 40 KHz at the same time and 50 min) were preferred.HPLC method was utilized to de-termine the capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin of Chili peppers extracted using the preferred conditions , and the fa-vourable precision , repeatability , and recovery rate for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were achieved .The pungen-cy of six kinds of chili peppers was determined using HPLC and sensory evaluation methods , respectively .The Sco- vill index were 3.91 ×104, 4.04 ×104, 4.42 ×104, 5.84 ×104, 9.39 ×104, and 3.67 ×104 SHU for HPLC method and 3.4 ×104, 3.7 ×104, 4.0 ×104, 5.0 ×104, 8.0 ×104, and 3.1 ×104 SHU for sensory evaluation method.The pungency of six kinds of chili peppers analyzed using HPLC and sensory evaluation methods were sim -ilar.%本文通过超声波辅助法提取辣椒中的辣椒素和二氢辣椒素,研究辣椒粒径、溶剂种类、料液比、超声频率和时间对辣椒素和二氢辣椒素得率的影响,优化超声提取工艺,建立辣椒辣度的高压液相色谱( HPLC )测定方法。结果显示:辣椒粒径100目、甲醇-四氢呋喃溶剂(60∶40, v/v)、料液比1∶10(g/mL)、双频超声波使用频率为25和40KHz、时间50 min,辣椒素和二氢辣椒素的得率较高,HPLC法的精密度、重复性及

  6. Development of a novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol and xylanases from chili post harvest residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Gnansounou, Edgard; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Thomas, Leya; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    A novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy was developed which could effectively remove lignin and hemicelluloses and improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural as well as organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Hence fermentation can be carried out without detoxification of the hydrolyzate. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the changes in chemical composition were also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method could yield 0.428g/g of reducing sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzate obtained by this novel pretreatment strategy was found to be suitable for bioethanol and xylanase production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Une réserve de biosphère dans la région centrale du Chili: les enjeux du zonage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Pelenc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Les réserves de biosphère du programme Man and Biosphere de l’Unesco doivent répondre au triple objectif de conservation, de développement et d’appui logistique au sein du réseau mondial des réserves. Ces trois fonctions s’inscrivent dans un zonage spécifique (zone de conservation, zone tampon et de coopération. L’étude territoriale de la mise en place de la réserve La Campana-Peñuelas (Chili central, dont le zonage a été validé en 2009, permet de comprendre les problèmes sectoriels et administratifs et les tensions entre acteurs qui se manifestent lors de la mise en place d’un projet de développement durable régional.

  8. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  9. Effect of cow manure and empty fruit bunches application treated with different fertilizers on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Mohd Rashdan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Study on the comparison of cow manure (CM) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) compost application as planting medium was conducted using four different treatments of fertilizer (without fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, and both fertilizer) on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum). The experiment started on August until December 2014 which consisted of eight treatments and were laid in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Variety chili that was used was Cilibangi 3. The seed was planted inside the tray for one week and transferred into the polybag containing growth media consisted of soil, compost (CM or EFB compost) and sand with ratio 3:2:1. Treatments without fertilizer were acted as a control. Throughout the study, plant growth performance and yield were recorded. The highest height of the plants for CM compost was 100.8 cm using chemical fertilizer and have significant different between the groups. For EFB compost was 92.7 cm using also chemical fertilizer but no significant different between the groups. The highest fruits weight per plant for CM compost was 485.67 g treated with both fertilizers and for EFB compost was 420.17 g treated with chemical fertilizer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) table stated that fruits weight per plant has significant different for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment. For the highest total fruits per plant, CM compost recorded about average 55 fruits per plant using both fertilizers and EFB compost recorded around 45 fruit per plant using chemical fertilizer. There was significantly different for total fruits per plant for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment according to the ANOVA table. For CM, the ripening time was around 102-112 days and for EFB compost was around 96-110 days. Thus, application of CM compost treated with both chemical and organic fertilizers demonstrated better growth and fruit yield. While EFB compost was better growth and fruit

  10. HD 181068: A Red Giant in a Triply Eclipsing Compact Hierarchical Triple System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derekas, A.; Kiss, Lazlo L.; Borkovits, T.

    2011-01-01

    by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven...

  11. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  12. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  13. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)... Hurricane Matthew: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent ... communities Port-au Prince, 3 November 2016 —Since Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti one month ago, the Haiti Re... ...

  14. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  15. 辣椒制品模糊辣度的表示与测定%Representation and determination on fuzzy pungency for chili product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨代明; 马东兴; 李忠海; 李晓燕

    2011-01-01

    The main factors influencing the sensory evaluation were studied- on salt,sugar,oil and total acid in the chili product. Quadratic orthogonal rotating combination method has been designed in order to study the effects of these four factors, and chopped fresh chili is used as raw material. Linear relationship about weakening apparent pungency has been obtained ? And it is concluded that the more a-mount of the each single factor has, the more profound effects it has on the weakening apparent pungency. Hence, based on scoville index, the sensory evaluation of chili product can be demonstrated as no spicy(0 °M), light spicy(l°M)mild spicy (2 °M), much spicy (3 °M), more spicy(4 °M) , most spicy(5 °M) , and the calculation formula about fuzzy pungency index is also obtained to exclude the effects of human error and eliminate the one-side effects caused by calculation of apparent pungency merely according to capsaicin.%以新鲜辣椒为原料,通过单因素试验可知辣椒制品中食盐、白糖、食用油、总酸含量是对感观辣度有减弱作用的影响因素,采用四元二次正交旋转组合设计研究这4个因素对剁辣椒制品感观辣度的影响,并获得了其减弱程度的线性关系:单因素含量越高,对感观辣度的减弱作用越大,并且有交互影响.据此,以斯科维尔(Scoville)指数为基础,根据传统辣度概念“不辣、微辣、轻辣、中辣、很辣、猛辣”相对应的“0度(表示为0°M)、1度(表示为1°M)、2度(表示为2°M)、3度(表示为3°M)、4度(表示为4°M)、5度(表示为5°M)”模糊辣度分级来表示辣椒制品的感观辣度,获得0~5°M的模糊辣度指数的计算公式,从而排除了感观辣度确定时人为因素的影响和消除了以辣椒素计算辣椒制品辣度的片面性.

  16. 辣鲜露调味料的工艺研究%Study on the Process of Spicy Fresh Dew Seasoning with Dried Chili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶德才

    2014-01-01

    Spicy fresh dew seasoning is a new spicy and fresh complex seasoning,the complex taste and spicy flavor of various dishes can be improved efficiently through extracting spicy ingredients and spicy substances from dried chili and natural spices.Spicy and fresh taste is reconciled uniformly,highly concentrated;either for pre-marinated or post-frying,it can enhance the overall flavor.In this study, using water as solvent to prepare spicy sauce by extracting the spicy ingredients from dried chili and natural spices,then add capsicum oleoresin,yeast extract,sodium glutamate,xanthan gum,salt, I+G,white sugar and other accessories,optimize the formula process of spicy fresh dew seasoning through single factor and orthogonal experiments,develop the seasoning product with unique spicy and fresh flavor,enticing aroma fragrance and stable quality.%辣鲜露调味料是一种新型的辣鲜复合调味料,通过萃取干辣椒和天然香辛料中的辣味成分和辛辣物质,能有效提高各式菜肴的复合口感和鲜辣风味。辣与鲜的口感调和均匀,高度浓缩,无论是对菜肴前期腌制或是后期烹炒,都能起到鲜香并重、提升整体风味的效果。研究以水为溶剂,通过萃取干辣椒和天然香辛料中辛辣风味成分制备成辛辣汁,再添加辣椒油树脂、酵母抽提物、谷氨酸钠、黄原胶、食用盐、I+G、白砂糖等辅料,通过单因素实验和正交实验对辣鲜露调味料的配方工艺进行优化,研制出辣鲜风味独特、香气馥郁诱人、质量稳定的调味产品。

  17. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  18. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  19. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  20. Impact of salt stress (NaCl on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (AW and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment of five months was carried out under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress is induced by NaCl at 7 concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, had a negative impact on roots (length, fresh and dry weights and leaves (number and area. Also, chlorophyll (a and b amount in addition to quantium yield (Fv/Fm decreased significantly. However, biosynthesis of proline in leaves is activated. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more proline in leaves and maintaining usually higher values in all parameters in opposition to Souk jedid cultivar. Taken together, our data partly explain the mechanism used to ovoid salt stress by pepper plants when excessive in the culture medium.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  2. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  3. Assessment of the biological similarity of three capsaicin analogs (Capsinoids) found in non-pungent chili pepper (CH-19 Sweet) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Inoue, Naohiko; Sato, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    CH-19 Sweet is a newly found chili pepper breed bearing much less pungent fruits. Because CH-19 Sweet fruits were found to contain three analogs (capsinoids) of capsaicin, a major component of pungency of hot peppers (the analogs are capsiate or CST, dihydrocapsiate or DCT, and nordihydrocapsiate or NDCT), we assessed in this study the bio-potencies of these three capsinoids by comparing them with capsaicin. The three capsinoids bound to transient potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed in cultured cells and activated Ca(2+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner with similar magnitudes. In contrast to capsaicin, capsinoids at the same concentration induced virtually no nociceptive responses when applied to the eyes or the oral cavities of mice. Intravenous administration of capsaicin or 20-fold increased doses of each capsinoid to rats induced significant increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Orally administered, each capsinoid enhanced oxygen consumption in mice. Based on the present results, capsaicin and these three capsinoids should have similar bio-potency, though capsinoids do not generate pungency or sensory irritation.

  4. Oral ingestion of Capsaicin, the pungent component of chili pepper, enhances a discreet population of macrophages and confers protection from autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevius, E; Srivastava, P K; Basu, S

    2012-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is expressed on immune cells as well as on sensory neurons. Here we report that VR1 can regulate immunological events in the gut in response to its ligand Capsaicin (CP), a nutritional factor, the pungent component of chili peppers. Oral administration of CP attenuates the proliferation and activation of autoreactive T cells in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) but not other lymph nodes, and protects mice from development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This is a general phenomenon and not restricted to one particular strain of mice. Engagement of VR1 enhances a discreet population of CD11b(+)/F4/80(+) macrophages in PLN, which express anti-inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-10 and PD-L1. This population is essential for CP-mediated attenuation of T-cell proliferation in an IL-10-dependent manner. Lack of VR1 expression fails to inhibit proliferation of autoreactive T cells, which is partially reversed in (VR1(+/+) → VR1(-/-)) bone marrow chimeric mice, implying the role of VR1 in crosstalk between neuronal and immunological responses in vivo. These findings imply that endogenous ligands of VR1 can have profound effect on gut-mediated immune tolerance and autoimmunity by influencing the nutrient-immune interactions.

  5. Medicinal use of malagueta chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. in a floodplain community, Amazon River, Santarém, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Cote Roman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was carried out for this study aimed at understanding the medicinal importance of malagueta / chili pepper (C. frutescens L. in the daily life of the people of Cabeça D'Onça, an area in the Amazon River floodplain. The community of approximately 330 residents is situated in the municipality of Santarém, Pará State. In total, 116 people from 70 households were interviewed for this work. Information regarding the medicinal uses of these peppers was collected in semi-structured interviews and compiled in detail. In the second phase of the study, structured interviews were carried out in 40 households with 80 people (40 couples to determine the most commonly-known uses of the peppers in the study area. Over 50% of those interviewed cited the use of the malagueta in curing certain illnesses reputed to be caused by contact with water from the Amazon River, including 'pano-branco', and 'impinge' (both diseases of the skin treated with the leaves and rheumatism (treated with the fruit. A comparison of the data obtained in this study with published literature reveals strong indigenous influence in their medicinal use.

  6. The Red Mansion Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the Red Mansion Banquet came from the famous Qing Dynasty classic novel, A Dream of Red Mansions. Each of its courses has, based on descriptions from the book, been carefully planned by the Grand View Garden Hotel chefs. Diners’ senses of sight, sound, and taste are thus regaled with the finest in food, wine and music.

  7. Red Sandalwood Treasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2003-01-01

    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  8. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  9. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  10. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  11. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect, but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  12. Analysis and comparison of flavor compounds between soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce%剁椒坯盐水酱油与普通酱油香气特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明浩; 胡璇; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    Flavor compounds of soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce were identified and analyzed hy Solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) combined with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper. The result showed that 84 flavor compounds were identified including 12 alcohols, 12 esters, 15 acids, 15 aldehydes ketones, 17 heterocyelic, 5 phenolic, 3 hydrocarbons, 1 ether, 2 N-containing compounds and 2 S-containing compounds. Soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice had 15 more flavor components than normal soy sauce and Both have 30 same flavor components. Therefore, soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice have better flavors than normal soy sauce.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME- GC- MS)方法,对剁椒坯盐水酱油和普通酱油的香气成分进行分析和鉴定.共鉴定出84种风味化合物,其中包括醇类物质12种,酯类物质12种,酸类物质15种,醛酮类物质15种,杂环类物质17种,酚类物质5种,烃类物质3种,醚类物质1种,含N化合物2种,含S化合物2种.其中剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油的香气物质多15种,两种酱油的共有香气成分有30种,说明剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油风味更优.

  13. Study on Effect of Climate Warming on Chili Peppers Planting in Yiyang County%气候变暖对宜阳县朝天椒种植的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏婵

    2012-01-01

    By the analysis of climate and ecological environment characteristics of chili peppers in fields production,the paper selected four meteorological factors which had greatest impact on chili peppers, such as annum temperature, precipitation ,sunshine and relative humidity ,change characteristics of each factor were analyzed.The results showed that climate warming and sunshine increasing contributed to planting and developing chili peppers,but rainfall decreasing would affect the production.It indicated some countermeasures ,such as seeding in greenhouses,planting early strengthing field management, preparing artificial rainfall and water storage preparation,in order to reply the influences of climate warming.%通过对朝天椒大田生产的气候、生态环境特征的分析,选取气温、降水、日照和相对湿度这4个对朝天椒生产影响最大的气象因子,分析各因子的变化特点。结果表明:气候变暖和日照增加有利于朝天椒的种植发展,但降雨量减少会影响朝天椒的生产。据此提出相关对策,如温棚育苗、提早播种、加强田间管理、做好人工增雨和蓄水准备,以应对气候变暖的影响。

  14. A simple 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and curry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    A method using simple extraction and 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and various mixed curry powder formulations. The method offers resolution (Rf) of turmeric pigments, namely, curcumin (0.77), demethoxycurcumin (0.69), bis(demethoxy)curcumin (0.61), and the synthetic dye metanil yellow (0.05) by the first-directional mobile phase, chloroform-methanol (9 + 1, v/v). The resolution (Rf) of sudan I (0.30) and sudan IV (0.23) was achieved by the second-directional mobile phase, toluene-hexane-acetic acid (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v). Natural pigments of both turmeric and chili showed no interference in the detection and quantification of synthetic colors. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for curcumin, metanil yellow, sudan I, and sudan IV were 17.39, 42.90, 15.45, and 7.01 and 52.71,130.0, 46.80, and 21.24 ng/spot, respectively. Analysis of a few market samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (1.5-4.6 mg/g), sudan I (4.8-12.1 mg/g), and sudan IV (0.9-2.0 mg/g) in loose turmeric and chili samples, whereas the curcumin content in turmeric and mixed curry powder samples ranged from 6.5 to 36.4 and from 0.3 to 1.9 mg/g, respectively. The method is relatively simple, offers reasonable sensitivity, and can be used to screen a large number of samples.

  15. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  16. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  17. 壳聚糖对糟辣椒发酵作用及保藏特性影响%EFFECT OF CHITOSAN ON FERMENTING AND STORABILITY OF THE FERMENTED CHILI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达; 王知松; 杨咏鹃; 谭书明; 丁筑红

    2009-01-01

    尝试在糟辣椒加工保藏中添加壳聚糖,研究其对糟辣椒品质及保藏性影响.通过对糟辣椒总酸、VC、亚硝酸盐含量和菌落总数的检测,以及感官品质评定,结果发现:壳聚糖对糟辣椒前期乳酸发酵有一定抑制作用,而发酵结束后其总酸含量与对照差异不大;保藏期间壳聚糖组VC损失率、亚硝酸盐积累均较苯甲酸钠组和对照组低;壳聚糖能明显提高产品耐藏性,并对糟辣椒褐变有一定抑制作用,对其感官品质无不良影响.综合指标评价得出:在糟辣椒发酵中添加壳聚糖能提高产品品质及保藏特性,试验中0.3%壳聚糖添加量效果最佳.%Study the effects of Chitosan on fermented chili. By determining the total amount of acid, vitamin C, nitrite, the sum of bacteria, sensory quality and storage stability, the result showed: Chitosan can inhibit lactic acid fermentation of fermented chili the in the primary time,but there is little difference in the total amount of acid between Chitosan group and comparison group at the end of fermentation. In the storage period, the loss of vitamin C, and the nitrite accumulation is much lower compared with sodium benzoate group and contract grounp. Chitosan can prolong storage life, inhibit browning and have no adverse influence on the sensory quality of fermented chili. Comprehensive evaluation: Chitosan can improve fermenting quality and storage-quality of fermented chili. In the experiment, the optimal adding amount of Chitosan is about 0.3 %.

  18. Fruit Setting Rate and Major Photosynthetic Characteristics of Purple Chili Peppers During Summer Conditions%紫色辣椒夏季坐果率及其主要光合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋益虎; 钱春桃; 陈劲枫; 史建磊; 胡能兵; 曹玉杰

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in a plastic greenhouse to assess fruit setting rate and major photosynthetic and chlorophyll characteristics of purple and green chili pepper varieties in summer. For self fruit setting studies, 18 and 21 purple and green varieties, respectively were hand pollinated at blossom bud stage. Similarly, 10 purple and 9 green chili peppers were randomly selected for reciprocal hybridization to evaluate cross fruit setting rate. Main parameters of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured from 5 varieties of chili pepper with diverse leaf colours, green 7035, high purple 7033, medium purple 7037, slight purple 7034 (with purple veins), and slight purple 7039 (with green veins)to assess the pigment content. The following results were obtained: ( 1 ) significantly higher fruit self-setting rate of purple (72.19%) than the green chili peppers (37.12%), significantly higher fruit cross-setting rate was recorded. The fruit cross setting rate was 55.99 and 21.60% when purple and green chili pepper varieties were used as female parents respectively. (2) the mount anthocyanin (An) and ratio of chlorophyll a and b (Chl. a/b) were significantly higher in leaves of purple chili than the green ones,mount Chl. a and carotenoid (Car) were also higher in most purple chili peppers, but insignificantly in amount Chl. b. (3) transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn)of purple and green chili pepper showed a similar trend of double peak curve. Light compensation point (LCP), light saturation point (LSP) and actual Pn during the day time of high temperatures were significantly higher while apparent quantum efficiency (AQY) were lower in all purple varieties than the green ones. (4) purple chili pepper could prevent excessive absorption of solar energy by pigment antennas besides by partly reversible inactivation of the reaction center (RC) of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ)to reduce the harm of excess energy

  19. Chemical composition of different parts of chili stalks and their biogas production potentials during anaerobic fermentation%辣椒秸秆不同部位化学组分及厌氧发酵产沼气潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金华; 陈广银; 陈乐; 李云龙; 黑昆仑; 张应鹏; 霍立娇; 常志州

    2016-01-01

    以辣椒苏椒16号为试验材料,调查统计了辣椒生物量和产废系数,并在实验室条件下,研究了辣椒秸秆不同部位理化特性及厌氧发酵产沼气潜力,及各部位对辣椒整株的影响.结果表明:辣椒秸秆生物量高达21t/hm2,产废系数为0.36.辣椒秸秆各部位间理化特性及产沼气潜力具有显著性差异(P茎(104.2mL/gVS)>根(68.9mL/gVS).各部位对辣椒整株的影响主要表现在纤维素和碳水化合物的相对含量对其产沼气的影响.且根据经验分子式推测的理论产沼气量,对辣椒秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气转化率进行了评估,各部位转化率均较低,其原因有待进一步研究.%In order to study the physiochemical properties of different parts of chili stalks and their biogas production potentials during anaerobic digestion, chili (Sujiao16) was used as the raw material. The biomass, physicochemical properties and the biogas production of different straw parts of Sujiao16were conducted at bench scale. Results showed that straw yield of Sujiao16was up to 21 t/hm2, and the ratio of chili plants biomass to chili yield was 0.36. Different parts of Sujiao16 straw had significant (Pstem (104.2mL/gVS) >root (68.9mL/gVS). The relative content of fiber and carbohydrate of different parts of Sujiao16stalks had strong impacts on the biogas production potential of the whole straw. According to the theoretical biogas production based on molecular formula, the biogas production potential of Sujiao16was evaluated, indicating that the bioconversion rates of different straw parts were relatively low during anaerobic fermentation. Thus the reasons needed to be studied in the future.

  20. Efecto de la fertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento de ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia Effect of the fertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Rodríguez Araujo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de las fertilizaciones química y orgánica y biofertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento del ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y en la producción de plántulas en vivero y en campo. Las variables evaluadas en vivero fueron: peso fresco de raíz y parte aérea, número de hojas, altura de la planta (cm, diámetro del tallo (mm, peso seco total, peso seco de raíz y parte aérea. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos, bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar, de la forma siguiente: fertilización de síntesis química completa (testigo (FSQC, FSQC más fertilización orgánica (FSQC + O, FSQC + O más biofertilización 1 (solubilizador de fósforo con base en Penicillium janthinellum (1x10(7conidias/ml, FSQC + O más micorrizas (FSQC + O + M, FSQC + O más biofertilización 2 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml y Azospirillun sp. (1x10(8 UFC/ml, FSQC + O más biofertilización 3 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml. El experimento se instaló sobre un Typic Hapludolls. El análisis de resultados mostró que, en todos los tratamientos la fertilización de síntesis química + orgánica + micorrizas presentó los mejores resultados (P This study was realised with the purpose of to evaluate the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca in the initial production of plants in breeding ground and final production in field. Two experiments were realized, one in stage of fish-pond and other one in field stage. In fish-pond an experiment was realized where there was evaluated the effect of the different types of fertilization in chili and other one where there was evaluated the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilización in chili. In field there was evaluated the effect of the

  1. Argentine – Chili : Une si longue frontière Argentina – Chile: Such a long boundary Argentina – Chile: Una frontera tan larga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Velut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde l’intégration sud américaine à partir de l’examen de la très longue frontière entre le Chili et l’Argentine et de sa configuration matérielle. Son tracé, des traités internationaux au terrain, a été une opération compliquée étalée sur plus d’un siècle. La limite est recoupée par les grands itinéraires transcontinentaux, qui jouent un rôle majeur dans les projets politiques d’intégration sud américaine. Les dispositifs de passages, les réseaux urbains et routiersThis paper explores South American regional integration from the vantage point of the very long boundary between Chile and Argentina and is material configurations. The drawing of this very long border, from international treaties to field, was a complex operation lasting more than one century. The limit is intersected by transcontinental itineraries that play a major role in the political projects of South American integration. Crossing devices, urban and road networks and exchanges define regional units.Este artículo estudia la integración sur Americana a partir de la muy larga frontera entre Chile y Argentina y sus configuraciones materiales. El dibujo de la frontera, desde los tratados internacionales hasta el terreno, ha sido una operación compleja que se extendió por más de un siglo. El límite se encuentra recortado por los grandes ejes transcontinentales, que juegan un papel central en los proyectos políticos de integración sur-americana. Los dispositivos de intercambio, las redes urbanas y de caminos y los intercambios definen unidades regionales.

  2. Ground based spectroscopy of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I will present results using a novel spectral retrieval method for near to mid infra-red emission and transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres taken from the ground and discuss the feasibility of future ground-based spectroscopy in a broader context. My recently commenced PhD project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  3. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  4. Optimization of the Formula of Acetic Acid Fermented Chili by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化醋酸发酵辣椒的配方工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑君花; 王修俊; 王丽芳; 范志平; 牛立群

    2013-01-01

    文章以单因素实验为基础,以感官评价为指标,采用响应面法优化蔗糖、味精、食盐、番茄酱的添加量,研究醋酸发酵辣椒的最佳配方工艺,结果表明最佳配方工艺为醋酸发酵辣椒酱半成品添加量为91.3%,蔗糖添加量为1.2%,食盐添加量为2.5%,味精添加量为1.0%,番茄酱添加量为4.0%.%In this paper,optimization of the formula of acetic acid fermented chili is studied by response surface method on the basis of single factor test.The sensory evaluation is as the index.The result shows that the optimum formula is as follows:acetic acid fermented chili sauce of 91.3%,sucrose of 1.2 %,salt of 2.5 %,MSG of 1.0 % and tomato sauce of 4.0%.

  5. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  6. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  7. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  8. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing...... using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data...

  9. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  10. Red Emitting VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  11. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  12. Red Mud Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  13. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  14. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  15. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  16. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  17. Injertos en chiles tipo Cayene, jalapeño y chilaca en el noroeste de Chihuahua, México Grafting in Cayenne, jalapeño and chilaca chili peppers in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Osuna-Ávila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En semillas cosechadas por los agricultores se estudió la influencia en la sincronización de los diámetros de tallos en injertos comunes y recíprocos utilizando los tipos de chiles, jalapeño, chilaca y Cayene como injertos y el criollo de Morelos CM-334 como portainjerto. El grosor del tallo del CM 334 presentó mayor compatibilidad con el chile tipo jalapeño y con el tipo chilacay fue muy distante con el grosor del tallo del tipo de chile Cayene. La formación de callo abundante entre la unión de los injertos ensayados mostró buena aptitud y afinidad lo cual permitió la conexión firme del cambium con el patrón. Los porcentajes de supervivencia de los injertos fueron 90% con los chiles lo cual está dentro del rango aceptable a nivel comercial. El usar el CM 334 como un portainjerto resistente a P .capsici podría formar parte del manejo integrado para controlar la marchitez en estos tipos de chiles comerciales. El injerto reciproco puede ser usado para estudiar genes asociados con procesos de regulación de señales a distancia capaces de moverse de la raíz al brote como ramificaciones, floración, resistencia sistémica y respuestas a estrés abiótico.In seeds harvested by farmers, the influence on the timing of the diameters of stems was studied in common and reciprocal grafts using chilies, jalapeño, chilaca and Cayenne as grafts and, landrace Morelos CM-334 as the rootstock. CM 334's stem diameter showed high compatibility with jalapeño and chilaca, and was very distant with Cayenne. Abundant callus formation between the unions of the tested grafts showed good aptitude and affinity which allowed the firm connection of the vascular cambium. The rates of graft survival were of 90% with chilies, which is within the acceptable range for commercially purposes. Using CM 334 as a rootstock resistant to P. capsici could be part of an integrated control for wilt in these types of commercial chilies. The reciprocal graft can be used to

  18. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  19. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  20. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  1. Red Velvet Be Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    各种魅力全消化最近,以翻唱曲《Be Natural》展开回归活动的S.M新女团Red Velvet,在此次新歌中,展现了和出道曲《Happiness》中活泼可爱样子截然相反的成熟干练形象,如此极速的反差,吸引了大家的注意。作为一个刚出道的新人组合,Red Velvet此次不仅通过椅子舞表演完美地完成了高难度的打歌舞台,甚至在现场,也为大家展现了不输任何人的LIVE表演。

  2. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  3. Red-light initiated atmospheric reactions of vibrationally excited molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaida, V; Donaldson, D J

    2014-01-21

    We present a brief review of long wavelength, red-light initiated chemistry from excited vibrational levels of the ground electronic state of atmospheric trace species. When sunlight driven electronic state reactions are not effective, photochemical processes occurring by vibrational overtone excitation have been found to be important in reactions of oxidized atmospheric compounds (acids, alcohols and peroxides) prevalent in the Earth's atmosphere. This review focuses on the fundamental energetic, mechanistic and dynamical aspects of unimolecular reactions of vibrationally excited atmospheric species. We will discuss the relevance of these red light initiated reactions to address the discrepancies between atmospheric measurements and results of standard atmospheric models.

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  6. Contrôle du marché informel à l’heure de la mondialisation des échanges. Le cas des antirétroviraux au Chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousselle, Astrid; Morales, Cristián

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Les nouveaux médicaments pour le VIH/sida ont créé des besoins d’accessibilité aux traitements que les gouvernements n’ont pas toujours réussi à couvrir. Il en résulte l’émergence d’un marché informel des ARV. Par l’analyse de la situation au Chili, nous traitons des différents créneaux d’approvisionnement, des conséquences de l’existence d’un tel marché, ainsi que des moyens envisageables pour réduire les effets indésirables. Les aspects tant microéconomiques que macroéconomiques concernant le marché et l’accessibilité aux médicaments sont abordés. PMID:23997580

  7. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  8. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  9. Ground energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  10. 精量灌溉系统中朝天椒叶片厚度的变化规律%Study on the Variation of Chili Leaf in Precision Irrigation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓红

    2012-01-01

    The dimension of chili leaf thickness was monitored and its variation was found by industrial precision measurement. There are two types of measurement methods, namely, contact measurement and non-contact measurement, Applicating contact measurement method to monitor the chili leaf thickness corresponding time. The variation of leaf moisture was summarized in one day. Because leaf thickness could reflect plant water content, dimensional changes of the law could be looked on as a direct feedback control parameters in intelligent water-saving irrigation control system. Then combining with the other indirect parameters of temperature and humidity of air and soil to achieve precision irrigation.%应用精密测量方法对朝天椒(Capsicum annuum)叶片厚度进行监测,寻找其变化规律.提出接触式测量和非接触式测量两种测量方法,并应用接触式测量方法对朝天椒进行叶片厚度对应时间的监测,总结其一日内的水分变化规律.由于叶片厚度可以反映植物的水分含量,所以其变化规律可作为智能节水灌溉控制系统的一个直接反馈参数,从而结合空气、土壤的温湿度等间接参数建立灌溉制度,为实现农业精量灌溉打下基础.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Fungi in Guizhou Chili Powder and Analysis of Its Pollution Situations%贵州糊辣椒真菌分离鉴定与污染状况初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文华; 张国辉; 杨秀丽; 龙国雄

    2014-01-01

    目的:以贵州部分地区的糊辣椒为研究对象,对其真菌的菌种类型和污染情况进行鉴定和分析,以了解贵州省糊辣椒的卫生状况。方法:采用经典的微生物检测方法CFU(Colony Forming Units)法进行菌落计数,并对真菌进行分离纯化和鉴定。结果:大部分地区的优势菌种以烟曲霉和黄曲霉为主,菌落数值为0.45×104~4.07×104 cfu/g,糊辣椒中真菌菌落数没有超过国家最大标准值。%Objective:In order to investigate the sanitation status of chili powder in Guizhou Province,identify and analyze the strains,types of fungi and the pollution situations of chili powder from severalregions of Guizhou Province.Methods:According to Chinese National Standards (Microbiology of food hy-giene inspection method in part),use the classical microbe detection method CFU (Colony FormingUnits),the colony counting is calculated and fungi are isolated,purified and identified.Results:Thedominant strains in most areas are Aspergillus funigatus and Aspergillus flavus.The average carriercapacity number of fungi is 0.45×104~4.07×104cfu/g and the fungi colonies number in chilipowder doesn't exceed the maximum national standard value.

  12. Sources of resistance against the Pepper yellow mosaic virus in chili pepper Fontes de resistência ao Mosaico Amarelo do Pimentão em pimentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia dos S Bento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV naturally infects chili and sweet pepper, as well as tomato plants in Brazil, leading to severe losses. This work reports the reaction to the PepYMV of 127 Capsicum spp. accessions, aiming at identifying resistance sources useful in breeding programs. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with eight replications, in greenhouse conditions. Plants were protected with an insect-proof screen to avoid virus dissemination by aphids. Leaves of Nicotiana debneyi infected with the PepYMV were used as the inoculum source. Plants were inoculated with three to four fully expanded leaves. A second inoculation was done 48 hours later to avoid escapes. Only the youngest fully expanded leaf was inoculated. Two plants were inoculated only with buffer, as negative control. Symptoms were visually scored using a rating scale ranging from 1 (assymptomatic plants to 5 (severe mosaic and leaf area reduction. Nine accessions were found to be resistant based on visual evaluation. Their resistance was confirmed by ELISA. Two resistance accessions belong to the species C. baccatum var. pendulum, while the seven other were C. chinense. No resistant accessions were identified in C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, and C. frutescens.O Mosaico Amarelo do Pimentão é causado pelo Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV e tem ocorrência natural na maioria das regiões produtoras de pimenta, pimentão e tomate do Brasil, causando sérias perdas nas culturas de pimentão e pimenta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 127 acessos de Capsicum spp. ao PepYMV, com o intuito de identificar fontes de resistência a serem utilizadas em programas de melhoramento. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições, em casa de vegetação, protegida com tela à prova de insetos, para evitar a disseminação do vírus por afídeos vetores. Folhas

  13. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control with a fixed-dose combination of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in previously uncontrolled hypertensive patients: results of CHILI CU Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Mengden1, Reinhold Hübner2, Peter Bramlage31Kerckhoff-Klinik GmbH, Bad Nauheim, 2Takeda Pharma GmbH, Aachen, 3Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Pharmakologie und Epidemiologie, Mahlow, GermanyBackground: Fixed-dose combinations of candesartan 32 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ have been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Upon market entry we conducted a noninterventional study to document the safety and effectiveness of this fixed-dose combination in an unselected population in primary care and to compare blood pressure (BP values obtained during office measurement (OBPM with ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM.Methods: CHILI CU Soon was a prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, open-label, multicenter study with a follow-up of at least 10 weeks. High-risk patients aged ≥18 years with previously uncontrolled hypertension were started on candesartan 32 mg in a fixed-dose combination with either 12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ. OBPM and ABPM reduction and adverse events were documented.Results: A total of 4131 patients (52.8% male with a mean age of 63.0 ± 11.0 years were included. BP was 162.1 ± 14.8/94.7 ± 9.2 mmHg during office visits at baseline. After 10 weeks of candesartan 32 mg/12.5 mg or 25 mg HCTZ, mean BP had lowered to 131.7 ± 10.5/80.0 ± 6.6 mmHg (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons. BP reduction was comparable irrespective of prior or concomitant medication. In patients for whom physicians regarded an ABPM to be necessary (because of suspected noncontrol over 24 hours, ABP at baseline was 158.2/93.7 mmHg during the day and 141.8/85.2 mmHg during the night. At the last visit, BP had significantly reduced to 133.6/80.0 mmHg and 121.0/72.3 mmHg, respectively, resulting in 20.8% being normotensive over 24 hours (<130/80 mmHg. The correlation between OBPM and ABPM was good (r = 0.589 for systolic BP and r = 0.389 for diastolic BP during the day. Of those who were normotensive upon OBPM, 35.1% had high ABPM during the

  14. Candesartan cilexetil/hydrochlorothiazide combination treatment versus high-dose candesartan cilexetil monotherapy in patients with mild to moderate cardiovascular risk (CHILI Triple T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerd Bönner1, Bernhard Landers2, Peter Bramlage31Park-Klinikum Bad Krozingen, Germany; 2Internal Medicine Practice, Diabetes Center, Mayen, Germany; 3Institute for Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Mahlow, GermanyBackground: Candesartan cilexetil has been shown to effectively reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Whether it is advantageous to combine candesartan cilexetil with low-dose hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or uptitrate it in cases of insufficient blood pressure control has not been fully investigated under routine clinical conditions.Methods: CHILI Triple T is a prospective, noninterventional, observational study. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension and added cardiovascular risk received a fixed-dose combination of candesartan cilexetil 16 mg and HCTZ 12.5 mg (combination therapy group or high-dose monotherapy with candesartan cilexetil 32 mg (high-dose monotherapy group.Results: A total of 4600 patients with a mean age of 63.1 ± 11.0 years, of which 44.7% were female, was included. The combination therapy group had 3337 patients, and the high-dose monotherapy group 1263 patients. Patients in both treatment groups were comparable with respect to age and gender, but patients receiving high-dose monotherapy had a slightly higher mean systolic blood pressure, more prior revascularizations, renal insufficiency, diabetic nephropathy, peripheral artery disease, and a lower ankle brachial index. The use of combination therapy resulted in a blood pressure reduction of -28.5 ± 13.8/-14.2 ± 9.4 mm Hg (P < 0.001 vs 160.2 ± 13.3/94.5 ± 8.2 mm Hg at baseline. The use of high-dose monotherapy reduced blood pressure by -29.73 ± 15.3/-14.1 ± 9.6 mm Hg (P < 0.001 vs 162.4 ± 14.7/94.7 ± 8.7 mm Hg at baseline. Differences in subgroups of patients defined by age, gender, body mass index, dyslipidemia, waist circumference, smoking, prior cardiovascular event, glomerular filtration rate, and microalbuminuria were minor

  15. Kinematic analysis and test on automatic pick-up mechanism for chili plug seedling%辣椒穴盘苗自动取苗机构运动学分析与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 曹卫彬; 李树峰; 付威; 刘凯强

    2015-01-01

    针对新疆半自动移栽机人工取苗效率低、强度大、漏苗率及伤苗率高的问题,该文设计了一种辣椒穴盘苗自动取苗机构。分析了该机构的组成及工作原理,建立了其运动学模型,研究了取苗轨迹形成的机理,在确定优化目标的基础上,基于VB开发了取苗机构辅助分析软件,结合Adams运动仿真软件,通过人机交互分析其主要结构参数变化对取苗针端点运动轨迹的影响,优化取苗针端点运动轨迹,获得一组满足辣椒穴盘苗移栽农艺要求的自动取苗机构参数。虚拟样机运动仿真结果表明优化参数可以满足辣椒穴盘苗取苗工作轨迹要求;设计制作了自动取苗试验台,并利用高速摄影技术对取苗机构运动特性进行试验分析,试验结果表明取苗针实际运动轨迹与理论分析结果一致,取苗试验结果如下:取苗成功率为98.6%,基质损伤率为4.2%,投苗成功率为94.2%,满足机械自动取苗的工作要求,验证了取苗机构设计的准确性与合理性。该研究可为辣椒、番茄等作物全自动移栽机自动取苗机构的研发提供参考。%Seedlings transplanting plays an important role in the process of vegetable production, and mechanized transplanting can reduce the labor intensity, improve the production efficiency and ensure the work quality. The chili seedling transplanting mechanization technology has been vigorously developing in Xinjiang region. However, at present, there is no automatic vegetable transplanting machine available in Xinjiang. The chili seedling transplanting work basically relies on manual operation, and some transplanters used are semi-automatic machines, which still need manual work to pick up and drop seedlings. Therefore, it is very important and urgent to study the automatic pick-up mechanism for chili plug seedling. Based on the situations above, a kind of automatic pick-up mechanism for chili plug

  16. DMPP-enhanced control efficacy of chili pepper Phytophthora blight using ammonium bicarbonate:Action effects and mechanisms%DMPP 增强碳酸氢铵防控辣椒疫病的效果与机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹云; 王光飞; 郭德杰; 马艳; 罗德旭; 孙玉东; 汪国莲

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora blight of chili pepper, caused by oomycetes of Phytophthora capsici, has been reported to be a key limiting factor of chili pepper production worldwide. Increased public interest in protecting the environment and human health has prompted research in agronomic strategies that reduce the use of fungicides. Alternative control methods with high efficacy, low cost and limited environmental effect are high-priority research areas for sustainable agriculture. Under the same incubation conditions (soil moisture of 60% of field capacity, temperature of 25 ℃ and inoculation concentration of P. capsici of 500 CFU·g-1), DMPP (1% applied pure N) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) [100 mg(N)·kg-1] were added tofluvo-aquic soil and incubated for 15 d. Soil without any addition of DMPP and/or AB was set as the control. After incubation, DMPP or AB-treated soil was used to grow chili pepper in a pot experiment for 28 d. The effect of DMPP and AB application on disease incidence of Phytophthora blight of chili pepper was then compared. The soil physio-chemical and microbial responses (soil pH, electric conductivity, concentrations of different forms of nitrogen; numbers of total bacteria, fungi, P. capsici and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) to the addition of DMPP and AB were determined. The relationship between Phytophthora blight disease incidence and soil phyiso-chemical and microbial characteristics was evaluated. The aim of the study was to investigate the control effects of DMPP-enhanced ammonium biocarbonate on Phytophthora blight of chili pepper and correlation with soil physio-chemical properties, and provided technological support for control of Phytophthora blight of chili pepper of greenhouse. The results suggested that compared with the control, the contents of soil ammonium nitrogen in DMPP and DMPP+AB treatments were higher, and the contents of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen significantly lower. The application of DMPP for 15 d decreased copied gene numbers

  17. Volatile Compounds and Capsaicinoid Content of Fresh Hot Peppers (Capsicum Chinense Scotch Bonnet Variety at Red Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gahungu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsaicinoids content and the volatile compounds of fresh hot pepper from Burundi at red stage. The Capsaicinoids were extracted in acetone and separated using column chromatography on silica gel, then evaluated quantitatively using a reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography/Photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC/PAD. The volatile compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and then re-extracted and concentrated by SPME fiber at 55ºC for 30 min and analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Seventy volatile compounds were identified, of which aliphatic esters, alcohols, terpenoids and acids were the main classes. Hexyl pentanoate, hexyl isopentanoate, Pentyl 3- methylbutanoate, 10- undecenol, 3, 3- dimethyl cyclohexanol, β-chamigrene, Pentadecanoic acid, (E- 9- tetradecenoic acid and Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major volatile constituents. Capsaicin (CAPS 47.632 mg/g and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAPS 23.096 mg/g were the major capsaicinoids and their contents converted in Scoville heat value (142931 show that the Scotch Bonnet variety is a high hot chili pepper according to the Scoville scale.

  18. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bamboo Shoots in Chili Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    BambooShootsinChiliSauce¥//(GanShaoDongSun)200gramsbambooshoots50gramsshiitakemushrooms4waterchestnuts25gramscarrots25gramspe...

  20. Aasta Suurim Film? / Chili Palmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palmer, Chili

    2002-01-01

    Peter Jacksoni esimene film J.R.R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" alusel - "Sõrmuse vennaskond", ("The Lord of the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring") : Uus-Meremaa, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001

  1. Aasta Suurim Film? / Chili Palmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palmer, Chili

    2002-01-01

    Peter Jacksoni esimene film J.R.R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" alusel - "Sõrmuse vennaskond", ("The Lord of the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring") : Uus-Meremaa, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001

  2. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  3. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  4. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D

    2012-01-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  5. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  6. Thin Layer Chromatography-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Sudan Red in Food%薄层层析-高效液相色谱法测定食品中苏丹红

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春香; 黄坚; 马慧雪; 张祥

    2011-01-01

    The new method of determining banned additives in the food such as Sudan red Ⅰ and Ⅱ was established with thin layer chromatography(TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) two methods combined.Sudan red and impurities can be separated by silica gel plate.Under the condition of chromatography in setting,the concentration in the 0.1~20.0 μg/mL range,the peak areas(Y) and concentration(X) present good linear relationship,Sudan red Ⅰ,Ⅱ regression equations Y1=-18785+138962X,Y2=-2623+131432X.Correlation coefficient R1=0.9997,R2=0.9998.Its application of determing the Sudan red Ⅰ and Ⅱ in chili powder,chili oil,and tomato sauce was studied,and got the detection limit of 0.024 μg/g,0.027 μg/g,respectively.%建立了薄层层析-高效液相色谱联合技术测定食品中违禁添加物苏丹红Ⅰ、Ⅱ的新方法。采用硅胶板将苏丹红与杂质分离,在设定的色谱条件下测得浓度在0.1~20.0μg/mL范围内,峰面积(Y)与浓度(X)呈良好线性关系,苏丹红Ⅰ、的回归方程为Y1=-18785+138962X,Y2=-2623+131432X,相关系数R1=0.9997,R2=0.9998。将该法应用于辣椒粉、辣椒油、番茄酱等中的苏丹红Ⅰ、Ⅱ的检测。其检出限分别为0.024μg/g0、.027μg/g。

  7. Fade to Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight. In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars. The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob. Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons. Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been

  8. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  10. Transmission And Emission Spectroscopy Of Exoplanetary Atmospheres From The Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I like to present some preliminary results on a new attempt of the ground based efforts and discuss the feasibility of ground-based spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres. This project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  11. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  12. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  13. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  14. Précipitation d'altitude du nord-Chili, origine des sources de vapeur et données isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Des échantillons de précipitations ont été recueillis sur les Altiplanos arides du nord-Chili et du sud-Bolivie entre juillet 1994 et mars 1997. Une station météorologique automatique a été installée à 4 300 m d’altitude (Quisquiro, 23,21°S et 67,25°O. Les événements pluvieux sont plus nombreux de décembre à mars pendant l’été austral. Les 126 analyses en isotopes stables (18O et 2H des événements pluvieux, mettent en évidence un large domaine de variations pour la période considérée (210 ‰ en  2H et 25 ‰ en  18O. La droite météorique locale calculée à Quisquiro s’écarte de la droite mondiale ( 2H = 8,2  18O + 16,6 ‰, r2=0,98. Les valeurs moyennes de l’excès en deutérium sont très différentes pour les événements sporadiques de l’hiver austral (d=9,7 ‰ et pour les précipitations de l’été (d=15,2 ‰. Outre la source de vapeur d’origine atlantique et afin d’expliquer la nature isotopique des précipitations de cette région, on peut envisager la contribution d’eau évaporée localement et/ou de vapeur originaire de l’océan Pacifique tropical. PRECIPITACIONES EN ALTITUD DEL NORTE DE CHILE, ORIGEN DE LAS FUENTES DE HUMEDAD Y DATOS ISOTÓPICOS. Se recolectaron muestras de precipitaciones en los Altiplanos áridos del norte de Chile y del sur de Bolivia entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1997. Se montó una estación meteorológica automática a 4 360 m de altura (Quisquiro, 23,21°S et 67,25°O. Los análisis de isótopos estables (18O et 2H de los eventos lluviosos, que occuren principalmente durante el verano austral (esencialmente entre diciembre y marzo, ponen en evidencia un amplio campo de variaciones durante la época considerada (210 ‰ en  2H et 25 ‰ en  18O. La recta meteórica local calculada en Quisquiro ( 2H = 8,2  18O + 16,6 ‰, r2=0,98 se aparta de la recta mundial. El promedio del excedente de deuterio es muy diferente para los

  15. Hongos asociados con la enfermedad "miada de perro" en el cultivo de chile Asociated fungus with the "dog's urine" disease in chili pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Avelar-Mejía

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El chile (Capsicum annuum L. es afectado por una enfermedad que en Zacatecas se conoce como "miada de perro"; es de aparición reciente y su importancia cada día es mayor debido que reduce la producción de fruto. Algunos de los síntomas son la necrosis en hojas y semillas, que hace pensar en la presencia de hongos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer los hongos fitopatógenos que se encuentran asociados con plantas enfermas de junio y julio 2004 a 2006. Se colectaron hojas, tallos y semillas de plantas sanas y con síntomas de la enfermedad en siembras comerciales de Fresnillo, Calera, Villa de Cos, Villa García y Pánfilo Natera, en el estado de Zacatecas; se transfirieron a caja petri con medio de cultivo pimaricina-ampicilina-rifampicina-PCNB e himexazol (PARPH, papa dextrosa agar (PDA y agua-agar. Los organismos que se desarrollaron en hojas, ramas y semillas, se identificaron utilizando claves taxonómicas. Se encontraron los hongos Alternaria solani (21% en plantas sanas y 41% en plantas enfermas, Fusarium roseum (10.2% en plantas sanas y 16.1% en plantas enfermas, Phytophthora capsici (0.6% en plantas sanas y 3.7% en plantas enfermas, Nigrospora spp. (0.7% y 1.7%, Aspergillus spp. (0.6% y 1.7% y Penicillium spp. (0.2% y 0.1%, respectivamente; así como bacterias saprófitas (2.5% en plantas enfermas. En semillas provenientes de plantas enfermas no se obtuvieron crecimientos fungosos 43.2% de las siembras muestreadas y en semilla sana se encontrarón: hongos saprófitos 20% de ellas, Alternaria solani en 13.5%, Aspergillus spp. 20% y Fusarium spp. 3.3%. Con base en los síntomas que estos patógenos ocasionan en plantas susceptibles, se consideró que se encuentran asociados con la enfermedad "miada de perro", pero no participan directamente en la producción de los síntomas.The chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is vulnerable to a disease known in the state of Zacatecas as "dog's urine", which appeared recently and its

  16. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  17. Vancomycin induced Red Man Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drisyamol K.A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycoprotein antibiotic that has been associated with an anaphylactoid reaction termed the Red-man syndrome. It usually consists of erythema, flushing and pruritis of the face and upper torso and occasionally progresses to include dyspnoea, chest pain and hypotension. Red man syndrome (RMS is also known as “red neck syndrome. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can abort most of the reactions. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B, rifampcin and teicoplanin can potentially cause red man syndrome. The effects of red man syndrome can be relieved by antihistamines.

  18. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 焦盐辣椒粉加工工艺优化研究%Optimization of salty baked chili powder technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学斌; 夏延斌; 吴灿

    2012-01-01

    The effect of baking temperature,baking time and salt concentration on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder were studied,and the optimum processing technology was obtained through sensory score.Results showed that:baking time was the main influencing factors on the processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powde,and then baking temperature,adding salt only made the aroma more gentle.The optimal processing technology of salty baked red cluster pepper powder was,baking temperature 120 ℃,baking time 10 min,and salt concentration 5%.%以野山椒为原料,通过感官评分的方法,探究了烘烤温度、烘烤时间以及加盐量对其加工的影响,并得出了焦盐野山椒粉的最佳加工工艺。结果表明,烘烤时间为焦盐野山椒粉生产的主要影响因素,其次是烘烤温度,而添加食盐只会让其香气变得更加柔和。焦盐野山椒粉的最佳工艺为烘烤温度120℃,烘烤时间10min,加盐量为干辣椒粉质量5%。

  20. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  1. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  2. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  3. Water resources of Red River Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Roy; Page, Leland Vernon

    1963-01-01

    Red River Parish is on the eastern flank of the Sabine uplift in northwestern Louisiana. The 'area is underlain by lignitic clay and sand of Paleocene and Eocene age which dip to the east at the rate of about 30 feet per mile. The Red River is entrenched in these rocks in the western part of the parish. Alternating valley filling and erosion during the Quaternary period have resulted in the present lowland with flanking terraces. In the flood-plain area moderate to large quantities of very hard, iron-bearing water, suitable for irrigation, are available to wells in the alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 20 to slightly more than 100 feet. It is recharged by downward seepage of rainfall through overlying clay and silt, by inflow from older sands adjacent to and beneath the entrenched valley, and by infiltration from the streams where the water table is below stream level during flood stages or as a result of pumping. Water levels are highest in the middle of the valley. Ground water moves mainly toward the Red River on the east and Bayou Pierre on the west, but small amounts move down the valley. Computations based on water-level and aquifer-test data indicate that the Quaternary alluvium contains more than 330 billion gallons of ground water in storage and that the maximum discharge of ground water to the streams is slightly more than 30 mgd (million gallons per day). At times of high river stage, surface water flows into the aquifer at a rate that depends in part upon the height and duration of the river stage. Moderate supplies of soft, iron-bearing water may be obtained from dissected Pleistocene terrace deposits that flank the flood plains of the Red River and Black Lake Bayou. However, the quantity of water that can be pumped from these deposits varies widely from place to place because of differences in the areal extent and saturated thickness of the segments of the deposits; this extent and thickness are governed

  4. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  5. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  6. Photophysics of the Red Chromophore of HcRed: Evidence for Cis-Trans Isomerization and Protonation-State Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotlet, M.; Mudalige, K.; Habuchi, S.; Goodwin, P.M.; Pai, R.K.; De Schryver, F.

    2010-03-15

    HcRed is a dimeric intrinsically fluorescent protein with origins in the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. This protein exhibits deep red absorption and emission properties. Using a combination of ensemble and single molecule methods and by varying environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, we found spectroscopic evidence for the presence of two ground state conformers, trans and cis chromophores that are in thermal equilibrium and that follow different excited-state pathways upon exposure to light. The photocycle of HcRed appears to be a combination of both kindling proteins and bright emitting GFP/GFP-like proteins: the trans chromophore undergoes light driven isomerization followed by radiative relaxation with a fluorescence lifetime of 0.5 ns. The cis chromophore exhibits a photocycle similar to bright GFPs and GFP-like proteins such as enhanced GFP, enhanced YFP or DsRed, with radiative relaxation with a fluorescence lifetime of 1.5 ns, singlet-triplet deactivation on a microsecond time scale and solvent controlled protonation/deprotonation in tens of microseconds. Using single molecule spectroscopy, we identify trans and cis conformers at the level of individual moieties and show that it is possible that the two conformers can coexist in a single protein due to the dimeric nature of HcRed.

  7. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  8. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  9. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  10. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  11. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  12. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  13. Experiment on aggregation of red cells under microgravity on STS 51-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintenfass, L.; Osman, P.; Maguire, B.; Jedrzejczyk, H.

    Kinetics and morphology of aggregation of red cells were studied using automatic slit-capillary photo-viscometers, one situated on the middeck of the space shuttle `Discovery', and the other in the ground laboratory at KSC. Experiments were run simultaneously, blood samples being adjusted to haematocrit of 0.30 using native plasma, at temp. of 25°C, and anticoagulated by EDTA. Donors included patients with myocardial infarction, insulin-dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Macro and microphotographs were obtained during flow and statis. There was a striking difference in the morphology of aggregates formed in space and on the ground. Aggregates formed under zero gravity showed rouleaux formation, while the same blood samples showed severe clumping on the ground, in all patients blood. Normal blood showed rouleaux on the ground, but a random swarm-like pattern in space. The shape of the red cells remained normal under zero gravity.

  14. Red Clump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  15. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  16. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  17. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  18. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  19. Analysis of earthy pigments in grounds of Baroque paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygar, Tomás; Hradilová, Janka; Hradil, David; Bezdicka, Petr; Bakardjieva, Snejana

    2003-04-01

    Sixteen samples of orange-red and yellow Fe-oxide earthy pigments mainly from bole grounds of Baroque paintings were studied by elemental and phase analysis and voltammetry. Fe, K, and Ti content were found to be suitable for further classification of those earthy pigments. According to the chemical and phase composition the yellow grounds were natural yellow ochres formed by intense chemical weathering in a moderate climate. Very similar phase and elemental composition of part of the orange-red boles indicated their similar geological origin or even their formation by calcination of yellow ochres. Part of the orange-red boles differed significantly from the yellow boles, especially in their increased content of Ti, indicating their relation to end products of intense weathering, e.g. laterites formed in a tropical climate. Analogous materials with a correspondingly large Ti content are not currently commercially available and their geological origin (provenance) is not clear. In several orange-red boles the intentional addition of rather coarse-grained haematite to natural ochre by the painters was assumed on the basis of Fe oxide content and crystallinity.

  20. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  1. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  2. Disorders of red cell membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies during the last three decades have enabled the development of detailed molecular insights into the structural basis of altered function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders...

  3. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  4. Red supergiants and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Groh, Jose; Granada, Anahí

    2013-01-01

    We review the significant role played by red supergiants (RSGs) in stellar populations, and some challenges and questions they raise for theoretical stellar evolution. We present how metallicity and rotation modify the way stars go to the red part of the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram or come back from it, and how RSGs might keep a trace of their main-sequence evolution. We compare theoretical popu- lation ratios with observed ones.

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  7. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  8. Maize (Zea mays) seeds can detect above-ground weeds; thiamethoxam alters the view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Maha; Lee, Elizabeth; Lukens, Lewis; Swanton, Clarence

    2015-09-01

    Far red light is known to penetrate soil and delay seed germination. Thiamethoxam as a seed treatment has been observed to enhance seed germination. No previous work has explored the effect of thiamethoxam on the physiological response of buried maize seed when germinating in the presence of above-ground weeds. We hypothesised that the changes in red:far red reflected from above-ground weeds would be detected by maize seed phytochrome and delay seed germination by decreasing the level of GA and increasing ABA. We further hypothesised that thiamethoxam would overcome this delay in germination. Thiamethoxam enhanced seed germination in the presence of above-ground weeds by increasing GA signalling and downregulating DELLA protein and ABA signalling genes. An increase in amylase activity and a degradation of starch were also observed. Far red reflected from the above-ground weeds was capable of penetrating below the soil surface and was detected by maize seed phytochrome. Thiamethoxam altered the effect of far red on seed germination by stimulating GA and inhibiting ABA synthesis. This is the first study to suggest that the mode of action of thiamethoxam involves both GA synthesis and ABA inhibition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  10. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  11. Temperature adaptation of active sodium-potassium transport and of passive permeability in erythrocytes of ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Willis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Unidirectional active and passive fluxes of K-42 and Na-24 were measured in red blood cells of ground squirrels (hibernators) and guinea pigs (nonhibernators). As the temperature was lowered, ?active' (ouabain-sensitive) K influx and Na efflux were more considerably diminished in guinea pig cells than in those of ground squirrels. The fraction of total K influx which is ouabain-sensitive in red blood cells of ground squirrels was virtually constant at all temperatures, whereas it decreased abruptly in guinea pig cells as temperature was lowered.

  12. Sizing Up Red-Giant Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    -resolution ground-based spectroscopy at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and Apache Point Observatory, Rawls and collaborators established that the two stars have masses of 2.17 and 2.15 solar masses, and radii of 8.4 and 8.3 solar radii.Not Quite Twins?Intriguingly, when the authors measured the stellar oscillations from the binary, they were only able to pick out one signal. Using the scaling relations, their measurements reveal that the star producing the oscillations has a mass of 2.17 solar masses and radius of 8.3 radii consistent with both red giants in the system, within error bars. This provides excellent confirmation of the scaling relations for obtaining mass and radius, but it also raises a new question: why is only one star of this twin system producing oscillations?Rawls and collaborators have an idea: one star might be more magnetically active than the other, causing the suppression of oscillations in the more active star. The authors observations and detailed modeling support this idea, but similar analyses of the rest of the red-giant eclipsing binaries identified in the Kepler field will help to determine if KIC 9246715 is unusual, or if this behavior is common among such systems.CitationMeredith L. Rawls et al 2016 ApJ 818 108. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/108

  13. Overview of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their possible ecological importance in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Halfar, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Coralline red algae are a globally distributed and abundant group of shallow marine benthic calcifiers. They can form important ecosystems that provide a three-dimensional habitat to a large variety of marine organisms. While the study of coralline red algae has traditionally been focused on warm......-water habitats, numerous recent reports have now described widespread coralline red algal ecosystems from high-latitude regions, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. In fact, it is becoming increasingly evident that coralline red algae are likely the dominant marine calcifying organisms on the seafloor...... of the Arctic and subarctic photic zone. This article gives a first overview of the distribution of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith (free-living coralline red algal nodules) grounds in Greenland and the first report of rhodoliths in East Greenland. Museum data and recent sampling information have been...

  14. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Roemi E.; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR), Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) and Long-Wave InfraRed...

  15. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  16. Detailed Study of the Internal Structure of a Red-giant Star Observed with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Ventura, R.; Cardini, D.;

    2012-01-01

    We study the internal structure and evolutionary state of KIC 4351319, a red-giant star observed with the Kepler satellite. The use of 25 individual oscillation frequencies, together with the accurate atmospheric data provided by ground-based spectroscopic observations, allowed us to estimate the...

  17. Detection of solar-like oscillations in the bright red giant stars $\\gamma$ Psc and $\\theta^1$ Tau from a 190-day high-precision spectroscopic multisite campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Hillen, M; Corsaro, E; Van Winckel, H; Moravveji, E; De Ridder, J; Bloemen, S; Saesen, S; Mathias, P; Degroote, P; Kallinger, T; Verhoelst, T; Ando, H; Carrier, F; Acke, B; Oreiro, R; Miglio, A; Eggenberger, P; Sato, B; Zwintz, K; Pápics, P I; Marcos-Arenal, P; Fuentes, S A Sans; Schmid, V S; Waelkens, C; Østensen, R; Matthews, J M; Yoshida, M; Izumiura, H; Koyano, H; Nagayama, S; Shimizu, Y; Okada, N; Okita, K; Sakamoto, A; Yamamuro, T; Aerts, C

    2014-01-01

    Red giants are evolved stars which exhibit solar-like oscillations. Although a multitude of stars have been observed with space telescopes, only a handful of red-giant stars were targets of spectroscopic asteroseismic observing projects. We search for solar-like oscillations in the two bright red-giant stars $\\gamma$ Psc and $\\theta^1$ Tau from time series of ground-based spectroscopy and determine the frequency of the excess of oscillation power $\

  18. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  19. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  20. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Red Cell Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; George J Christ; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the import...

  1. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  2. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  3. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  4. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  5. The remarkable Red Rectangle: A Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    HD 44179 Nebula hi-res Size hi-res: 865 Kb Credits: NASA/ESA, Hans Van Winckel (Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium) and Martin Cohen (University of California) The HD 44179 nebula, known as the 'Red Rectangle.' This image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, reveals startling new details of one of the most unusual nebulae known in our galaxy. Catalogued as HD 44179, this nebula is more commonly called the 'Red Rectangle' because of its unique shape and colour as seen with ground-based telescopes. Hubble has revealed a wealth of new features in the Red Rectangle that cannot be seen by ground-based telescopes looking through Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. Details of the Hubble study were published in the April 2004 issue of The Astronomical Journal. HD 44179 Nebula hi-res Size hi-res: 1289 Kb Credits: ESA and Vincent Icke (Leiden University, the Netherlands) Simulating the Red Rectangle The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has revealed a wealth of new features in the Red Rectangle that cannot be seen with ground-based telescopes looking through the Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. Whereas the origins of many of the features in this dying star still remain hidden or even outright mysterious, some are well explained by theorists like the Dutch scientist Vincent Icke from Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 1981 Vincent Icke and collaborators showed that a spherical gas ejection from a dying star hitting a dust torus would give rise to shocks that can produce cone-like outflows similar to the two cones seen in the Hubble image. Meteorologists produce weather forecasts by advanced calculations of temperatures, pressures, velocities and densities for the air masses in our atmosphere and, to some degree, theorists like Icke are doing exactly the same for objects in space. Whether modelling the weather in the Earth’s atmosphere or the processes in distant gaseous nebulae, scientists calculate the motion of the gas by using a complicated set of

  6. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a...

  7. Nondestructive Measurement of Water Content and Moisture Migration of Unsaturated Red Clays in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the moisture migration mechanism of the unsaturated red clays, which are sensitive to water content change and widely distributed in South China, and then rationally use them as a filling material for highway embankments, a method to measure the water content of red clay cylinders using X-ray computed tomography (CT was proposed and verified. Then, studies on the moisture migrations in the red clays under the rainfall and ground water level were performed at different degrees of compaction. The results show that the relationship between dry density, water content, and CT value determined from X-ray CT tests can be used to nondestructively measure the water content of red clay cylinders at different migration time, which avoids the error reduced by the sample-to-sample variation. The rainfall, ground water level, and degree of compaction are factors that can significantly affect the moisture migration distance and migration rate. Some techniques, such as lowering groundwater table and increasing degree of compaction of the red clays, can be used to prevent or delay the moisture migration in highway embankments filled with red clays.

  8. Pensar la ciudad en red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El paradigma de la sociedad contemporánea es la red, como afirma Manuel Castells (1999 cuándo propone este concepto para que se piense el mundo frente a las tecnologías de información y comunicación. ¿Más como pensar la ciudad en red? Cuándo vemos una imagen aérea de una ciudad, con sus rutas que articulan puntos y regiones, tenemos una imagen perfecta de una red. Pero la evidencia absoluta entre la forma geométrica de una red no puede nos dejar iludirnos: esto no presupone el entendimiento de la sociedad urbana como red. El matemático Nikos Salingaros (2003 argumentó que “las fuerzas que hacen que la ciudad funcione son generadas por la diversidad y necesidad de cambio de información entre diferentes tipos de nodos”, y Gabriel Dupuy (1985 escribió que “si buscamos localizar partes de un sistema, debemos hacerlo en espacios abstractos, espacios topológicos, espacios de n dimensiones, inhabituales en el planeamiento y que no corresponden a la percepción inmediata de la ‘redes clásicas’. Así, las redes son, más que nada, una manera de pensar. Una manera de leer el mundo, una manera de actuar en el mundo.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn., red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh., red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn., garlic (Allium sativum Linn., and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne., which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Additionally, their total phenolic contents were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteau micro method. The result showed that red holy basil and red bird chili seemed to be better sources of antioxidant compounds, followed by green bird chili and red chili spur pepper, white holy basil, green chili spur pepper, garlic and pumpkin, respectively. For results of total phenolic content analysis, they were significantly related to those of FRAP (r = 0.825, ABTS (r = 0.973 and DPPH (r = 0.683.

  10. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S

    2014-01-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  11. 从《生活秀》《看麦娘》论池莉女性主义小说的叙事艺术%On the Narrative Art of Chili's Feminism Novels from The Sailor of Living and Alopecurus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟喜凤

    2008-01-01

    作家池莉以开创了"新写实小说"而在当代文坛占据一席之地.但身为女性作家,她更是自觉地从女性主义视角出发,关注时代变迁给女性生活和情感所带来的变化,从而创作出了具有鲜明的女性意识的女性主义小说.和便是这方面的代表作.这两部小说分别表现了商品经济背景下底层女性与知识女性的现实生活与精神状态.无论是小说的叙事视角,还是小说的写实手法,抑或是小说的情节建构,这两部小说都表现了现代社会女性对于自我价值的寻求,进而有力地凸显了女性的生存意义.%Chili won a place for herself in the world of the literary. As a woman novelist, Chili pays attention to the change of women's life and emotions with the development of the times from the view of feminism. So, Chili creates a lot of feminism novels with distinctive female consciousness. The Sailor of Living and Alopecurus are the novels on this theme. From both of the narrative angle, the writing technique, and the plots, the two novels both show the women in modern society seeking the value of ego, highlighting the significance of women's subsistence.

  12. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frédéric Zagury

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a series of spectra in the Red Rectangle nebula. Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the proximity of the star. In the blue, light from HD 44179, refracted or scattered in the atmosphere, dominates the spectra. This paper questions the reliability of ground-based broad-band spectra of extended objects in the blue.

  13. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  14. Estrategias de trabajo en red

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, María Cristina

    2006-01-01

    El presente informe fue elaborado en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Sentidos en las Estrategias de comunicación / Educación de las ONGs y el Estado dirigidas a los adolescentes de Viedma”. Aborda los debates en torno a las estrategias de intervención en lo social en trabajo en red, a partir de la experiencia de la Red Adolescencia Viedma. Además, de analizar las formas de participación, control e incidencia de la Sociedad Civil y el rol del Estado en las políticas sociales. Facult...

  15. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  16. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  17. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    for a small frequency window around 2 kHz is smaller in Colorado. Attenuation depends also on the ground effect. The ground effect is the acoustic interference between the direct sound wave from sender to receiver and the indirect sound wave reflected off the ground. The effect depends on acoustic properties...... of the ground and can result in severe attenuation of sounds in particular at lower frequencies. We tested whether Colorado soil is acoustically softer than European soil, negatively affecting low frequencies propagation. We found the opposite true. The smaller ground impedance in DK is the likely explanation......  Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We...

  18. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  19. Designing as middle ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors...... in a network of humans and non-humans, highlighting that design objects and the designer as an authority are constructed throughout this endeavour. The illustrative case example is drawn from product development in a rubber valve factory in Jutland in Denmark. The key contribution to a general core of design...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  20. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  1. Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David A.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G.; Benson, John S.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burgman, Mark A.; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Nally, Ralph Mac; McCarthy, Michael A.; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J.; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D.; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world’s ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  2. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Keith

    Full Text Available An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C rates of environmental (abiotic degradation; and D rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor

  3. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G; Benson, John S; Bishop, Melanie J; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M; Burgman, Mark A; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G; Holdaway, Robert J; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T; Lester, Rebecca E; Mac Nally, Ralph; McCarthy, Michael A; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  4. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile); Dosimetria de alimentos irradiados y extraccion de poliminerales de hierbas y condimentos (Chile guajillo, oregano, jamaica, arnica y manzanilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C. [Estudiante de la Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico); Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E. [Depto. de Quimica Agricola-Geologia-Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  5. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  6. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  7. Site curves for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Bishop; Floyd A. Johnson

    1958-01-01

    The increasing commercial importance of red alder (Alnus rubra) in the Pacific Northwest has created a demand for research on this species. Noting the lack of information on growth of alder, the Puget Sound Research Center Advisory Committee established a subcommittee in January 1956 to undertake construction of alder yield tables. Through the...

  8. Advances in Red VCSEL Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red VCSELs offer the benefits of improved performance and lower power consumption for medical and industrial sensing, faster printing and scanning, and lower cost, higher speed interconnects based upon plastic optical fiber (POF. However, materials challenges make it more difficult to achieve the desired performance than at the well-developed wavelength of 850 nm. This paper will describe the state of the art of red VCSEL performance and the results of development efforts to achieve improved output power and a broader temperature range of operation. It will also provide examples of the applications of red VCSELs and the benefits they offer. In addition, the packaging flexibility offered by VCSELs, and some examples of non-Hermetic package demonstrations will be discussed. Some of the red VCSEL performance demonstrations include output power of 14 mW CW at room temperature, a record maximum temperature of 115∘C for CW operation at an emission wavelength of 689 nm, time to 1% failure at room temperature of approximately 200,000 hours, lifetime in a 50∘C, 85% humidity environment in excess of 3500 hours, digital data rate of 3 Gbps, and peak pulsed array power of greater than 100 mW.

  9. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  10. Still red light for red light cameras? An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Alena

    2013-06-01

    The present study has replicated the results from a previous meta-analysis by Erke (2009) [Erke, A., 2009. Red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41 (5), 897-905.] based on a larger sample of RLC-studies, and provides answers to the criticisms that were raised by Lund et al. (2009) [Lund, A.K., Kyrychenko, S.Y., Retting, R.A., 2009. Caution: a comment on Alena Erke's red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention 41, 895-896.] against the previous meta-analysis. The addition of recent studies to the meta-analysis and a more thorough investigation of potential moderator variables lead to a slight improvement of the estimated effects of RLC in the previous meta-analysis. The present study found a non-significant increase of all crashes by 6% and a non-significant decrease of all injury crashes by 13%. Right-angle collisions were found to decrease by 13% and rear-end collisions were found to increase by 39%. For right-angle injury collisions a decrease by 33% was found and for rear-end injury collisions a smaller increase was found (+19%). The effects of RLC are likely to be more favorable when RLC-warning signs are set up at main entrances to areas with RLC enforcement than when each RLC-intersection is signposted. The effects of RLC may become more favorable over time, this could however not be investigated empirically. Several results indicate that spillover effects may occur for right-angle collisions, but most likely not for rear-end and other crashes. If spillover effects do not occur for rear-end crashes, which increase at RLC intersection, this would be a positive result for RLC. However, the results seem to be affected to some degree by publication bias and the effects may therefore be somewhat less favorable than indicated by the results from meta-analysis.

  11. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  12. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arrested Development "Among the Trees", Stephin Merritt "Pieces of April", The Libertines "The Libertines", Incognito "Adventures In Black Sunshine", Red Hot Chili Peppers "Live In Hyde Park"

  13. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arrested Development "Among the Trees", Stephin Merritt "Pieces of April", The Libertines "The Libertines", Incognito "Adventures In Black Sunshine", Red Hot Chili Peppers "Live In Hyde Park"

  14. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  15. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  16. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  17. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  18. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  19. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  20. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  1. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  2. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  3. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  4. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  5. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  6. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  7. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  8. Tetraphenylhexaazaanthracenes: 16π Weakly Antiaromatic Species with Singlet Ground States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, Christos P; Zissimou, Georgia A; Berezin, Andrey A; Ioannou, Theodosia A; Manoli, Maria; Tsokkou, Demetra; Theodorou, Eleni; Hayes, Sophia C; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2015-08-21

    Tetraphenylhexaazaanthracene, TPHA-1, is a fluorescent zwitterionic biscyanine with a closed-shell singlet ground state. TPHA-1 overcomes its weak 16π antiaromaticity by partitioning its π system into 6π positive and 10π negative cyanines. The synthesis of TPHA-1 is low yielding and accompanied by two analogous TPHA isomers: the deep red, non-charge-separated, quinoidal TPHA-2, and the deep green TPHA-3 that partitions into two equal but oppositely charged 8π cyanines. The three TPHA isomers are compared.

  9. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  10. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  11. Extremely Red Quasars in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual "wingless" line profiles, large NV/Lya, NV/CIV, SiIV/CIV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [OIII] 5007. Here we present a new catalog of CIV and NV emission-line data for 216,188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR color, secondarily on REW(CIV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a "core" sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 > 4.6 (AB) and REW(CIV) > 100 A at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity log L (ergs/s) ~ 47.1, sk...

  12. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  13. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  14. Characterization of red-near infrared transition for wheat and chickpea using 3 nm bandwidth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of space based capabilities to discriminate different crops and different varieties of a particular crop needs measurement of (i) the shift in red edge and (ii) the slope of the sudden rise of reflectance in 680 - 760 nm spectral region as a function of Days After Sowing (DAS). To develop the knowledge base for catering to the analysis of future space-based hyperspectral measurements, ground based measurements in 3 nm bandwidth in visible - near Infrared region together with corresponding Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations were taken over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) of Wheat and Chickpea. The red edge for wheat crop was at 679 nm for 25 DAS and reached the upper limit i.e., 693.7 nm at 84 DAS and thereafter shifted backward to 679 nm at 108 DAS. There was no change in red edge value of 684.9 nm during 40 to 49 DAS and of 687.8 nm during 55 to 71 DAS. The slope of Red to NIR transition for wheat varied from 0.457 to peak value of 0.784 during 25 to 71 DAS and thereafter decreased to 0.073 at 108 DAS. The peak of Red to Near Infrared (NIR) transition slope and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) occurred at the same time i.e., 71 DAS. However, the upper most value of red edge shift occurred at 84 DAS. Paper discusses the above aspects including role of mid point of Red to NIR transition, interrelationships among the Red-NIR transition Slope, Red Edge, LAI and RVI for wheat and chickpea.

  15. 荧光光谱法测定食品中苏丹红含量%Fluorospectrophotometric Determination of Sudan Red in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尚; 杨季冬; 贺奎娟; 贺薇

    2013-01-01

    在1.0×10-3mol·L-1硫酸介质中,苏丹红与硫酸高铈相互作用导致荧光强度明显增强,于发射波长362 nm测定,其荧光的增强程度与苏丹红色素的质量浓度分别在0.20~14.9 mg·L-1(苏丹红Ⅰ)、0.10~11.1 mg·L-1(苏丹红Ⅱ)、0.20~10.6 mg·L-1(苏丹红Ⅲ)和0.20~11.4 mg·L-1(苏丹红Ⅳ)范围内呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3s/k)分别为4.0,3.6,4.2,4.2 mg·L-1.方法用于实际样品番茄酱和辣椒酱分析,回收率在98.1%~104%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=5)在3.0%~6.5%之间.%In a 1. 0 X 10-3 mol · L H2SO1 medium, sensitization effect of Cerium ( IV ) sulfate on the fluorescence of Sudan red was observed obviously. The magnitude of increase in fluorescence intensity was found to keep linear relationship with the mass concentration of the colorants in ranges of 0. 20 —14. 9 mg · L-1 (for Sundan redl), 0.10-11.1 mg · L '(for Sundan red Q ). 0.20-10. 6 mg · L-1(for Sundan red U ) and 0. 20-11. 4 mg ? L '(for Sundan red IV ). as measured at the wavelength of 362 nm (rex). Detection limits (3s/k) of the method were found to he 4. 0. 3. 6, 4. 2 and 4. 2 mg · L-1 respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of sauce samples of tomato and chili, giving values of recovery in the range of 98. l%~104% with RSD's (n=5) in the range of 3. 0%-6. 5%.

  16. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox.

  17. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  18. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  19. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  20. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets....

  1. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir...

  2. Solar Drying of Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John L.

    Solar drying of thickened red mud is the latest method for its disposal in an economical and environmentally acceptable way. Two years full scale experience with this method in Jamaica has shown that its success depends on accurate grading of the solar drying area and accurate control of the pre-dewatering of the mud in the alumina plant. Experience with the use of deep thickening for pre-dewatering is described, together with a novel method for measurement and control of thickened mud rheology.

  3. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  4. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  5. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...... experimental results from crushing tests of aluminium hull girder components with realistic full-scale scantlings. A comparison with existing simplified calculation procedures for ductile metallic structures show that these procedures cannot be used to predict the crushing behaviour of the fore body of high......The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...

  6. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  7. Ground water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  8. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  9. Seasonally chancing preen-wax composition : Red Knots' (Calidris canutus) flexible defense against feather-degrading bacteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Schneider, Amy M.; Piersma, Theunis; Burtt, Edward H.; James, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    During incubation, ground-breeding sandpipers such as Red Knots (Calidris canutus) create a warm, humid micro-climate in the nest, conditions that favor the growth of feather-degrading bacteria present in their plumage. just before incubation, the composition of waxes secreted by the uropygial gland

  10. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  11. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  12. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  13. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  14. Grounded Eyes on Distant Watery Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    , the authorshigh-resolution observations allowed them to resolve not only the stellar spectrum, but also the spectral lines fromthe hot Jupiter exoplanet itself.Obtaining a thermal spectrum of the planet permitted the team to break the usual observational degeneracy that occurs with exoplanet observations: they were able to disentangle the planet mass and its orbital inclination angle. Piskorz and collaborators found that the planet is roughly 1.7 Jupiter masses and its orbit is inclined 24 relative to our line of sight.Artists illustration of the closest three planets in the upsilon Andromedae system. The system also has a distant red-dwarf binary companion, as well as a possible fourth planet. [NASA/ESA/A. Feild (STScI)]These measurements of the orbital structure of upsilon Andromedae are critical for understanding this unusual system. With non-coplanar planets and a distant red-dwarf companion, the upsilon Andromedae system has long been suspected to lie on the precipice of instability. The new measurements of upsilon Andromeda bs orbital properties will help us to better understand how the system may have formed, evolved, and survived to today.Water FoundOne of the biggest benefits of spectroscopy of an exoplanet is the potentialto learn about its atmospheric composition. Using their NIRSPEC observations of upsilon Andromedae b and detailed atmospheric modeling, Piskorz and collaborators found that the planets opacity structure is dominated by water vapor at the wavelengths they probed.This detection of water vapor in upsilon Andromedae bs atmosphere and the constraints on the planets orbital properties demonstrate the power and potential of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy for characterizing exoplanets and constraining the architecture of distantsolar systems.CitationDanielle Piskorz et al 2017 AJ 154 78. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa7dd8

  15. A Luminous Red Nova in M31 and its Progenitor System

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, S C; Bode, M F; Steele, I A

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of M31LRN 2015 (MASTER OT J004207.99+405501.1), discovered in M31 in January 2015, and identified as a rare and enigmatic luminous red nova (LRN). Spectroscopic and photometric observations obtained by the Liverpool Telescope showed the LRN becoming extremely red as it faded from its M(V) = -9.4 +/- 0.2 peak. Early spectra showed strong Halpha emission that weakened over time as a number of absorption features appeared, including Na I D and Ba II. At later times strong TiO absorption bands were also seen. A search of archival Hubble Space Telescope data revealed a luminous red source to be the likely progenitor system, with pre-outburst Halpha emission also detected in ground-based data. The outburst of M31LRN 2015 shows many similarities, both spectroscopically and photometrically, with that of V838 Mon, the best studied LRN. We finally discuss the possible progenitor scenarios.

  16. Woman Village Leader and The Red Peppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    YU Hua, 28, deputy head of Sanduan Village is very proud of her village. As she welcomes visitors, she is sure to let them know: "Our red peppers were reported in the Chinese Population News." Red peppers grown in Sanduan Village are distinctive for their good quality, bright color, and pure hot taste Traders came to the village to buy red peppers. Thus their reputation grew quickly and the village head was even invited to Beijing to take part in a

  17. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  18. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-22

    Oct 22, 2014 ... Key words: Rhodosorus marinus, red microalgae, antibacterial activity, antiproliferative activity, methanolic extract. ... subsequent production of metabolites (secondary ..... antioxidant molecules, such as vitamins, enzymes,.

  19. Red Sesbania Distribution - lines [ds81

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer conatains line data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  20. First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis) in ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative therapy for Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

  1. Red Sesbania Distribution - points [ds80

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer contains point data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  2. Pure red cell aplasia and associated thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rosu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia is a rare cause of anemia, caused by an absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. It is usually a paraneoplastic syndrome, associated most commonly with large-cell granular lymphocyte leukemia but also thymoma. For patients who present both pure red cell aplasia and thymoma, thymectomy leads to an initial remission of the aplasia in 30% of cases. However, sustained remission may require the addition of medications such as corticosteroids, cyclospo­rine, or cyclophosphamide. We present a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with a thymoma in an otherwise healthy 80 year-old woman.

  3. Agricultural Innovation - Multiple grounds for technology policies in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Van Linh,

    2001-01-01

    Food security, a lingering concern although is not as critical as in the past, remains one of the most important strategies for agricultural development in Vietnam. In conjunction with this strategy, productivity is very much a concern of the government. However, growth in agricultural productivity

  4. To Be Black, & Gifted & Red: Cold War Period Yields New, Provocative Ground for Contemporary Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's climate of supercharged patriotism and apparent intolerance for comment or critique calls to mind an earlier period of U.S. history. The Cold War that began in the mid-to late-1940s, along with McCarthyism and the anti-communist movement in the early 1950s, created an atmosphere of national hysteria and paranoia. For the past decade,…

  5. Agricultural innovation : multiple grounds for technology policies in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Van Linh,

    2001-01-01

    Food security, a lingering concern although is not as critical as in the past, remains one of the most important strategies for agricultural development in Vietnam. In conjunction with this strategy, productivity is very much a concern of the government. However, growth in agricultural

  6. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  9. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  10. Asteroseismology of Red Giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrant, N J; Elsworth, Y P; Spreckley, S A; Stevens, I R

    2008-01-01

    Sun-like oscillations, that is p-modes excited stochastically by convective noise, have now been observed in a number of Red Giant stars. Compared to those seen in the Sun, these modes are of large amplitude and long period, making the oscillations attractive prospects for observation. However, the low Q-factor of these modes, and issues relating to the rising background at low frequencies, present some interesting challenges for identifying modes and determining the related asteroseismic parameters. We report on the analysis procedure adopted for peak-bagging by our group at Birmingham, and the techniques used to robustly ensure these are not a product of noise. I also show results from a number of giants extracted from multi-year observations with the SMEI instrument.

  11. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  12. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir....../carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...

  13. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  14. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related h

  15. Composition and Characteristics of Organo—Mineral Complexes of Red Soils in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJIAN-MING; HOUHUI-ZHEN; 等

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to reveal the composition and characteristics of organo-mineral complexes in red soils (red soil,lateritic red soil and latosol) of south China in terms of chemical dissolution and fractional peptization methos.In the combined humus,most of the extractable humus could dissolve in 0.1 M NaOH extractant and belonged to active humus (H1),and there was only a small amount of humus which could be further dissolved in 0.1 M Na4P2O7 extractant at pH 13 and was stably combined humus (H2).The H1/H2 ratio ranged from 3.3 to 33.8 in red soils,and the proportions of both H1 and total extractable organic carbon (H1+H2) in total soil organic carbon and the ratios of H1 to H2 and H1 to (H1+H2) were all higher in lateritic red soil and latosol than in red soil.The differences of combined humus composition in various red soils were directly related to the content of Fe and Al oxides.In organo-mineral complexes,the ratio of Na-dispersed fraction (G1) to Na-ground-dispersed fraction (G2) was generally smaller than 1 for red soils,but there was a higher G1/G2 ratio in red soil than in lateritic red soil and latosol.G1 fraction had a higher content of fulvic acid (FA),but G2 fraction had a higher content of humic acid (HA).The ratios of H1 to H2 and HA to FA were higher in G2 than in G1.The differences in the composition and activity of humus between G1 and G2 fractions were related to the content of free Fe and Al oxides.The quantities of complex Fe and Al,the Fe/C and Al/C atomic ratios were higher in G2 than in G1,and the ratio of Al/C was much higher than that of Fe/C.It may be deduced that aluminum plays a more important role than iron in the formation process of organo-mineral complexes in red soils.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of the Satellite Gravitational Red Shift Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, J. R.; Searle, C. L.; Graham, J. W.; Badessa, R. S.; Bates, V. J.; Kent, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    The work performed under this contract involved study, design, and construction of experimental equipment to perform a short-term measurement of the gravitational red shift. In the system designed, phase comparison techniques are employed so that the time interval required to obtain a single measurement for one altitude is of the order of one minute. An elliptical orbit was chosen to permit measurement of frequency shift as a function of altitude. One particularly attractive orbit is that having a 12-hour orbiting period (perigee, 270 miles, apogee 24,800 miles). This orbit, shown in Fig. 1, allows continuous measurements to be made over an 11-hour interval during which time the altitude is varying greatly. Measurements can not be made for the succeeding 14 hours. Since the variation of frequency difference with altitude is of greatest interest, a fixed offset or a slow drift between the oscillator on the ground and. the oscillator in the satellite will not invalidate the measurements.

  17. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  18. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  19. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  20. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral..., circuit breaker, or fuse in the neutral conductor of the bus-tie feeder connecting the emergency... that aluminum grounding conductors must not be used....

  1. Culture medium for selective isolation and enumeration of Gram-negative bacteria from ground meats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cyzeska, F J; Seiter, J A; Marks, S N; Jay, J M

    1981-01-01

    We developed a new medium, designated peptone bile amphotericin cycloheximide (PBAC) agar, which contains (per liter) 10 g of peptone, 300 mg of bile salts, 1 mg of amphotericin B, 1 g of cycloheximide, and 15 g of agar. When 21 samples of fresh ground beef were studied and plate count agar counts were used as references, we obtained a mean recovery of 28% of total counts with violet red bile agar overlay, whereas we obtained 48% recovery with PBAC agar. With 12 samples of frozen ground beef,...

  2. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  3. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  4. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  5. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  6. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  7. Internal rotation of red giants by asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, M P; Ventura, R; Stello, D; Beck, P G; Davies, G; Elsworth, Y; Garcıa, R A; Hekker, S; Mosser, B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Bloemen, S; Catanzaro, G; De Smedt, K; Tkachenko, A

    2012-01-01

    We present an asteroseismic approach to study the dynamics of the stellar interior in red-giant stars by asteroseismic inversion of the splittings induced by the stellar rotation on the oscillation frequencies. We show preliminary results obtained for the red giant KIC4448777 observed by the space mission Kepler.

  8. Red grain mycetoma foot in Western Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur D

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the colour of the grains seen in cases of mycetoma are either black or yellow. Recently there were reports that unusual red grains had been noticed in cases of mycetoma. A case of red grain mycetoma is reported.

  9. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  10. Red autofluorescence of dental plaque bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. H.; Thomas, R. Z.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; de Soet, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Red autofluorescence of plaque and its relation to fluorescence of a single species in the biofilm was studied. Fluorescence images of non-disclosed and disclosed plaque of 28 first-year students were captured. The plaque samples were assessed by culture methods and studied for red autofluorescence.

  11. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  12. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  14. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  15. Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

    2003-09-15

    The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites.

  16. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  17. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a packing material; 3 and (8) Whole chilies (Capsicum spp.), whole red peppers (Capsimcum spp... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red peppers (Capsicum spp.) from Pakistan are prohibited from being imported into the United States under the...

  18. Algoritmo de Gower na estimativa da divergência genética em germoplasma de pimenta The Grower's algorithm on the estimate of genetic diversity in chili pepper germoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Cruz CL Moura

    2010-06-01

    germplasm bank are studied based on quantitative and qualitative descriptors. However, these data are rarely considered simultaneously in joint analyses. This work aimed to study the genetic diversity among 56 Capsicum chinense accessions coming from the Germplasm Collection of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF. We used 44 morpho-agronomic descriptors, 37 qualitative and seven quantitative, and the Grower's algorithm for the joint analysis. We used a completely randomized design with three replications and three-plant plots. Plants grew in 5 L pots. There was phenotypic variability among the chili accessions studied, mainly in fruits. Marked differences were observed in size, shape, color and total soluble solids and vitamin C contents of fruits. We used UPGMA to perform the clustering, since it was the method with the higher cophenetic correlation coefficient (r = 0.82. Accessions felt into six classes. Gower's algorithm was more efficient in clustering when qualitative instead of quantitative data were considered. It indicates that qualitative data played a crucial role in explaining the observed groupings. Joint analysis of quantitative and qualitative data resulted in greater efficiency in the determination of genetic divergence among the accessions evaluated. Therefore, such analysis is definitely a viable and important tool for understanding the variability within germplasm banks.

  19. Red wine, arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Papamichael, Christos; Lekakis, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Zampelas, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Red wine is considered to reduce cardiovascular risk and decrease peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Central aortic pressures are often more sensitive clinical and prognostic factors than peripheral pressures, while arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular events. Great efforts are being made to find natural sources of improving health. In order to clarify the mechanisms under which a widely used drink, like red wine, is affecting heart and vessels, we aimed to review the available data regarding the effects of red wine on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central blood pressures. The effect of red wine on central hemodynamics has been poorly explored with divergent results. Possible consequences of acute and long-term intake on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central pressures are not clear. This might make someone skeptical when suggesting the consumption of a glass of red wine, although its cardioprotective actions (when moderately consumed) are already shown from epidemiological studies.

  20. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  1. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  2. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  3. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  4. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  5. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  6. Toxicity induced by Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Liu, Hong-Cui; Ou, Wen-Bin; Eilers, Grant; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Guo; Li, Chun-Qi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 are classified as carcinogenic dyes in the European textile ecology standard, despite insufficient toxicity data. In this study, the toxicity of these dyes was assessed in a zebrafish model, and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated. Basic Violet 14 and Direct Red 28 showed acute toxicity with a LC50 value at 60.63 and 476.84 µg ml(-1) , respectively, whereas the LC50 of Acid Red 26 was between 2500 and 2800 µg ml(-1) . Treatment with Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 resulted in common developmental abnormalities including delayed yolk sac absorption and swimming bladder deflation. Hepatotoxicity was observed in zebrafish treated with Basic Violet 14, and cardiovascular toxicity was found in zebrafish treated with Acid Red 26 at concentrations higher than 2500 µg ml(-1) . Basic Violet 14 also caused significant up-regulation of GCLC gene expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas Acid Red 26 induced significant up-regulation of NKX2.5 and down-regulation of GATA4 at a high concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 induce developmental and organ-specific toxicity, and oxidative stress may play a role in the hepatotoxicity of Basic Violet 14, the suppressed GATA4 expression may have a relation to the cardiovascular toxicity of Acid Red 26. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Design analysis for grounding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, P.P.M.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Pinkster, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 a series of six grounding experiments has been carried out with a 600 Tonne inland water way tanker. At the how of the vessel test sections could be fitted, which were run into an artificial rock. The design of the support structures for the test sections and for the rock required the predic

  8. Measurements of radar ground returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, G.P. de

    1974-01-01

    The ground based measurement techniques for the determination of the radar back-scatter of vegetation and soils as used in The Netherlands will be described. Two techniques are employed: one covering a large sample area (> 1000 m2) but working at low grazing angels only and one (short range) coverin

  9. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...

  10. The Envisat-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  11. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  12. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  13. Investigating the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profiles applying ground-based FTIR spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.E.; Schneider, M; A. Redondas; Y. González; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term evolution of subtropical ozone profile time series (1999–2010) obtained from ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectrometry at the Izaña Observatory ozone super-site. Different ozone retrieval strategies are examined, analysing the influence of an additional temperature retrieval and different constraints. The theoretical assessment reveals that the FTIR system is able to resolve four independent ozone layers with a precision of better than 6...

  14. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  15. Grounded action: achieving optimal and sustainable change

    OpenAIRE

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.; Toni A. Gregory, Ed. D.

    2005-01-01

    Grounded Action ist eine Anwendung und Erweiterung der Grounded Theory mit dem Ziel, Interventionen, Programme, Handlungsmodelle etc. zu entwerfen und zu implementieren. Der Grounded Action-Ansatz wurde konzipiert, um der Komplexität und Multidimensionalität von organisatorischen und sozialen Problemstellungen angemessen begegnen zu können. Die Grounded Theory als Strategie der datengegründeten Theorieentwicklung wird insoweit ausgeweitet, als es im Rahmen von Grounded Action um das Entwickel...

  16. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  17. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays can be perfo- rmed. ..... the differences of light reflection between healthy and diseased plants (Araus ... to stomatal closure, decreased photosynthesis with asso- ciated changes in leaf ...

  18. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  19. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR), Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) and Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR) imagery and a sequential algorithm that combines a registration procedure, a multi-class SVM classifier, a K-means clustering and a linear regression for estimating the ground bearing capacity. To evaluate the feasibility and capabilities of the presented approach, several experimental tests were carried out in a sandy-loam terrain. The proposed solution offers notable benefits such as its non-invasiveness to the soil, its spatial coverage without the need for exhaustive manual measurements and its real time operation. Therefore, it can be very useful in decision making processes that tend to reduce ground damage during agricultural and forestry operations. PMID:26083227

  20. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR, Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR and Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR imagery and a sequential algorithm that combines a registration procedure, a multi-class SVM classifier, a K-means clustering and a linear regression for estimating the ground bearing capacity. To evaluate the feasibility and capabilities of the presented approach, several experimental tests were carried out in a sandy-loam terrain. The proposed solution offers notable benefits such as its non-invasiveness to the soil, its spatial coverage without the need for exhaustive manual measurements and its real time operation. Therefore, it can be very useful in decision making processes that tend to reduce ground damage during agricultural and forestry operations.