Sample records for ground rainfall amounts

  1. Interannual variation in root production in grasslands affected by artificially modified amount of rainfall. (United States)

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr


    The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland), highland (wet Cirsium grassland), and mountain (Nardus grassland) grasslands were studied during five years (2006-2010). A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry), rainfall increased by 50% (wet), and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient). The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  2. Interannual Variation in Root Production in Grasslands Affected by Artificially Modified Amount of Rainfall

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    Karel Fiala


    Full Text Available The effect of different amounts of rainfall on the below-ground plant biomass was studied in three grassland ecosystems. Responses of the lowland (dry Festuca grassland, highland (wet Cirsium grassland, and mountain (Nardus grassland grasslands were studied during five years (2006–2010. A field experiment based on rainout shelters and gravity irrigation simulated three climate scenarios: rainfall reduced by 50% (dry, rainfall increased by 50% (wet, and the natural rainfall of the current growing season (ambient. The interannual variation in root increment and total below-ground biomass reflected the experimentally manipulated amount of precipitation and also the amount of current rainfall of individual years. The effect of year on these below-ground parameters was found significant in all studied grasslands. In comparison with dry Festuca grassland, better adapted to drought, submontane wet Cirsium grassland was more sensitive to the different water inputs forming rather lower amount of below-ground plant matter at reduced precipitation.

  3. Generating monthly rainfall amount using multivariate skew-t copula (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Zanariah Satari, Siti


    This study aims to generate rainfall data in cases where the data is not available or not enough for a certain area of study. In general, the rainfall data is rightly skewed, so the multivariate skew-t copula is used as it able to model rainfall amount and capture the spatial dependence in the data. To illustrate the methodology, three rainfall stations in Kelantan are used. Firstly, the observed data is transformed to uniform unit. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient is calculated between the three stations. It is found that the correlations between the stations are significance at α = 0.05. The next step involved generating the synthetic rainfall data using the multivariate skew-t copula. The data is then transformed to uniform unit and the correlation coefficient is calculated for the generated data. Finally, the correlation coefficient of the observed and the generated data are compared. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test is used to assess the fit between theoretical and empirical copula and supported by graphical representation. The results show that there is no significant difference between empirical and theoretical copula at 5% significance level. Thus, the multivariate skew-t copula is suitable to generate synthetic rainfall data that can mimic the observed rainfall data. It can also be used to present different rainfall scenarios by changing the value of the parameters in the model.

  4. A Multi-Scale Analysis of Namibian Rainfall: Comparing TRMM Satellite Data and Ground Observations (United States)

    Lu, X.; Wang, L.; Pan, M.; Kaseke, K. F.


    Rainfall is critically important in dryland regions, as it is the major source of water for natural vegetation as well as agriculture and livestock production. However, the lack of ground observations has long been a major obstacle to the study of rainfall patterning in drylands. In this study, a continuous 6-year record of ground observations collected at Weltevrede Guest Farm Namibia was used to evaluate the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 0.25-degree (~25 km) 3-hourly satellite rainfall estimates for the period of 2008-2013 for two locations. The agreement between ground and satellite rainfall data was generally good at annual scales but a large variation was observed at the hourly scale. A trend analysis was carried out using bias-corrected annual satellite data (1998-2013) to examine the long-term patterns in rainfall amount, intensity, frequency and seasonal variations. Our results suggest that satellite rainfall estimates offer reasonable performance at annual scale. The preliminary trend analyses showed significant changes in frequency, but not in intensity or total amount in one of the two locations during the rainy season (November - March), but not in the other, emphasizing the spatial variability of the dryland rainfall.

  5. Modelling rainfall amounts using mixed-gamma model for Kuantan district (United States)

    Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Moslim, Nor Hafizah


    An efficient design of flood mitigation and construction of crop growth models depend upon good understanding of the rainfall process and characteristics. Gamma distribution is usually used to model nonzero rainfall amounts. In this study, the mixed-gamma model is applied to accommodate both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts. The mixed-gamma model presented is for the independent case. The formulae of mean and variance are derived for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables, respectively. Firstly, the gamma distribution is used to model the nonzero rainfall amounts and the parameters of the distribution (shape and scale) are estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Then, the mixed-gamma model is defined for both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts simultaneously. The formulae of mean and variance for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables derived are tested using the monthly rainfall amounts from rainfall stations within Kuantan district in Pahang Malaysia. Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, the results demonstrate that the descriptive statistics of the observed sum of rainfall amounts is not significantly different at 5% significance level from the generated sum of independent mixed-gamma variables. The methodology and formulae demonstrated can be applied to find the sum of more than three independent mixed-gamma variables.

  6. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.


    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  7. Forecasting of Amount of Rainfall in Rainy Season by using Information Obtained from El Nino Data (United States)

    Yamada, Fujihiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Hibino, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki

    In electric power system operation and dam management, it is important that we forecast the rainfall depth in the rainy season. This paper studies the technique using neural network in order to forecast the amount of rainfall in rainy season on upper district of dam for hydro power plant. A case study was carried out on Central Japan. We were able to confirm the effectiveness of the information obtained from El Nino and La Nina data.

  8. A multi-scale analysis of Namibian rainfall over the recent decade – comparing TMPA satellite estimates and ground observations

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    Xuefei Lu


    New hydrological insights for the region: The agreement between ground and satellite rainfall data was generally good at annual/monthly scales but large variations were observed at the daily scale. Results showed a spatial variability of rainfall trends across the rainfall gradient. We observed significant changes in frequency along with insignificant changes in intensity and no changes in total amount for the driest location, but no changes in any of the rainfall parameters were observed for the three wetter locations. The results also showed increased rainfall variability for the driest location. This study provided a useful approach of using TMPA data associated with trend analysis to extend the data record for ecohydrological studies for similar data scarce conditions. The results of this study will also help constrain IPCC predictions in this region.

  9. Gross rainfall amount and maximum rainfall intensity in 60-minute influence on interception loss of shrubs: a 10-year observation in the Tengger Desert (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xin-Rong; Huang, Lei; Tan, Hui-Juan


    In water-limited regions, rainfall interception is influenced by rainfall properties and crown characteristics. Rainfall properties, aside from gross rainfall amount and duration (GR and RD), maximum rainfall intensity and rainless gap (RG), within rain events may heavily affect throughfall and interception by plants. From 2004 to 2014 (except for 2007), individual shrubs of Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica were selected to measure throughfall during 210 rain events. Various rainfall properties were auto-measured and crown characteristics, i.e., height, branch and leaf area index, crown area and volume of two shrubs were also measured. The relative interceptions of C. korshinskii and A. ordosica were 29.1% and 17.1%, respectively. Rainfall properties have more contributions than crown characteristics to throughfall and interception of shrubs. Throughfall and interception of shrubs can be explained by GR, RI60 (maximum rainfall intensities during 60 min), RD and RG in deceasing importance. However, relative throughfall and interception of two shrubs have different responses to rainfall properties and crown characteristics, those of C. korshinskii were closely related to rainfall properties, while those of A. ordosica were more dependent on crown characteristics. We highlight long-term monitoring is very necessary to determine the relationships between throughfall and interception with crown characteristics.

  10. Meta-heuristic ant colony optimization technique to forecast the amount of summer monsoon rainfall: skill comparison with Markov chain model (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Goswami, Sayantika; Das, Debanjana; Middey, Anirban


    Forecasting summer monsoon rainfall with precision becomes crucial for the farmers to plan for harvesting in a country like India where the national economy is mostly based on regional agriculture. The forecast of monsoon rainfall based on artificial neural network is a well-researched problem. In the present study, the meta-heuristic ant colony optimization (ACO) technique is implemented to forecast the amount of summer monsoon rainfall for the next day over Kolkata (22.6°N, 88.4°E), India. The ACO technique belongs to swarm intelligence and simulates the decision-making processes of ant colony similar to other adaptive learning techniques. ACO technique takes inspiration from the foraging behaviour of some ant species. The ants deposit pheromone on the ground in order to mark a favourable path that should be followed by other members of the colony. A range of rainfall amount replicating the pheromone concentration is evaluated during the summer monsoon season. The maximum amount of rainfall during summer monsoon season (June—September) is observed to be within the range of 7.5-35 mm during the period from 1998 to 2007, which is in the range 4 category set by the India Meteorological Department (IMD). The result reveals that the accuracy in forecasting the amount of rainfall for the next day during the summer monsoon season using ACO technique is 95 % where as the forecast accuracy is 83 % with Markov chain model (MCM). The forecast through ACO and MCM are compared with other existing models and validated with IMD observations from 2008 to 2012.

  11. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

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    Singaiah Chintalapudi


    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  12. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall. (United States)

    Lekshmy, P R; Midhun, M; Ramesh, R; Jani, R A


    Oxygen isotopic variations in rainfall proxies such as tree rings and cave calcites from South and East Asia have been used to reconstruct past monsoon variability, mainly through the amount effect: the observed (18)O depletion of rain with increasing amount, manifested as a negative correlation of the monthly amount of tropical rain with its δ(18)O, both measured at the same station. This relation exhibits a significant spatial variability, and at some sites (especially North-East and peninsular India), the rainfall proxies are not interpretable by this effect. We show here that relatively higher (18)O-depletion in monsoon rain is not related necessarily to its amount, but rather, to large scale organized convection. Presenting δ(18)O analyses of ~654 samples of daily rain collected during summer 2012 across 9 stations in Kerala, southern India, we demonstrate that although the cross correlations between the amounts of rainfall in different stations is insignificant, the δ(18)O values of rain exhibit highly coherent variations (significant at P = 0.05). Significantly more (18)O-depletion in the rain is caused by clouds only during events with a large spatial extent of clouds observable over in the south eastern Arabian Sea.

  13. An assessment of the performance of global rainfall estimates without ground-based observations

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    C. Massari


    Full Text Available Satellite-based rainfall estimates over land have great potential for a wide range of applications, but their validation is challenging due to the scarcity of ground-based observations of rainfall in many areas of the planet. Recent studies have suggested the use of triple collocation (TC to characterize uncertainties associated with rainfall estimates by using three collocated rainfall products. However, TC requires the simultaneous availability of three products with mutually uncorrelated errors, a requirement which is difficult to satisfy with current global precipitation data sets. In this study, a recently developed method for rainfall estimation from soil moisture observations, SM2RAIN, is demonstrated to facilitate the accurate application of TC within triplets containing two state-of-the-art satellite rainfall estimates and a reanalysis product. The validity of different TC assumptions are indirectly tested via a high-quality ground rainfall product over the contiguous United States (CONUS, showing that SM2RAIN can provide a truly independent source of rainfall accumulation information which uniquely satisfies the assumptions underlying TC. On this basis, TC is applied with SM2RAIN on a global scale in an optimal configuration to calculate, for the first time, reliable global correlations (vs. an unknown truth of the aforementioned products without using a ground benchmark data set. The analysis is carried out during the period 2007–2012 using daily rainfall accumulation products obtained at 1° × 1° spatial resolution. Results convey the relatively high performance of the satellite rainfall estimates in eastern North and South America, southern Africa, southern and eastern Asia, eastern Australia, and southern Europe, as well as complementary performances between the reanalysis product and SM2RAIN, with the first performing reasonably well in the Northern Hemisphere and the second providing very good performance in the Southern

  14. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain


    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  15. Rainfall measurements from cellular networks microwave links : an alternative ground reference for satellite validation and hydrology in Africa . (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; cazenave, frederic; Zougmore, françois; Doumounia, Ali; kacou, Modeste


    In many part of the Tropics the ground based gauge networks are sparse, often degrading and accessing this data for monitoring rainfall or for validating satellite products is sometime difficult. Here, an alternative rainfall measuring technique is proposed and tested in West Africa. It is based on using commercial microwave links from cellular telephone networks to detect and quantify rainfall. Rainfall monitoring based on commercial terrestrial microwave links has been tested for the first time in Burkina Faso, in Sahel. The rainfall regime is characterized by intense rainfall intensities brought by mesoscale Convective systems (MCS), generated by deep organized convection. The region is subjected to drought as well as dramatic floods associated with the intense rainfall provided by a few MCSs. The hydrometeorological risk is increasing and need to be monitored. In collaboration with the national cellular phone operator, Telecel Faso, the attenuation on 29 km long microwave links operating at 7 GHz was monitored at 1s time rate for the monsoon season 2012. The time series of attenuation is transformed into rain rates and compared with rain gauge data. The method is successful in quantifying rainfall: 95% of the rainy days are detected. The correlation with the daily raingauge series is 0.8 and the season bias is 5%. The correlation at the 5 min time step within each event is also high. We will present the quantitative results, discuss the uncertainties and compare the time series and the 2D maps with those derived from a polarimetric radar. The results demonstrate the potential interest of exploiting national and regional wireless telecommunication networks to provide rainfall maps for various applications : urban hydrology, agro-hydrological risk monitoring, satellite validation and development of combined rainfall products. We will also present the outcome of the first international Rain Cell Africa workshop held in Ouagadougou early 2015.

  16. 7Be Measured at Ground Air Level and Rainfall in the City of SÃO Paulo (United States)

    Damatto, S. R.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.


    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracers for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. This short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 = 53.3 d) was measured, from March 2011 to July 2012, in samples of air at ground level, every fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that ocurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) which campus (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level) is located in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV for 60Co and associated electronic devices and live counting time varing from 150,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clearly seasonal variations was observed.

  17. Rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema reka watershed on the territory of the hunting ground Valnište

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    Kostadinov Stanimir


    Full Text Available Fenced hunting ground "Valnište" covers 410 ha on the slopes of the mountain Čemernik, in the Municipality Crna Trava. The hunting ground is situated in the Golema Reka watershed. Rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema Reka watershed were researched in order to create a hydrological base with the data on rainfall, available water resources and maximal discharges. Average annual rainfall design value for the watershed is 860. 14 mm. The highest monthly rainfall occurs in June and May, and the lowest in September and October. As there are no measured data, runoff regime was determined based on the method of parameter hydrology. The following calculation results are adopted for the maximal discharge: Q1000=19,0 m3·s-1 i Q100=10,90 m3·s-1. The adopted value of mean annual specific discharge (runoff module is MQ=16,0 l·s-1·km-2.The study results of rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema Reka watershed show that hydrological conditions are favorable for the development of hunting and hunting tourism.

  18. Sub-Seasonal Variability of Tropical Rainfall Observed by TRMM and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar (United States)

    Dolan, Brenda; Rutledge, Steven; Lang, Timothy; Cifelli, Robert; Nesbitt, Stephen


    Studies of tropical precipitation characteristics from the TRMM-LBA and NAME field campaigns using ground-based polarimetric S-band data have revealed significant differences in microphysical processes occurring in the various meteorological regimes sampled in those projects. In TRMM-LMA (January-February 1999 in Brazil; a TRMM ground validation experiment), variability is driven by prevailing low-level winds. During periods of low-level easterlies, deeper and more intense convection is observed, while during periods of low-level westerlies, weaker convection embedded in widespread stratiform precipitation is common. In the NAME region (North American Monsoon Experiment, summer 2004 along the west coast of Mexico), strong terrain variability drives differences in precipitation, with larger drops and larger ice mass aloft associated with convection occurring over the coastal plain compared to convection over the higher terrain of the Sierra Madre Occidental, or adjacent coastal waters. Comparisons with the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) indicate that such sub-seasonal variability in these two regions are not well characterized by the TRMM PR reflectivity and rainfall statistics. TRMM PR reflectivity profiles in the LBA region are somewhat lower than S-Pol values, particularly in the more intense easterly regime convection. In NAME, mean reflectivities are even more divergent, with TRMM profiles below those of S-Pol. In both regions, the TRMM PR does not capture rain rates above 80 mm hr-1 despite much higher rain rates estimated from the S-Pol polarimetric data, and rain rates are generally lower for a given reflectivity from TRMM PR compared to S-Pol. These differences between TRMM PR and S-Pol may arise from the inability of Z-R relationships to capture the full variability of microphysical conditions or may highlight problems with TRMM retrievals over land. In addition to the TRMM-LBA and NAME regions, analysis of sub-seasonal precipitation variability and

  19. Investigation of Rainfall Characteristics Using TRMM PR and Ground Based Radar (United States)

    Dolan, B.; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Cifelli, R.; Rutledge, S. A.


    Despite relatively good agreement between reflectivity profiles, comparisons of rainfall statistics derived from TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) deviate from ground-based radar (GR) observations in various field locations across the globe. TRMM PR rain rate probability distribution functions underestimate the occurrence of high rain rates (> 80 mm hr-1) compared with similar ground-based statistics, and similarly, GR distributes the total rain volume over a larger range of rain rates. Analysis of ten years of TRMM data over three field sites has shown that the greatest disagreements occur in the most intense convection, such as over land and during the east and break wind regimes over the Amazon and Australia, respectively. These differences are investigated further in this study. Ten years of TRMM PR data are analyzed in conjunction with data collected during two field experiments involving the NCAR S-Pol radar. S-Pol was deployed in Brazil in the Amazon during TRMM LBA in 1998-1999 and near Mazatlan, Mexico as part of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) in 2004. Additionally, multiple years of data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology CPOL radar located in Darwin, Australia, are examined to extend the robustness of the GR observations beyond the relatively short field campaigns. Polarimetric data collected by the two radars are used to characterize the differences between TRMM PR and GR observations as a function of bulk hydrometeor type. For example, profiles with significant graupel, as identified by GR, are analyzed to investigate the role of mixed phase in the PR retrievals. The vertical variability of D0 is examined as a function of reflectivity and related to the underlying microphysical conditions using the polarimetric data provided by the GR observations. Spatial variability of D0 is also explored by correlating D0 values derived from GR at different heights. Several significant changes were made to the TRMM processing algorithms in the

  20. Comparison of the TRMM Precipitation Radar rainfall estimation with ground-based disdrometer and radar measurements in South Greece (United States)

    Ioannidou, Melina P.; Kalogiros, John A.; Stavrakis, Adrian K.


    The performance of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) rainfall estimation algorithm is assessed, locally, in Crete island, south Greece, using data from a 2D-video disdrometer and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar. A three-parameter, normalized Gamma drop size distribution is fitted to the disdrometer rain spectra; the latter are classified in stratiform and convective rain types characterized by different relations between distribution parameters. The method of moments estimates more accurately the distribution parameters than the best fit technique, which exhibits better agreement with and is more biased by the observed droplet distribution at large diameter values. Power laws between the radar reflectivity factor (Z) and the rainfall rate (R) are derived from the disdrometer data. A significant diversity of the prefactor and the exponent of the estimated power laws is observed, depending on the scattering model and the regression technique. The Z-R relationships derived from the disdrometer data are compared to those obtained from TRMM-PR data. Generally, the power laws estimated from the two datasets are different. Specifically, the greater prefactor found for the disdrometer data suggests an overestimation of rainfall rate by the TRMM-PR algorithm for light and moderate stratiform rain, which was the main rain type in the disdrometer dataset. Finally, contemporary data from the TRMM-PR and a ground-based, X-band, polarimetric radar are analyzed. Comparison of the corresponding surface rain rates for a rain event with convective characteristics indicates a large variability of R in a single TRMM-PR footprint, which typically comprises several hundreds of radar pixels. Thus, the coarse spatial resolution of TRMM-PR may lead to miss of significant high local peaks of convective rain. Also, it was found that the high temporal variability of convective rain may introduce significant errors in the estimation of bias of

  1. Development of Deep Learning Based Data Fusion Approach for Accurate Rainfall Estimation Using Ground Radar and Satellite Precipitation Products (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.; Tan, H.; Cifelli, R.; Xie, P.


    Rainfall estimation based on onboard satellite measurements has been an important topic in satellite meteorology for decades. A number of precipitation products at multiple time and space scales have been developed based upon satellite observations. For example, NOAA Climate Prediction Center has developed a morphing technique (i.e., CMORPH) to produce global precipitation products by combining existing space based rainfall estimates. The CMORPH products are essentially derived based on geostationary satellite IR brightness temperature information and retrievals from passive microwave measurements (Joyce et al. 2004). Although the space-based precipitation products provide an excellent tool for regional and global hydrologic and climate studies as well as improved situational awareness for operational forecasts, its accuracy is limited due to the sampling limitations, particularly for extreme events such as very light and/or heavy rain. On the other hand, ground-based radar is more mature science for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), especially after the implementation of dual-polarization technique and further enhanced by urban scale radar networks. Therefore, ground radars are often critical for providing local scale rainfall estimation and a "heads-up" for operational forecasters to issue watches and warnings as well as validation of various space measurements and products. The CASA DFW QPE system, which is based on dual-polarization X-band CASA radars and a local S-band WSR-88DP radar, has demonstrated its excellent performance during several years of operation in a variety of precipitation regimes. The real-time CASA DFW QPE products are used extensively for localized hydrometeorological applications such as urban flash flood forecasting. In this paper, a neural network based data fusion mechanism is introduced to improve the satellite-based CMORPH precipitation product by taking into account the ground radar measurements. A deep learning system is

  2. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

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    Francyregis A Nunes


    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant

  3. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (caatinga), Northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Nunes, Francyregis A; Segundo, Glauco B Martins; Vasconcelos, Yuri B; Azevedo, Raul; Quinet, Yves


    The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3 degrees 48' S - 39 degrees 20' W), in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp.) and Camponotus (8 spp.) being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%), while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%). Most of the species (22) showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months). Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species) observed each month. The species-accumulation curves (observed and estimated) indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant

  4. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.


    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  5. Analysis of the Amount of Rainfall Based on the Magnitude of Flood%基于洪水强度的地面雨情信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李诚志; 孟现勇; 邓兴耀; 刘志辉


    two different time scales which corresponding to two different intensity of floods, The results show that using curvature to approach flow process can accurately infer flood level, but there is a modest gap about rainfall amount between model calculation and actual observation.

  6. Study of Atmospheric Trace Gas Amounts at the Stara Zagora Ground-Based Station (United States)

    Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Atanassov, At.; Giovanelli, G.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.


    Since the end of August 1999 twilight daily measurements of scattered zenith sky radiation have been carried out at Stara Zagora for determination of trace gas amounts, deploying GASCOD instrument. It was developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Science and Climate, Bologna. Reference spectra are obtained at midday. The instrument, appearing a UV-VIS spectrometer, registers the zenith sky spectra automatically and 410 nm to 460 nm spectral interval is used to retrieve NO2 and O3 slant column amounts (SCA) by application of the DOAS methodology. The spectral analysis uses minimum least squares fitting of the cross sections at the expected absorbers to a logarithm of the twilight spectrum and a reference spectrum. The accumulated time series show the well-known typical seasonal variations, caused by the solar insulation. The residual time series of the removed semi-annual seasonal cycles from the measured original series show many different variations, with short periods up to inter-annual variations. Single spikes of SCA are detected and we consider them a result of over-passing weather fronts and/or lightning. Variations of SCA with time scale up to about 10 days are the consequence of weather cyclones. Some short-term variations of NO2 and O3 SCA are a result of intensive stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Other residual time series periods are caused by Rossby waves, by over-passing of the polar vortex filaments. The inter-annual variations can be affected by QBO and NAO. Applying wavelet analysis of the obtained NO2 slant column amount data series, and the total O3 amount obtained by the GOME instrument, during the 23-rd solar cycle maximum, time intervals are found with periods of 27 days on the time scale. The applied cross-correlation analysis demonstrates a phase lag of some days of the NO2 and O3 response to the 27-days solar cycle. The calculated vertical column amounts of NO2 are used for validation of the satellite measurements, e.g. SCIAMACHY NO2

  7. Comparing TRMM 3B42, CFSR and ground-based rainfall estimates as input for hydrological models, in data scarce regions: the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Worqlul


    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of hydrological models requires accurate spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall observation network. In developing countries rainfall observation station network are sparse and unevenly distributed. Satellite-based products have the potential to overcome these shortcomings. The objective of this study is to compare the advantages and the limitation of commonly used high-resolution satellite rainfall products as input to hydrological models as compared to sparsely populated network of rain gauges. For this comparison we use two semi-distributed hydrological models Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV and Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED that performed well in Ethiopian highlands in two watersheds: the Gilgel Abay with relatively dense network and Main Beles with relatively scarce rain gauge stations. Both are located in the Upper Blue Nile Basin. The two models are calibrated with the observed discharge from 1994 to 2003 and validated from 2004 to 2006. Satellite rainfall estimates used includes Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42 version 7 and ground rainfall measurements. The results indicated that both the gauged and the CFSR precipitation estimates were able to reproduce the stream flow well for both models and both watershed. TRMM 3B42 performed poorly with Nash Sutcliffe values less than 0.1. As expected the HBV model performed slightly better than the PED model, because HBV divides the watershed into sub-basins resulting in a greater number of calibration parameters. The simulated discharge for the Gilgel Abay was better than for the less well endowed (rain gauge wise Main Beles. Finally surprisingly, the ground based gauge performed better for both watersheds (with the exception of extreme events than TRMM and CFSR satellite rainfall estimates. Undoubtedly in the future, when improved satellite products will become available, this will change.

  8. Enhanced Orographic Tropical Rainfall: An Study of the Colombia's rainfall (United States)

    Peñaranda, V. M.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.; Mesa, O. J.


    Convection in tropical regions may be enhanced by orographic barriers. The orographic enhancement is an intensification of rain rates caused by the forced lifting of air over a mountainous structure. Orographic heavy rainfall events, occasionally, comes along by flooding, debris flow and substantial amount of looses, either economics or human lives. Most of the heavy convective rainfall events, occurred in Colombia, have left a lot of victims and material damages by flash flooding. An urgent action is required by either scientific communities or society, helping to find preventive solutions against these kind of events. Various scientific literature reports address the feedback process between the convection and the local orographic structures. The orographic enhancement could arise by several physical mechanism: precipitation transport on leeward side, convection triggered by the forcing of air over topography, the seeder-feeder mechanism, among others. The identification of the physical mechanisms for orographic enhancement of rainfall has not been studied over Colombia. As far as we know, orographic convective tropical rainfall is just the main factor for the altitudinal belt of maximum precipitation, but the lack of detailed hydro-meteorological measurements have precluded a complete understanding of the tropical rainfall in Colombia and its complex terrain. The emergence of the multifractal theory for rainfall has opened a field of research which builds a framework for parsimonious modeling of physical process. Studies about the scaling behavior of orographic rainfall have found some modulating functions between the rainfall intensity probability distribution and the terrain elevation. The overall objective is to advance in the understanding of the orographic influence over the Colombian tropical rainfall based on observations and scaling-analysis techniques. We use rainfall maps, weather radars scans and ground-based rainfall data. The research strategy is

  9. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyregis A Nunes


    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant

  10. Changes in rainfall amount and frequency do not affect the outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa and its neighbouring grasses in two semiarid communities (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando


    We evaluated the net outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa, our target plant, and different herbaceous neighbours in response to changes in the magnitude and frequency of rainfall events during three years. The experiment was conducted in natural and anthropogenic grasslands dominated by a perennial stress-tolerator and ruderal annual species, respectively. In spite of the neutral or positive effects of neighbours on water availability, neighbouring plants reduced the performance of Retama juveniles, suggesting competition for resources other than water. The negative effects of grasses on the photochemical efficiency of Retama juveniles decreased with higher water availabilities or heavier irrigation pulses, depending on the grassland studied; however, these effects did not extent to the survival and growth of Retama juveniles. Our findings show the prevalence of competitive interactions among the studied plants, regardless of the water availability and its temporal pattern. These results suggest that positive interactions may not prevail under harsher conditions when shade-intolerant species are involved. This study could be used to further refine our predictions of how plant-plant interactions will respond to changes in rainfall, either natural or increased by the ongoing climatic change, in ecosystems where grass-shrubs interactions are prevalent. PMID:25914429

  11. Comparison Between IASI/Metop-A and OMI/Aura Ozone Column Amounts with EUBREWNET Ground-Based Measurements (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto


    This work addresses the comparison of {bf IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer)} on board Metop-A and {bf OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)} on board Aura to several ground-based Brewer spectrophotometers belonging to the {bf European Brewer Network (EUBREWNET)} for the period September 2010 to December 2015. The focus of this study is to examine how well the satellite retrieval products capture the total ozone column amounts (TOC) at different latitudes and evaluate the different levels of Brewer spectrophotometer data. On this comparison Level 1, 1.5 and 2 Brewer data will be used to evaluate satellite data, where: 1) Level 1 Brewer data are the TOC calculated with the standard Brewer algorithm from the direct sun measurements; 2) Level 1.5 Brewer data are Level 1.0 observations filtered and corrected from instrumental issues: and 3) Level 2.0 Brewer data are 1.5 observations, but validated with a posteriori calibration. The IASI retrievals examined are operational IASI Level 2 products, version 5 from September 2010 to October 2014, and version 6 from October 2014 to December 2015, from {it EUMETSAT Data Centre}, while OMI retrievals are OMI-DOAS TOC products extracted from the {it NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)}. The differences and their implications for the retrieved products will be discussed and, in order to evaluate the quality and sensitivity of each product, special attention will be put on analyzing the instrumental errors from these different measurement techniques. Furthermore, those parameters that could affect the comparison of the different datasets such as the different viewing geometry, the satellite data vertical sensitivity, cloudiness conditions, spectral region used for retrievals, and so on, will be analyzed in detail.

  12. Quantitative mapping of rainfall rates over the oceans utilizing Nimbus-5 ESMR data (United States)

    Rao, M. S. V.; Abbott, W. V.


    The electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) data from the Nimbus 5 satellite was used to deduce estimates of precipitation amount over the oceans. An atlas of the global oceanic rainfall was prepared and the global rainfall maps analyzed and related to available ground truth information as well as to large scale processes in the atmosphere. It was concluded that the ESMR system provides the most reliable and direct approach yet known for the estimation of rainfall over sparsely documented, wide oceanic regions.

  13. Assessment for backwater amount in unsaturated zone in landslide in rainfall process%降雨过程中滑体非饱和带的滞水量计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智磊; 孙红月; 尚岳全; 赵权利


    为研究滑体中的非饱和带滞水在降雨补给潜水过程中的作用,提出降雨过程中非饱和带滞水的计算方法以及以非饱和带滞水为指标的降雨阈值评价方法.通过监测降雨量、坡体潜水位及排水结构的排水流量,建立统计模型来评估降雨产生的非饱和带滞水量.利用排水隧洞影响范围内的坡体模型和均匀渗流理论正坡浸润线分析了潜水位变化所对应的土体中潜水释水量,使潜水位通过量纲变换后与降雨量和排水流量量纲一致,从而进行三者的统计模型分析.利用坡体高度饱和条件下降雨过程的监测数据建立向量自回归模型,用于计算理论降雨量,得到低水位条件下降雨过程中产生的非饱和带滞水量.根据浙江省杭金衢高速公路K103滑坡的案例,采用三次暴雨过程中的降雨、排水隧洞排水流量与潜水位监测值对降雨过程中产生的非饱和带滞水量进行了计算,分析了非饱和带滞水量对降雨补给潜水过程所起的作用,结果表明:可以将当滞水量重量达到60 kN且地下水位达到0.6m时作为指标来确定降雨阈值.%To analyze the effect of backwater in unsaturated zone in the process that rain fed the groundwater in landslide,the computing method for backwater amount in rain process and evaluation method for rainfall threshold with the index of backwater were presented.The backwater amount induced by rainfall was deduced from the statistical model which was based on the monitoring data containing rainfall,groundwater level in landslide and water discharge from drainage structure.To make dimensions consistency of the monitoring data from rainfall,water discharge and groundwater level for statistical analysis,a seepage field model of drainage tunnel was estsablished.In this model,the groundwater level variation was related to water release quantity considering the line of seepage in positive slope in uniform flow theory.In the

  14. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  15. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy (United States)

    Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Schultz, Michael D.; Berti, Metteo; Gregoretti, Carlo; Simoni, Alessandro; Mote, Thomas L.; Saylor, Anthony M.


    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydro-geologic events. In the past, debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to these mass-wasting events has been limited to recording rainfall and developing intensity thresholds for debris mobilization. This study aims to expand the examination of atmospheric processes that preceded both locally intense convective rainfall (LICR) and debris flows in the Dolomite region. 500 hPa pressure level plots of geopotential heights were constructed for a period of 3 days prior to debris flow events to gain insight into the synoptic-scale processes which provide an environment conducive to LICR in the Dolomites. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data recorded at the meso-scale were incorporated to assess the convective environment proximal to debris flow source regions. Twelve events were analyzed and from this analysis three common synoptic-scale circulation patterns were identified. Evaluation of CG flashes at smaller spatial and temporal scales illustrated that convective processes vary in their production of CF flashes (total number) and the spatial distribution of flashes can also be quite different between events over longer periods. During the 60 min interval immediately preceding debris flow a majority of cases exhibited spatial and temporal colocation of LICR and CG flashes. Also a number of CG flash parameters were found to be significantly correlated to rainfall intensity prior to debris flow initiation.

  16. Modeling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ground and Surface Water Sources in Rural India: Associations with Latrines, Livestock, Damaged Wells, and Rainfall Patterns. (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W


    Surface and groundwater contamination with fecal pathogens is a public health concern especially in low-income settings where these sources are used untreated. We modeled observed Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in community ponds (n = 94; 79% contaminated), deep tubewells (DTWs) (n = 107; 17%), and shallow tubewells (STWs) (n = 96; 19%) during the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons (June-August) in 60 villages in Puri District, India to understand sources and processes of contamination. Detection of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in a tubewell was positively associated with damage to the well pad for DTWs, the amount of human loading into pour-flush latrine pits nearby (≤15 m) for STWs, and the village literacy rate (for Giardia in STWs). Pond concentration levels were positively associated with the number of people practicing open defecation within 50 m and the sheep population for Cryptosporidium, and with the village illiteracy rate for Giardia. Recent rainfall increased the risk of Cryptosporidium in STWs (an extreme event) and ponds (any), while increasing seasonal rainfall decreased the risk of Giardia in STWs and ponds. Full latrine coverage in this setting is expected to marginally reduce pond Cryptosporidium contamination (16%) while increasing local groundwater protozoal contamination (87-306%), with the largest increases predicted for Cryptosporidium in STWs.

  17. A Gaussian Random Field Approach for Merging Radar and Ground-Based Rainfall Data on Small Spatial and Temporal Scales (United States)

    Krebsbach, K.; Friederichs, P.


    The generation of reliable precipitation products that explicitly account for spatial and temporal structures of precipitation events requires a combination of data with a variety of error structures and temporal resolutions. In-situ measurements are relatively accurate, but available only at sparse and irregularly distributed locations, whereas remote measurements cover areas but suffer from spatially and temporally inhomogeneous systematic errors. Besides gauge measurements are available on coarser spatial and temporal resolution in contrast to remote sensing measurements which are given on a fine spatial and temporal resolution. In our study we use precipitation rates from the composit of two X-band radars in Bonn and Jülich in Germany. Our aim is to formulate a statistical space-time model that aggregates and disaggregates precipitation rates from radar and gauge observations. We model a Gaussian random field as underlying process, where we face the task of dealing with a large non-Gaussian data set. To start the analysis of the unadjusted radar rainfall rates, we follow the work of D. Allcroft and C. Glasbey (2003) and transform the data to a truncated Gaussian distribution. The advantage of the latent variable approach is that it takes account of the occurence of rainfall and the intensity using a single process. We proceed by estimating the empirical correlation from these transformed values with maximum likelihood methods and fit a parametric correlation function that gives rise to a Gaussian random field. Since the transformation gives censored values to dry locations, we simulate values for this area that lie below some threshold and extend the Gaussian field to the whole domain. In order to merge gauge and radar data for precipitation, we first aggregate the data to a scale on which the comparison is reasonable and then disaggregate again back to smaller desirable scales. The disaggregation step consists of calculating the difference between radar

  18. The structurally-controlled rockslide of Barmasse (Valais, Switzerland): structural geology, ground-based monitoring and displacement vs. rainfall modeling. (United States)

    Michoud, C.; Abellan, A.; Baillifard, F.-J.; Demierre, J.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Jakubowski, J.; May-Delasoie, F.


    In this communication, we show a case study on the Barmasse rockslide (Val de Bagnes, Valais, Switzerland), which is an active structurally-controlled instability that threaten roads and inhabitants. The entire slope is included within the Middle Penninic unit. According to regional tectonic stresses, the micaschists that compose the instability have been intensively deformed and metamorphised leading to an important foliation and fracturing. Structural settings have been extracted from 3D points-clouds of the crown area. These datasets were acquired with a terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) and processed with Coltop-3D software. The landslide can be defined as a complex instability, with a continuous movement on a basal surface. This deformation also generates a frequent rockfall activity in the upper part of the slope. The landslide was monitoring using different remote sensing techniques (TLS, GNSS and GB-InSAR): a) regarding TLS measurements, we monitored long term 3D displacements comparing two different TLS points clouds acquired in 2009 and 2011, showing more than 3 m displacements in two years in the upper part of the slope (crown area); b) differential GNSS measures were obtained at the toe of the slide, validating TLS measurements in those areas were vegetation hampered remote sensing measurement; c) finally the landslide was also monitored by a GB-InSAR in order to investigate short term displacements. The experiment was carried out during summer 2011, recording displacement rates exceeding 7 mm in 12 h in the main scarp, and confirmed the high amplitude of daily displacements. We are also continuously recording landslide displacements at a daily rate over the most active part of the slope using one crackmeter. The kinematics of the landslide is characterized by a continuous displacement (3rd creep state) which is clearly controlled by external forces (rainfall episodes): on the one side, landslide velocity sharply increases it value after rainfall episodes; on the

  19. Rainfall generation (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Raj

    This chapter presents an overview of methods for stochastic generation of rainfall at annual to subdaily time scales, at single- to multiple-point locations, and in a changing climatic regime. Stochastic rainfall generators are used to provide inputs for risk assessment of natural or engineering systems that can undergo failure under sustained (high or low) extremes. As a result, generation of rainfall has evolved to provide options that adequately represent such conditions, leading to sequences that exhibit low-frequency variability of a nature similar to the observed rainfall. The chapter consists of three key sections: the first two outlining approaches for rainfall generation using endogenous predictor variables and the third highlighting approaches for generation using exogenous predictors often simulated to represent future climatic conditions. The first section presents approaches for generation of annual and seasonal rainfall and daily rainfall, both at single-point locations and multiple sites, with an emphasis on alternatives that ensure appropriate representation of low-frequency variability in the generated rainfall sequences. The second section highlights advancements in the subdaily rainfall generation procedures including commonly used approaches for daily to subdaily rainfall generation. The final section (generation using exogenous predictors) presents a range of alternatives for stochastic downscaling of rainfall for climate change impact assessments of natural and engineering systems. We conclude the chapter by outlining some of the key challenges that remain to be addressed, especially in generation under climate change conditions, with an emphasis on the importance of incorporating uncertainty present in both measurements and models, in the rainfall sequences that are generated.

  20. The asymmetry of rainfall process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU RuCong; YUAN WeiHua; LI Jian


    Using hourly station rain gauge data in the warm season (May-October) during 1961-2006,the climatological features of the evolution of the rainfall process are analyzed by compositing rainfall events centered on the maximum hourly rainfall amount of each event.The results reveal that the rainfall process is asymmetric,which means rainfall events usually reach the maximum in a short period and then experience a relatively longer retreat to the end of the event.The effects of rainfall intensity,duration and peak time,as well as topography,are also considered.It is found that the asymmetry is more obvious in rainfall events with strong intensity and over areas with complex terrain,such as the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau,the Hengduan Mountains,and the Yungui Plateau.The asymmetry in short-duration rainfall is more obvious than that in long-duration rainfall,but the regional differences are weaker.The rainfall events that reach the maximum during 14:00-02:00 LST exhibit the strongest asymmetry and those during 08:00-14:00 LST show the weakest asymmetry.The rainfall intensity at the peak time stands out,which means that the rainfall intensity increases and decreases quickly both before and after the peak.These results can improve understanding of the rainfall process and provide metrics for the evaluation of climate models.Moreover,the strong asymmetry of the rainfall process should be highly noted when taking measures to defending against geological hazards,such as collapses,landslides and debris flows throughout southwestern China.

  1. Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García


    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility of ground-based remote sensing ozone total column amounts (OTC from spectral signatures at 3040 and 4030 cm−1. These spectral regions are routinely measured by the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed experiments. In addition, they are potentially detectable by the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network FTIR instruments. The ozone retrieval strategy presented here estimates the OTC from NDACC FTIR high resolution spectra with a theoretical precision of about 2% and 5% in the 3040 cm−1 and 4030 cm−1 regions, respectively. Empirically, these OTC products are validated by inter-comparison to FTIR OTC reference retrievals in the 1000 cm−1 spectral region (standard reference for NDACC ozone products, using a 8 year FTIR time series (2005–2012 taken at the subtropical ozone super-site of the Izaña Observatory (Tenerife, Spain. Associated with the weaker ozone signatures at the higher wavenumber regions, the 3040 cm−1 and 4030 cm−1 retrievals show lower vertical sensitivity than the 1000 cm−1 retrievals. Nevertheless, we observe that the rather consistent variations are detected: the variances of the 3040 cm−1 and the 4030 cm−1 retrievals agree within 90% and 75%, respectively, with the variance of the 1000 cm−1 standard retrieval. Furthermore, all three retrievals show very similar annual cycles. However, we observe a large systematic difference of about 7% between the OTC obtained at 1000 cm−1 and 3040 cm−1, indicating a significant inconsistency between the spectroscopic ozone parameters (HITRAN 2012 of both regions. Between the 1000 cm−1 and the 4030 cm−1 retrieval the systematic difference is only 2–3%. Finally, the long-term stability of the OTC retrievals has also been examined, observing that both near infrared retrievals can monitor the long-term OTC evolution in consistency to the 1000 cm−1

  2. Statistical framework to simulate daily rainfall series conditional on upper-air predictor variables (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Kaleris, Vassilios


    We propose a statistical framework to generate synthetic rainfall time series at daily resolution, conditional on predictor variables indicative of the atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale. We do so by first introducing a dimensionless measure to assess the relative influence of upper-air variables at different pressure levels on ground-level rainfall statistics, and then simulating rainfall occurrence and amount by proper conditioning on the selected atmospheric predictors. The proposed scheme for conditional rainfall simulation operates at a daily time step (avoiding discrete approaches for identification of weather states), can incorporate any possible number and combination of predictor variables, while it is capable of reproducing rainfall seasonality directly from the variation of upper-air variables, without any type of seasonal analysis or modeling. The suggested downscaling approach is tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece. The model is found to accurately reproduce several statistics of actual rainfall time series, at both annual and seasonal levels, including wet day fractions, the alternation of wet and dry intervals, the distributions of dry and wet spell lengths, the distribution of rainfall intensities in wet days, short-range dependencies present in historical rainfall records, the distribution of yearly rainfall maxima, dependencies of rainfall statistics on the observation scale, and long-term climatic features present in historical rainfall records. The suggested approach is expected to serve as a useful tool for stochastic rainfall simulation conditional on climate model outputs at a regional level, where climate change impacts and risks are assessed.

  3. Remote Sensing-based Rainfall Estimates in Data-Scarce Himalaya: Performance Assessment of TRMM_3B42v7, TRMM_3B42RT v7 & GPM_3IMERGHH v03 using Ground Rainfall and Stream Hydrographs in Sikkim Himalaya, India (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Badiger, S.


    Sikkim Himalaya are characterised by high altitudinal gradients and greatly varying precipitation patterns, both across space and time, which further influences vegetation distribution and their hydrologic functioning. However, in the absence of long-term and spatially-distributed precipitation data, very little is known about the inherent climatic variability of the region, its impact on the ecosystem complexities and services; and their response to climate change. Recently, satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) have emerged as useful substitute in hydrological studies from Himalayas but require careful validation based on ground observations. In the study, we assess the performance of three gridded SREs TRMM_3B42v7 (TRMM), TRMM_3B42RT v7 (TRMM_RT) & GPM_3IMERGHH v03 (GPM) using ground observations of rainfall and streamflow at Khangchendzonga Bioshpere Reserve in Sikkim, India. TRMM and TRMM_RT were available at 3-hourly temporal resolution and 0.50 spatial resolution, GPM at half-hourly and 0.10; and rainfall from two closely placed tipping bucket raingauges (TBRG) at 1 minute. All datasets were aggregated at 3-hourly, daily and monthly for validation against TBRG. Statistical performance metrics like bias, correlation coefficient, false alarm ration, accuracy etc. were calculated. In a novel approach, hydrograph-based performance assessment (HPA) was carried out by plotting flow data from two nearby streams was as hydrographs using the SREs and TBRG at 3-hourly resolution. Independent categorical assessment of each rainfall source in explaining individual storm events in the streams was done. Statistically, all SREs performed below-par at sub-daily scales (accuracy 0.6). Among SREs, TRMM performed the best overall, whereas GPM was better at detecting high-intensity rainfall but poorest at low-intensity rainfall. Both, TRMM and TRMM_RT significantly underestimated rainfall. The performance of SREs based on HPA was much better as SREs were able to explain more than

  4. Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in W Slovenia in September 2007

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    S. Rusjan


    Full Text Available During a weather front that passed over large parts of Slovenia on 18.9.2007, extreme rainfall events were triggered causing several severe flash floods with six casualties. Out of 210 municipalities in Slovenia, 60 were reporting flood damages, and the total economic flood damage was later estimated at close to 200 million Euro; highest damage was claimed by Železniki municipality in NW Slovenia. The main purpose of the study presented in this paper was to put together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial dynamics and variability of the flash flood event along the Selška Sora River flowing through the town of Železniki. The weather forecast by the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO lead to early warning of floodings but has underestimated rainfall amounts by a factor of 2. Also meteorological radar underestimated ground rainfall as much as by 50%. During that day, in many rainfall gauging stations operated by ARSO in the area under investigation, extreme rainfall amounts were measured, e.g. 303 mm in 24 h or 157 mm in 2 h. Some of the measured rainfall amounts were the highest registered amounts in Slovenia so far. Statistical analysis using Gumble distribution was performed and rainfall return periods were estimated. When assessing rainfall return periods, a question of the sampling error as a consequence of short rainfall records used was raised. Furthermore, measured rainfall data were used to reconstruct hydrographs on selected water stations along the Selška Sora River. The cumulative areal precipitation for the Selška Sora River catchment upstream of Železniki amounted to 219 mm, while the modeled effective precipitation used to simulate the hydrograph peak was only 57 mm. The modeled direct runoff coefficient therefore amounts to 0.26. Surprisingly low value is mainly caused by the applied unit hydrograph method that seeks to meet the peak

  5. Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm-1) (United States)

    García, O. E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.; González, Y.


    This study examines the possibility of ground-based remote-sensing ozone total column amounts (OTC) from spectral signatures at 3040 and 4030 cm-1. These spectral regions are routinely measured by the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infraRed) experiments. In addition, they are potentially detectable by the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) FTIR instruments. The ozone retrieval strategy presented here estimates the OTC from NDACC FTIR high-resolution spectra with a theoretical precision of about 2 and 5% in the 3040 and 4030 cm-1 regions, respectively. Empirically, these OTC products are validated by inter-comparison to FTIR OTC reference retrievals in the 1000 cm-1 spectral region (standard reference for NDACC ozone products), using an 8-year FTIR time series (2005-2012) taken at the subtropical ozone supersite of the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Associated with the weaker ozone signatures at the higher wave number regions, the 3040 and 4030 cm-1 retrievals show lower vertical sensitivity than the 1000 cm-1 retrievals. Nevertheless, we observe that the rather consistent variations are detected: the variances of the 3040 cm-1 and the 4030 cm-1 retrievals agree within 90 and 75%, respectively, with the variance of the 1000 cm-1 standard retrieval. Furthermore, all three retrievals show very similar annual cycles. However, we observe a large systematic difference of about 7% between the OTC obtained at 1000 and 3040 cm-1, indicating a significant inconsistency between the spectroscopic ozone parameters (HITRAN, 2012) of both regions. Between the 1000 cm and the 4030 cm-1 retrieval the systematic difference is only 2-3%. Finally, the long-term stability of the OTC retrievals has also been examined, observing that both near-infrared retrievals can monitor the long-term OTC evolution, consistent with the 1000 cm-1 reference data. These findings demonstrate that

  6. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments (United States)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.


    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek


    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  8. Laboratory-Measured Rainfall Effects on LWIR Soil Reflectance (United States)

    Howington, S. E.; Ballard, J., Jr.; Wilhelms, S.


    The long-wave infrared reflectance of soils will often have distinct spectral characteristics that depend on the soil's physical and spectral properties. Rainfall has the effect of sorting soil particles at the ground surface, thus changing its long-wave infrared reflectance. This study examines how rainfall alters the measured directional-hemispherical thermal infrared (8-14 μm) spectral reflectance by comparing disturbed soil with undisturbed soil and pre-rain with post-rain conditions. The study uses a soil with a specified sand/silt ratio and a calibrated, laboratory rainfall simulator. For an accumulated rainfall of 8 cm, the mean disturbed soil thermal infrared spectral reflectance within 8.1 - 9.2 μm waveband increases from an initial reflectance of 13 percent to a maximum reflectance of 31 percent. Sixty percent of this reflectance change occurred with only 1 cm accumulated rainfall. This study shows that, for this described disturbed sand/silt soil mixture, small accumulated rainfall amounts significantly alter the directional-hemispherical thermal infrared spectral reflectance.

  9. Lightning and Rainfall Characteristics in Elevated vs. Surface Based Convection in the Midwest that Produce Heavy Rainfall

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    Joshua S. Kastman


    Full Text Available There are differences in the character of surface-based and elevated convection, and one type may pose a greater threat to life or property. The lightning and rainfall characteristics of eight elevated and eight surface-based thunderstorm cases that occurred between 2007 and 2010 over the central Continental United States were tested for statistical differences. Only events that produced heavy rain (>50.8 mm·day−1 were investigated. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney test was used to determine if the characteristics of elevated thunderstorm events were significantly different than the surface based events. Observations taken from these cases include: rainfall–lightning ratios (RLR within the heavy rain area, the extent of the heavy rainfall area, cloud-to-ground (CG lightning flashes, CG flashes·h−1, positive CG flashes, positive CG flashes·h−1, percentage of positive CG flashes within the heavy rainfall area, and maximum and mean rainfall amounts within the heavy rain area. Results show that elevated convection cases produced more rainfall, total CG lightning flashes, and positive CG lightning flashes than surface based thunderstorms. More available moisture and storm morphology explain these differences, suggesting elevated convection is a greater lightning and heavy rainfall threat than surface based convection.

  10. Evaluation of rainfall infiltration characteristics in a volcanic ash soil by time domain reflectometry method

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    S. Hasegawa


    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR was used to monitor soil water conditions and to evaluate infiltration characteristics associated with rainfall into a volcanic-ash soil (Hydric Hapludand with a low bulk density. Four 1 m TDR probes were installed vertically along a 6 m line in a bare field. Three 30 cm and one 60 cm probes were installed between the 1 m probes. Soil water content was measured every half or every hour throughout the year. TDR enabled prediction of the soil water content precisely even though the empirical equation developed by Topp et al. (1980 underestimated the water content. Field capacity, defined as the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m on the day following heavy rainfall, was 640 mm. There was approximately 100 mm difference in the amount of water stored between field capacity and the driest period. Infiltration characteristics of rainfall were investigated for 36 rainfall events exceeding 10 mm with a total amount of rain of 969 mm out of an annual rainfall of 1192 mm. In the case of 25 low intensity rainfall events with less than 10 mm h-1 on to dry soils, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was equal to the cumulative rainfall. For rain intensity in excess of 10 mm h-1, non-uniform infiltration occurred. The increase in the amount of water stored at lower elevation locations was 1.4 to 1.6 times larger than at higher elevation locations even though the difference in ground height among the 1 m probes was 6 cm. In the two instances when rainfall exceeded 100 mm, including the amount of rain in a previous rainfall event, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was 65 mm lower than the total quantity of rain on the two occasions (220 mm; this indicated that 65 mm of water or 5.5% of the annual rainfall had flowed away either by surface runoff or bypass flow. Hence, approximately 95% of the annual rainfall was absorbed by the soil matrix but it is not possible to simulate

  11. Characteristics of ground motion and threshold values for colluvium slope displacement induced by heavy rainfall: a case study in northern Taiwan (United States)

    Jeng, Ching-Jiang; Sue, Dar-Zen


    The Huafan University campus is located in the Ta-lun Shan area in northern Taiwan, which is characterized by a dip slope covered by colluvium soil of various depths. For slope disaster prevention, a monitoring system was constructed that consisted of inclinometers, tiltmeters, crack gages, groundwater level observation wells, settlement and displacement observation marks, rebar strain gages, concrete strain gages, and rain gages. The monitoring data derived from hundreds of settlement and displacement observation marks were analyzed and compared with the displacement recorded by inclinometers. The analysis results revealed that the maximum settlement and displacement were concentrated on the areas around the Hui-Tsui, Zhi-An, and Wu-Ming buildings and coincided with periods of heavy rainfall. The computer program STABL was applied for slope stability analysis and modeling of slope failure. For prevention of slope instability, a drainage system and tieback anchors with additional stability measures were proposed to discharge excess groundwater following rainfall. Finally, threshold value curves of rainfall based on slope displacement were proposed. The curves can be applied for predicting slope stability when typhoons are expected to bring heavy rainfall and should be significant in slope disaster prevention.

  12. Remote sensing of rainfall for debris-flow hazard assessment (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; ,


    Recent advances in remote sensing of rainfall provide more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Four case studies of abundant debris flows over relatively small areas triggered during intense rainstorms are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. Three examples with rainfall estimates from National Weather Service Doppler radar and one example with rainfall estimates from infrared imagery from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite are compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and with landslide distribution. The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing of rainfall for landslide hazard analysis are discussed. ?? 2003 Millpress,.

  13. Rainfall erosivity estimation based on rainfall data collected over a range of temporal resolutions

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    S. Yin


    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity is the power of rainfall to cause soil erosion by water. The rainfall erosivity index for a rainfall event, EI30, is calculated from the total kinetic energy and maximum 30 min intensity of individual events. However, these data are often unavailable in many areas of the world. The purpose of this study was to develop models that relate more commonly available rainfall data resolutions, such as daily or monthly totals, to rainfall erosivity. Eleven stations with one-minute temporal resolution rainfall data collected from 1961 through 2000 in the eastern water-erosion areas of China were used to develop and calibrate 21 models. Seven independent stations, also with one-minute data, were utilized to validate those models, together with 20 previously published equations. Results showed that models in this study performed better or similar to models from previous research to estimate rainfall erosivity for these data. Prediction capabilities, as determined using symmetric mean absolute percentage errors and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients, were demonstrated for the 41 models including those for estimating erosivity at event, daily, monthly, yearly, average monthly and average annual time scales. Prediction capabilities were generally better using higher resolution rainfall data as inputs. For example, models with rainfall amount and maximum 60 min rainfall amount as inputs performed better than models with rainfall amount and maximum daily rainfall amount, which performed better than those with only rainfall amount. Recommendations are made for choosing the appropriate estimation equation, which depend on objectives and data availability.

  14. Entropy of stable seasonal rainfall distribution in Kelantan (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad


    Investigating the rainfall variability is vital for any planning and management in many fields related to water resources. Climate change can gives an impact of water availability and may aggravate water scarcity in the future. Two statistics measurements which have been used by many researchers to measure the rainfall variability are variance and coefficient of variation. However, these two measurements are insufficient since rainfall distribution in Malaysia especially in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is not symmetric instead it is positively skewed. In this study, the entropy concept is used as a tool to measure the seasonal rainfall variability in Kelantan and ten rainfall stations were selected. In previous studies, entropy of stable rainfall (ESR) and apportionment entropy (AE) were used to describe the rainfall amount variability during years for Australian rainfall data. In this study, the entropy of stable seasonal rainfall (ESSR) is suggested to model rainfall amount variability during northeast monsoon (NEM) and southwest monsoon (SWM) seasons in Kelantan. The ESSR is defined to measure the long-term average seasonal rainfall amount variability within a given year (1960-2012). On the other hand, the AE measures the rainfall amounts variability across the months. The results of ESSR and AE values show that stations in east coastline are more variable as compared to other stations inland for Kelantan rainfall. The contour maps of ESSR for Kelantan rainfall stations are also presented.

  15. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.


    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  16. Detecting Rainfall Onset Using Sky Images

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan


    Ground-based sky cameras (popularly known as Whole Sky Imagers) are increasingly used now-a-days for continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. These imagers have higher temporal and spatial resolutions compared to conventional satellite images. In this paper, we use ground-based sky cameras to detect the onset of rainfall. These images contain additional information about cloud coverage and movement and are therefore useful for accurate rainfall nowcast. We validate our results using rain gauge measurement recordings and achieve an accuracy of 89% for correct detection of rainfall onset.

  17. Rainfall erosivity in New Zealand (United States)

    Klik, Andreas; Haas, Kathrin; Dvorackova, Anna; Fuller, Ian


    the mean annual rainfall amounts to 2027 mm and therefore is higher than on the North Island. A high east-to-west gradient can be seen with the lowest rainfall along the east coast and in Inland and the highest values in the Souther Alps. The temporal variation throughout the year is very low. In each season between 24 (winter) and 26% (summer) of precipitation is observed. Like the precipitation P the range of rainfall erosivity R varies greatly and is higher on the South Island than on the North Island. The results show that precipitation between 720 (Napier) and 2730 mm.a-1 (Mt. Ruapehu) delivered R-factors between 477 and 3592 For 14 stations a good regression between rainfall and R was obtained. On the South Island corresponding mean annual rainfall between of 429 and 4300 mm produces erosivities between 252 and 10850 Again lowest R-factors occur in Inland South Island around Alexandra which is also the driest region of New Zealand. Highest values are found in the Southern Alps and the West Coast between Arthur's Pass and Fjordland. Based on the erosivity calculations the nine climatic regions can be aggregated into four erosivity regions.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 13, 2011 ... annual total amount, and frequency of fall, kinetic energy and ... annual rainfall increases from the northern frontier of the region ... Nigeria Meteorological Agency, Lagos for the ..... Estimation for Australia's Tropics. Aust. J. Soil.

  19. Improving radar rainfall estimation by merging point rainfall measurements within a model combination framework (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Mahadi; Sharma, Ashish; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Johnson, Fiona; Seed, Alan


    While the value of correcting raw radar rainfall estimates using simultaneous ground rainfall observations is well known, approaches that use the complete record of both gauge and radar measurements to provide improved rainfall estimates are much less common. We present here two new approaches for estimating radar rainfall that are designed to address known limitations in radar rainfall products by using a relatively long history of radar reflectivity and ground rainfall observations. The first of these two approaches is a radar rainfall estimation algorithm that is nonparametric by construction. Compared to the traditional gauge adjusted parametric relationship between reflectivity (Z) and ground rainfall (R), the suggested new approach is based on a nonparametric radar rainfall estimation method (NPR) derived using the conditional probability distribution of reflectivity and gauge rainfall. The NPR method is applied to the densely gauged Sydney Terrey Hills radar network, where it reduces the RMSE in rainfall estimates by 10%, with improvements observed at 90% of the gauges. The second of the two approaches is a method to merge radar and spatially interpolated gauge measurements. The two sources of information are combined using a dynamic combinatorial algorithm with weights that vary in both space and time. The weight for any specific period is calculated based on the error covariance matrix that is formulated from the radar and spatially interpolated rainfall errors of similar reflectivity periods in a cross-validation setting. The combination method reduces the RMSE by about 20% compared to the traditional Z-R relationship method, and improves estimates compared to spatially interpolated point measurements in sparsely gauged areas.

  20. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope. (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo


    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  1. Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.


    The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical

  2. Rainfall Variability, Drought Characterization, and Efficacy of Rainfall Data Reconstruction: Case of Eastern Kenya

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    M. Oscar Kisaka


    Full Text Available This study examined the extent of seasonal rainfall variability, drought occurrence, and the efficacy of interpolation techniques in eastern Kenya. Analyses of rainfall variability utilized rainfall anomaly index, coefficients of variance, and probability analyses. Spline, Kriging, and inverse distance weighting interpolation techniques were assessed using daily rainfall data and digital elevation model using ArcGIS. Validation of these interpolation methods was evaluated by comparing the modelled/generated rainfall values and the observed daily rainfall data using root mean square errors and mean absolute errors statistics. Results showed 90% chance of below cropping threshold rainfall (500 mm exceeding 258.1 mm during short rains in Embu for one year return period. Rainfall variability was found to be high in seasonal amounts (CV = 0.56, 0.47, and 0.59 and in number of rainy days (CV = 0.88, 0.49, and 0.53 in Machang’a, Kiritiri, and Kindaruma, respectively. Monthly rainfall variability was found to be equally high during April and November (CV = 0.48, 0.49, and 0.76 with high probabilities (0.67 of droughts exceeding 15 days in Machang’a and Kindaruma. Dry-spell probabilities within growing months were high, (91%, 93%, 81%, and 60% in Kiambere, Kindaruma, Machang’a, and Embu, respectively. Kriging interpolation method emerged as the most appropriate geostatistical interpolation technique suitable for spatial rainfall maps generation for the study region.

  3. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Rosolem


    vulgare, black oat (Avena strigosa, triticale (Triticum secale, Indian hemp (Crotalaria juncea and brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots with soil, in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Forty-five days after emergence, the plants were cut, dried and placed in PVC rings, simulating an amount of 8 t ha-1 of straw. Rainfalls of 4.4, 8.7, 17.4, 34.9, and 69.8 mm were applied. The straws retained up to 3.0 mm of water, irrespective of the plant species, and rains of 5 mm did not cause K leaching. Maximum K leaching per rain unit was observed for rainfalls around 20 mm, and decreased under heavier rainfalls. The amount of K released from the straw right after preparation is species-dependent, but is always below 24.0 kg ha-1 under rains up to 70 mm, and positively related with tissue nutrient contents. Triticale and black oats are more efficient at recycling K.

  4. Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide (United States)

    Hovenden, Mark J.; Newton, Paul C. D.; Wills, Karen E.


    The rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) should stimulate ecosystem productivity, but to what extent is highly uncertain, particularly when combined with changing temperature and precipitation. Ecosystem response to CO2 is complicated by biogeochemical feedbacks but must be understood if carbon storage and associated dampening of climate warming are to be predicted. Feedbacks through the hydrological cycle are particularly important and the physiology is well known; elevated CO2 reduces stomatal conductance and increases plant water use efficiency (the amount of water required to produce a unit of plant dry matter). The CO2 response should consequently be strongest when water is limiting; although this has been shown in some experiments, it is absent from many. Here we show that large annual variation in the stimulation of above-ground biomass by elevated CO2 in a mixed C3/C4 temperate grassland can be predicted accurately using seasonal rainfall totals; summer rainfall had a positive effect but autumn and spring rainfall had negative effects on the CO2 response. Thus, the elevated CO2 effect mainly depended upon the balance between summer and autumn/spring rainfall. This is partly because high rainfall during cool, moist seasons leads to nitrogen limitation, reducing or even preventing biomass stimulation by elevated CO2. Importantly, the prediction held whether plots were warmed by 2 °C or left unwarmed, and was similar for C3 plants and total biomass, allowing us to make a powerful generalization about ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. This new insight is particularly valuable because climate projections predict large changes in the timing of rainfall, even where annual totals remain static. Our findings will help resolve apparent differences in the outcomes of CO2 experiments and improve the formulation and interpretation of models that are insensitive to differences in the seasonal effects of rainfall on the CO2 response.

  5. Humidity Profiles' Effect On The Relationship Between Ice Scattering And Rainfall In Microwave Rainfall Retrievals (United States)

    Petkovic, V.; Kummerow, C. D.


    Currently, satellite microwave rainfall retrievals base their algorithm on an observed global average of the relationship between high frequency brightness temperature (Tb) depression and rainfall rate. This makes them very sensitive to differences in the ratio of ice to liquid in the cloud, resulting in regional biases of rainfall estimates. To address this problem we investigate how the environmental conditions that precede raining systems influence the ice to rainfall relationship. The vertical profile of humidity was found to be a key variable in predicting this ratio. We found that dry over moist air conditions are favorable for developing intense, well organized systems such as MCSs in West Africa and the Sahel, characterized by strong Tb depressions and amounts of ice aloft significantly above the globally observed average value. As a consequence, microwave retrieval algorithms misinterpret these systems assigning them unrealistically high rainfall rates. The opposite is true in the Amazon region, where observed raining systems exhibit very little ice while producing high rainfall rates. These regional differences correspond well with a map of radar to radiometer biases of rainfall. Deeper understanding of the influence of environmental conditions on this ice to rain ratio provides a foundation for mapping a global ice-scattering to rainfall rate relationship that will improve satellite microwave rainfall retrievals and our understanding of cloud microphysics globally.

  6. Rainfall simulation in education (United States)

    Peters, Piet; Baartman, Jantiene; Gooren, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia


    Rainfall simulation has become an important method for the assessment of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes. For students, rainfall simulation offers an year-round, attractive and active way of experiencing water erosion, while not being dependent on (outdoors) weather conditions. Moreover, using rainfall simulation devices, they can play around with different conditions, including rainfall duration, intensity, soil type, soil cover, soil and water conservation measures, etc. and evaluate their effect on erosion and sediment transport. Rainfall simulators differ in design and scale. At Wageningen University, both BSc and MSc student of the curriculum 'International Land and Water Management' work with different types of rainfall simulation devices in three courses: - A mini rainfall simulator (0.0625m2) is used in the BSc level course 'Introduction to Land Degradation and Remediation'. Groups of students take the mini rainfall simulator with them to a nearby field location and test it for different soil types, varying from clay to more sandy, slope angles and vegetation or litter cover. The groups decide among themselves which factors they want to test and they compare their results and discuss advantage and disadvantage of the mini-rainfall simulator. - A medium sized rainfall simulator (0.238 m2) is used in the MSc level course 'Sustainable Land and Water Management', which is a field practical in Eastern Spain. In this course, a group of students has to develop their own research project and design their field measurement campaign using the transportable rainfall simulator. - Wageningen University has its own large rainfall simulation laboratory, in which a 15 m2 rainfall simulation facility is available for research. In the BSc level course 'Land and Water Engineering' Student groups will build slopes in the rainfall simulator in specially prepared containers. Aim is to experience the behaviour of different soil types or slope angles when (heavy) rain

  7. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.


    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  8. Retrieval algorithm for rainfall mapping from microwave links in a cellular communication network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    Microwave links in commercial cellular communication networks hold a promise for areal rainfall monitoring and could complement rainfall estimates from ground-based weather radars, rain gauges, and satellites. It has been shown that country-wide (≈ 35 500 km2) 15 min rainfall maps can

  9. Simulating diverse native C4 perennial grasses with varying rainfall (United States)

    Rainfall is recognized as a major factor affecting the rate of plant growth development. The impact of changes in amount and variability of rainfall on growth and production of different forage grasses needs to be quantified to determine how climate change can impact rangelands. Growth and product...

  10. Effect of Incident Rainfall Redistribution by Maize Canopy on Soil Moisture at the Crop Row Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martello


    Full Text Available The optimization of irrigation use in agriculture is a key challenge to increase farm profitability and reduce its ecological footprint. To this context, an understanding of more efficient irrigation systems includes the assessment of water redistribution at the microscale. This study aimed to investigate rainfall interception by maize canopy and to model the soil water dynamics at row scale as a result of rain and sprinkler irrigation with HYDRUS 2D/3D. On average, 78% of rainfall below the maize canopy was intercepted by the leaves and transferred along the stem (stemflow, while only 22% reached the ground directly (throughfall. In addition, redistribution of the water with respect to the amount (both rain and irrigation showed that the stemflow/throughfall ratio decreased logarithmically at increasing values of incident rainfall, suggesting the plant capacity to confine the water close to the roots and diminish water stress conditions. This was also underlined by higher soil moisture values observed in the row than in the inter-row at decreasing rainfall events. Modelled data highlighted different behavior in terms of soil water dynamics between simulated irrigation water distributions, although they did not show significant changes in terms of crop water use efficiency. These results were most likely affected by the soil type (silty-loam where the experiment was conducted, as it had unfavorable physical conditions for the rapid vertical water movement that would have increased infiltration and drainage.

  11. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman


    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  12. Sources of Uncertainty in Rainfall Maps from Cellular Communication Networks (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    Accurate measurements of rainfall are important in many hydrological applications, for instance, flash-flood early-warning systems, hydraulic structures design, agriculture, weather forecasting, and climate modelling. Rainfall intensities can be retrieved from (commercial) microwave link networks. Whenever possible, link networks measure and store the decrease in power of the electromagnetic signal at regular intervals. The decrease in power is largely due to the attenuation by raindrops along the link paths. Such an alternative technique fulfills the continuous strive for measurements of rainfall in time and space at higher resolutions, especially in places where traditional rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained. Rainfall maps from microwave link networks have recently been introduced at country-wide scales. Despite their potential in rainfall estimation at high spatiotemporal resolutions, the uncertainties present in rainfall maps from link networks are not yet fully comprehended. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty present in interpolated rainfall maps from link rainfall depths. In order to disentangle these sources of uncertainty, we classified them into two categories: (1) those associated with the individual microwave link measurements, i.e., the physics involved in the measurements such as wet antenna attenuation, sampling interval of measurements, wet/dry period classification, drop size distribution (DSD), and multi-path propagation; (2) those associated with mapping, i.e., the combined effect of the interpolation methodology, the spatial density of the network, and the availability of link measurements. We computed ~ 3500 rainfall maps from real and simulated link rainfall depths for 12 days for the land surface of The Netherlands. These rainfall maps were compared against quality-controlled gauge-adjusted radar rainfall fields (assumed to be the ground truth). Thus, we were able to not only identify

  13. Retrieval algorithm for rainfall mapping from microwave links in a cellular communication network (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Leijnse, Hidde


    Microwave links in commercial cellular communication networks hold a promise for areal rainfall monitoring and could complement rainfall estimates from ground-based weather radars, rain gauges, and satellites. It has been shown that country-wide rainfall maps can be derived from the signal attenuations of microwave links in such a network. We present a rainfall retrieval algorithm, which is employed to obtain rainfall maps from microwave links in a cellular communication network. We compare these rainfall maps to gauge-adjusted radar rainfall maps. The microwave link data set, as well as the developed code, a package in the open source scripting language "R", are freely available at GitHub ( The purpose of this presentation is to promote rainfall mapping utilizing microwave links from cellular communication networks as an alternative or complementary means for continental-scale rainfall monitoring.

  14. Variations of characteristics of consecutive rainfall days over northern Thailand (United States)

    Klongvessa, P.; Lu, M.; Chotpantarat, S.


    The Chao Phraya basin, Thailand, is frequently inundated by flooding during the southwest monsoon period. Most floods coincide with consecutive rainfall days. This study investigated consecutive rainfall days during the southwest monsoon period at 11 stations over northern Thailand, the upstream area of this basin. The Markov chain probability model was used to study the consecutiveness of days with at least 0.1, 10.1, and 35.1 mm of rainfall. The consecutive length of rainfall days from the model showed good agreement with the observed value. A chi-square test of independence was applied to assess the significance of the consecutiveness, and it was found that days with at least 10.1 mm of rainfall tend to be consecutive over the entire area. Moreover, days with at least 35.1 mm of rainfall were found to be consecutive over the joint area where the mountainous region meets the plain area. However, the consecutiveness of days with less than 10.1 mm of rainfall was not obvious. The rainfall amount on days with at least 10.1 mm of rainfall was also calculated and it showed lower values over the mountainous region than over the plain. Hence, this study established the characteristics of consecutive rainfall days over the plain, mountainous region, and joint area.

  15. Significance of spatial variability in precipitation for process-oriented modelling: results from two nested catchments using radar and ground station data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff


    Full Text Available The importance of considering the spatial distribution of rainfall for process-oriented hydrological modelling is well-known. However, the application of rainfall radar data to provide such detailed spatial resolution is still under debate. In this study the process-oriented TACD (Tracer Aided Catchment model, Distributed model had been used to investigate the effects of different spatially distributed rainfall input on simulated discharge and runoff components on an event base. TACD is fully distributed (50x50m2 raster cells and was applied on an hourly base. As model input rainfall data from up to 7 ground stations and high resolution rainfall radar data from operational C-band radar were used. For seven rainfall events the discharge simulations were investigated in further detail for the mountainous Brugga catchment (40km2 and the St. Wilhelmer Talbach (15.2km2 sub-basin, which are located in the Southern Black Forest Mountains, south-west Germany. The significance of spatial variable precipitation data was clearly demonstrated. Dependent on event characteristics, localized rain cells were occasionally poorly captured even by a dense ground station network, and this resulted in inadequate model results. For such events, radar data can provide better input data. However, an extensive data adjustment using ground station data is required. For this purpose a method was developed that considers the temporal variability in rainfall intensity in high temporal resolution in combination with the total rainfall amount of both data sets. The use of the distributed catchment model allowed further insights into spatially variable impacts of different rainfall estimates. Impacts for discharge predictions are the largest in areas that are dominated by the production of fast runoff components. The improvements for distributed runoff simulation using high resolution rainfall radar input data are strongly dependent on the investigated scale, the event

  16. Development of Rainfall Model using Meteorological Data for Hydrological Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi


    Full Text Available Abstract At present, research on forecasting unpredictable weather such as heavy rainfall is one of the most important challenges for equipped meteorological center. In addition, the incidence of significant weather events is estimated to rise in the near future due to climate change, and this situation inspires more studies to be done. This study introduces a rainfall model that has been developed using selected rainfall parameters with the aim to recognize rainfall depth in a catchment area. This study proposes a rainfall model that utilizes the amount of rainfall, temperature, humidity and pressure records taken from selected stations in Peninsular Malaysia and they are analyzed using SPSS multiple regression model. Seven meteorological stations are selected for data collection from 1997 until 2007 in Peninsular Malaysia which are Senai, Kuantan, Melaka, Subang, Ipoh, Bayan Lepas, and Chuping. Multiple Regression analysis in Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software has been used to analyze a set of eleven years (1997 – 2007 meteorological data. Senai rainfall model gives an accurate result compared to observation rainfall data and this model were validating with data from Kota Tinggi station. The analysis shows that the selected meteorological parameters influence the rainfall development. As a result, the rainfall model developed for Senai proves that it can be used in Kota Tinggi catchment area within the limit boundaries, as the two stations are close from one another. Then, the amounts of rainfall at the Senai and Kota Tinggi stations are compared and the calibration analysis shows that the proposed rainfall model can be used in both areas.

  17. Monitoring Niger River Floods from satellite Rainfall Estimates : overall skill and rainfall uncertainty propagation. (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; Casse, Claire; Peugeot, christophe; boone, aaron; pedinotti, vanessa


    Global measurement of rainfall offers new opportunity for hydrological monitoring, especially for some of the largest Tropical river where the rain gauge network is sparse and radar is not available. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of satellite rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them into the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This paper analyses the potential of satellite rainfall products combined with hydrological modeling to monitor the Niger river floods in the city of Niamey, Niger. A dramatic increase of these floods has been observed in the last decades. The study focuses on the 125000 km2 area in the vicinity of Niamey, where local runoff is responsible for the most extreme floods recorded in recent years. Several rainfall products are tested as forcing to the SURFEX-TRIP hydrological simulations. Differences in terms of rainfall amount, number of rainy days, spatial extension of the rainfall events and frequency distribution of the rain rates are found among the products. Their impacts on the simulated outflow is analyzed. The simulations based on the Real time estimates produce an excess in the discharge. For flood prediction, the problem can be overcome by a prior adjustment of the products - as done here with probability matching - or by analysing the simulated discharge in terms of percentile or anomaly. All tested products exhibit some

  18. Extreme Rainfall Impacts in Fractured Permeable Catchments (United States)

    Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.


    Serious groundwater flooding events have occurred on Chalk catchments in both the UK and north west Europe in the last decade, causing substantial amounts of disruption and economic damage. These fractured, permeable catchments are characterized by low surface runoff, high baseflow indices and strongly attenuated streamflow hydrographs. They have a general resilience to drought and pluvial/fluvial flooding. The small pore size of the Chalk matrix (~ 1 µm) exerts a high suction, such that dynamic storage is primarily due to the fractures, and amounts to ~ 1% of the total volume. As a result, under sustained rainfall the water table can rise up to exceptional levels leading to surface water emergence from springs and valleys. Floodwater may slowly drain with the topography, or, in localized depressions, it may simply pond until the groundwater levels decline. In winter 2000/1, a sequence of individually unexceptional rainfall events over several months led to large scale flooding in the Pang catchment, Berkshire, UK. By contrast, an extreme rainfall event on 20th July 2007 in the same catchment caused a very rapid response at the water table, but due to the antecedent conditions did not lead to flooding. The objective of this study is to quantify how the water table in a fractured permeable catchment responds to different types of rainfall, and the implications of this for groundwater flooding. We make use of measurements from the Pang catchment, including: rainfall (tipping bucket gauges); actual evaporation (eddy flux correlation); soil water content (profile probes and neutron probes); near surface matric potential (tensiometers and equitensiometers); deep (>10m) matric potential (deep jacking tensiometers); and water table elevation (piezometers). Conventional treatment of recharge in Chalk aquifers considers a fixed bypass component of rainfall, normally 15%, to account for the role of the fractures. However, interpretation of the field data suggest three modes

  19. Physically-based quantitative analysis of soil erosion induced by heavy rainfall on steep slopes (United States)

    Della Sala, Maria; Cuomo, Sabatino; Novità, Antonio


    Heavy rainstorms cause either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion in steep hillslopes covered by coarse unsaturated soils (Cascini et al., 2013), even over large areas (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013a). The triggering stage of both phenomena is related to ground infiltration, runoff and overland flow (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013), which are key processes to be investigated. In addition, the mobilization of solid particles deserves a proper physical-based modeling whether a quantitative estimation of solid particles discharge at the outlet of mountain basin is required. In this work, the approaches for soil superficial erosion analysis are firstly reviewed; then, a relevant case study of two medium-sized mountain basins, affected by flow-like phenomena with huge consequences (Cascini et al., 2009) is presented, which motivates a parametric numerical analysis with a physically-based model carried out for a wide class of soil properties and rainfall scenarios (Cuomo et al., 2013b). The achieved results outline that the peak discharge of water and solid particles driven by overland flow depends on rainfall intensity while volumetric solid concentration within the washout is related to the morphometric features of the whole mountain basin. Furthermore, soil suction is outlined as a key factor for the spatial-temporal evolution of infiltration and runoff in the basin, also affecting the discharge of water and solid particles at the outlet of the basin. Based on these insights, selected cases are analyzed aimed to provide a wide class of possible slope erosion scenarios. It is shown that, provided the same amount of cumulated rainfall, the sequence of high and low intensity rainfall events strongly affects the time-discharge at the outlet of the basin without significant variations of the maximum volumetric solid concentration. References Cascini, L., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S., Sorbino, G. (2009). Detection of mechanisms for destructive landslides in Campania region

  20. The Effect of Rainfall Patterns on the Mechanisms of Shallow Slope Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Suradi


    Full Text Available This paper examines how rainfall patterns affect the mechanisms of shallow slope failure. Numerical modelling, utilising the commercial software SVFlux and SVSlope, was carried out for a coupled analysis of rainfall-induced slope seepage and instability, with reference to a shallow landslide took place in Jabiru, Northern Territory (NT Australia in 2007. Rainfall events were varied in terms of pattern in this analysis. The results revealed that slopes are sensitive to rainfall pattern when the rainfall intensity has a high degree of fluctuation at around the same value as that of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Average rainfall intensity at the beginning of a rainfall period plays a primary role in determining the rate of decrease in initial factor of safety (Fi towards minimum factor of safety (Fmin. The effect of rainfall events on the slope instability is attributed to the amount of rainwater infiltration into slope associated with rainfall pattern.

  1. The relationship between the Guinea Highlands and the West African offshore rainfall maximum (United States)

    Hamilton, H. L.; Young, G. S.; Evans, J. L.; Fuentes, J. D.; Núñez Ocasio, K. M.


    Satellite rainfall estimates reveal a consistent rainfall maximum off the West African coast during the monsoon season. An analysis of 16 years of rainfall in the monsoon season is conducted to explore the drivers of such copious amounts of rainfall. Composites of daily rainfall and midlevel meridional winds centered on the days with maximum rainfall show that the day with the heaviest rainfall follows the strongest midlevel northerlies but coincides with peak low-level moisture convergence. Rain type composites show that convective rain dominates the study region. The dominant contribution to the offshore rainfall maximum is convective development driven by the enhancement of upslope winds near the Guinea Highlands. The enhancement in the upslope flow is closely related to African easterly waves propagating off the continent that generate low-level cyclonic vorticity and convergence. Numerical simulations reproduce the observed rainfall maximum and indicate that it weakens if the African topography is reduced.

  2. How important is tropospheric humidity for coastal rainfall in the tropics? (United States)

    Bergemann, Martin; Jakob, Christian


    Climate models show considerable rainfall biases in coastal tropical areas, where approximately 33% of the overall rainfall received is associated with coastal land-sea interaction. Building on an algorithm to objectively identify rainfall that is associated with land-sea interaction we investigate whether the relationship between rainfall in coastal regions and atmospheric humidity differs from that over the open ocean or over inland areas. We combine 3-hourly satellite estimates of rainfall with humidity estimates from reanalyses and investigate if coastal rainfall reveals the well-known relationship between area-averaged precipitation and column-integrated moisture. We find that rainfall that is associated with coastal land-sea effects occurs under much drier midtropospheric conditions than that over the ocean and does not exhibit a pronounced critical value of humidity. In addition, the dependence of the amount of rainfall on midtropospheric moisture is significantly weaker when the rainfall is coastally influenced.

  3. Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES): A product of a high temporal resolution rainfall data collection in Europe (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine


    The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the (R)USLE model. The R-factor is calculated from a series of single storm events by multiplying the total storm kinetic energy with the measured maximum 30-minutes rainfall intensity. This estimation requests high temporal resolution (e.g. 30 minutes) rainfall data for sufficiently long time periods (i.e. 20 years) which are not readily available at European scale. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre(JRC) in collaboration with national/regional meteorological services and Environmental Institutions made an extensive data collection of high resolution rainfall data in the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Switzerland in order to estimate rainfall erosivity in Europe. This resulted in the Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES) which included 1,541 rainfall stations in 2014 and has been updated with 134 additional stations in 2015. The interpolation of those point R-factor values with a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model has resulted in the first Rainfall Erosivity map of Europe (Science of the Total Environment, 511, 801-815). The intra-annual variability of rainfall erosivity is crucial for modelling soil erosion on a monthly and seasonal basis. The monthly feature of rainfall erosivity has been added in 2015 as an advancement of REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map. Almost 19,000 monthly R-factor values of REDES contributed to the seasonal and monthly assessments of rainfall erosivity in Europe. According to the first results, more than 50% of the total rainfall erosivity in Europe takes place in the period from June to September. The spatial patterns of rainfall erosivity have significant differences between Northern and Southern Europe as summer is the most erosive period in Central and Northern Europe and autumn in the

  4. Estimating Monthly Rainfall from Geostationary Satellite Imagery Over Amazonia, Brazil. (United States)

    Cutrim, Elen Maria Camara

    The infrared regression and the grid-history satellite rainfall estimating techniques were utilized to estimate monthly rainfall in Amazonia during one month of the rainy season (March, 1980) and one month of the dry season (September, 1980). The estimates were based on 3-hourly SMS-II infrared and visible images. Three sets of coefficients for the grid history method (Marajo, Arabian Sea, and GATE) were used to estimate rainfall. The estimated rain was compared with gauge measurements over the region. The infrared regression technique overestimated by a factor of 1.5. The Marajo coefficients yielded the best estimate, especially for eastern Amazonia. In the wet month Marajo coefficients overestimated rain by 10% and in the dry month by 70%. The Arabian Sea coefficients overestimated rain and the GATE coefficients slightly underestimated rain for Amazonia. Two maps of monthly rainfall over Amazonia were constructed for March and September, 1980, combining the ground station and satellite inferred rainfall of the grid history method using the Marajo coefficients. The satellite observations and ground data were mutually compatible and were contourable on these final, composite maps. Monthly rainfall was found to be much more inhomogeneous than previously reported. In March there was a belt of high precipitation trending southwest, with higher values and sharpest gradients in the coastal area. The upper Amazon was also an area of high precipitation, both north and south of the equator. In Roraima rainfall decreased drastically to the north. In September, the area of highest precipitation was the northwestern part of Amazonas State (northern hemisphere). Rainfall elsewhere was very localized and in northeastern Amazonia varied from 0 to 150 mm. Even though the grid history method presented better results for estimating rainfall over Amazonia, the IR model could be utilized more efficiently and economically on an operational basis if the calibration were properly made

  5. Adjustment of rainfall estimates from weather radars using in-situ stormwater drainage sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte

    importance as long as the estimated flow and water levels are correct. It makes sense to investigate the possibility of adjusting weather radar data to rainfall-runoff measurements instead of rain gauge measurements in order to obtain better predictions of flow and water levels. This Ph.D. study investigates...... challenges for using the data in urban drainage applications. There are discrepancies between radar-rainfall measured in the atmosphere and the “true” rainfall at ground level. Consequently, radar-rainfall estimates are usually adjusted to rainfall observations at ground level from rain gauges. When radar-rain...... gauge adjusted data is applied for urban drainage models, discrepancies between radar-estimated runoff and observed runoff still occur. The aim of urban drainage applications is to estimate flow and water levels in critical points in the system. The “true” rainfall at ground level is, therefore, of less...

  6. Spatial Variability of Rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.E.; Pedersen, Lisbeth


    As a part of a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) calibration exercise 15 km south of Århus, Denmark, the variability in accumulated rainfall within a single radar pixel (500 by 500 m) was measured using nine high-resolution rain gauges. The measured values indicate up to a 100% variation between...

  7. The Wageningen Rainfall Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassu, Tamas; Seeger, K.M.; Peters, P.D.; Keesstra, S.D.


    The set-up and characterisation of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) at Wageningen University, the Netherlands, are presented. It is equipped with four Lechler nozzles (two nr. 460·788 and two nr. 461·008). The tilting irrigation plot is 6 m long and 2·5 m wide. An electrical pump

  8. Inverse hydrological modelling of spatio-temporal rainfall patterns (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Hörning, Sebastian; Bárdossy, András


    Distributed hydrological models are commonly used for simulating the non-linear response of a watershed to rainfall events for addressing different hydrological properties of the landscape. Such models are driven by spatial rainfall patterns for consecutive time steps, which are normally generated from point measurements using spatial interpolation methods. However, such methods fail in reproducing the true spatio-temporal rainfall patterns especially in data scarce regions with poorly gauged catchments or for highly dynamic, small scaled rainstorms which are not well recorded by existing monitoring networks. Consequently, uncertainties are associated with poorly identified spatio-temporal rainfall distribution in distributed rainfall-runoff-modelling since the amount of rainfall received by a catchment as well as the dynamics of the runoff generation of flood waves are underestimated. For addressing these challenges a novel methodology for inverse hydrological modelling is proposed using a Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo framework. Thereby, potential candidates of spatio-temporal rainfall patterns are generated and selected according their ability to reproduce the observed surface runoff at the catchment outlet for a given transfer function in a best way. The Methodology combines the concept of random mixing of random spatial fields with a grid-based spatial distributed rainfall runoff model. The conditional target rainfall field is obtained as a linear combination of unconditional spatial random fields. The corresponding weights of the linear combination are selected such that the spatial variability of the rainfall amounts as well as the actual observed rainfall values are reproduced. The functionality of the methodology is demonstrated on a synthetic example. Thereby, the known spatio-temporal distribution of rainfall is reproduced for a given number of point observations of rainfall and the integral catchment response at the catchment outlet for a synthetic catchment

  9. The Winter Rainfall of Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Matsumoto, Jun


    .... The major cause of the rainfall maximum of Peninsular Malaysia is cold surge vortices (CSVs) and heavy rainfall/flood (HRF) events propagating from the Philippine area and Borneo. In contrast, the major cause of the rainfall maximum of Borneo is these rain-producing disturbances trapped in Borneo. Disturbances of the former group are formed by the cold sur...

  10. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China. (United States)

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke


    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  11. Indoor imitation experimental study on driving factors of rainfall-runoff process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shifeng; LIU Changming; XIA Jun; TAN Ge; LI Lin; LIU Caitang; ZHOU Changqing; GUO Lei


    The driving actions of rainfall-runoff process can be attributed to two aspects. The first is the influence of precipitation process, and the second is that of the ground pad. The research results of 179 indoor experiments conducted to imitate rainfall-runoff process indicate that both precipitation duration and intensity play important roles in affecting confluence lag time,which is obviously inconsistent with the traditional hypotheses. The nonlinear relationship is of great significance to the confluence curve especially when the precipitation duration is less than the total confluence time or the precipitation intensity is small. Therefore it can be concluded that the unit hydrograph (UH) can be applied to rainfall-runoff process imitation in the humid areas in the south China region. However, the UH application should be strictly modified in accordance with precipitation conditions in the arid and semiarid region of north China where the precipitation duration is short and the intensity is unstable. It will be hard to get ideal imitation results if the UH is applied blindly without considering specific conditions in the north China region. This also explains the unsatisfactory imitation results caused by using various hydrological models in the north China region. When the precipitation duration is short, and the watershed has not reached total watershed concentration, the characteristics of confluence change greatly, which reflects the actual situation in the north China region. Therefore necessary nonlinear corrections should be made when UH is applied. If the duration is longer than the total confluence time and the balance between pondage and discharge is stricken, the imitation research results will be applicable to both rainfall-runoff relation with longer duration in the south China region and the basic theoretical research on runoff generation and concentration. On conditions of adequate rainfall, peak discharge is in linear relationship with intensity

  12. Rainfall Analyses of Coonoor Hill Station of Nilgiris District for Landslide Studies (United States)

    Ramani Sujatha, Evangelin; Suribabu, C. R.


    The most common triggering factor of landslides in a hill terrain is rainfall. Assessment of the extreme and antecedent rainfall events and its quantum is imperative to evaluate the temporal occurrence of landslides. It also plays a vital role in the choice of the preventive measures to be adopted. This study focuses on an in-depth rainfall analysis of Coonoor hill station. The analysis includes the study of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall patterns for a period of 80 years, between 1935 and 2013. Further, one day maximum, 5 day and more antecedent rainfall and its amount is calculated for the years between 2007-2012, 2014 and 2015.The result of the study indicates an increase in the normal rainfall based on the mean of 30 years of data (for the recent decades) and erratic pattern of rainfall during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon south-west monsoon periods. A detailed analysis of daily rainfall for the selected period indicates that extreme highest daily rainfall of more than 300 mm above occurred after consecutive rainfall trigged massive landslides comparing highest rainfall amount around 100 to 180 mm rainfall events.

  13. The influence of seasonal rainfall upon Sahel vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Rasmussen, Laura Vang


    include changes in total yearly rainfall, land-use change and migration. But these factors are not fully explanatory. This study addresses other possible factors for variation in vegetation patterns through the analysis of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) produced by satellite sensors. We...... focus on precipitation, but instead of looking at the total yearly amount of rainfall, the intra-annual variation is examined. Here we show that plant growth is strongly correlated with the number and frequency of days within the rainy season upon which there is no rainfall. Furthermore, we find...

  14. Deforestation alters rainfall: a myth or reality (United States)

    Hanif, M. F.; Mustafa, M. R.; Hashim, A. M.; Yusof, K. W.


    To cope with the issue of food safety and human shelter, natural landscape has gone through a number of alterations. In the coming future, the expansion of urban land and agricultural farms will likely disrupt the natural environment. Researchers have claimed that land use change may become the most serious issue of the current century. Thus, it is necessary to understand the consequences of land use change on the climatic variables, e.g., rainfall. This study investigated the impact of deforestation on local rainfall. An integrated methodology was adopted to achieve the objectives. Above ground biomass was considered as the indicator of forest areas. Time series data of a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor were obtained for the year of 2000, 2005, and 2010. Rainfall data were collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. The MODIS time series data were classified and four major classes were developed based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ranges. The results of the classification showed that water, and urban and agricultural lands have increased in their area by 2, 3, and 6%, respectively. On the other hand, the area of forest has decreased 10% collectively from 2000 to 2010. The results of NDVI and rainfall data were analysed by using a linear regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship at a 90% confidence interval between rainfall and deforestation (t = 1.92, p = 0.06). The results of this study may provide information about the consequences of land use on the climate on the local scale.

  15. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong


    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  16. Application of seasonal rainfall forecasts and satellite rainfall observations to crop yield forecasting for Africa (United States)

    Greatrex, H. L.; Grimes, D. I. F.; Wheeler, T. R.


    Rain-fed agriculture is of utmost importance in sub-Saharan Africa; the FAO estimates that over 90% of food consumed in the region is grown in rain-fed farming systems. As the climate in sub-Saharan Africa has a high interannual variability, this dependence on rainfall can leave communities extremely vulnerable to food shortages, especially when coupled with a lack of crop management options. The ability to make a regional forecast of crop yield on a timescale of months would be of enormous benefit; it would enable both governmental and non-governmental organisations to be alerted in advance to crop failure and could facilitate national and regional economic planning. Such a system would also enable individual communities to make more informed crop management decisions, increasing their resilience to climate variability and change. It should be noted that the majority of crops in the region are rainfall limited, therefore the ability to create a seasonal crop forecast depends on the ability to forecast rainfall at a monthly or seasonal timescale and to temporally downscale this to a daily time-series of rainfall. The aim of this project is to develop a regional-scale seasonal forecast for sub-Saharan crops, utilising the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM). GLAM would initially be driven using both dynamical and statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts to provide an initial estimate of crop yield. The system would then be continuously updated throughout the season by replacing the seasonal rainfall forecast with daily weather observations. TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates are used rather than rain-gauge data due to the scarcity of ground based observations. An important feature of the system is the use of the geo-statistical method of sequential simulation to create an ensemble of daily weather inputs from both the statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts and the satellite rainfall estimates. This allows a range of possible yield outputs to be

  17. Physically based modelling of sediment generation and transport under a large rainfall simulator (United States)

    Adams, Russell; Elliott, Sandy


    A series of large rainfall simulator experiments was conducted in 2002 and 2003 on a small plot located in an experimental catchment in the North Island of New Zealand. These experiments measured both runoff and sediment transport under carefully controlled conditions. A physically based hydrological modelling system (SHETRAN) was then applied to reproduce the observed hydrographs and sedigraphs. SHETRAN uses physically based equations to represent flow and sediment transport, and two erodibility coefficients to model detachment of soil particles by raindrop erosion and overland flow erosion. The rate of raindrop erosion also depended on the amount of bare ground under the simulator; this was estimated before each experiment. These erodibility coefficients were calibrated systematically for summer and winter experiments separately, and lower values were obtained for the summer experiments. Earlier studies using small rainfall simulators in the vicinity of the plot also found the soil to be less erodible in summer and autumn. Limited validation of model parameters was carried out using results from a series of autumn experiments. The modelled suspended sediment load was also sensitive to parameters controlling the generation of runoff from the rainfall simulator plot; therefore, we found that accurate runoff predictions were important for the sediment predictions, especially from the experiments where the pasture cover was good and overland flow erosion was the dominant mechanism. The rainfall simulator experiments showed that the mass of suspended sediment increased post-grazing, and according to the model this was due to raindrop detachment. The results indicated that grazing cattle or sheep on steeply sloping hill-country paddocks should be carefully managed, especially in winter, to limit the transport of suspended sediment into watercourses.

  18. Sensitivity of point scale runoff predictions to rainfall resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hearman


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of using non-linear, high resolution rainfall, compared to time averaged rainfall on the triggering of hydrologic thresholds and therefore model predictions of infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff. The bounded random cascade model, parameterized to south western Australian rainfall, was used to scale rainfall intensities at various time resolutions ranging from 1.875 min to 2 h. A one dimensional, conceptual rainfall partitioning model was used that instantaneously partitions water into infiltration excess, infiltration, storage, deep drainage, saturation excess and surface runoff, where the fluxes into and out of the soil store are controlled by thresholds. For example, saturation excess is triggered when the soil water content reaches the storage capacity threshold. The results of the numerical modelling were scaled by relating soil infiltration properties to soil draining properties, and inturn, relating these to average storm intensities. By relating maximum soil infiltration capacities to saturated drainage rates (f*, we were able to split soils into two groups; those where all runoff is a result of infiltration excess alone (f*≤0.2 and those susceptible to both infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff (f*>0.2. For all soil types, we related maximum infiltration capacities to average storm intensities (k* and were able to show where model predictions of infiltration excess were most sensitive to rainfall resolution (ln k=0.4 and where using time averaged rainfall data can lead to an under prediction of infiltration excess and an over prediction of the amount of water entering the soil (ln k*>2. For soils susceptible to both infiltration excess and saturation excess, total runoff sensitivity was scaled by relating saturated drainage rates to average storm intensities (g* and parameter ranges where predicted runoff was dominated by

  19. Evaluation of short-period rainfall estimates from Kalpana-1 satellite using MET software

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Sen Roy; Subhendu Brata Saha; Hashmi Fatima; S K Roy Bhowmik; P K Kundu


    The INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA) technique for rainfall estimation, has recently been developed to meet the shortcomings of the Global Precipitation Index (GPI) technique of rainfall estimation from the data of geostationary satellites; especially for accurate short period rainfall estimates. This study evaluates the 3-hourly precipitation estimates by this technique as well as the rainfall estimates by the GPI technique using data of the Kalpana-1 satellite, over the Indian region for the south-west monsoon season of 2010 to understand their relative strengths and weaknesses in estimating short period rainfall. The gridded 3 hourly accumulated TRMM satellite (3B42 V6 product or TMPA product) and surface raingauge data for stations over the Indian region for the same period is used as the standard measure of rainfall estimates. The Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) utility of the METv3.0 software, has been used for the evaluation purpose. The results show that the new IMSRA technique is closer to the TMPA rainfall estimate, in terms of areal spread, geometric shape and location of rainfall areas, as compared to the GPI technique. The overlap of matching rainfall areas with respect to TMPA rainfall patches is also higher for the IMSRA estimates as compared to the GPI values. However, both satellite rainfall estimates are observed to be generally higher compared to the TMPA measurements. However, the values for the highest 10% of the rainfall rates in any rainfall patch, is generally higher for rainfall measured by the IMSRA technique, as compared to the estimates by the GPI technique. This may partly be due to the capping maximum limit of 3 mm/hr for rainfall measured by the GPI technique limits the total 3-hour accumulation to 9 mm even during heavy rainfall episodes. This is not so with IMSRA technique, which has no such limiting value. However, this general overestimation of the rainfall amount, measured by both techniques

  20. Rainfall monitoring with microwave link networks -state of the art (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Overeem, Aart; Ríos Gaona, Manuel; van Leth, Tommy; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    For the purpose of hydrological applications, meteorology, climate monitoring and agriculture, accurate high resolution rainfall monitoring is highly desirable. Often used techniques to measure rainfall include rain gauge networks and radar. However, accurate rainfall information is lacking in large areas in the world, and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America and Africa. The investments required for the installation and maintenance of dense sensor networks can form a large obstacle. Over the past decade, various investigations have shown that microwave links from cellular communication networks may be used for rainfall monitoring. These commercial networks are installed for the purpose of cellular communication. These consist of antennas that transmit microwave link signals through the atmosphere over a path of typically several kilometers. Microwave signals are sensitive to rainfall at the frequencies that are typically used. The loss of signal (attenuation) over the link-path, which is logged in real-time by cellular communication companies for quality monitoring, can therefore be interpreted as a rainfall measurement. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to quantitatively determine rainfall from these microwave link attenuations. An overview of error sources in this process, quantitative rainfall determination techniques, as well as the results of various validation studies are provided. These studies show that there is considerable potential in using commercial microwave link networks for rainfall monitoring. This is a promising development, as these networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have high density, especially in urban areas where there is generally a lack of in situ ground measurements.

  1. Interannual variability of rainfall characteristics over southwestern Madagascar (United States)

    Randriamahefasoa, T. S. M.; Reason, C. J. C.


    The interannual variability of daily frequency of rainfall [>1 mm/day] and heavy rainfall [>30 mm/day] is studied for the southwestern region of Madagascar, which is relatively arid compared to the rest of the island. Attention is focused on the summer rainy season from December to March at four stations (Morondava, Ranohira, Toliara and Taolagnaro), whose daily rainfall data covering the period 1970-2000 were obtained from the Madagascar Meteorological Service. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was found to have a relatively strong correlation with wet day frequency at each station and, particularly, for Toliara in the extreme southwest. In terms of seasonal rainfall totals, most El Niño (La Niña) summers receive below (above) average amounts. An ENSO connection with heavy rainfall events was less clear. However, for heavy rainfall events, the associated atmospheric circulation displays a Southern Annular Mode-like pattern throughout the hemisphere. For ENSO years and the neutral seasons 1979/80, 1981/82 which had large anomalies in wet day frequency, regional atmospheric circulation patterns consisted of strong anomalies in low-level moisture convergence and uplift over and near southwestern Madagascar that made conditions correspondingly more or less favourable for rainfall. Dry (wet) summers in southern Madagascar were also associated with an equatorward (poleward) displacement of the ITCZ in the region.

  2. Approximation of Rainfall Erosivity Factors in North Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Despite being in arid and semi-arid areas, erosion is largely a result of infrequent but heavy rainfall events; therefore,rainfall erosivity data can be used as an indicator of potential erosion risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of annual rainfall erosivity in North Jordan. A simplified procedure was used to correlate erosivity factor R values in both the universal soil loss equation (USLE) and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) with annual rainfall amount or modified Fournier index (Fmod). Pluviometric data recorded at 18 weather stations covering North Jordan were used to predict R values. The annual values of erosivity ranged between 86-779 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1. The northwest regions of Jordan showed the highest annual erosivity values, while the northeastern regions showed the lowest annual erosivity values.

  3. Estimation of Real-Time Flood Risk on Roads Based on Rainfall Calculated by the Revised Method of Missing Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunmi Kim


    Full Text Available Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities is on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanization. This study suggests a method to estimate real-time flood risk on roads for drivers based on the accumulated rainfall. The amount of rainfall of a road link, which is an intensive type, is calculated by using the revised method of missing rainfall in meteorology, because the rainfall is not measured on roads directly. To process in real time with a computer, we use the inverse distance weighting (IDW method, which is a suitable method in the computing system and is commonly used in relation to precipitation due to its simplicity. With real-time accumulated rainfall, the flooding history, rainfall range causing flooding from previous rainfall information and frequency probability of precipitation are used to determine the flood risk on roads. The result of simulation using the suggested algorithms shows the high concordance rate between actual flooded areas in the past and flooded areas derived from the simulation for the research region in Busan, Korea.

  4. A new method for spatio-temporal prediction of rainfall- induced landslide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Geological condition and rainfall are two most principal conditions inducing landslides in the Chongqing region. By analyzing the forming conditions of rainfall-induced landslides, a new method for spatio-temporal prediction of rainfall-induced landslide is brought forward on the basis of grading and overlapping geological condition and rainfall factor in this paper. At first, semi-quantitative assessment and grading for the geological condition of a certain area or slope can be carried out with the multi-factor interactive matrix. Then the severity of rainfall in that area is grading according to the maximum daily rainfall and the total rainfall in a rainfall course. Finally, the "landslide probability judgement factor" can be worked out through grading and overlapping "geological condition influencing factor" and "rainfall influencing factor", by which the landslide can be graded into 4 grades, they are landslide extremely easily happening, landslide easily happening, landslide difficultly happening and landslide hardly ever happening respectively. More accurate spatio-temporal prediction of rainfall-induced landslides can come true on the ground of detailed geological survey of some dangerous slopes in an area and more precise weather forecast. Finally, the reliability and feasibility of carrying out the spatio-temporal prediction of rainfall-induced landslides with the method of "two factors" grading and overlapping are validated by the example of Jipazi landslide.

  5. Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Langousis


    Full Text Available We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  6. Rainfall statistics changes in Sicily

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    E. Arnone


    Full Text Available Changes in rainfall characteristics are one of the most relevant signs of current climate alterations. Many studies have demonstrated an increase in rainfall intensity and a reduction of frequency in several areas of the world, including Mediterranean areas. Rainfall characteristics may be crucial for vegetation patterns formation and evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems, with important implications, for example, in vegetation water stress or coexistence and competition dynamics. At the same time, characteristics of extreme rainfall events are fundamental for the estimation of flood peaks and quantiles which can be used in many hydrological applications, such as design of the most common hydraulic structures, or planning and management of flood prone areas.

    In the past, Sicily has been screened for several signals of possible climate change. Annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data in the entire Sicilian region have been analyzed, showing a global reduction of total annual rainfall. Moreover, annual maximum rainfall series for different durations have been rarely analyzed in order to detect the presence of trends. Results indicated that for short durations, historical series generally exhibit increasing trends while for longer durations the trends are mainly negative.

    Starting from these premises, the aim of this study is to investigate and quantify changes in rainfall statistics in Sicily, during the second half of the last century. Time series of about 60 stations over the region have been processed and screened by using the non parametric Mann–Kendall test.

    Particularly, extreme events have been analyzed using annual maximum rainfall series at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h duration while daily rainfall properties have been analyzed in term of frequency and intensity, also characterizing seasonal rainfall features. Results of extreme events analysis confirmed an increasing trend for rainfall of short durations

  7. Rainfall statistics changes in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arnone


    Full Text Available Changes in rainfall characteristics are one of the most relevant signs of current climate alterations. Many studies have demonstrated an increase in rainfall intensity and a reduction of frequency in several areas of the world, including Mediterranean areas. Rainfall characteristics may be crucial for vegetation patterns formation and evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems, with important implications, for example, in vegetation water stress or coexistence and competition dynamics. At the same time, characteristics of extreme rainfall events are fundamental for the estimation of flood peaks and quantiles that can be used in many hydrological applications, such as design of the most common hydraulic structures, or planning and management of flood-prone areas. In the past, Sicily has been screened for several signals of possible climate change. Annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data in the entire Sicilian region have been analyzed, showing a global reduction of total annual rainfall. Moreover, annual maximum rainfall series for different durations have been rarely analyzed in order to detect the presence of trends. Results indicated that for short durations, historical series generally exhibit increasing trends, while for longer durations the trends are mainly negative. Starting from these premises, the aim of this study is to investigate and quantify changes in rainfall statistics in Sicily, during the second half of the last century. Time series of about 60 stations over the region have been processed and screened by using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test. In particular, extreme events have been analyzed using annual maximum rainfall series at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h duration, while daily rainfall properties have been analyzed in terms of frequency and intensity, also characterizing seasonal rainfall features. Results of extreme events analysis confirmed an increasing trend for rainfall of short durations, especially for 1 h rainfall

  8. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri


    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  9. Mathematical model of sediment and solute transport along slope land in different rainfall pattern conditions (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wu, Junhu; Wang, Quanjiu


    Rainfall erosion is a major cause of inducing soil degradation, and rainfall patterns have a significant influence on the process of sediment yield and nutrient loss. The mathematical models developed in this study were used to simulate the sediment and nutrient loss in surface runoff. Four rainfall patterns, each with a different rainfall intensity variation, were applied during the simulated rainfall experiments. These patterns were designated as: uniform-type, increasing-type, increasing- decreasing -type and decreasing-type. The results revealed that changes in the rainfall intensity can have an appreciable impact on the process of runoff generation, but only a slight effect on the total amount of runoff generated. Variations in the rainfall intensity in a rainfall event not only had a significant effect on the process of sediment yield and nutrient loss, but also the total amount of sediment and nutrient produced, and early high rainfall intensity may lead to the most severe erosion and nutrient loss. In this study, the calculated data concur with the measured values. The model can be used to predict the process of surface runoff, sediment transport and nutrient loss associated with different rainfall patterns.

  10. Investigation of Rainfall-Runoff Processes and Soil Moisture Dynamics in Grassland Plots under Simulated Rainfall Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Zhao


    Full Text Available The characteristics of rainfall-runoff are important aspects of hydrological processes. In this study, rainfall-runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics at different soil depths and slope positions of grassland with two different row spacings (5 cm and 10 cm, respectively, referred to as R5 and R10 were analyzed, by means of a solution of rainfall simulation experiments. Bare land was also considered as a comparison. The results showed that the mechanism of runoff generation was mainly excess infiltration overland flow. The surface runoff amount of R5 plot was greater than that of R10, while the interflow amount of R10 was larger than that of R5 plot, although the differences of the subsurface runoff processes between plots R5 and R10 were little. The effects of rainfall intensity on the surface runoff were significant, but not obvious on the interflow and recession curve, which can be described as a simple exponential equation, with a fitting degree of up to 0.854–0.996. The response of soil moisture to rainfall and evapotranspiration was mainly in the 0–20 cm layer, and the response at the 40 cm layer to rainfall was slower and generally occurred after the rainfall stopped. The upper slope generally responded fastest to rainfall, and the foot of the slope was the slowest. The results presented here could provide insights into understanding the surface and subsurface runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics for grasslands in semi-arid regions.

  11. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara. (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E; Pausata, Francesco S R; deMenocal, Peter B


    During the "Green Sahara" period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged "pause" in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks.

  12. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; deMenocal, Peter B.


    During the “Green Sahara” period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged “pause” in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks. PMID:28116352

  13. On the sensitivity of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager channels to overland rainfall (United States)

    You, Yalei; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Yu; Cao, Jie


    , and the V37 or V21 channel becomes the top responder to surface rain as the amount of hydrometeors in the atmospheric column reaches very high values. Additionally, it is found that land surface type and 2 m air temperature have significant skills in characterizing rain cloud types, so that the V19-V37 channel is more sensitive to surface rainfall for more vegetated warm surface, while the V85 channel is more sensitive to cold bare land. This finding implies that the above two parameters may be used to prioritize satellite observations at different channels, so that the channel that has the best rainfall sensitivity under a given condition receives the highest weight in retrieval algorithms.

  14. Rainfall spatiotemporal variability relation to wetlands hydroperiods (United States)

    Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria


    Doñana natural space (Southwestern Spain) is one of the largest protected wetlands in Europe. The wide marshes present in this natural space have such ecological value that this wetland has been declared a Ramsar reserve in 1982. Apart from the extensive marsh, there are also small lagoons and seasonally flooded areas which are likewise essential to maintain a wide variety of valuable habitats. Hydroperiod, the length of time each point remains flooded along an annual cycle, is a critical ecological parameter that shapes aquatic plants and animals distribution and determines available habitat for many of the living organisms in the marshes. Recently, there have been published two different works estimating the hydroperiod of Doñana lagoons with Landsat Time Series images (Cifuentes et al., 2015; Díaz-Delgado et al., 2016). In both works the flooding cycle hydroperiod in Doñana marshes reveals a flooding regime mainly driven by rainfall, evapotranspiration, topography and local hydrological management actions. The correlation found between rainfall and hydroperiod is studied differently in both works. While in one the rainfall is taken from one raingauge (Cifuentes et al., 2015), the one performed by Díaz-Delgado (2016) uses annual rainfall maps interpolated with the inverse of the distance method. The rainfall spatiotemporal variability in this area can be highly significant; however the amount of this importance has not been quantified at the moment. In the present work the geostatistical tool known as spatiotemporal variogram is used to study the rainfall spatiotemporal variability. The spacetime package implemented in R (Pebesma, 2012) facilities its computation from a high rainfall data base of more than 100 raingauges from 1950 to 2016. With the aid of these variograms the rainfall spatiotemporal variability is quantified. The principal aim of the present work is the study of the relation between the rainfall spatiotemporal variability and the

  15. Retrieval algorithm for rainfall mapping from microwave links in a cellular communication network (United States)

    Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    Microwave links in commercial cellular communication networks hold a promise for areal rainfall monitoring and could complement rainfall estimates from ground-based weather radars, rain gauges, and satellites. It has been shown that country-wide rainfall maps can be derived from the signal attenuations of microwave links in such a network. Here we give a detailed description of the employed rainfall retrieval algorithm and provide the corresponding code. Moreover, the code (in the scripting language "R") is made available including a data set of commercial microwave links. The purpose of this paper is to promote rainfall monitoring utilizing microwave links from cellular communication networks as an alternative or complementary means for global, continental-scale rainfall monitoring.

  16. Rainfall Characterization In An Arid Area


    Bazaraa, A. S.; Ahmed, Shamim


    The objective of this work is to characterize the rainfall in Doha which lies in an arid region. The rainfall data included daily rainfall depth since 1962 and the hyetographs of the individual storms since 1976. The rainfall is characterized by high variability and severe thunderstorms which are of limited geographical extent. Four probability distributions were used to fit the maximum rainfall in 24 hours and the annual rainfall depth. The extreme value distribution was found to have the be...

  17. Using long-term daily satellite based rainfall data (1983-2015) to analyze spatio-temporal changes in the sahelian rainfall regime (United States)

    Zhang, Wenmin; Brandt, Martin; Guichard, Francoise; Tian, Qingjiu; Fensholt, Rasmus


    The sahelian rainfall regime is characterized by a strong spatial as well as intra- and inter-annual variability. The satellite based African Rainfall Climatology Version 2 (ARC2) daily gridded rainfall estimates with a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution provides the possibility for in-depth studies of seasonal changes over a 33-year period (1983-2015). Here we analyze rainfall regime variables that require daily observations: onset, cessation, and length of the wet season; seasonal rainfall amount; number of rainy days; intensity and frequency of rainfall events; number, length, and cumulative duration of dry spells. Rain gauge stations and MSWEP (Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation) data were used to evaluate the agreement of rainfall variables in both space and time, and trends were analyzed. Overall, ARC2 rainfall variables reliably show the spatio-temporal dynamics of seasonal rainfall over 33 years when compared to gauge and MSWEP data. However, a higher frequency of low rainfall events (spell characteristics). Most rainfall variables (both ARC2 and gauge data) show negative anomalies (except for onset of rainy season) from 1983 until the end of the 1990s, from which anomalies become mostly positive and inter-annual variability is higher. ARC2 data show a strong increase in seasonal rainfall, wet season length (caused by both earlier onset and a late end), number of rainy days, and high rainfall events (>20 mm day-1) for the western/central Sahel over the period of analysis, whereas the opposite trend characterizes the eastern part of the Sahel.

  18. A Deep Neural Network Model for Rainfall Estimation UsingPolarimetric WSR-88DP Radar Observations (United States)

    Tan, H.; Chandra, C. V.; Chen, H.


    Rainfall estimation based on radar measurements has been an important topic for a few decades. Generally, radar rainfall estimation is conducted through parametric algorisms such as reflectivity-rainfall relation (i.e., Z-R relation). On the other hand, neural networks are developed for ground rainfall estimation based on radar measurements. This nonparametric method, which takes into account of both radar observations and rainfall measurements from ground rain gauges, has been demonstrated successfully for rainfall rate estimation. However, the neural network-based rainfall estimation is limited in practice due to the model complexity and structure, data quality, as well as different rainfall microphysics. Recently, the deep learning approach has been introduced in pattern recognition and machine learning areas. Compared to traditional neural networks, the deep learning based methodologies have larger number of hidden layers and more complex structure for data representation. Through a hierarchical learning process, the high level structured information and knowledge can be extracted automatically from low level features of the data. In this paper, we introduce a novel deep neural network model for rainfall estimation based on ground polarimetric radar measurements .The model is designed to capture the complex abstractions of radar measurements at different levels using multiple layers feature identification and extraction. The abstractions at different levels can be used independently or fused with other data resource such as satellite-based rainfall products and/or topographic data to represent the rain characteristics at certain location. In particular, the WSR-88DP radar and rain gauge data collected in Dallas - Fort Worth Metroplex and Florida are used extensively to train the model, and for demonstration purposes. Quantitative evaluation of the deep neural network based rainfall products will also be presented, which is based on an independent rain gauge

  19. A rainfall-based warning model for shallow landslides (United States)

    Zeng, Yi-Chao; Wang, Ji-Shang; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Yin, Hsiao-Yuan; Lo, Wen-Chun


    According to the statistical data of past rainfall events, the climate has changed in recent decades. Rainfall patterns have presented a more concentrated, high-intensity and long-duration trend in Taiwan. The most representative event is Typhoon Morakot which induced a total of 67 enormous landslides by the extreme amount of rain during August 7 to 10 in 2009 and resulted in the heaviest casualties in southern Taiwan. In addition, the nature of vulnerability such as steep mountains and rushing rivers, fragile geology and loose surface soil results in more severe sediment-relative disasters, in which shallow landslides are widespread hazards in mountainous regions. This research aims to develop and evaluate a model for predicting shallow landslides triggered by rainfall in mountainous area. Considering the feasibility of large-scale application and practical operation, the statistical techniques is adopted to form the landslide model based on abundant historical rainfall data and landslide events. The 16 landslide inventory maps and 15 variation results by comparing satellite images taken before and after the rainfall event were interpreted and delineated since 2004 to 2011. Logit model is utilized for interpreting the relationship between rainfall characteristics and landslide events delineated from satellite. Based on the analysis results of logistic regression, the rainfall factors that are highly related to shallow landslide occurrence are selected which are 3 hours rainfall intensity I3 (mm/hr) and the effective cumulative precipitation Rt (mm) including accumulated rainfall at time t and antecedent rainfall. A landslide rainfall triggering index (LRTI) proposed for assessing the occurrence potential of shallow landslides is defined as the product of I3 and Rt. A form of probability of shallow landslide triggered threshold is proposed to offer a measure of the likelihood of landslide occurrence. Two major critical lines which represent the lower and upper

  20. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    Southwest monsoon plays a vital role in India's economy as the major income comes from agriculture. What could be the moisture source for this copious amount of rainfall over the Indian sub-continent?. This has been studied in detail and noticed...

  1. [Rainfall intensity effects on nutrients transport in surface runoff from farmlands in gentle slope hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin]. (United States)

    Li, Rui-ling; Zhang, Yong-chun; Liu, Zhuang; Zeng, Yuan; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Hong-ling


    To investigate the effect of rainfall on agricultural nonpoint source pollution, watershed scale experiments were conducted to study the characteristics of nutrients in surface runoff under different rainfall intensities from farmlands in gentle slope hilly areas around Taihu Lake. Rainfall intensity significantly affected N and P concentrations in runoff. Rainfall intensity was positively related to TP, PO4(3-) -P and NH4+ -N event mean concentrations(EMC). However, this study have found the EMC of TN and NO3- -N to be positively related to rainfall intensity under light rain and negatively related to rainfall intensity under heavy rain. TN and TP site mean amounts (SMA) in runoff were positively related to rainfall intensity and were 1.91, 311.83, 127.65, 731.69 g/hm2 and 0.04, 7.77, 2.99, 32.02 g/hm2 with rainfall applied under light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm respectively. N in runoff was mainly NO3- -N and NH4+ -N and was primarily in dissolved form from Meilin soils. Dissolved P (DP) was the dominant form of TP under light rain, but particulate P (PP) mass loss increased with the increase of rainfall intensity and to be the dominant form when the rainfall intensity reaches rainstorm. Single relationships were used to describe the dependence of TN and TP mass losses in runoff on rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, average rainfall intensity and rainfall duration respectively. The results showed a significant positive correlation between TN mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01).

  2. Heavy rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks: the Walkerton example. (United States)

    Auld, Heather; MacIver, D; Klaassen, J

    Recent research indicates that excessive rainfall has been a significant contributor to historical waterborne disease outbreaks. The Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, provided an analysis and testimony to the Walkerton Inquiry on the excessive rainfall events, including an assessment of the historical significance and expected return periods of the rainfall amounts. While the onset of the majority of the Walkerton, Ontario, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter outbreak occurred several days after a heavy rainfall on May 12, the accumulated 5-d rainfall amounts from 8-12 May were particularly significant. These 5-d accumulations could, on average, only be expected once every 60 yr or more in Walkerton and once every 100 yr or so in the heaviest rainfall area to the south of Walkerton. The significant link between excess rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks, in conjunction with other multiple risk factors, indicates that meteorological and climatological conditions need to be considered by water managers, public health officials, and private citizens as a significant risk factor for water contamination. A system to identify and project the impacts of such challenging or extreme weather conditions on water supply systems could be developed using a combination of weather/climate monitoring information and weather prediction or quantitative precipitation forecast information. The use of weather monitoring and forecast information or a "wellhead alert system" could alert water system and water supply managers on the potential response of their systems to challenging weather conditions and additional requirements to protect health. Similar approaches have recently been used by beach managers in parts of the United States to predict day-to-day water quality for beach advisories.

  3. Recurring features of extreme rainfall events close to Veneto coast during autumn (United States)

    Monai, M.; Barbi, A.; Racca, R.


    Climate of Veneto (north-east Italy) is characterized by significant differences between specific areas: mountains, plane, coast, etc. Such differences are particulary strong as far as precipitation is concerned. Mean annual rainfall on the coast is approximately 700-1000mm, whereas quantities more than double are measured on Prealps, only 100 km apart. Such differences are mainly related to crucial role of reliefs and with their interaction with southerly warm and humid fluxis coming from the Mediterranean Sea. A more detailed analyses of rainfall distribution highlights some interesting features, associated with a more localized role of the Adriatic Sea. Among others, it is noticeable that coastal area of Veneto is well subject to extreme events even if, as already mentioned, total annual amount of rain is the lowest in the region. Referring to the coast of Veneto, present work deals with: a) Climate study including seasonal and monthly distributions of precipitation; b) Contribution of extreme events to annual total; c) Analyses of recent extreme events happened in September during last four years. In fact for that area of Veneto, September is the most rainy month. Furthermore during September maximum of daily rainfall values were recorded (period of analyses 1993-2009); in particular, during the last four months of September, from 2006 to 2009, every year an extreme event occurred. Final goal was to understand main factors that caused such particular episodes in the same period of the year. Referring to four recent events happened during last four months of September, a detailed analyses was carried out including: - synoptic analyses both at surface than aloft; - study on mesoscale information derived from ground dense network, weather radar, etc. All events evidenced some common features: - deep thought aloft between North Atlantic Ocean and Central Mediterranean, with possible formation of low-level cyclone on Gulf of Genoa; - low-level advection of moist and

  4. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes (United States)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil


    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  5. Vulnerability Assessment of Rainfall-Induced Debris Flow (United States)

    Lu, G. Y.; Wong, D. W.; Chiu, L. S.


    Debris flow is a common hazard triggered by large amount of rainfall over mountainous areas. A debris flow event results from a complex interaction between rainfall and topographical properties of watersheds. Heavy rainfall facilitates this process by increasing pore water pressure, seepage force and reducing effective stress of soils (normal stress carried by soil particles at the points of contact). Since debris flow events are closely related to topography and rainfall, the goal of this research is to assess debris flow vulnerability related to these two factors. Objectives of this research are to: (1) examine new spatial interpolation techniques to estimate high spatial rainfall data relevant to debris flows. (2) develop topographical factors using Geography Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) approaches and (3) combine the estimated rainfall and topographical factors to assess the vulnerability of debris flow. We examined three spatial interpolation techniques: adaptive inversed distance weight (AIDW), simple kriging and spatial disaggregation using wind induced-topographic effect that incorporates gauge measurements, satellite remote sensing data (TRMM). The topographical factors are derived from high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and adopt fuzzy-based topographical models proposed by Tseng (2004). Estimated rainfall and topographical factors are processed by self-organizing maps (SOM) to provide vulnerability assessment. To demonstrate our technique, rainfall data collected by 39 rain gauges in the central part of Taiwan during the passage of Typhoon Tori-Ji around July 29, 2001 were used. Results indicate that the proposed spatial interpolation methods outperform existing methods (i.e. kriging, inverse distance weight, and co-kriging methods). The vulnerability assessment of 187 debris flows watersheds in the study area will be presented. Keyword: Debris flow, spatial interpolation, adaptive inverse distance weight, TRMM, self

  6. Applying satellite remote sensing technique in disastrous rainfall systems around Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Gin-Rong; Chen, Kwan-Ru; Kuo, Tsung-Hua; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang; Chen, Liang-De


    Many people in Asia regions have been suffering from disastrous rainfalls year by year. The rainfall from typhoons or tropical cyclones (TCs) is one of their key water supply sources, but from another perspective such TCs may also bring forth unexpected heavy rainfall, thereby causing flash floods, mudslides or other disasters. So far we cannot stop or change a TC route or intensity via present techniques. Instead, however we could significantly mitigate the possible heavy casualties and economic losses if we can earlier know a TC's formation and can estimate its rainfall amount and distribution more accurate before its landfalling. In light of these problems, this short article presents methods to detect a TC's formation as earlier and to delineate its rainfall potential pattern more accurate in advance. For this first part, the satellite-retrieved air-sea parameters are obtained and used to estimate the thermal and dynamic energy fields and variation over open oceans to delineate the high-possibility typhoon occurring ocean areas and cloud clusters. For the second part, an improved tropical rainfall potential (TRaP) model is proposed with better assumptions then the original TRaP for TC rainfall band rotations, rainfall amount estimation, and topographic effect correction, to obtain more accurate TC rainfall distributions, especially for hilly and mountainous areas, such as Taiwan.

  7. Rainfall variability modelling in Rwanda (United States)

    Nduwayezu, E.; Kanevski, M.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    Support to climate change adaptation is a priority in many International Organisations meetings. But is the international approach for adaptation appropriate with field reality in developing countries? In Rwanda, the main problems will be heavy rain and/or long dry season. Four rainfall seasons have been identified, corresponding to the four thermal Earth ones in the south hemisphere: the normal season (summer), the rainy season (autumn), the dry season (winter) and the normo-rainy season (spring). The spatial rainfall decreasing from West to East, especially in October (spring) and February (summer) suggests an «Atlantic monsoon influence» while the homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution suggests an «Inter-tropical front » mechanism. The torrential rainfall that occurs every year in Rwanda disturbs the circulation for many days, damages the houses and, more seriously, causes heavy losses of people. All districts are affected by bad weather (heavy rain) but the costs of such events are the highest in mountains districts. The objective of the current research is to proceed to an evaluation of the potential rainfall risk by applying advanced geospatial modelling tools in Rwanda: geostatistical predictions and simulations, machine learning algorithm (different types of neural networks) and GIS. The research will include rainfalls variability mapping and probabilistic analyses of extreme events.

  8. Global detection and analysis of coastline associated rainfall using objective pattern recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Martin; Lane, Todd P


    Coastally induced rainfall is a common feature especially in tropical and subtropical regions. However, it has been difficult to quantify the contribution of coastal rainfall features to the overall local rainfall. We develop a novel technique to objectively identify precipitation associated with land-sea interaction and apply it to satellite based rainfall estimates. The Maritime Continent, the Bight of Panama, Madagascar and the Mediterranean are found to be regions where land-sea interactions plays a crucial role in the formation of precipitation. In these regions $\\approx$ 40\\% to 60\\% of the total rainfall can be related to coastline effects. Due to its importance for the climate system, the Maritime Continent is a particular region of interest with high overall amounts of rainfall and large fractions resulting from land-sea interactions throughout the year. To demonstrate the utility of our identification method we investigate the influence of several modes of variability, such as the Madden-Julian-Osci...

  9. Rainfall model investigation and scenario analyses of the effect of government reforestation policy on seasonal rainfalls: A case study from Northern Thailand (United States)

    Duangdai, Eakkapong; Likasiri, Chulin


    In this work, 4 models for predicting rainfall amounts are investigated and compared using Northern Thailand's seasonal rainfall data for 1973-2008. Two models, global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall (TFR) and modified TFR based on a system of differential equations, give the relationships between global temperature, Northern Thailand's forest cover and seasonal rainfalls in the region. The other two models studied are time series and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models. All models are validated using the k-fold cross validation method with the resulting errors being 0.971233, 0.740891, 2.376415 and 2.430891 for time series, ARMA, TFR and modified TFR models, respectively. Under Business as Usual (BaU) scenario, seasonal rainfalls in Northern Thailand are projected through the year 2020 using all 4 models. TFR and modified TFR models are also used to further analyze how global temperature rise and government reforestation policy affect seasonal rainfalls in the region. Rainfall projections obtained via the two models are also compared with those from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) under IS92a scenario. Results obtained through a mathematical model for global temperature, forest area and seasonal rainfall show that the higher the forest cover, the less fluctuation there is between rainy-season and summer rainfalls. Moreover, growth in forest cover also correlates with an increase in summer rainfalls. An investigation into the relationship between main crop productions and rainfalls in dry and rainy seasons indicates that if the rainy-season rainfall is high, that year's main-crop rice production will decrease but the second-crop rice, maize, sugarcane and soybean productions will increase in the following year.

  10. Assessing spatio-temporal variability of rainfall using a simple physically based statistical model (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Xu, T.; Kesteven, J.


    Reliable assessment of spatio-temporal variability of observed rainfall is difficult in the current climate because of the complex spatial variability displayed by daily and shorter time scale rainfall data. As demonstrated in a recent analysis of Canadian daily precipitation data by Hutchinson et al. (2009), direct interpolation of short time scale precipitation data is a poor way to address spatial patterns of rainfall extremes. Addressing the behaviour of projected future precipitation extremes is made even more difficult by the limited temporal and spatial resolution of precipitation as simulated by global climate models. The “uniform drizzle” that tends to be produced by these models makes the assessment of even straightforward statistics, such as daily rainfall occurrence, problematic. Putting aside significant inter-model variability, the more reliable outputs of global models include mean fluxes, such as monthly rainfall amounts, and associated insight into the nature of the modelled precipitation in relation to forcing synoptic systems. The truncated power of normal distribution, as described by Hutchinson (1995), offers a relatively simple way to make progress. Two of the three model parameters are simply calibrated in terms of monthly mean fluxes and the model is able to accurately describe precipitation extremes. These model parameters can also be robustly determined from serially incomplete data. It can be argued that the model has a broad physical process basis by modelling rainfall as an event that occurs as an appropriate threshold is exceeded. This analysis extends the approach of Stidd (1954, 1973) who suggested the cube root as a universal normalising power. We show that the power parameter, once robustly calibrated, displays a broadly spatially varying distribution of around 0.5. This corresponds well with the two dimensional synoptic convergence that is required to produce precipitation. The power parameter appears to be related to the

  11. Links between circulation and changes in the characteristics of Iberian rainfall (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.; Jones, P. D.


    Investigation of the links between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall is important for the understanding of climatic variability and for the development of empirical circulation-based downscaling methods. Here, spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the Iberian Peninsula during the period 1958-97 are explored using an automated circulation classification scheme and daily rainfall totals for 18 stations. Links between the circulation classification scheme and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) are also considered, as are the direct links between rainfall and the NAO. Trends in rainfall and circulation-type frequency are explored. A general tendency towards decreasing mean seasonal rainfall over the peninsula, with the exception of the southeastern Mediterranean coast, hides larger changes in wet day amount and rainfall probability. There is a tendency towards more, less-intensive rain days across much of Iberia, with a tendency towards more, more-intensive rain days along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, both of which are reflected in changes in rainfall amount quantiles. A preliminary analysis indicates that these changes may have occurred systematically across all circulation types. Comparison of the trends in rainfall and in circulation-type frequency suggests possible links. These links are supported by linear regression analyses using circulation-type frequencies as predictor variables and rainfall totals for winter months as the predictands. The selected predictor variables reflect the main circulation features influencing winter rainfall across the peninsula, i.e. the strong influence of Atlantic westerly and southwesterly airmasses over much of the peninsula, of northerly and northwesterly surface flow over northern/northwestern Spain and northern Portugal and the stronger effect of Mediterranean rather than Atlantic influences in southeastern Spain. The observed rainfall changes cannot, however, be

  12. Analysis on the Critical Rainfall Value For Predicting Large Scale Landslides Caused by Heavy Rainfall In Taiwan. (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yie-Ruey


    Analysis on the Critical Rainfall Value For Predicting Large Scale Landslides Caused by Heavy Rainfall In Taiwan. Kuang-Jung Tsai 1, Jie-Lun Chiang 2,Ming-Hsi Lee 2, Yie-Ruey Chen 1, 1Department of Land Management and Development, Chang Jung Christian Universityt, Tainan, Taiwan. 2Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan. ABSTRACT The accumulated rainfall amount was recorded more than 2,900mm that were brought by Morakot typhoon in August, 2009 within continuous 3 days. Very serious landslides, and sediment related disasters were induced by this heavy rainfall event. The satellite image analysis project conducted by Soil and Water Conservation Bureau after Morakot event indicated that more than 10,904 sites of landslide with total sliding area of 18,113ha were found by this project. At the same time, all severe sediment related disaster areas are also characterized based on their disaster type, scale, topography, major bedrock formations and geologic structures during the period of extremely heavy rainfall events occurred at the southern Taiwan. Characteristics and mechanism of large scale landslide are collected on the basis of the field investigation technology integrated with GPS/GIS/RS technique. In order to decrease the risk of large scale landslides on slope land, the strategy of slope land conservation, and critical rainfall database should be set up and executed as soon as possible. Meanwhile, study on the establishment of critical rainfall value used for predicting large scale landslides induced by heavy rainfall become an important issue which was seriously concerned by the government and all people live in Taiwan. The mechanism of large scale landslide, rainfall frequency analysis ,sediment budge estimation and river hydraulic analysis under the condition of extremely climate change during the past 10 years would be seriously concerned and recognized as a required issue by this

  13. Investigating rainfall estimation from radar measurements using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alqudah


    Full Text Available Rainfall observed on the ground is dependent on the four dimensional structure of precipitation aloft. Scanning radars can observe the four dimensional structure of precipitation. Neural network is a nonparametric method to represent the nonlinear relationship between radar measurements and rainfall rate. The relationship is derived directly from a dataset consisting of radar measurements and rain gauge measurements. The performance of neural network based rainfall estimation is subject to many factors, such as the representativeness and sufficiency of the training dataset, the generalization capability of the network to new data, seasonal changes, and regional changes. Improving the performance of the neural network for real time applications is of great interest. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of rainfall estimation based on Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks using radar reflectivity as input and rain gauge as the target. Data from Melbourne, Florida NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar ground radar (KMLB over different years along with rain gauge measurements are used to conduct various investigations related to this problem. A direct gauge comparison study is done to demonstrate the improvement brought in by the neural networks and to show the feasibility of this system. The principal components analysis (PCA technique is also used to reduce the dimensionality of the training dataset. Reducing the dimensionality of the input training data will reduce the training time as well as reduce the network complexity which will also avoid over fitting.

  14. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc


    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  15. Vegetation response to rainfall seasonality and interannual variability in tropical dry forests (United States)

    Feng, X.; Silva Souza, R. M.; Souza, E.; Antonino, A.; Montenegro, S.; Porporato, A. M.


    We analyzed the response of tropical dry forests to seasonal and interannual rainfall variability, focusing on the caatinga biome in semi-arid in Northeast Brazil. We selected four sites across a gradient of rainfall amount and seasonality and analyzed daily rainfall and biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the period 2000-2014. The seasonal and interannual rainfall statistics were characterized using recently developed metrics describing duration, location, and intensity of wet season and compared them with those of NDVI time series and modelled soil moisture. A model of NDVI was also developed and forced by different rainfall scenarios (combination amount of rainfall and duration of wet season). The results show that the caatinga tends to have a more stable response characterized by longer and less variable growing seasons (of duration 3.1±0.1 months) compared to the rainfall wet seasons (2.0±0.5 months). Even for more extreme rainfall conditions, the ecosystem shows very little sensitivity to duration of wet season in relation to the amount of rainfall, however the duration of wet season is most evident for wetter sites. This ability of the ecosystem in buffering the interannual variability of rainfall is corroborated by the stability of the centroid location of the growing season compared to the wet season for all sites. The maximal biomass production was observed at intermediate levels of seasonality, suggesting a possible interesting trade-off in the effects of intensity (i.e., amount) and duration of the wet season on vegetation growth.

  16. Research on the Fine-Scale Spatial Uniformity of Natural Rainfall and Rainfall from a Rainfall Simulator with a Rotary Platform (RSRP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo Liu; Xiaolei Wang; Lihua Shi; Xichuan Liu; Zhaojing Kang; Zhentao Chen


    ... and the rainfall uniformity was evaluated using the Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CU). Simultaneously, factors influencing the spatial uniformity of natural rainfall, including the average rainfall accumulation (RA...

  17. Stochastic generation of daily rainfall events based on rainfall pattern classification and Copula-based rainfall characteristics simulation (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Gao, C.


    To deal with the problem of having no or insufficiently long rainfall record, developing a stochastic rainfall model is very essential. This study first proposed a stochastic model of daily rainfall events based on classification and simulation of different rainfall patterns, and copula-based joint simulation of rainfall characteristics. Compared with current stochastic rainfall models, this new model not only keeps the dependence structure of rainfall characteristics by using copula functions, but also takes various rainfall patterns that may cause different hydrological responses to watershed into consideration. In order to determine the appropriate number of representative rainfall patterns in an objective way, we also introduced clustering validation measures to the stochastic model. Afterwards, the developed stochastic rainfall model is applied to 39 gauged meteorological stations in Zhejiang province, East China, and is then extended to ungauged stations for validation by applying the self-organizing map (SOM) method. The final results show that the 39 stations can be classified into seven regions that further fall into three categories based on rainfall generation mechanisms, i.e., plum-rain control region, typhoon-rain control region and typhoon-plum-rain compatible region. Rainfall patterns of each station can be classified into five or six types based on clustering validation measures. This study shows that the stochastic rainfall model is robust and can be applied to both gauged and ungauged stations for generating long rainfall record.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steel


    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity, considering rainfall amount and intensity, is an important parameter for soil erosion risk assessment under future land use and climate change. Despite its importance, rainfall erosivity is usually implemented in models with a low spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this study is to assess the temporal- and spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity (R-factor in Switzerland. Time series of 22 yr for rainfall (10 min resolution and temperature (1 h resolution data were analysed for 71 automatic gauging stations distributed throughout Switzerland. Multiple regression was used to interpolate the erosivity values of single stations and to generate a map for Switzerland. Latitude, longitude, average annual precipitation, biogeographic units (Jura, Midland, etc., aspect and elevation were used as covariates, of which average annual precipitation, elevation and the biographic unit (Western Alps were significant predictors. The mean value of long-term rainfall erosivity is 1323 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 with a range of lowest values of 124 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 at an elevated station in Grisons to highest values of 5611 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 in Ticino. All stations have highest erosivity values from July to August and lowest values in the winter month. Swiss-wide the month May to October show significantly increasing trends of erosivity (p<0.005. Only in February a significantly decreasing trend of rainfall erosivity is found (p<0.01. The increasing trends of erosivity in May, September and October when vegetation cover is susceptible are likely to enhance soil erosion risk for certain agricultural crops and alpine grasslands in Switzerland.

  19. A new approach to modeling tree rainfall interception (United States)

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E. Gregory; Ustin, Susan L.; Grismer, Mark E.


    A three-dimensional physically based stochastic model was developed to describe canopy rainfall interception processes at desired spatial and temporal resolutions. Such model development is important to understand these processes because forest canopy interception may exceed 59% of annual precipitation in old growth trees. The model describes the interception process from a single leaf, to a branch segment, and then up to the individual tree level. It takes into account rainfall, meteorology, and canopy architecture factors as explicit variables. Leaf and stem surface roughness, architecture, and geometric shape control both leaf drip and stemflow. Model predictions were evaluated using actual interception data collected for two mature open grown trees, a 9-year-old broadleaf deciduous pear tree (Pyrus calleryana "Bradford" or Callery pear) and an 8-year-old broadleaf evergreen oak tree (Quercus suber or cork oak). When simulating 18 rainfall events for the oak tree and 16 rainfall events for the pear tree, the model over estimated interception loss by 4.5% and 3.0%, respectively, while stemflow was under estimated by 0.8% and 3.3%, and throughfall was under estimated by 3.7% for the oak tree and over estimated by 0.3% for the pear tree. A model sensitivity analysis indicates that canopy surface storage capacity had the greatest influence on interception, and interception losses were sensitive to leaf and stem surface area indices. Among rainfall factors, interception losses relative to gross precipitation were most sensitive to rainfall amount. Rainfall incident angle had a significant effect on total precipitation intercepting the projected surface area. Stemflow was sensitive to stem segment and leaf zenith angle distributions. Enhanced understanding of interception loss dynamics should lead to improved urban forest ecosystem management.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meusburger


    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity, considering rainfall amount and intensity, is an important parameter for soil erosion risk assessment under future land use and climate change. Despite its importance, rainfall erosivity is usually implemented in models with a low spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this study is to assess the temporal- and spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in form of the (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation R-factor for Switzerland. Time series of 22 yr for rainfall (10 min resolution and temperature (1 h resolution data were analysed for 71 automatic gauging stations distributed throughout Switzerland. Regression-kriging was used to interpolate the rainfall erosivity values of single stations and to generate a map for Switzerland. Latitude, longitude, average annual precipitation, biogeographic units (Jura, Midland, etc., aspect and elevation were used as covariates, of which average annual precipitation, elevation and the biographic unit (Western Central Alps were significant (p<0.01 predictors. The mean value of long-term rainfall erosivity is 1330 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 with a range of lowest values of 124 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 at an elevated station in Grisons to highest values of 5611 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 in Ticino. All stations have highest erosivity values from July to August and lowest values in the winter months. Swiss-wide the month May to October show significantly increasing trends of rainfall erosivity for the observed period (p<0.005. Only in February a significantly decreasing trend of rainfall erosivity is found (p<0.01. The increasing trends of rainfall erosivity in May, September and October when vegetation cover is scarce are likely to enhance soil erosion risk for certain agricultural crops and alpine grasslands in Switzerland.

  1. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment. (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J


    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  2. Improving the early-warning of a mud-debris flow using radar rainfall data (United States)

    Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Soojun; Lee, Jiho


    The timely and accurate warning of mud-debris flows including landslide hazards is very important to protect life and property. The rainfall estimation uncertainty makes it difficult to issue accurate warning. Traditionally rain gauges have been the main source of surface rainfall measurements. The rain gauges provide an accurate point rainfall estimates, but their spatial resolution is limited by the low-density of a gauge network. The errors associated with interpolation schemes to fill in the missing data over the ungauged sites can introduce significant error due to the long distance between the rain gauge stations and the hazard site (ungauged sites), particularly over rough terrain. The radar system can provide rainfall information at higher temporal and spatial resolutions than was previously possible from rain gauge measurements. While radar provides accurate spatial and temporal resolution of the rainfall field at significant heights above the surface of the earth, numerous measurement errors can result in an inaccurate rainfall depth at the ground. This study attempts to improve mud-debris flow early-warnings through accurate rainfall depth estimation by applying an innovative artificial neural network method. The first scenario uses the nearest rainfall observing site from an ungauged hazard site. The second uses the radar rainfall data and improves the rainfall estimation compared to the first scenario. The third scenario integrates the above two scenarios using both radar and observed rainfall at the sites around the ungauged hazard site, and improves the rainfall estimation by the largest margin. This methodology is applied to the Seoul metropolitan area. The proposed methodology can be applied to improve the confidence in the early-warning of the mud-debris flow hazard in other areas. Acknowledgment This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and

  3. A review of statistical analyses on monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lana


    Full Text Available A review on recent studies about monthly and daily rainfall in Catalonia is presented. Monthly rainfall is analysed along the west Mediterranean Coast and in Catalonia, quantifying aspects as the irregularity of monthly amounts and the spatial distribution of the Standard Precipitation Index. Several statistics are applied to daily rainfall series such as their extreme value and intraannual spatial distributions, the variability of the average and standard deviation rain amounts for each month, their amount and time distributions, and time trends affecting four pluviometric indices for different percentiles and class intervals. All these different analyses constitute the continuity of the scientific study of Catalan rainfall, which started about a century ago.

  4. The Climatology of Taiwan extreme rainfall events and the attributions (United States)

    Su, S. H.; Kuo, H. C.; Chen, Y. H.; Chu, J. L.; Lin, L. Y.


    Taiwan is located in the East-Asian monsoon region with average 2,500mm annual precipitation. Most significant Meteorological disasters are related to extreme precipitation which is associated with a complex terrain. Therefore, the long-term trends or climate variations in precipitation due to climate change are our major concern. We studied the climatology of extreme rainfall (ER, 95thpercentile) events in Taiwan using hourly precipitation data form 21 surface stations during 1960-2014. ER contributes about 40% of the total rain amount. It was found that approximately 68% of ER is related to typhoon (TY) and 22% associated with the Mei-Yu (MY) frontal system. The total ER amount annual variation is strongly related to TY, with correlation coefficient of 0.89 for rainfall amount and 0.86 for frequency. There is a significant increasing trend of TY-ER in past 55 years, but also has large variations over the annual and decadal time scales. The inter-annual variation of astounding extreme rainfall (AER, 99.9thpercentile) is increased significantly, especially in the past 15 years. It implies that the increasing of AER rainfall amount majorly caused by the increasing of frequency instead of average rain intensity of TY-AER. The MY-ER events are also highly correlated with the frontal system. The correlation is 0.84 for the rainfall amount and 0.83 of the frequency with the frontal days. There are also strong inter-annual variations of MY-ER, but the long-term trends are not as significant as TY-ER. The variation of frontal system number is another parameter may impact the MY-ER. The observational frontal system numbers had positive correlation with the MY-ER. The attribution of Taiwan TY-ER changes was debated in the research community. In general, the public acceptance of Taiwan extreme precipitation events is affected by multi-scale systems. According to observational data, the increasing of TY-ER amount is 37 % (48% )in Taiwan and some resent studies (Wang et al

  5. Rain Check Application: Mobile tool to monitor rainfall in remote parts of Haiti (United States)

    Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Gourley, J. R.


    Rainfall observations performed uniformly and continuously over a period of time are valuable inputs in developing climate models and predicting events such as floods and droughts. Rain-Check is a mobile application developed in Google App Inventor Platform, for android based smart phones, to allow field researchers to monitor various rain gauges distributed though out remote regions of Haiti and send daily readings via SMS messages for further analysis and long term trending. Rainfall rate and quantity interact with many other factors to influence erosion, vegetative cover, groundwater recharge, stream water chemistry and runoff into streams impacting agriculture and livestock. Rainfall observation from various sites is especially significant in Haiti with over 80% of the country is mountainous terrain. Data sets from global models and limited number of ground stations do not capture the fine-scale rainfall patterns necessary to describe local climate. Placement and reading of rain gauges are critical to accurate measurement of rainfall.

  6. Quantitative analysis of torrential rainfall associated with typhoon landfall: A case study of typhoon Haitang (2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caijun Yue


    A quantitative analysis of torrential rainfall associated with typhoon Haitang (2005) is carried out using a modified moist ageostrophic Q vector and data from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation.Four major factors determining the ascending motion associated with torrential rainfall have been studied:large-scale and convective condensational heating,topographic lifting and friction.The results show that the convective condensational heating plays a major role in the torrential rainfall process,and the large-scale condensational heating is secondary before the landfall of typhoon Haitang,and vice versa after the landfall.The topographic lifting affects the formation of rainfall,whereas the topographic friction has important impacts on torrential rainfall after the landfall.The rainfall amounts forced by the topographic friction and lifting have similar horizontal distributions,but the magnitudes of the former are 2-3 times larger than those of the latter.The rainfall amounts forced by topography (lifting and friction) and modified moist ageostrophic Q vector have different horizontal distributions,and the magnitudes of the former are 2-5 times larger than those of the latter.Synthetic analysis shows that the typhoon rainfall may be motivated by modified moist ageostrophic Q vector and enhanced further by the topographic effects.

  7. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.


    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  8. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang


    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  9. Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.

    The Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields, sponsored by AGU, was the first of its kind; it was devoted to strengthening scientific interaction between the North American and Latin American geophysics communities. It was hosted by Universidad Simon Bolivar and Instituto Internacional de Estudios Avanzados, in Caracas, Venezuela, during March 24-27, 1986. A total of 36 scientists from Latin America, the United States, Canada, and Europe participated. The conference, which was convened by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar) and V. K. Gupta (University of Mississippi, University), brought together hydrologists, meteorologists, and mathematicians/statisticians in the name of enhancing an interdisciplinary focus on rainfall research.

  10. Rainfall simulation for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.; Abner, C.H.; Mann, L.K.


    Rain simulation systems have been designed for field and greenhouse studies which have the capability of reproducing the physical and chemical characteristics of natural rainfall. The systems permit the simulation of variations in rainfall and droplet size similar to that of natural precipitation. The systems are completely automatic and programmable, allowing unattended operation for periods of up to one week, and have been used to expose not only vegetation but also soils and engineering materials, making them versatile tools for studies involving simulated precipitation.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen


    The CO-ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has to date seen the publication of at least ten journal papers that examine the African domain during 2012 and 2013. Five of these papers consider Africa generally (Nikulin et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2013, Hernandes-Dias et al. 2013, Laprise et al. 2013, Panitz et al. 2013) and five have regional foci: Tramblay et al. (2013) on Northern Africa, Mariotti et al. (2014) and Gbobaniyi el al. (2013) on West Africa, Endris et al. (2013) on East Africa and Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) on southern Africa. There also are a further three papers that the authors know about under review. These papers all use an observed rainfall and/or temperature data to evaluate/validate the regional model output and often proceed to assess projected changes in these variables due to climate change in the context of these observations. The most popular reference rainfall data used are the CRU, GPCP, GPCC, TRMM and UDEL datasets. However, as Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) point out there are many other rainfall datasets available for consideration, for example, CMORPH, FEWS, TAMSAT & RIANNAA, TAMORA and the WATCH & WATCH-DEI data. They, with others (Nikulin et al. 2012, Sylla et al. 2012) show that the observed datasets can have a very wide spread at a particular space-time coordinate. As more ground, space and reanalysis-based rainfall products become available, all which use different methods to produce precipitation data, the selection of reference data is becoming an important factor in model evaluation. A number of factors can contribute to a uncertainty in terms of the reliability and validity of the datasets such as radiance conversion algorithims, the quantity and quality of available station data, interpolation techniques and blending methods used to combine satellite and guage based products. However, to date no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate the uncertainty in these observational datasets. We assess 18 gridded

  12. A Case Study of Bivariate Rainfall Frequency Analysis Using Copula in South Korea (United States)

    Joo, K.; Shin, J.; Kim, W.; Heo, J.


    For a given rainfall event, it can be characterized into some properties such as rainfall depth (amount), duration, and intensity. By considering these factors simultaneously, the actual phenomenon of rainfall event can be explained better than univariate model. Using bivariate model, rainfall quantiles can be obtained for a given return period without any limitations of specific rainfall duration. For bivariate(depth and duration) frequency analysis, copula model was used in this study. Recently, copula model has been studied widely for hydrological field. And it is more flexible for marginal distribution than other conventional bivariate models. In this study, five weather stations are applied for frequency analysis from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) which are Seoul, Chuncheon, Gangneung, Wonju, and Chungju stations. These sites have 38 ~ 50 years of hourly precipitation data. Inter-event time definition is used for identification of rainfall events. And three copula models (Gumbel-Hougaard, Frank, and Joe) are applied in this study. Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameter of copula (θ). The normal, generalized extreme value, Gumbel, 3-parameter gamma, and generalized logistic distributions are examined for marginal distribution. As a result, rainfall quantiles can be obtained for any rainfall durations for a given return period by calculating conditional probability. In addition, rainfall quantiles from copula models are compared to those from univariate model.

  13. Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giannecchini


    Full Text Available The Serchio River Valley, in north-western Tuscany, is a well-known tourism area between the Apuan Alps and the Apennines. This area is frequently hit by heavy rainfall, which often triggers shallow landslides, debris flows and debris torrents, sometimes causing damage and death. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides is very important in order to improve forecasting and to arrange efficient alarm systems.

    With the aim of defining the critical rainfall thresholds for the Middle Serchio River Valley, a detailed analysis of the main rainstorm events was carried out. The hourly rainfall recorded by three rain gauges in the 1935–2010 interval was analysed and compared with the occurrence of shallow landslides. The rainfall thresholds were defined in terms of mean intensity I, rainfall duration D, and normalized using the mean annual precipitation. Some attempts were also carried out to analyze the role of rainfall prior to the damaging events. Finally, the rainfall threshold curves obtained for the study area were compared with the local, regional and global curves proposed by various authors. The results of this analysis suggest that in the study area landslide activity initiation requires a higher amount of rainfall and greater intensity than elsewhere.

  14. Research on the Fine-Scale Spatial Uniformity of Natural Rainfall and Rainfall from a Rainfall Simulator with a Rotary Platform (RSRP)


    Bo Liu; Xiaolei Wang; Lihua Shi; Xichuan Liu; Zhaojing Kang; Zhentao Chen


    Abstract: The accurate production of a rainfall environment similar to natural rainfall by a rainfall simulator (RS) is a crucial and challenging task in rainfall instrument testing or calibration. Although the spatial uniformity of rainfall accumulation is a key parameter of an RS, the spatial uniformity comparison between simulated rainfall and natural rainfall, and the spatial uniformity improvements for an RS are scant in the literature. In this study, a fine-scale natural rainfall experi...

  15. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates for drought and flood monitoring in Mozambique (United States)

    Tote, Carolien; Patricio, Domingos; Boogaard, Hendrik; van der Wijngaart, Raymond; Tarnavsky, Elena; Funk, Christopher C.


    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT) v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET) Rainfall Estimate (RFE) v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS)) are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012). This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  16. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien Toté


    Full Text Available Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET Rainfall Estimate (RFE v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012. This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  17. Where do forests influence rainfall? (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line


    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  18. Measurement and interpolation uncertainties in rainfall maps from cellular communication networks (United States)

    Rios Gaona, M. F.; Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    compared against quality-controlled gauge-adjusted radar rainfall fields (assumed to be the ground truth). Thus, we were able to not only identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty in such rainfall maps, but also test the actual and optimal performance of one commercial microwave network from one of the cellular providers in the Netherlands. Errors in microwave link measurements were found to be the source that contributes most to the overall uncertainty.

  19. Synthesis of rainfall time series in a high temporal resolution (United States)

    Callau Poduje, Ana Claudia; Haberlandt, Uwe


    In order to optimize the design and operation of urban drainage systems, long and continuous rain series in a high temporal resolution are essential. As the length of the rainfall records is often short, particularly the data available with the temporal and regional resolutions required for urban hydrology, it is necessary to find some numerical representation of the precipitation phenomenon to generate long synthetic rainfall series. An Alternating Renewal Model (ARM) is applied for this purpose, which consists of two structures: external and internal. The former is the sequence of wet and dry spells, described by their durations which are simulated stochastically. The internal structure is characterized by the amount of rain corresponding to each wet spell and its distribution within the spell. A multivariate frequency analysis is applied to analyze the internal structure of the wet spells and to generate synthetic events. The stochastic time series must reproduce the statistical characteristics of observed high resolution precipitation measurements used to generate them. The spatio-temporal interdependencies between stations are addressed by resampling the continuous synthetic series based on the Simulated Annealing (SA) procedure. The state of Lower-Saxony and surrounding areas, located in the north-west of Germany is used to develop the ARM. A total of 26 rainfall stations with high temporal resolution records, i.e. rainfall data every 5 minutes, are used to define the events, find the most suitable probability distributions, calibrate the corresponding parameters, simulate long synthetic series and evaluate the results. The length of the available data ranges from 10 to 20 years. The rainfall series involved in the different steps of calculation are compared using a rainfall-runoff model to simulate the runoff behavior in urban areas. The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is applied for this evaluation. The results show a good representation of the

  20. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations (United States)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.; Lai, Y. J.


    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Here, we used continuous seismic data, meteorological data and stream data to analyze the weather-related ground motions during typhoon cases and rainy season case in Taiwan. We detected some long period seismic signals at the station Mahsi (MASB) during three meteorological cases (Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012). The amplitude of the seismic waveform correlated with the amount of the precipitation and the derivative of water level and discharge in the nearby river. According to the relationships of waveforms in main and minor rainfall events, we derived apparent source time functions (ASTFs) and used the ASTFs to estimate and quantify the precipitation of main rainfall events in the cases. The estimated precipitation has high correlation coefficients (> 0.82) with the observation. It shows that the long period seismic data may be applied to rainfall monitoring.

  1. A new, long-term daily satellite-based rainfall dataset for operational monitoring in Africa (United States)

    Maidment, Ross I.; Grimes, David; Black, Emily; Tarnavsky, Elena; Young, Matthew; Greatrex, Helen; Allan, Richard P.; Stein, Thorwald; Nkonde, Edson; Senkunda, Samuel; Alcántara, Edgar Misael Uribe


    Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2.0) and 5-day (v3.0) total TAMSAT rainfall estimates to a daily time-step using daily cold cloud duration. This approach provides temporally consistent historic and near-real time daily rainfall information for all of Africa. The estimates have been evaluated using ground-based observations from five countries with contrasting rainfall climates (Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia) and compared to other satellite-based rainfall estimates. The results indicate that both versions of the TAMSAT daily estimates reliably detects rainy days, but have less skill in capturing rainfall amount—results that are comparable to the other datasets.

  2. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beguería


    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  3. Comparison of Two Stochastic Daily Rainfall Models and their Ability to Preserve Multi-year Rainfall Variability (United States)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George; Kiem, Anthony; Parana Manage, Nadeeka


    hierarchical MC model with the semi-parametric model in preserving rainfall variability in daily, monthly, and multi-year scales. To calibrate the parameters of both models and assess their ability to preserve observed statistics, we have used ground based data from 15 raingauge stations around Australia, which consist a wide range of climate zones including coastal, monsoonal, and arid climate characteristics. In preliminary results, both models show comparative performances in preserving the multi-year variability of rainfall depth and occurrence. However, the semi-parametric model shows a tendency of overestimating the mean rainfall depth, while our model shows a tendency of overestimating the number of wet days. We will discuss further the relative merits of the both models for hydrology simulation in the presentation.

  4. Road accidents and rainfall in a large Australian city. (United States)

    Keay, Kevin; Simmonds, Ian


    We investigate the impact of rainfall on daily road accidents in the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia, over 1987-2002. Our analysis from several viewpoints of the accident count, which has been normalised for variation in traffic volume, indicated that the effect of rainfall is multifaceted. Owing to a large non-linear trend a subdivision into three epochs (1987-1991, 1992-1996 and 1997-2002) was made. Nominal daytime and nighttime as well as 3h raw counts were available for the first two epochs only. Generally, the effect of rainfall across the epochs shows a tendency for larger values in autumn with smaller values in spring. For the daily, daytime and nighttime cases there is an approximate 40% decrease in both the volume-normalised dry and wet means from the first to second epoch. Since the second epoch is wetter than the first, and both dry and wet cases are affected in a similar way, then it appears that a non-weather influence is at work. It is suggested that law enforcement measures may be largely responsible. We obtained a conservative estimate of relative risk of an accident in wet conditions based on a matched-pair analysis of 3h dry and wet periods over the first two epochs (1987-1996). As with other studies we find that the risk is greater than unity in almost all cases suggesting that the presence of rainfall consistently represents a driving hazard. Rainfall occurring after a dry spell has an enhanced effect on the volume-normalised accident count as the spell duration increases. The effect of dry spells is more clearly described when broken down by rain class. Generally, there is an increase in the impact of a dry spell when it first rains as the spell duration and rainfall amount increase.

  5. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.


    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  6. Spatial-Temporal Variation and Prediction of Rainfall in Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M. Bibi


    Full Text Available In Northeastern Nigeria seasonal rainfall is critical for the availability of water for domestic use through surface and sub-surface recharge and agricultural production, which is mostly rain fed. Variability in rainfall over the last 60 years is the main cause for crop failure and water scarcity in the region, particularly, due to late onset of rainfall, short dry spells and multi-annual droughts. In this study, we analyze 27 years (1980–2006 of gridded daily rainfall data obtained from a merged dataset by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and Climate Research Unit reanalysis data (NCEP-CRU for spatial-temporal variability of monthly amounts and frequency in rainfall and rainfall trends. Temporal variability was assessed using the percentage coefficient of variation and temporal trends in rainfall were assessed using maps of linear regression slopes for the months of May through October. These six months cover the period of the onset and cessation of the wet season throughout the region. Monthly rainfall amount and frequency were then predicted over a 24-month period using the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA Model. The predictions were evaluated using NCEP-CRU data for the same period. Kolmogorov Smirnov test results suggest that despite there are some months during the wet season (May–October when there is no significant agreement (p < 0.05 between the monthly distribution of the values of the model and the corresponding 24-month NCEP-CRU data, the model did better than simply replicating the long term mean of the data used for the prediction. Overall, the model does well in areas and months with lower temporal rainfall variability. Maps of the coefficient of variation and regression slopes are presented to indicate areas of high rainfall variability and water deficit over the period under study. The implications of these results for future policies on Agriculture and Water Management in the region are

  7. Multiple data fusion for rainfall estimation using a NARX-based recurrent neural network - the development of the REIINN model (United States)

    Ang, M. R. C. O.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Castro, P. P. M.


    Rainfall, one of the important elements of the hydrologic cycle, is also the most difficult to model. Thus, accurate rainfall estimation is necessary especially in localized catchment areas where variability of rainfall is extremely high. Moreover, early warning of severe rainfall through timely and accurate estimation and forecasting could help prevent disasters from flooding. This paper presents the development of two rainfall estimation models that utilize a NARX-based neural network architecture namely: REIINN 1 and REIINN 2. These REIINN models, or Rainfall Estimation by Information Integration using Neural Networks, were trained using MTSAT cloud-top temperature (CTT) images and rainfall rates from the combined rain gauge and TMPA 3B40RT datasets. Model performance was assessed using two metrics - root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R). REIINN 1 yielded an RMSE of 8.1423 mm/3h and an overall R of 0.74652 while REIINN 2 yielded an RMSE of 5.2303 and an overall R of 0.90373. The results, especially that of REIINN 2, are very promising for satellite-based rainfall estimation in a catchment scale. It is believed that model performance and accuracy will greatly improve with a denser and more spatially distributed in-situ rainfall measurements to calibrate the model with. The models proved the viability of using remote sensing images, with their good spatial coverage, near real time availability, and relatively inexpensive to acquire, as an alternative source for rainfall estimation to complement existing ground-based measurements.

  8. Hydrological Evaluation of TRMM Rainfall over the Upper Senegal River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumana Bodian


    Full Text Available The availability of climatic data, especially on a daily time step, has become very rare in West Africa over the last few years due to the high costs of climate data monitoring. This scarcity of climatic data is a huge obstacle to conduct hydrological studies over some watersheds. In this context, our study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite data to simulate the observed runoffs over the Bafing (the main important tributary of the Senegal River before their potential integration in hydrological studies. The conceptual hydrological model GR4J (modèle du Génie Rural (Agricultural Engineering Model à 4 paramètres Journalier (4 parameters Daily has been used, calibrated and validated over the 1961–1997 period with rainfall and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET as inputs. Then, the parameters that best reflect the rainfall-runoff relation, obtained during the cross-calibration-validation phase, were used to simulate runoff over the 1998–2004 period using observed and TRMM rainfalls. The findings of this study show that there is a high consistency between satellite-based estimates and ground-based observations of rainfall. Over the 1998–2004 simulation period, the two rainfall data series show quite satisfactorily results. The output hydrographs from satellite-based estimates and ground-based observations of rainfall coincide quite well with the shape of observed hydrographs with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE of 0.88 and 0.80 for observed rainfalls and TRMM rainfalls, respectively.

  9. Using qflux to constrain modeled Congo Basin rainfall in the CMIP5 ensemble (United States)

    Creese, A.; Washington, R.


    Coupled models are the tools by which we diagnose and project future climate, yet in certain regions they are critically underevaluated. The Congo Basin is one such region which has received limited scientific attention, due to the severe scarcity of observational data. There is a large difference in the climatology of rainfall in global coupled climate models over the basin. This study attempts to address this research gap by evaluating modeled rainfall magnitude and distribution amongst global coupled models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. Mean monthly rainfall between models varies by up to a factor of 5 in some months, and models disagree on the location of maximum rainfall. The ensemble mean, which is usually considered a "best estimate" of coupled model output, does not agree with any single model, and as such is unlikely to present a possible rainfall state. Moisture flux (qflux) convergence (which is assumed to be better constrained than parameterized rainfall) is found to have a strong relationship with rainfall; strongest correlations occur at 700 hPa in March-May (r = 0.70) and 850 hPa in June-August, September-November, and December-February (r = 0.66, r = 0.71, and r = 0.81). In the absence of observations, this relationship could be used to constrain the wide spectrum of modeled rainfall and give a better understanding of Congo rainfall climatology. Analysis of moisture transport pathways indicates that modeled rainfall is sensitive to the amount of moisture entering the basin. A targeted observation campaign at key Congo Basin boundaries could therefore help to constrain model rainfall.

  10. Identification and Diagnosis of Rainfall Types over Southern West Africa Using Satellite and Rain Gauge Data (United States)

    Maranan, Marlon; Fink, Andreas H.; Amekudzi, Leonard K.; Atiah, Winifred A.


    Rainfall over Southern West Africa (SWA) is mainly controlled by the West African Monsoon circulation. Not much is known, however, about the (thermo-)dynamic environmental conditions and storm dynamics of various regional rainfall systems that contribute to the total annual rainfall. This study exploits both satellite and rain gauge measurements to quantify the contribution and to examine the importance of different rainfall types in SWA. For the period of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 1998-2014, the rainfall types are identified by analyzing the 3-D reflectivity structure using scans of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR). Since TRMM-PR scans only provide instantaneous snapshots, the rainfall events are then traced back and forward in time with observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) over the overlapping period of 2004-2014 to obtain information about their life cycle. The composition of the ensemble of the different rainfall types exhibits a substantial regional variability across SWA. Strong convection (Radar echo > 40 dBZ) generally makes a dominant contribution to the number of rainfall events and to the total rainfall amount. However, the influence of deeper (40 dBZ echo at altitudes > 10 km) and wider (Area of 40 dBZ echo > 1000 km2) systems on the total rainfall amount increases going farther northward into the continent. Additionally, the number of tracks of those systems features relative minima along the Ivorian and Ghanaian-Togolese coast, the latter reflecting the climatologically dry Dahomey Gap. In contrast, local warm rain from isolated shallow convection develops more often along the immediate coast line. Yet, their contribution to total rainfall remains negligible and is almost non-existent further north. Compared with high-resolution rain gauge data around Kumasi, Ghana, for the year 2016, it can be assumed that warm rain events show an even higher occurrence frequency. Likewise, their

  11. Determination of rainfall and condensational heating in the South Pacific convergence zone during FGGE SOP-1 (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.


    The role of cloud related diabatic processes in maintaining the structure of the South Pacific Convergence Zone is discussed. The method chosen to evaluate the condensational heating is a diagnostic cumulus mass flux technique which uses GOES digital IR data to characterize the cloud population. This method requires as input an estimate of time/area mean rainfall rate over the area in question. Since direct observation of rainfall in the South Pacific is not feasible, a technique using GOES IR data is being developed to estimate rainfall amounts for a 2.5 degree grid at 12h intervals.

  12. Evaluation of satellite rainfall products through hydrologic simulation in a fully distributed hydrologic model (United States)

    Bitew, Menberu M.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen


    The goal of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of four global high-resolution satellite rainfall products (CMORPH, TMPA 3B42RT, TMPA 3B42, and PERSIANN) through the hydrologic simulation of a 1656 km2 mountainous watershed in the fully distributed MIKE SHE hydrologic model. This study shows that there are significant biases in the satellite rainfall estimates and large variations in rainfall amounts, leading to large variations in hydrologic simulations. The rainfall algorithms that use primarily microwave data (CMORPH and TMPA 3B42RT) show consistent and better performance in streamflow simulation (bias in the order of -53% to -3%, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) from 0.34 to 0.65); the rainfall algorithm that uses primarily infrared data (PERSIANN) shows lower performance (bias from -82% to -3%, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency from -0.39 to 0.43); and the rainfall algorithm that merges the satellite data with rain gage data (TMPA 3B42) shows inconsistencies and the lowest performance (bias from -86% to 0.43%, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency from -0.50 to 0.27). A dilemma between calibrating the hydrologic model with rain gage data and calibrating it with the corresponding satellite rainfall data is presented. Calibrating the model with corresponding satellite rainfall data increases the performance of satellite streamflow simulation compared to the model calibrated with rain gage data, but decreases the performance of satellite evapotranspiration simulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The amount of rainfall received over an area is an important factor in assessing availability of water to meet various demands for agriculture, industry, irrigation, generation of hydroelectricity and other human activities. The distribution of rainfall in time and space is, therefore, an important factor for the economic development of a country. Due to rapid urbanization in various parts of the north-eastern region of Bangladesh, there is a growing need to study the rainfall pattern, and also frequency of the heavy rainfall events. This study was checked monthly average rainfall from daily records of last 50 years for this region. In order to check the major events, time history of monthly rainfall data were transformed into frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Estimated peak frequency (11.98 month depicts that major rainfall events of a year are occurring earlier than the previous year. The variability of rainfall in time scale was also checked from filtered signals, which is very useful for long-term water resources planning, agricultural development and disaster management for Bangladesh.

  14. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara


    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  15. Trends in rainfall and temperature extremes in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khomsi


    Full Text Available In Morocco, socioeconomic fields are vulnerable to weather extreme events. This work aims to analyze the frequency and the trends of temperature and rainfall extreme events in two contrasted Moroccan regions (the Tensift in the semi-arid South, and the Bouregreg in the sub-humid North, during the second half of the 20th century. This study considers long time series of daily extreme temperatures and rainfall, recorded in the stations of Marrakech and Safi for the Tensift region, and Kasba-Tadla and Rabat-Sale for the Bouregreg region, data from four other stations (Tanger, Fes, Agadir and Ouarzazate from outside the regions were added. Extremes are defined by using as thresholds the 1st, 5th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Results show upward trends in maximum and minimum temperatures of both regions and no generalized trends in rainfall amounts. Changes in cold events are larger than those for warm events, and the number of very cold events decrease significantly in the whole studied area. The southern region is the most affected with the changes of the temperature regime. Most of the trends found in rainfall heavy events are positive with weak magnitudes even though no statistically significant generalized trends could be identified during both seasons.

  16. Are global mangrove carbon stocks driven by rainfall? (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Maher, Damien T.; Tait, Douglas R.; Williams, Darren; Holloway, Ceylena; Sippo, James Z.; Santos, Isaac R.


    Mangrove forests produce significant amounts of organic carbon and maintain large carbon stocks in tidally inundated, anoxic soils. This work analyzes new and published data from 17 regions spanning a latitudinal gradient from 22°N to 38°S to assess some of the global drivers (temperature, tidal range, latitude, and rainfall) of mangrove carbon stocks. Mangrove forests from the tropics have larger carbon stocks (895 ± 90 t C ha-1) than the subtropics and temperate regions (547 ± 66 t C ha-1). A multiple regression model showed that 86% of the observed variability is associated with annual rainfall, which is the best predictor of mangrove ecosystem carbon stocks. Therefore, a predicted increase in rainfall along the tropical Indo-Pacific may increase mangrove forest carbon stocks. However, there are other potentially important factors that may regulate organic matter diagenesis, such as nutrient availability and pore water salinity. Our predictive model shows that if mangrove deforestation is halted, global mangrove forest carbon stocks could increase by almost 10% by 2115 as a result of increased rainfall in the tropics.

  17. Spatial variability and rainfall characteristics of Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Simon; K Mohankumar


    Geographical regions of covariability in precipitation over the Kerala state are exposed using factor analysis. The results suggest that Kerala can be divided into three unique rainfall regions, each region having a similar covariance structure of annual rainfall. Stations north of 10°N (north Kerala) fall into one group and they receive more rainfall than stations south of 10°N (south Kerala). Group I stations receive more than 65% of the annual rainfall during the south-west monsoon period, whereas stations falling in Group II receive 25-30% of annual rainfall during the pre-monsoon and the north-east monsoon periods. The meteorology of Kerala is profoundly influenced by its orographical features, however it is difficult to make out a direct relationship between elevation and rainfall. Local features of the state as reflected in the rainfall distribution are also clearly brought out by the study.

  18. Diagnostic statistics of daily rainfall variability in an evolving climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Panagoulia


    Full Text Available To investigate the character of daily rainfall variability under present and future climate described via global warming a suite of diagnostic statistics was used. The rainfall was modeled as a stochastic process coupled with atmospheric circulation. In this study we used an automated objective classification of daily patterns based on optimized fuzzy rules. This kind of classification method provided circulation patterns suitable for downscaling of General Circulation Model (GCM-generated precipitation. The precipitation diagnostics included first and second order moments, wet and dry-day renewal process probabilities and spell lengths as well as low-frequency variability via the standard deviation of monthly totals. These descriptors were applied to nine elevation zones and entire area of the Mesochora mountainous catchment in Central Greece for observed, 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 downscaled precipitation. The statistics' comparison revealed significant differences in the most of the daily diagnostics (e.g. mean wet-day amount, 95th percentile of wet-day amount, dry to wet probability, spell statistics (e.g. mean wet/dry spell length, and low-frequency diagnostic (standard deviation of monthly precipitation total between warm (2×CO2 and observed scenario in a progressive rate from lower to upper zone. The differences were very greater for the catchment area. In the light of these results, an increase in rainfall occurrence with diminished rainfall amount and a sequence of less consecutive dry days could describe the behaviour of a possible future climate on the examined catchment.

  19. On the wind-induced undercatch in rainfall measurement using CFD-based simulations (United States)

    Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca


    The reliability of liquid atmospheric precipitation measurements is a basic requirement since rainfall data represent the fundamental input variables of many scientific applications (hydrologic models, weather forecasting data assimilation, climate change studies, calibration of weather radar, etc.). The scientific community and the National Meteorological Services worldwide are facing the issue of improving the accuracy of precipitation measurements, with an increased focus on retrieving the information at a high temporal resolution. The rainfall intensity is indeed fundamental information for the precise quantification of the markedly time-varying behavior of precipitation events. Environmental conditions have a relevant impact on the rain collection/sensing efficiency. Among other effects, wind is recognized as a major source of underestimation since it reduces the collection efficiency of the catching-type gauges (Nespor and Sevruk, 1999), the most common type of instruments used worldwide in the national observation networks. The collection efficiency is usually obtained by comparing the rainfall amounts measured by the gauge with the reference, which was defined by EN-13798 standard (CEN, 2002) as a gauge placed below the ground level inside a pit. A lot of scatter can be observed for a given wind speed, which is mainly caused by comparability issues among the tested gauges. An additional source of uncertainty is the drops size distribution (DSD) of the rain, which varies on an event-by-event basis. The goal of this study is to understand the role of the physical characteristics of precipitation particles on the wind-induced rainfall underestimation observed for catching-type gauges. To address this issue, a detailed analysis of the flow field in the vicinity of the gauge is conducted using time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations (Colli et al., 2015). Using a Lagrangian model, which accounts for the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid

  20. Hydrologic response in karstic-ridge wetlands to rainfall and evapotranspiration, central Florida, 2001-2003 (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Phelps, G.G.; Kinnaman, Sandra L.; German, Edward R.


    Two internally drained karstic wetlands in central Florida-Boggy Marsh at the Hilochee Wildlife Management Area and a large unnamed wetland at the Lyonia Preserve-were studied during 2001-03 to gain a better understanding of the net-recharge function that these wetlands provide, the significance of exchanges with ground water with regard to wetland water budgets, and the variability in wetland hydrologic response to a range of climate conditions. These natural, relatively remote and unaltered wetlands were selected to provide a baseline of natural wetland hydrologic variability to which anthropogenic influences on wetland hydrology could be compared. Large departures from normal rainfall during the study were fortuitous, and allowed monitoring of hydrologic processes over a wide range of climate conditions. Wetland responses varied greatly as a result of climate conditions that ranged from moderate drought to extremely moist. Anthropogenic activities influenced water levels at both study sites; however, because these activities were brief relative to the duration of the study, sufficient data were collected during unimpacted periods to allow for the following conclusions to be made. Water budgets developed for Boggy Marsh and the Lyonia large wetland showed strong similarity between the flux terms of rainfall, evaporation, net change in storage, and the net ground-water exchange residual. Runoff was assumed to be negligible. Of the total annual flux at Boggy Marsh, rainfall accounted for 45 percent; evaporation accounted for 25 percent; net change in storage accounted for 25 percent; and the net residual accounted for 5 percent. At the Lyonia large wetland, rainfall accounted for 44 percent; evaporation accounted for 29 percent; net change in storage accounted for 21 percent; and the net residual accounted for 6 percent of the total annual flux. Wetland storage and ground-water exchange were important when compared to the total water budget at both wetlands. Even

  1. Rainfall estimation from microwave links in São Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    Rainfall estimation from microwave link networks has been successfully demonstrated in countries such as the Netherlands, Israel and Germany. The path-averaged rainfall intensity can be computed from the signal attenuation between cell phone towers. Although this technique is still in development, it offers great opportunities to retrieve rainfall rates at high spatiotemporal resolutions very close to the ground surface. High spatiotemporal resolutions and closer-to-ground measurements are highly appreciated, especially in urban catchments where high-impact events such as flash-floods develop in short time scales. We evaluate here this rainfall measurement technique for a tropical climate, something that has hardly been done previously. This is highly relevant since many countries with few surface rainfall observations are located in the tropics. The test-bed is the Brazilian city of São Paulo. The performance of 16 microwave links was evaluated, from a network of 200 links, for the last 3 months of 2014. The open software package RAINLINK was employed to obtain link rainfall estimates. The evaluation was done through a dense automatic gauge network. Results are promising and encouraging, especially for short links for which a high correlation (> 0.9) and a low bias (< 5%) were obtained.

  2. Potential of deterministic and geostatistical rainfall interpolation under high rainfall variability and dry spells: case of Kenya's Central Highlands (United States)

    Kisaka, M. Oscar; Mucheru-Muna, M.; Ngetich, F. K.; Mugwe, J.; Mugendi, D.; Mairura, F.; Shisanya, C.; Makokha, G. L.


    digital elevation model in ArcGIS environment. Validation of the selected interpolation methods were based on goodness of fit between gauged (observed) and generated rainfall derived from residual errors statistics, coefficient of determination (R 2), mean absolute errors (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) statistics. Analyses showed 90 % chance of below cropping-threshold rainfall (500 mm) exceeding 258.1 mm during short rains in Embu for 1 year return period. Rainfall variability was found to be high in seasonal amounts (e.g. coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.56, 0.47, 0.59) and in number of rainy days (e.g. CV = 0.88, 0.53) in Machang'a and Kiritiri, respectively. Monthly rainfall variability was found to be equally high during April and November (e.g. CV = 0.48, 0.49 and 0.76) with high probabilities (0.67) of droughts exceeding 15 days in Machang'a. Dry spell probabilities within growing months were high, e.g. 81 and 60 % in Machang'a and Embu, respectively. Kriging interpolation method emerged as the most appropriate geostatistical interpolation technique suitable for spatial rainfall maps generation for the study region.

  3. Canopy interception during rainfall, storm break time and after cessation of rainfall: experimental study using artificial Christmas trees (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki


    Evaporation of canopy interception can be divided into three phases: evaporation during rainfall IR, storm break time when it stops raining temporarily ISbt, and after cessation of rainfall IAft. In this study, IR, ISbt, and IAft were measured using model forests, i.e. plastic Christmas tree stands. The method and preliminary results are described in Murakami and Toba (2013). Christmas trees with original height of 65 cm (small tree) and 150 cm (large tree) were placed on three trays. Small trees were set on Tray #1. The same trees with height of 110 cm (extended using plastic rod) were placed on Tray #2, and large trees with height of 240 cm (raised using iron pipe) were set on Tray #3. The dimension of Tray #1 and #2 were a 180-cm square, and Tray #3 was a 360-cm square. Measurement was conducted under natural rainfall. Gross rainfall and net rainfall of each tray (discharge from each tray), in addition to single tree weight on Tray #1 and #3 were measured. Initial tree density of each tray was 41 trees per tray. Thinning was conducted in the middle of the experiment period and it was reduced to 25 trees per tray on Tray #2 and #3, but Tray #1 was unthinned. Total rainfall for pre-thinning period was 204.2 mm with 16 rain events and canopy interception CI was 10.8% (22.0 mm), 13.9% (28.3 mm) and 16.3% (33.4 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Amount of rainfall for after thinning period was 291.5 mm with 24 rain events and canopy interception was 12.7% (40.0 mm), 21.7% (63.3 mm) and 13.6% (39.7 mm) of rainfall for Tray #1, #2 and #3, respectively. It is noteworthy that canopy interception increased on Tray #2 after thinning. IR, ISbt, and IAft were calculated for each tray using gross rainfall, net rainfall and the weight of single tree. Before thinning the value of IR/CI was 67.3% to74.9% and IAft occupied the remaining part of CI with ISbt/CI being nearly equal to zero. After thinning, IR/CI ranged from 65.3% to 93.8%. Both before and after

  4. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates from commercial microwave links (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Dohnal, Michal; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch


    Increasing urbanization makes it more and more important to have accurate stormwater runoff predictions, especially with potentially severe weather and climatic changes on the horizon. Such stormwater predictions in turn require reliable rainfall information. Especially for urban centres, the problem is that the spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall observations should be substantially higher than commonly provided by weather services with their standard rainfall monitoring networks. Commercial microwave links (CMLs) are non-traditional sensors, which have been proposed about a decade ago as a promising solution. CMLs are line-of-sight radio connections widely used by operators of mobile telecommunication networks. They are typically very dense in urban areas and can provide path-integrated rainfall observations at sub-minute resolution. Unfortunately, quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) from CMLs are often highly biased due to several epistemic uncertainties, which significantly limit their usability. In this manuscript we therefore suggest a novel method to reduce this bias by adjusting QPEs to existing rain gauges. The method has been specifically designed to produce reliable results even with comparably distant rain gauges or cumulative observations. This eliminates the need to install reference gauges and makes it possible to work with existing information. First, the method is tested on data from a dedicated experiment, where a CML has been specifically set up for rainfall monitoring experiments, as well as operational CMLs from an existing cellular network. Second, we assess the performance for several experimental layouts of ground truth from rain gauges (RGs) with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The results suggest that CMLs adjusted by RGs with a temporal aggregation of up to 1 h (i) provide precise high-resolution QPEs (relative error 0.75) and (ii) that the combination of both sensor types clearly outperforms each individual

  5. Parametric study on the effect of rainfall pattern to slope stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Sagitaningrum Fathiyah


    Full Text Available Landslide in Indonesia usually occurs during the rainy seasons. Previous studies showed that rainfall infiltration has a great effect on the factor of safety (FS of slopes. This research focused on the effect of rainfall pattern on the FS of unsaturated slope with different slope angle i.e.: 30°, 45°, and 60°. Three different rainfall patterns, which are normal, advanced, and delayed were considered in the analysis. The effects of low or high hydraulic conductivity of the soil are also observed. The analyses were conducted with SEEP/W for the seepage and SLOPE/W for the slope stability. It is found that the lowest FS for gentle slope is reached under the application of advanced rainfall pattern and the lowest FS for steep slope is reached under the application of delayed rainfall pattern. Reduction of FS is known to be the largest for gentle slope rather than steep slope due to negative pore water pressure reduction and the rising of ground water level. The largest FS reduction caused by rainfall was achieved for gentle slope under advanced rainfall pattern.

  6. Rainfall measurement based on in-situ storm drainage flow sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup


    these sensors, it may be possible to improve the ground rainfall estimate, and thereby improve the quantitative precipitation estimation from weather radars for urban drainage applications. To test the hypothesis, this paper presents a rainfall measurement method based on flow rate measurements from well......Data for adjustment of weather radar rainfall estimations are mostly obtained from rain gauge observations. However, the density of rain gauges is often very low. Yet in many urban catchments, runoff sensors are typically available which can measure the rainfall indirectly. By utilising......-defined urban surfaces. This principle was used to design a runoff measurement system in a parking structure in Aalborg, Denmark, where it was evaluated against rain gauges. The measurements show that runoff measurements from well-defined urban surfaces perform just as well as rain gauges. This opens up...

  7. Gully Growth Patterns and Soil Loss under Rainfall at Urban Underground Drainage Construction Site, Uyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Essien


    Full Text Available This study investigated, evaluated and modeled patterns of growth of gully morphometric dimension and soil loss volume under prevailing rainfall on the slopes of land graded for the construction of underground drainage at Uyo but delayed in completion. Land grading at underground (tunnel drainage construction site rendered the exposed surface very impervious but young ephemeral gullies developed due to delays in completion. Data on gully morphometric dimension, soil loss and depth of rainfall were analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 statistical package. Mean gully growth in length, width and depth were different at 2.54±0.86, 0.923±0.29 and 0.41±0.11 m, respectively, yielding 3.87±0.08 m2 as mean volume of soil loss at full stage. Cubic polynomial was best-fit model for growth in length (R2 = 79% and width (R2 = 69% using weekly rainfall for an annual season. All gully sites had constant depth change, better predicted by quadratic (R2 = 13% than linear (R2 = 9% functions. Mean volume of soil loss per unit rainfall amount varied with low, medium and high rainfall amount and was highest at slope bottom (33 cm3/cm and least at the crest (6.99 cm3/cm with R2 = 38-34%. Land grading to impervious sublayer produced constant depth change in all gullies at the sites. The models for morphometric incremental growth and soil loss volume under the rainfall effect was significantly improved (p<0.05 by bifurcating the lumped annual curve into two growth periods in a year: the periods for increasing rainfall (from week 10-30 and for receding rainfall (from week 31-43 in a year and applying quadratic regressing functions on each (R2 = 91-99%. Rainfall was the principal gully factor and construction delays should be avoided.

  8. Warning Model for Shallow Landslides Induced by Extreme Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Kwei Chien


    Full Text Available In this study, the geophysical properties of the landslide-prone catchment of the Gaoping River in Taiwan were investigated using zones based on landslide history in conjunction with landslide analysis using a deterministic approach based on the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-Stability model. Typhoon Morakot in 2009 was selected as a simulation scenario to calibrate the combination of geophysical parameters in each zone before analyzing changes in the factor of safety (FS. Considering the amount of response time required for typhoons, suitable FS thresholds for landslide warnings are proposed for each town in the catchment area. Typhoon Fanapi of 2010 was used as a test scenario to verify the applicability of the FS as well as the efficacy of the cumulative rainfall thresholds derived in this study. Finally, the amount of response time provided by the FS thresholds in cases of yellow and red alerts was determined. All five of the landslide events reported by the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau were listed among the unstable sites identified in the proposed model, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness and accuracy in determining unstable areas and areas that require evacuation. These cumulative rainfall thresholds provide a valuable reference to guide disaster prevention authorities in the issuance of yellow and red alerts with the ability to reduce losses and save lives.

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of ground water recharge in central Australia: a tracer approach. (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Cook, Peter G; Herczeg, Andrew L


    Two environmental tracer methods are applied to the Ti-Tree Basin in central Australia to shed light on the importance of recharge from floodouts of ephemeral rivers in this arid environment. Ground water carbon-14 concentrations from boreholes are used to estimate the average recharge rate over the interval between where the ground water sample first entered the saturated zone and the bore. Environmental chloride concentrations in ground water samples provide estimates of the recharge rate at the exact point in the landscape where the sample entered the saturated zone. The results of the two tracer approaches indicate that recharge rates around one of the rivers and an extensive floodplain are generally higher than rates of diffuse recharge that occurs in areas of lower topographic relief. Ground water 2H/1H and 18O/16O compositions are all depleted in the heavier isotopes (delta2H = -67 per thousand to -50 per thousand; delta18O = -9.2 per thousand to -5.7%o) compared with the long-term, amount-weighted mean isotopic composition of rainfall in the area (delta2H = -33.8 per thousand; delta18O = -6.3 per thousand). This indicates that recharge throughout the basin occurs only after intense rainfall events of at least 150 to 200 mm/month. Finally, a recharge map is developed to highlight the spatial extent of the two recharge mechanisms. Floodout recharge to the freshest ground water (TDS recharge rate of approximately 0.2 mm/year to the remainder of the basin. These findings have important implications for management of the ground water resource.

  10. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site (United States)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing


    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  11. Statistical downscaling of CMIP5 outputs for projecting future changes in rainfall in the Onkaparinga catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Md. Mamunur, E-mail: [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Beecham, Simon, E-mail: [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Chowdhury, Rezaul K., E-mail: [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, PO Box 15551 (United Arab Emirates)


    A generalized linear model was fitted to stochastically downscaled multi-site daily rainfall projections from CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for the Onkaparinga catchment in South Australia to assess future changes to hydrologically relevant metrics. For this purpose three GCMs, two multi-model ensembles (one by averaging the predictors of GCMs and the other by regressing the predictors of GCMs against reanalysis datasets) and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were considered. The downscaling model was able to reasonably reproduce the observed historical rainfall statistics when the model was driven by NCEP reanalysis datasets. Significant bias was observed in the rainfall when downscaled from historical outputs of GCMs. Bias was corrected using the Frequency Adapted Quantile Mapping technique. Future changes in rainfall were computed from the bias corrected downscaled rainfall forced by GCM outputs for the period 2041–2060 and these were then compared to the base period 1961–2000. The results show that annual and seasonal rainfalls are likely to significantly decrease for all models and scenarios in the future. The number of dry days and maximum consecutive dry days will increase whereas the number of wet days and maximum consecutive wet days will decrease. Future changes of daily rainfall occurrence sequences combined with a reduction in rainfall amounts will lead to a drier catchment, thereby reducing the runoff potential. Because this is a catchment that is a significant source of Adelaide's water supply, irrigation water and water for maintaining environmental flows, an effective climate change adaptation strategy is needed in order to face future potential water shortages. - Highlights: • A generalized linear model was used for multi-site daily rainfall downscaling. • Rainfall was downscaled from CMIP5 GCM outputs. • Two multi-model ensemble approaches were used. • Bias was corrected using the Frequency Adapted Quantile Mapping

  12. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo


    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  13. Improvements of Satellite-Derived Cyclonic Rainfall over the North Atlantic. (United States)

    Klepp, Christian-Philipp; Bakan, Stephan; Graßl, Hartmut


    Case studies of rainfall, derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) satellite data during the passage of individual cyclones over the North Atlantic, are presented to enhance the knowledge of rainfall processes associated with frontal systems. A multisatellite method is applied for complete coverage of the North Atlantic twice a day. Different SSM/I precipitation algorithms have been tested for individual cyclones and compared to the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) datasets. An independent rainfall pattern and intensity validation method is presented using voluntary observing ship (VOS) datasets and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images.Intense cyclones occur frequently in the wintertime period, with cold fronts propagating far south over the North Atlantic. Following upstream, large cloud clusters are frequently embedded in the cellular structured cold air of the backside regions, which produce heavy convective rainfall events, especially in the region off Newfoundland around 50°N. These storms can be easily identified on AVHRR images. It transpired that only the SSM/I rainfall algorithm of Bauer and Schlüssel is sensitive enough to detect the rainfall patterns and intensities observed by VOS for those cyclone types over the North Atlantic. In contrast, the GPCP products do not recognize this backside rainfall, whereas the frontal rainfall conditions are well represented in all tested datasets. This is suggested from the results of an intensive intercomparison study with ship reports from the time period of the Fronts and Atlantic Storm Track Experiment (FASTEX) field campaign. For this purpose, a new technique has been developed to transfer ship report codes into rain-rate estimates. From the analysis of a complete life cycle of a cyclone, it follows that these mesoscale backside rainfall events contribute up to 25% to the total amount of rainfall in North Atlantic cyclones.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The amount of fungicide that adheres to the leaf during spraying and the amount that remain on the leaf after weathering are the main factors that defines the amount of active residue on the leaf surface to effectively control plant pathogens. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the tenacity and persistence of copper in citrus seedling leaves under simulated rainfall in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The evaluated variables were copper content, solution retention, surface tension and drop spectrum. A significant and inversely proportional linear relationship to drops <100 μm was found. The percentage of copper retained in leaves of citrus seedlings with copper fungicides of suspension concentrate (SC formulations after simulated rainfall was greater than 80%. Copper fungicides of SC formulations presented the lowest surface tension, allowing greater tenacity and persistence of copper on seedlings of citrus leaves after simulated rainfall and increased contact between the drops and leaf surface.

  15. Rainfall thresholds and flood warning: an operative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio


    Full Text Available An operative methodology for rainfall thresholds definition is illustrated, in order to provide at critical river section optimal flood warnings. Threshold overcoming could produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. The procedure for the definition of critical rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative precipitation observed and the hydrological response of the basin. Thresholds values specify the precipitation amount for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given cross section and are estimated by hydrological modelling for several scenarios (e.g.: modifying the soil moisture conditions. Some preliminary results, in terms of reliability analysis (presence of false alarms and missed alarms, evaluated using indicators like hit rate and false alarm rate for the case study of Mignone River are presented.

  16. Comparative rainfall data analysis from two vertically pointing radars, an optical disdrometer, and a rain gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Nikolopoulos


    Full Text Available The authors present results of a comparative analysis of rainfall data from several ground-based instruments. The instruments include two vertically pointing Doppler radars, S-band and X-band, an optical disdrometer, and a tipping-bucket rain gauge. All instruments were collocated at the Iowa City Municipal Airport in Iowa City, Iowa, for a period of several months. The authors used the rainfall data derived from the four instruments to first study the temporal variability and scaling characteristics of rainfall and subsequently assess the instrumental effects on these derived properties. The results revealed obvious correspondence between the ground and remote sensors, which indicates the significance of the instrumental effect on the derived properties.

  17. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire


    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  18. Size-class structure and growth traits of Anastatica hierochuntica L. populations as rainfall indicators in aridlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. Hegazy


    Full Text Available Field data verified by green house experiment were used to evaluate the response of Anastatica hierochuntica L. to the amount of rainfall. Field study of the populations was carried out in the runnel and depression microhabitats of gravel and sand sites. Four water treatments, equivalent to 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mm rainfall, were used to simulate different levels of water availability. Under 500 and 1000 mm rainfall, the size-class structure of A. hierochuntica populations consists of a high proportion of large size-class individuals, while a higher proportion of small size-class individuals was obtained under 100 and 200 mm rainfall. The dry skeletons of A. hierochuntica can be used as a “rain gauge” to predict the amount of rain or water received. The dominance of small size-classes (from 500 mm rainfall produce large size-classes (>64 cm3. Small size-class individuals produced under low amounts of rainfall allocated up to 60% of their phytomass to the reproductive organs. Allocation to reproductive organs decreased with the increase in the amount of rainfall, while allocation to the stem increased in large size-class individuals produced under the highest amount of rainfall (1000 mm reaching 54%. Increased allocation to stem in large-sized individuals favours the hygrochastic seed dispersal role in the plant. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the increase of the individual size-class, i.e. under high rainfall treatments. Higher values of relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and leaf area index were obtained under high water treatments. Conversely, less expanded leaves, i.e. lower specific leaf area, were manifested in the lowest water treatments.

  19. Surface storage of rainfall in tree crowns: not all trees are equal. (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Q. Xiao; Natalie van Doorn; P. Peper; E. Teach


    Urban forests can be an effective strategy for managing stormwater. The soil that supports tree growth acts like a reservoir that reduces runoff. The tree crown intercepts rainfall on leaves and stems and its evaporation reduces water reaching the ground below. Until now surface storage capacities have been studied only for forest trees. Based on forest research, green...

  20. Application of vector autoregressive model for rainfall and groundwater level analysis (United States)

    Keng, Chai Yoke; Shan, Fam Pei; Shimizu, Kunio; Imoto, Tomoaki; Lateh, Habibah; Peng, Koay Swee


    Groundwater is a crucial water supply for industrial, agricultural and residential use, hence it is important to understand groundwater system. Groundwater is a dynamic natural resource and can be recharged. The amount of recharge depends on the rate and duration of rainfall, as rainfall comprises an important component of the water cycle and is the prime source of groundwater recharge. This study applies Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model in the analysis of rainfall and groundwater level. The study area that is focused in the study is along the East-West Highway, Gerik-Jeli, Malaysia. The VAR model with optimum lag length 8, VAR(8) is selected to model the rainfall and groundwater level in the study area. Result of Granger causality test shows significant influence of rainfall to groundwater level. Impulse Response Function reveals that changes in rainfall significantly affect changes in groundwater level after some time lags. Moreover, Variance Decomposition reported that rainfall contributed to the forecast of the groundwater level. The VAR(8) model is validated by comparing the actual value with the in-sample forecasted value and the result is satisfied with all forecasted groundwater level values lies inside the confidence interval which indicate that the model is reliable. Furthermore, the closeness of both actual and forecasted groundwater level time series plots implies the high degree of accurateness of the estimated model.

  1. Influence of competition and rainfall manipulation on the growth responses of savanna trees and grasses. (United States)

    February, Edmund C; Higgins, Steven I; Bond, William J; Swemmer, Louise


    In this study, we explored how rainfall manipulation influenced competitive interactions between grasses and juvenile trees (small nonreproductive trees capable of resprouting) in savanna. To do this, we manipulated rainfall amount in the field using an incomplete factorial experiment that determined the effects of rainfall reduction, no manipulation, rainfall addition, and competition between grasses and trees on grass and tree growth. As response variables, we focused on several measures of tree growth and Disc Pasture Meter settling height as an estimate of grass aboveground biomass. We conducted the study over four years, at two sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results show that rainfall manipulation did not have substantial effects on any of the measures of tree growth we considered. However, trees at plots where grasses had been removed grew on average 15 cm more in height and 1.3-1.7 times more in basal area per year than those in plots with grasses. Grass biomass was not influenced by the presence of trees but was significantly and positively influenced by rainfall addition. These findings were not fundamentally influenced by soil type or by prevailing precipitation, suggesting applicability of our results to a wide range of savannas. Our results suggest that, in savannas, increasing rainfall serves to increase the competitive pressure exerted by grasses on trees. The implication is that recruitment into the adult tree stage from the juvenile stage is most likely in drought years when there is little competition from grass for resources and grass fuel loads are low.

  2. Urban-Induced Mechanisms for an Extreme Rainfall Event in Beijing China: A Satellite Perspective

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    Menglin S. Jin


    Full Text Available Using 1 km satellite remote sensing observations, this paper examines the clouds, aerosols, water vapor and surface skin temperature over Beijing to understand the possible urban system contributions to the extreme rainfall event on 21 July 2012 (i.e., 721 event. Remote sensing measurements, with the advantage of high spatial resolution and coverage, reveal three key urban-related mechanisms: (a the urban heat island effect (UHI resulted in strong surface convection and high level cloud cover over Beijing; (b urban aerosol amount peaked before the rainfall, which “seeded” the clouds and invigorated precipitation; and (c urban tall buildings provided additional lift for the air mass and provided heat at the underlying boundary to keep the rainfall system alive for a long duration precipitation (>10 hours. With the existing rainfall system moving from the northwest and abundant water vapor was transported from the southeast into Beijing, the urban canyon-lifting, aerosol, and UHI effects all enhanced this extreme rainfall event. This work proves that urban system is responsible, at least partly, for urban rainfall extremes and thus should be considered for urban extreme rainfall prediction in the future.

  3. Patterns of Dekadal Rainfall Variation Over a Selected Region in Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda

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    Isaac Mugume


    Full Text Available Understanding variations in rainfall in tropical regions is important due to its impacts on water resources, health and agriculture. This study assessed the dekadal rainfall patterns and rain days to determine intra-seasonal rainfall variability during the March–May season using the Mann–Kendall ( M K trend test and simple linear regression ( S L R over the period 2000–2015. Results showed an increasing trend of both dekadal rainfall amount and rain days (third and seventh dekads. The light rain days ( S L R = 0.181; M K = 0.350 and wet days ( S L R = 0.092; M K = 0.118 also depict an increasing trend. The rate of increase of light rain days and wet days during the third dekad (light rain days: S L R = 0.020; M K = 0.279 and wet days: S L R = 0.146; M K = 0.376 was slightly greater than during the seventh dekad (light rain days: S L R = 0.014; M K = 0.018 and wet days: S L R = 0.061; M K = 0.315 dekad. Seventy-four percent accounted for 2–4 consecutive dry days, but no significant trend was detected. The extreme rainfall was increasing over the third ( M K = 0.363 and seventh ( M K = 0.429 dekads. The rainfall amount and rain days were highly correlated (r: 0.43–0.72.

  4. Sensitivity of Average Annual Runoff to Spatial Variability and Temporal Correlation of Rainfall. (United States)

    Babin, Steven M.


    This paper examines the sensitivity of annual area mean runoff calculations to the effects of spatial variability and temporal correlation of rainfall. The model used is based upon the hypothesis that the annual water balance is determined only by rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and soil water storage. A simple bucket hydrology model with a seasonally varying potential evapotranspiration is used with rainfall data measured at several sites on the Delmarva Peninsula. Annual area mean runoffs are calculated for three cases: 1) actual spatial variability among the rain gauge sites and temporal correlation between consecutive 1-min rainfall amounts are maintained (the actual case); 2) actual spatial variability among the sites is maintained but temporal correlation between the consecutive 1-min rainfall amounts is minimized (the site-shuffled case); and 3) both spatial variability and temporal correlation are ignored (the area-averaged case). The actual case represents the baseline for comparison with the other two cases. The annual a' mean runoffs show little sensitivity to spatial variability and temporal correlation for this model. Therefore, if finite soil permeability effects are ignored in favor of simple water storage capacity, then spatial variability and temporal correlation of rainfall appear to have little impact on the annual area mean runoff for the data considered in this study.

  5. Effect of soil warming and rainfall patterns on soil N cycling in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Raveendra Hanumantagoud; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind


    With climate change northern Europe is expected to experience extreme increase in air temperatures, particularly during the winter months, influencing soil temperatures in these regions. Climate change is also projected to influence the rainfall amount, and its inter- and intra-annual variability...... temperate climates, which is a major source of N pollution. An open-field lysimeter study was carried out during 2008-2009 in Denmark on loamy sand soil (Typic Hapludult) with three factors: number of rainy days, rainfall amount and soil warming. Number of rainy days included the mean monthly rainy days...

  6. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  7. An Analysis of Thermally-Related Surface Rainfall Budgets Associated with Convective and Stratiform Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yushu; Xiaofan LI


    Both water vapor and heat processes play key roles in producing surface rainfall.While the water vapor effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes on surface rainfall have been investigated in previous studies,the thermal effects on rainfall are analyzed in this study using a series of two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model experiments forced by zonally-uniform,constant,large-scale zonal wind and zero large-scale vertical velocity.The analysis of thermally-related surface rainfall budget reveals that the model domain mean surface rain rate is primarily associated with the mean infrared cooling rate.Convective rainfall and transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions to raining stratiform regions corresponds to the heat divergence over convective regions,whereas stratiform rainfall corresponds to the transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions and heat divergence over raining stratiform regions.The heat divergence over convective regions is mainly balanced by the heat convergence over rainfall-free regions,which is,in turn,offset by the radiative cooling over rainfall-free regions.The sensitivity experiments of rainfall to the effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes show that the sea surface temperature and cloud processes affect convective rainfall through the changes in infrared cooling rate over rainfall-free regions and transport rate of heat from convective regions to rainfall-free regions.

  8. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa: Satellite rainfall-estimate perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ


    Full Text Available Climate predictability and variability studies over South Africa typically focus on the summer rainfall region and to a lesser extent on the winter rainfall region. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa, a narrow strip located along the Cape...

  9. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang


    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  10. Rainfall and runoff water quality of the Pang and Lambourn, tributaries of the River Thames, south-eastern England

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    C. Neal


    Full Text Available The water quality of rainfall and runoff is described for two catchments of two tributaries of the River Thames, the Pang and Lambourn. Rainfall chemistry is variable and concentrations of most determinands decrease with increasing volume of catch probably due to 'wash out' processes. Two rainfall sites have been monitored, one for each catchment. The rainfall site on the Lambourn shows higher chemical concentrations than the one for the Pang which probably reflects higher amounts of local inputs from agricultural activity. Rainfall quality data at a long-term rainfall site on the Pang (UK National Air Quality Archive shows chemistries similar to that for the Lambourn site, but with some clear differences. Rainfall chemistries show considerable variation on an event-to-event basis. Average water quality concentrations and flow-weighted concentrations as well as fluxes vary across the sites, typically by about 30%. Stream chemistry is much less variable due to the main source of water coming from aquifer sources of high storage. The relationship between rainfall and runoff chemistry at the catchment outlet is described in terms of the relative proportions of atmospheric and within-catchment sources. Remarkably, in view of the quantity of agricultural and sewage inputs to the streams, the catchments appear to be retaining both P and N. Keywords: water quality, nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, pH, alkalinity, nutrients, trace metals, rainfall, river, Pang, Lambourn, LOCAR

  11. Variability in rainfall threshold for debris flow after the Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. L. SHIEH; Y. S. CHEN; Y. J. TSAI; J. H. WU


    The purpose of this study is to analyze variability in rainfall threshold for debris flow (critical rainfall for debris flow triggering) after the ML 7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan in 1999.Two study sites with different geological conditions were surveyed in the earthquake area. Streambed surveys were conducted to continuously monitor debris flows between 1999 and 2006. During the 7-year study period, every debris flow event was identified, and the streambed characterized. Results show that the rainfall threshold for debris flow was remarkably lower just after the Chi-ChiEarthquake, but gradually recovered. To date, this rainfall threshold is still lower than the original level prior to the earthquake. This variability in rainfall threshold is closely related to the amount of sediment material in the initiation area of debris flow, which increased rapidly due to landslides resulting from the earthquake. With the increase in sediment material, the rainfall threshold was lowered severely during the first year following the Chi-Chi earthquake. However, heavy rainfalls mobilized the sediment material, causing debris flows and transporting sediment downstream. With the decrease in sediment material, the rainfall threshold recovered gradually over time. Furthermore,debris flows occurred only in the subbasins that had sufficient sediment material to cause significant movement. Hence, these results confirm that the sediment material in the initiation area of debris flow is a crucial component of the rainfall threshold for debris flow.

  12. Rainfall spatial variability observed by X-band weather radar and its implication for the accuracy of rainfall estimates (United States)

    Moreau, E.; Testud, J.; Le Bouar, E.


    The main objective of this paper is to estimate the error in the rainfall derived from a polarimetric X-band radar, by comparison with the corresponding estimate of a rain gauge network. However the present analysis also considers the errors inherent to rain gauge, in particular instrumental and representativeness errors. A special emphasis is addressed to the spatial variability of the rainfall in order to appreciate the representativeness error of the rain gauge with respect to the 1 km square average, typical of the radar derived estimate. For this purpose the spatial correlation function of the rainfall is analyzed. The data set consists of 1-year radar data collected by the X-band polarimetric radar HYDRIX ®, located in Beauce region (80 km south of Paris). All data were processed in real time using the ZPHI ® algorithm. A dense 25 rain gauge network provided ground comparison data. The various sources of uncertainties (instrumental and representativeness) are then analyzed and quantified for each sensor.

  13. Influence of high resolution rainfall data on the hydrological response of urban flat catchments (United States)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van de Giesen, Nick


    hydrological response of some subcatchments of the district of Kralingen was studied. Rainfall data were combined with level and discharge measurements at the pumping station that connects the sewer system with the waste water treatment plane. Using this data it was possible to study the water balance and to have a better idea of the amount of water that leave the system during a specific rainfall events. Results show that the hydrological response of flat and looped catchments is sensitive to spatial and temporal rainfall variability and it can be strongly influenced by rainfall event characteristics, such as intensity, velocity and intermittency of the storm.

  14. Numerical rainfall simulation with different spatial and temporal evenness by using a WRF multiphysics ensemble (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Yu, Fuliang


    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this study to simulate six storm events in two semi-humid catchments of northern China. The six storm events are classified into four types based on the rainfall evenness in the spatial and temporal dimensions. Two microphysics, two planetary boundary layers (PBL) and three cumulus parameterizations are combined to develop an ensemble containing 16 members for rainfall generation. The WRF model performs the best for type 1 events with relatively even distributions of rainfall in both space and time. The average relative error (ARE) for the cumulative rainfall amount is 15.82 %. For the spatial rainfall simulation, the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) is found with event II (0.4007), which has the most even spatial distribution, and for the temporal simulation the lowest RMSE is found with event I (1.0218), which has the most even temporal distribution. The most difficult to reproduce are found to be the very convective storms with uneven spatiotemporal distributions (type 4 event), and the average relative error for the cumulative rainfall amounts is up to 66.37 %. The RMSE results of event III, with the most uneven spatial and temporal distribution, are 0.9688 for the spatial simulation and 2.5327 for the temporal simulation, which are much higher than the other storms. The general performance of the current WRF physical parameterizations is discussed. The Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) scheme is found to be unsuitable for rainfall simulation in the study sites. For type 1, 2 and 4 storms, member 4 performs the best. For type 3 storms, members 5 and 7 are the better choice. More guidance is provided for choosing among the physical parameterizations for accurate rainfall simulations of different storm types in the study area.

  15. Generation of future high-resolution rainfall time series with a disaggregation model (United States)

    Müller, Hannes; Haberlandt, Uwe


    High-resolution rainfall data are needed in many fields of hydrology and water resources management. For analyzes of future rainfall condition climate scenarios exist with hourly values of rainfall. However, the direct usage of these data is associated with uncertainties which can be indicated by comparisons of observations and C20 control runs. An alternative is the derivation of changes of rainfall behavior over the time from climate simulations. Conclusions about future rainfall conditions can be drawn by adding these changes to observed time series. A multiplicative cascade model is used in this investigation for the disaggregation of daily rainfall amounts to hourly values. Model parameters can be estimated by REMO rainfall time series (UBA-, BfG- and ENS-realization), based on ECHAM5. Parameter estimation is carried out for C20 period as well as near term and long term future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). Change factors for both future periods are derived by parameter comparisons and added to the parameters estimated from observed time series. This enables the generation of hourly rainfall time series from observed daily values with respect to future changes. The investigation is carried out for rain gauges in Lower Saxony. Generated Time series are analyzed regarding statistical characteristics, e.g. extreme values, event-based (wet spell duration and amounts, dry spell duration, …) and continuum characteristics (average intensity, fraction of dry intervals,…). The generation of the time series is validated by comparing the changes in the statistical characteristics from the REMO data and from the disaggregated data.

  16. Construction of rainfall change scenarios over the Chilka Lagoon in India (United States)

    Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra Kumar; Dutta, Monami


    The present study attempted to quantify long-term seasonal and annual rainfall change for the period 1901-2004 over the Chilka Lagoon in India, the second largest lagoon in the world using multiple gridded data sources. The future rainfall projection is also constructed using the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Skill of GCMs to simulate the observed rainfall over the lagoon was investigated through estimation of long-term trends and comparison of mean seasonal cycles using Taylor diagram. Finally based on the combined results obtained through trend analysis as well as seasonal cycles, 12 better performing GCMs were selected. Ensemble mean of better performing GCMs reveal that the rainfall in annual, monsoon and winter seasons have increased in the last century similar to three observational gridded data sources. The projected seasonal cycle of rainfall from different RCPs shows a dipole like characteristics where the drier (winter) and moist (monsoon) seasons show a surplus of rainfall (11-25%) while the premonsoon and the postmonsoon seasons show a deficient rainfall (3-52%) at the end of 21st century. It is interesting to note that the Chilka Lake will expected to receive an increasing amount of annual rainfall by 3-7% in 2020s, 7-11% in 2050s and 10-21% in 2080s. Ensemble mean of future downscaled scenarios revealed that the annual rainfall will increase slightly higher rate as compared to without downscaling indicating high uncertainty in future projection.

  17. Quantifying Rainfall Interception Loss of a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen


    Full Text Available The factors controlling seasonal rainfall interception loss are investigated by using a double-mass curve analysis, based on direct measurements of high-temporal resolution gross rainfall, throughfall and stemflow from 43 rainfall events that occurred in central Taiwan from April 2008 to April 2009. The canopy water storage capacity for the wet season was estimated to be 1.86 mm, about twice that for the dry season (0.91 mm, likely due to the large reduction in the leaf area index (LAI from 4.63 to 2.23 (m2·m−2. Changes in seasonal canopy structure and micro-meteorological conditions resulted in temporal variations in the amount of interception components, and rainfall partitioning into stemflow and throughfall. Wet canopy evaporation after rainfall contributed 41.8% of the wet season interception loss, but only 17.1% of the dry season interception loss. Wet canopy evaporation during rainfall accounted for 82.9% of the dry season interception loss, but only 58.2% of the wet season interception loss. Throughfall accounted for over 79.7% of the dry season precipitation and 76.1% of the wet season precipitation, possibly due to the change in gap fraction from 64.2% in the dry season to 50.0% in the wet season. The reduced canopy cover in the dry season also produced less stemflow than that of the wet season. The rainfall stemflow ratio ( P s f / P g was reduced from 12.6% to 8.9%. Despite relatively large changes in canopy structure, seasonal variation of the ratio of rainfall partitioned to interception was quite small. Rainfall interception loss accounted for nearly 12% of gross precipitation for both dry and wet seasons.

  18. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A


    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and...

  19. Meso-scale distribution of summer monsoon rainfall near the Western Ghats (India) (United States)

    Patwardhan, S. K.; Asnani, G. C.


    The spatial distribution of southwest monsoon rainfall is studied over Maharashtra State (India), which includes part of the well-known Western Ghats mountain range, near its western boundary, running almost from north to south, perpendicular to the summer monsoon current in the lower troposphere. Meso-scale analysis of daily rainfall is performed for Maharashtra State, including the Western Ghats, for the two mid-monsoon months of July and August, during the 10-year period of 1971-1980. Strong and weak monsoon days were identified for the 5-year period of 1976-1980. The meso-scale pattern of average daily rainfall is obtained separately for strong and for weak monsoon conditions.All these average patterns show the following features: (i) the rainfall increases rapidly from the Arabian Sea coast close to the line of maximum height of the Western Ghats; (ii) there are two rainfall maxima corresponding to the two mountain peaks parallel to the coast line; (iii) between the two mountain peaks, there is a valley which is narrow at the western end (upwind end), broadening towards the east (on the downwind side). Ground contour height of the valley rises eastwards and ends as a part of the Deccan Plateau east of the Ghats. Here the valley opens out like a funnel with higher mountains flanking its two sides. In the valley, the rainfall increases from the coast up to the line of maximum height of the Ghats, and then decreases eastwards towards the plateau. The rainfall isopleths also take a funnel-shaped configuration. An interesting feature is that near the wider section of the valley funnel, there is a rainfall minimum and then the rainfall increases further eastwards on the downwind side. This feature of rainfall minimum is somewhat similar to the rainfall minimum reported by Asnani and Kinuthia (personal communication); Asnani (Asnani GC. 1993. Tropical Meteorology, Vol. I. Prof. G.C. Asnani: Pune, India; 603) attributed the rainfall minimum to the Bernoulli effect. A

  20. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  1. Modelling persistence in annual Australia point rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Whiting


    Full Text Available Annual rainfall time series for Sydney from 1859 to 1999 is analysed. Clear evidence of nonstationarity is presented, but substantial evidence for persistence or hidden states is more elusive. A test of the hypothesis that a hidden state Markov model reduces to a mixture distribution is presented. There is strong evidence of a correlation between the annual rainfall and climate indices. Strong evidence of persistence of one of these indices, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, is presented together with a demonstration that this is better modelled by fractional differencing than by a hidden state Markov model. It is shown that conditioning the logarithm of rainfall on PDO, the Southern Oscillation index (SOI, and their interaction provides realistic simulation of rainfall that matches observed statistics. Similar simulation models are presented for Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. Keywords: Hydrological persistence,hidden state Markov models, fractional differencing, PDO, SOI, Australian rainfall

  2. Evaluation of global rainfall Measurement for Hydrological Applications in West Africa : sensitivity tests in Benin (United States)

    Viarre, J.; Gosset, M.; Peugeot, C.


    We carried out an evaluation of currently available -real time or post-calibrated- rainfall products in West Africa. The work is oriented towards highlighting their skills and relevance from the view point of a hydrological end-user. The study is based on the densily instrumented meso-scale basins from the AMMA-CATCH hydrometeorological observing system. On these sites long term observations of the various term of the continental water budget and hydrological processes studies have been carried out for more than a decade. We focus here on the upper Oueme basin site in Benin (Sudanese climate - 1200 mm annual rainfall). A distributed hydrological model, developed in this framework is used to illustrate the effects of satellite based rainfall errors or uncertainty on the simulated outflow. Non linearities cause the rainfall bias to be enhanced through propagation in the model, leading to strong biases in the outflow. In addition to the biases the model response is very sensitive to the distortion in the rainfall intensities probability distribution, that some rainfall products exhibit. The AMMA-CATCH densified gages networks and hydrometeorological measurements will be integrated in the MeghaTropiques ground validation plan and used to asses the quality of MT products at the one degree one daily scale and below.

  3. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang


    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  4. Enhanced propagation of rainfall kinetic energy in the UK (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Bellocchi, Gianni


    A gridded 0.25° reconstruction of rainfall kinetic energy (RKE) over the UK, on the basis of pluviometric observations and reanalysis back to 1765, shows that autumn RKE doubled in 1991-2013 (˜2 MJ m-2) compared to 1948-1990 (˜1 MJ m-2). A shift eastward is underway, which includes southern and northern portions of the country. Analyzing the long-running England and Wales precipitation series, we conclude that it is likely that increased precipitation amounts associated with more frequent convective storms created conditions for higher energy events.

  5. Analysis of rainfall inputs and runoff under an A-frame oscillating rainfall simulator in a sugarcane field, Mackay region of Queensland: Matching measurement techniques to meet project water balance objectives (United States)

    Fentie, Banti; Yu, Bofu; Ciesiolka, Cyril


    A total of 11 rainfall simulations were conducted on four different plots (ranging in area from 22.10 to 26.20 m2) in a sugarcane field (with slopes varying from 1-9% and a groundcover variability of bare - 100% cover) in the Mackay region of Northern Queensland. The objectives of these rainfall simulation experiments were many, but this paper discusses the measurement methodology and data quality of rainfall generated and subsequent runoff. Rainfall amount during the simulations was measured using two different sizes of rain gauges placed at different locations on the plot (left, centre, and right sides of the experimental plot). In addition to the 203mm ordinary rain gauges, three pluviometers (300mm) were placed along the centre of the plot to measure rainfall as a function of time during the simulation. The rainfall data from these three pluviometers was collected using dataloggers and processed using a computer program called Datalog, which converted the number of tips/minute into mm/h. Due to spatial variation of rainfall intensity applied to the surface as a function of height from the nozzles of the rainfall simulators, correction factors were determined using a computer program called ERFS developed for this purpose. The rainfall from each gauge and pluviometer was subsequently corrected for distance from the nozzles of the simulator and height of the gauge by multiplying it by the corresponding correction factor. The spatial distribution of rainfall amount during each simulation was determined by spatially interpolating measured amounts in order to ascertain the best estimate of applied rainfall and its energy. Runoff data during each simulation was collected using tipping buckets connected to data loggers. Runoff amounts were also manually collected at specified intervals as a back up, and for validation of those collected using tipping buckets in determining runoff rates for each simulation. Soil cores were taken for determining soil moisture balances

  6. Grounded cognition. (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W


    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  7. Disaggregating radar-derived rainfall measurements in East Azarbaijan, Iran, using a spatial random-cascade model (United States)

    Fouladi Osgouei, Hojjatollah; Zarghami, Mahdi; Ashouri, Hamed


    The availability of spatial, high-resolution rainfall data is one of the most essential needs in the study of water resources. These data are extremely valuable in providing flood awareness for dense urban and industrial areas. The first part of this paper applies an optimization-based method to the calibration of radar data based on ground rainfall gauges. Then, the climatological Z-R relationship for the Sahand radar, located in the East Azarbaijan province of Iran, with the help of three adjacent rainfall stations, is obtained. The new climatological Z-R relationship with a power-law form shows acceptable statistical performance, making it suitable for radar-rainfall estimation by the Sahand radar outputs. The second part of the study develops a new heterogeneous random-cascade model for spatially disaggregating the rainfall data resulting from the power-law model. This model is applied to the radar-rainfall image data to disaggregate rainfall data with coverage area of 512 × 512 km2 to a resolution of 32 × 32 km2. Results show that the proposed model has a good ability to disaggregate rainfall data, which may lead to improvement in precipitation forecasting, and ultimately better water-resources management in this arid region, including Urmia Lake.

  8. Disaggregating radar-derived rainfall measurements in East Azarbaijan, Iran, using a spatial random-cascade model (United States)

    Fouladi Osgouei, Hojjatollah; Zarghami, Mahdi; Ashouri, Hamed


    The availability of spatial, high-resolution rainfall data is one of the most essential needs in the study of water resources. These data are extremely valuable in providing flood awareness for dense urban and industrial areas. The first part of this paper applies an optimization-based method to the calibration of radar data based on ground rainfall gauges. Then, the climatological Z-R relationship for the Sahand radar, located in the East Azarbaijan province of Iran, with the help of three adjacent rainfall stations, is obtained. The new climatological Z-R relationship with a power-law form shows acceptable statistical performance, making it suitable for radar-rainfall estimation by the Sahand radar outputs. The second part of the study develops a new heterogeneous random-cascade model for spatially disaggregating the rainfall data resulting from the power-law model. This model is applied to the radar-rainfall image data to disaggregate rainfall data with coverage area of 512 × 512 km2 to a resolution of 32 × 32 km2. Results show that the proposed model has a good ability to disaggregate rainfall data, which may lead to improvement in precipitation forecasting, and ultimately better water-resources management in this arid region, including Urmia Lake.

  9. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 9, 2009 ... Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, Geography Building 2-12, University of .... An example of heavy rainfall 'climatology' in the scientific .... rainfall stations in the calculation of the area-average rainfall.

  10. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.


    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  11. Rainfall-runoff modelling using different estimators of precipitation data in the Carpathian mountain catchments (South Poland) (United States)

    Kasina, Michal; Ziemski, Michal; Niedbala, Jerzy; Malota, Agnieszka


    Precipitation observations are an essential element of flood forecasting systems. Rain gauges, radars, satellite sensors and forecasts from high resolution numerical weather prediction models are a part of precipitation monitoring networks. These networks collect rainfall data that are further provided to hydrological models to produce forecasts. The main goal of this work is to assess the usage of different precipitation data sources in rainfall-runoff modelling with reference to Flash Flood Early Warning System. STUDY AREA Research was carried out in the upper parts of the Sola and Raba river catchments. Both of the rivers begin their course in the southern part of the Western Beskids (Outer Eastern Carpathians; southern Poland). For the purpose of this study, both rivers are taken to comprise the catchments upstream of the gauging stations at Zywiec (Sola) and Stroza (Raba). The upper Sola river catchment encompasses an area of 785 sq. km with an altitude ranging from 342 to 1236 m above sea level, while the Raba river catchment occupies an area of 644 sq. km with an altitude ranging from 300 to 1266 m above sea level. The catchments are underlain mainly by flysch sediments. The average annual amount of precipitation for the Sola River catchment is between 750 and 1300 mm and for the Raba river catchment is in the range of 800-1000 mm. METHODS AND RESULTS This work assesses the sensitivity of a lumped hydrological model DHI's Nedbør-Afrstrømnings-Model (NAM) to different sources of rainfall estimates: rain gauges, radar and satellite as well as predicted precipitation amount from high resolution numerical weather prediction models (e.g. ALADIN). The main steps of validation procedure are: i) comparison of rain gauge data with other precipitation data sources, ii) calibration of the hydrological model (using historical, long time series of rain gauge data treated as "ground truth"), iii) validation using different precipitation data sources as an input, iii

  12. Rainfall estimation by inverting SMOS soil moisture estimates: A comparison of different methods over Australia (United States)

    Brocca, Luca; Pellarin, Thierry; Crow, Wade T.; Ciabatta, Luca; Massari, Christian; Ryu, Dongryeol; Su, Chun-Hsu; Rüdiger, Christoph; Kerr, Yann


    Remote sensing of soil moisture has reached a level of maturity and accuracy for which the retrieved products can be used to improve hydrological and meteorological applications. In this study, the soil moisture product from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite is used for improving satellite rainfall estimates obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission multisatellite precipitation analysis product (TMPA) using three different "bottom up" techniques: SM2RAIN, Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool, and Antecedent Precipitation Index Modification. The implementation of these techniques aims at improving the well-known "top down" rainfall estimate derived from TMPA products (version 7) available in near real time. Ground observations provided by the Australian Water Availability Project are considered as a separate validation data set. The three algorithms are calibrated against the gauge-corrected TMPA reanalysis product, 3B42, and used for adjusting the TMPA real-time product, 3B42RT, using SMOS soil moisture data. The study area covers the entire Australian continent, and the analysis period ranges from January 2010 to November 2013. Results show that all the SMOS-based rainfall products improve the performance of 3B42RT, even at daily time scale (differently from previous investigations). The major improvements are obtained in terms of estimation of accumulated rainfall with a reduction of the root-mean-square error of more than 25%. Also, in terms of temporal dynamic (correlation) and rainfall detection (categorical scores) the SMOS-based products provide slightly better results with respect to 3B42RT, even though the relative performance between the methods is not always the same. The strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm and the spatial variability of their performances are identified in order to indicate the ways forward for this promising research activity. Results show that the integration of bottom up and top down approaches

  13. The Impact of Rainfall on Soil Moisture Dynamics in a Foggy Desert (United States)

    Li, Bonan; Wang, Lixin; Kaseke, Kudzai F.; Li, Lin; Seely, Mary K.


    Soil moisture is a key variable in dryland ecosystems since it determines the occurrence and duration of vegetation water stress and affects the development of weather patterns including rainfall. However, the lack of ground observations of soil moisture and rainfall dynamics in many drylands has long been a major obstacle in understanding ecohydrological processes in these ecosystems. It is also uncertain to what extent rainfall controls soil moisture dynamics in fog dominated dryland systems. To this end, in this study, twelve to nineteen months’ continuous daily records of rainfall and soil moisture (from January 2014 to August 2015) obtained from three sites (one sand dune site and two gravel plain sites) in the Namib Desert are reported. A process-based model simulating the stochastic soil moisture dynamics in water-limited systems was used to study the relationships between soil moisture and rainfall dynamics. Model sensitivity in response to different soil and vegetation parameters under diverse soil textures was also investigated. Our field observations showed that surface soil moisture dynamics generally follow rainfall patterns at the two gravel plain sites, whereas soil moisture dynamics in the sand dune site did not show a significant relationship with rainfall pattern. The modeling results suggested that most of the soil moisture dynamics can be simulated except the daily fluctuations, which may require a modification of the model structure to include non-rainfall components. Sensitivity analyses suggested that soil hygroscopic point (sh) and field capacity (sfc) were two main parameters controlling soil moisture output, though permanent wilting point (sw) was also very sensitive under the parameter setting of sand dune (Gobabeb) and gravel plain (Kleinberg). Overall, the modeling results were not sensitive to the parameters in non-bounded group (e.g., soil hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and soil porosity (n)). Field observations, stochastic modeling

  14. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.


    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  15. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events. (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M


    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  16. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff. (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A


    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  17. Mapping the world's tropical cyclone rainfall contribution over land using TRMM satellite data: precipitation budget and extreme rainfall (United States)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.


    A study was performed to characterize over-land precipitation associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) for basins around the world gathered in the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). From 1998 to 2010, rainfall data from TRMM 3B42, showed that TCs accounted for 8-, 11-, 7-, 10-, and 12-% of the annual over-land precipitation for North America, East Asia, Northern Indian Ocean, Australia, and South-West Indian Ocean respectively, and that TC-contribution decreased importantly within the first 150-km from the coast. At the local scale, TCs contributed on average to more than 40% and up to 77% of the annual precipitation budget over very different climatic areas with arid or tropical characteristics. The East Asia domain presented the higher and most constant TC-rain (170±23%-mm/yr) normalized over the area impacted, while the Southwest Indian domain presented the highest variability (130±48%-mm/yr), and the North American domain displayed the lowest average TC-rain (77±27%-mm/yr) despite a higher TC-activity. The maximum monthly TC-contribution (11-15%) was found later in the TC-season and was a conjunction between the peak of TC-activity, TC-rainfall, and the domain annual antagonism between dry and wet regimes if any. Furthermore, TC-days that accounted globally for 2±0.5% of all precipitation events for all basins, represented between 11-30% of rainfall extremes (>101.6mm/day). Locally, TC-rainfall was linked with the majority (>70%) or the quasi-totality (≈100%) of extreme rainfall. Finally, because of their importance in terms of rainfall amount, the contribution of tropical cyclones is provided for a selection of fifty urban areas experiencing cyclonic activity. Cases studies conducted at the regional scale will focus on the link between TC-activity, water resources, and hydrohazards such as floods and droughts.

  18. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back


    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  19. Synoptic Analysis of Heavy Rainfall and Flood Observed in Izmir on 20 May 2015 Using Radar and Satellite Images (United States)

    Avsar, Ercument


    In this study, a meteorological analysis is conducted on the sudden and heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on May 20, 2015. The barotropic model that is observed in upper carts is shown in detail. We can access the data of and analyze the type, severity and amount of many meteorological parameters using the meteorological radars that form a remote sensing system. The one field that uses the radars most intensively is rainfall. Images from the satellite and radar systems are used in the meteorological analysis of the heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on 20 May 2015, and the development of the system that led to this rainfall is shown. In this study, data received from Bornova Automatic Meteorological Observation Station (OMGI), which is under the management of Meteorology General Directorate (MGM), Izmir 2. Regional Directorate; satellite images; Radar PPI (Plan Position Indicator) and Radar MAX (Maximum Display) images are evaluated. In addition, synoptic situation, outputs of numerical estimation models, indices calculated from Skew T Log-P diagram are shown. All these results are mapped and analyzed. At the end of these analyses, it is found that this sudden rainfall had developed according to the frontal system motion. A barotropic model occurred on the day of the rainfall over the Aegean Region. As a result of the rainfall that happened in Izmir at 12.00 UTC (Universal Coordinated Time), the May month rainfall record for the last 64 years is achieved with a rainfall amount of 67.7 mm per meter square. Keywords: Izmir, barotropic model, heavy rainfall, radar, synoptic analysis

  20. Location-Based Rainfall Nowcasting Service for Public (United States)

    Woo, Wang-chun


    The Hong Kong Observatory has developed the "Short-range Warning of Intense Rainstorms in Localized Systems (SWIRLS)", a radar-based rainfall nowcasting system originally to support forecasters in rainstorm warning and severe weather forecasting such as hail, lightning and strong wind gusts in Hong Kong. The system has since been extended to provide rainfall nowcast service direct for the public in recent years. Following the launch of "Rainfall Nowcast for the Pearl River Delta Region" service provided via a Geographical Information System (GIS) platform in 2008, a location-based rainfall nowcast service served through "MyObservatory", a smartphone app for iOS and Android developed by the Observatory, debuted in September 2012. The new service takes advantage of the capability of smartphones to detect own locations and utilizes the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from SWIRLS to provide location-based rainfall nowcast to the public. The conversion of radar reflectivity data (at 2 or 3 km above ground) to rainfall in SWIRLS is based on the Z-R relationship (Z=aRb) with dynamical calibration of the coefficients a and b determined using real-time rain gauge data. Adopting the "Multi-scale Optical-flow by Variational Analysis (MOVA)" scheme to track the movement of radar echoes and Semi-Lagrangian Advection (SLA) scheme to extrapolate their movement, the system is capable of producing QPF for the next six hours in a grid of 480 x 480 that covers a domain of 256 km x 256 km once every 6 minutes. Referencing the closest point in a resampled 2-km grid over the territory of Hong Kong, a prediction as to whether there will be rainfall exceeding 0.5 mm in every 30 minute intervals for the next two hours at users' own or designated locations are made available to the users in both textual and graphical format. For those users who have opted to receive notifications, a message would pop up on the user's phone whenever rain is predicted in the next two hours in a user

  1. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data. (United States)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean


    The starting point of our study was the availability of maps of rainfall quantiles available for the entire French mainland territory at the spatial resolution of 1 km². These maps display the rainfall amounts estimated for different rainfall durations (from 15 minutes to 72 hours) and different return periods (from 2 years up to 1 000 years). They are provided by a regionalized stochastic hourly point rainfall generator, the SHYREG method which was previously developed by Irstea (Arnaud et al., 2007; Cantet and Arnaud, 2014). Being calibrated independently on numerous raingauges data (with an average density across the country of 1 raingauge per 200 km²), this method suffers from a limitation common to point-process rainfall generators: it can only reproduce point rainfall patterns and has no capacity to generate rainfall fields. It can't hence provide areal rainfall quantiles, the estimation of the latter being however needed for the construction of design rainfall or for the diagnostic of observed events. One means of bridging this gap between our local rainfall quantiles and areal rainfall quantiles is given by the concept of probabilistic areal reduction factors of rainfall (ARF) as defined by Omolayo (1993). This concept enables to estimate areal rainfall of a particular frequency within a certain amount of time from point rainfalls of the same frequency and duration. Assessing such ARF for the whole French territory is of particular interest since it should allow us to compute areal rainfall quantiles, and eventually watershed rainfall quantiles, by using the already available grids of statistical point rainfall of the SHYREG method. Our purpose was then to assess these ARF thanks to long time-series of spatial rainfall data. We have used two sets of rainfall fields: i) hourly rainfall fields from a 10-year reference database of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) over France (Tabary et al., 2012), ii) daily rainfall fields resulting from a 53-year

  2. Spatial Coherence of Tropical Rainfall (United States)

    Ratan, Ram; Venugopal, V.; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu


    We characterise the spatial coherence of tropical rain and its wet spells from observations (TRMM) and assess if models (CMIP5) are able to reproduce the observed features. Based on 15 years (1998-2012) of TRMM 3B42 (V7) 1-degree, daily rainfall, we estimate the spatial decorrelation scale (e-folding distance) of rain at each location in the tropics. A ratio of zonal to meridional spatial scales clearly illustrates that while rain patterns tend to be anisotropic (ratio of 4) over tropical ocean regions (particularly over Pacific ITCZ); over land regions, rain tends to be mostly isotropic. This contrast between ocean and land appears to be reasonably well captured by CMIP5 models, although the anisotropy (ratio) over ocean is much higher than in observations. A very curious behaviour in observations is the presence of a coherent band of spatial decorrelation lengths straddling the equator, in the East Pacific, reminiscent of a double ITCZ that some models tend to simulate. A similar analysis of wet spells of different durations suggests that the decorrelation scale is largely independent of the duration of wet spell.

  3. Trends in rainfall and rainfall-related extremes in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Olaniya Olusegun Mayowa; Sahar Hadi Pour; Shamsuddin Shahid; Morteza Mohsenipour; Sobri Bin Harun; Arien Heryansyah; Tarmizi Ismail


    The coastlines have been identified as the most vulnerable regions with respect to hydrological hazards as a result of climate change and variability. The east of peninsular Malaysia is not an exception for this, considering the evidence of heavy rainfall resulting in floods as an annual phenomenon and also water scarcity due to long dry spells in the region. This study examines recent trends in rainfall and rainfallrelated extremes such as, maximum daily rainfall, number of rainy days, average rainfall intensity, heavy rainfall days, extreme rainfall days, and precipitation concentration index in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Recent 40 years (1971–2010) rainfall records from 54 stations along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed using the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test and the Sen's slope method. The Monte Carlo simulation technique has been used to determine the field significance of the regional trends. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in the annual rainfall as well as the rainfall during the monsoon period. Also, there was an increase in the number of heavy rainfall days during the past four decades.

  4. A point rainfall model and rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Chul-Sang; Jung, Kwang-Sik [Korea University, Jochiwon(Korea); Kim, Nam-Won [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Koyang(Korea)


    This study proposes a theoretical methodology for deriving a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency(I-D-F) curve using a simple rectangular pulses Poisson process model. As the I-D-F curve derived by considering the model structure is dependent on the rainfall model parameters estimated using the observed first and second order statistics, it becomes less sensitive to the unusual rainfall events than that derived using the annual maxima rainfall series. This study has been applied to the rainfall data at Seoul and Incheon stations to check its applicability by comparing the two I-D-F curves from the model and the data. The results obtained are as followed. (1) As the duration becomes longer, the overlap probability increases significantly. However, its contribution to the rainfall intensity decreases a little. (2) When considering the overlap of each rainfall event, especially for large duration and return period, we could see obvious increases of rainfall intensity. This result is normal as the rainfall intensity is calculated by considering both the overlap probability and return period. Also, the overlap effect for Seoul station is found much higher than that for Incheon station, which is mainly due to the different overlap probabilities calculated using different rainfall model parameter sets. (3) As the rectangular pulses Poisson processes model used in this study cannot consider the clustering characteristics of rainfall, the derived I-D-F curves show less rainfall intensities than those from the annual maxima series. However, overall pattern of both I-D-F curves are found very similar, and the difference is believed to be overcome by use of a rainfall model with the clustering consideration. (author). 14 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Physical simulation of urban rainfall infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZENG Bing; WANG Yan-xia; SHEN Lei


    To meet the demand of urban rainwater integrated management, we designed and complemented a physical simulation experimental system of urban rainfall infiltration regulation parameters. We discuss the feasibility of quantitative regulations of urban underlying surface rainfall infiltration conditions and a practical application of a simulated experimental system. In a comprehensive analysis of the composition of an effective rainwater harvesting system and selection of water storage material, we simulated the major parameters of an experimental area rainfall, soil moisture and water storage capacity by providing an effective regulation of the experimental area runoff coefficient, obtained from basic data.

  6. Rainfall intensity switches ecohydrological runoff/runon redistribution patterns in dryland vegetation patches. (United States)

    Magliano, Patricio N; Breshears, David D; Fernández, Roberto J; Jobbágy, Esteban G


    Effectively managing net primary productivity in drylands for grazing and other uses depends on understanding how limited rainfall input is redistributed by runoff and runon among vegetation patches, particularly for patches that contrast between lesser and greater amounts of vegetation cover. Due in part to data limitations, ecohydrologists generally have focused on rainfall event size to characterize water redistribution processes. Here we use soil moisture data from a semiarid woodland to highlight how, when event size is controlled and runoff and interception are negligible at the stand scale, rainfall intensity drives the relationship between water redistribution and canopy and soil patch attributes. Horizontal water redistribution variability increased with rainfall intensity and differed between patches with contrasting vegetation cover. Sparsely vegetated patches gained relatively more water during lower intensity events, whereas densely vegetated ones gained relatively more water during higher intensity events. Consequently, range managers need to account for the distribution of rainfall event intensity, as well as event size, to assess the consequences of climate variability and change on net primary productivity. More generally, our results suggest that rainfall intensity needs to be considered in addition to event size to understand vegetation patch dynamics in drylands.

  7. A space-time stochastic model of rainfall for satellite remote-sensing studies (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.


    A model of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is described that produces random spatial rainfall patterns with these characteristics: (1) the model is defined on a grid with each grid point representing the average rain rate over the surrounding grid box, (2) rain occurs at any one grid point, on average, a specified percentage of the time and has a lognormal probability distribution, (3) spatial correlation of the rainfall can be arbitrarily prescribed, and (4) time stepping is carried out so that large-scale features persist longer than small-scale features. Rain is generated in the model from the portion of a correlated Gaussian random field that exceeds a threshold. The portion of the field above the threshold is rescaled to have a lognormal probability distribution. Sample output of the model designed to mimic radar observations of rainfall during the Global Atmospheric Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE), is shown. The model is intended for use in evaluating sampling strategies for satellite remote-sensing of rainfall and for development of algorithms for converting radiant intensity received by an instrument from its field of view into rainfall amount.

  8. A Bivariate Mixed Distribution with a Heavy-tailed Component and its Application to Single-site Daily Rainfall Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao ..; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.


    This paper presents an improved brivariate mixed distribution, which is capable of modeling the dependence of daily rainfall from two distinct sources (e.g., rainfall from two stations, two consecutive days, or two instruments such as satellite and rain gauge). The distribution couples an existing framework for building a bivariate mixed distribution, the theory of copulae and a hybrid marginal distribution. Contributions of the improved distribution are twofold. One is the appropriate selection of the bivariate dependence structure from a wider admissible choice (10 candidate copula families). The other is the introduction of a marginal distribution capable of better representing low to moderate values as well as extremes of daily rainfall. Among several applications of the improved distribution, particularly presented here is its utility for single-site daily rainfall simulation. Rather than simulating rainfall occurrences and amounts separately, the developed generator unifies the two processes by generalizing daily rainfall as a Markov process with autocorrelation described by the improved bivariate mixed distribution. The generator is first tested on a sample station in Texas. Results reveal that the simulated and observed sequences are in good agreement with respect to essential characteristics. Then, extensive simulation experiments are carried out to compare the developed generator with three other alternative models: the conventional two-state Markov chain generator, the transition probability matrix model and the semi-parametric Markov chain model with kernel density estimation for rainfall amounts. Analyses establish that overall the developed generator is capable of reproducing characteristics of historical extreme rainfall events and is apt at extrapolating rare values beyond the upper range of available observed data. Moreover, it automatically captures the persistence of rainfall amounts on consecutive wet days in a relatively natural and easy way

  9. Research on the Fine-Scale Spatial Uniformity of Natural Rainfall and Rainfall from a Rainfall Simulator with a Rotary Platform (RSRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu


    Full Text Available Abstract: The accurate production of a rainfall environment similar to natural rainfall by a rainfall simulator (RS is a crucial and challenging task in rainfall instrument testing or calibration. Although the spatial uniformity of rainfall accumulation is a key parameter of an RS, the spatial uniformity comparison between simulated rainfall and natural rainfall, and the spatial uniformity improvements for an RS are scant in the literature. In this study, a fine-scale natural rainfall experiment was studied using the same testing methods of an RS and the rainfall uniformity was evaluated using the Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CU. Simultaneously, factors influencing the spatial uniformity of natural rainfall, including the average rainfall accumulation (RA, the deviation of RA, and the area of the test zone, were analyzed. The results successfully reproduced some of the behaviors observed in natural rainfall experiments, showing that CU is dependent on these parameters. Based on these studies, we developed a rainfall simulator with a rotary platform (RSRP and found that although spatial uniformity of the RSRP was greatly improved using an appropriate rotary speed, it was not consistent with the spatial uniformity of natural rainfall. Furthermore, we tested four tipping-bucket rain gauges using this imperfect RSRP, and found that the RSRP might acquire the instrumental errors associated with RA for a tested rainfall instrument.

  10. Spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall in a small headwater catchment and its effect on hydrograph separation (United States)

    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja); Seibert, Jan


    Isotope hydrograph separation (IHS) is a valuable tool to study runoff generation processes. To perform an IHS, samples of baseflow (pre-event water) and streamflow are taken at the catchment outlet. For rainfall (event water) either a bulk sample is collected or it is sampled sequentially during the event. For small headwater catchment studies, event water samples are usually taken at only one sampling location in or near the catchment because the spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall is assumed to be small. However, few studies have tested this assumption. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall and its effects on IHS results using detailed measurements from a small pre-alpine headwater catchment in Switzerland. Rainfall was sampled sequentially at eight locations across the 4.3 km2 Zwäckentobel catchment and stream water was collected in three subcatchments (0.15, 0.23, and 0.70 km2) during ten events. The spatial variability in rainfall amount, average and maximum rainfall intensity and the isotopic composition of rainfall was different for each event. There was no significant relation between the isotopic composition of rainfall and total rainfall amount, rainfall intensity or elevation. For eight of the ten studied events the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall was larger than the spatial variability in the rainfall isotopic composition. The isotope hydrograph separation results, using only one rain sampler, varied considerably depending on which rain sampler was used to represent the isotopic composition of event water. The calculated minimum pre-event water contributions differed up to 60%. The differences were particularly large for events with a large spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall and a small difference between the event and pre-event water isotopic composition. Our results demonstrate that even in small catchments

  11. Characteristics of Rainfall-Discharge and Water Quality at Limboto Lake, Gorontalo, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki Subehi


    Full Text Available Problems of high turbidity, sedimentation, water pollution and siltation occur at Limboto Lake, Gorontalo, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to analyze the rainfall-discharge relationship and its implications for water quality conditions. Secchi disk (water transparency, chlorophyll-a (chl-a, and total organic matter (TOM were measured in May 2012, September 2012 and March 2013 at three sites of the lake (L-1, L-2 and L-3 to observe the impacts on the surrounding catchment. Based on representative stations for rainfall data from 2004 to 2013, monthly averages of rainfall in March-May (166.7 mm and September (76.4 mm were used to represent the wet and dry period, respectively. Moreover, sediment traps at these three sites were installed in September 2012. Based on the analysis it is suggested that rainfall magnitude and land use change at the Alopohu River catchment influenced the amount of materials flowing into the lake, degrading the water quality. Specifically, the higher average rainfall in May (184.5 mm gave a higher average total sediment load (4.41 g/L/day. In addition, water transparency decreased with increasing chl-a. This indicates that the concentrations of sediment and nutrients, reflected by the high amount of chl-a, influenced the water quality conditions.

  12. Spatial estimation of debris flows-triggering rainfall and its dependence on rainfall severity (United States)

    Destro, Elisa; Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco


    Forecasting the occurrence of landslides and debris flows (collectively termed 'debris flows' hereinafter) is fundamental for issuing hazard warnings, and focuses largely on rainfall as a triggering agent. Debris flow forecasting relies very often on the identification of combinations of depth and duration of rainfall - rainfall thresholds - that trigger widespread debris flows. Rainfall estimation errors related to the sparse nature of raingauge data are enhanced in case of convective rainfall events characterized by limited spatial extent. Such errors have been shown to cause underestimation of the rainfall thresholds and, thus, less efficient forecasts of debris flows occurrence. This work examines the spatial organization of debris flows-triggering rainfall around the debris flow initiation points using high-resolution, carefully corrected radar data for a set of short duration (debris-flow triggering rainfall events that occurred in the study area between 2005 and 2014. The selected events are among the most severe in the region during this period and triggered a total of 99 debris flows that caused significant damage to people and infrastructures. We show that the spatial rainfall organisation depends on the severity (measured via the estimated return time-RT) of the debris flow-triggering rainfall. For more frequent events (RTdebris flow location coincides with a local minimum, whereas for less frequent events (RT>20 yrs) the triggering rainfall presents a local peak corresponding to the debris flow initiation point. Dependence of these features on rainfall duration is quite limited. The characteristics of the spatial rainfall organisation are exploited to understand the performances and results of three different rainfall interpolation techniques: nearest neighbour (NN), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK). We show that the features of the spatial organization of the debris flow triggering rainfall explain the biases in the

  13. Spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall across Ganjiang River Basin in China (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Xiang; Wan, Hui; Wang, Yeqiao; Liu, Cheng; Xia, Jun


    The hydrological variations of Ganjiang River Basin have significant influence on the ecological environment of Poyang Lake, which is one of the largest freshwater lake and wetland in the world. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall across Ganjiang River Basin. The analyses include annual total rainfall amount (ATRA), annual total rainy day (ATRD) and annual mean daily rainfall intensity (AMDRI). To detect changes in the hydrological trends, data from 19 rainfall stations from 1953 to 2013 were used in the analyses. First, quality control and homogeneity detection was carried out to examine the annual rainfall series. Second, the spatial correlation analysis was used to identify the spatial relationship among the measurements from different stations. Finally, the statistics of coefficient of variation (CV) and average were used to analyze the interannual variation trend. The modified Mann-Kendall (MMK) trend test method was used to detect the temporal characteristics of rainfall. The results include: (1) Some outliers were detected and corrected. (2) The correlation of ATRA and ATRD series of all the stations had lower spatial variability while the AMDRI series of all the stations had higher spatial variability. On the other hand, the ATRA, ATRD and AMDRI series of single stations show similar spatial variability and the influencing radius of the rainfall events was less than 50 km. (3) the rainfall at the northern and southern parts of the basin had smaller CV. Further, by applying the MMK test method to the ATRA, ATRD, and AMDRI series, the ATRA series has an increasing trend which is opposite to that of the ATRD series. The increasing trend in the ATRA series also led to the increasing trend in the AMDRI series. These stations are mainly in central and northern parts of the basin which are more likely to experience droughts and floods. Thus, for the central and northern parts of the basin, they should receive particular

  14. Rainfall mechanisms for the dominant rainfall mode over Zimbabwe relative to ENSO and/or IODZM. (United States)

    Manatsa, Desmond; Mukwada, Geoffrey


    Zimbabwe's homogeneous precipitation regions are investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) with regard to the underlying processes related to ENSO and/or Indian Ocean Dipole zonal mode (IODZM). Station standardized precipitation index rather than direct rainfall values represent the data matrix used in the PCA. The results indicate that the country's rainfall is highly homogeneous and is dominantly described by the first principal mode (PC1). This leading PC can be used to represent the major rainfall patterns affecting the country, both spatially and temporarily. The current practice of subdividing the country into the two seasonal rainfall forecast zones becomes irrelevant. Partial correlation analysis shows that PC1 is linked more to the IODZM than to the traditional ENSO which predominantly demonstrates insignificant association with PC1. The pure IODZM composite is linked to the most intense rainfall suppression mechanisms, while the pure El Niño composite is linked to rainfall enhancing mechanisms.

  15. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Dongseok Choi


    Annual maxima of daily rainfall for the years 1961–2001 are modeled for five locations in South Korea (chosen to give a good geographical representation of the country). The generalized extreme value distribution is fitted to data from each location to describe the extremes of rainfall and to predict its future behavior. We find evidence to suggest that the Gumbel distribution provides the most reasonable model for four of the five locations considered. We explore the possibility of trends in the data but find no evidence suggesting trends. We derive estimates of 10, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 year return levels for daily rainfall and describe how they vary with the locations. This paper provides the first application of extreme value distributions to rainfall data from South Korea.

  16. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    As noted by the Bureau of Meteorology, Canada, to examine whether such ... their local climate, a threshold considered extreme in one part of Australia could be ... (extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events.

  17. Rainfall Fields: Estimation, Analysis, and Prediction (United States)

    The problem of predicting rainfall and its characteristics has always been one of overriding concern for both hydrologists and meteorologists. Yet, for decades the two disciplines have pursued its solution using radically different techniques and communicating relatively little about recent advances in understanding rainfall processes, new technology, and improvements in predictive skill.Meteorologists tend to publish in journals that deal almost exclusively with atmospheric processes, while hydrologists prefer media which focus on the Earth's surface and below. Meteorologists tend to concentrate on developing and improving numerical hydrodynamical models of the atmospheric processes that generate rainfall. Their approach is essentially to solve an initial value problem where the observed three-dimensional state of the atmosphere is input to the model and the rainfall is one of the output parameters.

  18. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  19. Interrelationship of rainfall, temperature and reference evapotranspiration trends and their net response to the climate change in Central India (United States)

    Kundu, Sananda; Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun


    The monthly rainfall data from 1901 to 2011 and maximum and minimum temperature data from 1901 to 2005 are used along with the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) to analyze the climate trend of 45 stations of Madhya Pradesh. ET0 is calculated by the Hargreaves method from 1901 to 2005 and the computed data is then used for trend analysis. The temporal variation and the spatial distribution of trend are studied for seasonal and annual series with the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Sen's estimator of slope. The percentage of change is used to find the rate of change in 111 years (rainfall) and 105 years (temperatures and ET0). Interrelationships among these variables are analyzed to see the dependency of one variable on the other. The results indicate a decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and ET0 trend. A similar pattern is noticeable in all seasons except for monsoon season in temperature and ET0 trend analysis. The highest increase of temperature is noticed during post-monsoon and winter. Rainfall shows a notable decrease in the monsoon season. The entire state of Madhya Pradesh is considered as a single unit, and the calculation of overall net change in the amount of the rainfall, temperatures (maximum and minimum) and ET0 is done to estimate the total loss or gain in monthly, seasonal and annual series. The results show net loss or deficit in the amount of rainfall and the net gain or excess in the temperature and ET0 amount.

  20. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology (United States)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value to the aforementioned emerging fields in current and future applications, but also to the analysis of integrated water systems.

  1. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie


    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  2. The stable hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes as quantitative proxy for rainfall in the West African Sahel (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Forrest, Matthew; Beckmann, Britta; Sessions, Alex L.; Mulch, Andreas; Schefuß, Enno


    Various studies have demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of terrestrial leaf waxes tracks that of precipitation (δDprecip) both spatially across climate gradients and over a range of different timescales. Yet, reconstructed estimates of δDprecip and corresponding rainfall typically remain largely qualitative, due mainly to uncertainties in plant ecosystem net fractionation, relative humidity, and the stability of the amount effect through time. Here we present δD values of the C31n-alkane (δDwax) from a marine sediment core offshore the Northwest (NW) African Sahel covering the past 100 years and overlapping with the instrumental record of rainfall. We use this record to investigate whether accurate, quantitative estimates of past rainfall can be derived from our δDwax time series. We infer the composition of vegetation (C3/C4) within the continental catchment area by analysis of the stable carbon isotopic composition of the same compounds (δ13Cwax), calculated a net ecosystem fractionation factor, and corrected the δDwax time series accordingly to derive δDprecip. Using the present-day relationship between δDprecip and the amount of precipitation in the tropics, we derive quantitative estimates of past precipitation amounts. Our data show that (a) vegetation composition can be inferred from δ13Cwax, (b) the calculated net ecosystem fractionation represents a reasonable estimate, and (c) estimated total amounts of rainfall based on δDwax correspond to instrumental records of rainfall. Our study has important implications for future studies aiming to reconstruct rainfall based on δDwax; the combined data presented here demonstrate that it is feasible to infer absolute rainfall amounts from sedimentary δDwax in tandem with δ13Cwax in specific depositional settings.

  3. A statistical downscaling model for summer rainfall over Pakistan (United States)

    Kazmi, Dildar Hussain; Li, Jianping; Ruan, Chengqing; Zhao, Sen; Li, Yanjie


    A statistical approach is utilized to construct an interannual model for summer (July-August) rainfall over the western parts of South Asian Monsoon. Observed monthly rainfall data for selected stations of Pakistan for the last 55 years (1960-2014) is taken as predictand. Recommended climate indices along with the oceanic and atmospheric data on global scales, for the period April-June are employed as predictors. First 40 years data has been taken as training period and the rest as validation period. Cross-validation stepwise regression approach adopted to select the robust predictors. Upper tropospheric zonal wind at 200 hPa over the northeastern Atlantic is finally selected as the best predictor for interannual model. Besides, the next possible candidate `geopotential height at upper troposphere' is taken as the indirect predictor for being a source of energy transportation from core region (northeast Atlantic/western Europe) to the study area. The model performed well for both the training as well as validation period with correlation coefficient of 0.71 and tolerable root mean square errors. Cross-validation of the model has been processed by incorporating JRA-55 data for potential predictors in addition to NCEP and fragmentation of study period to five non-overlapping test samples. Subsequently, to verify the outcome of the model on physical grounds, observational analyses as well as the model simulations are incorporated. It is revealed that originating from the jet exit region through large vorticity gradients, zonally dominating waves may transport energy and momentum to the downstream areas of west-central Asia, that ultimately affect interannual variability of the specific rainfall. It has been detected that both the circumglobal teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation play vital roles in modulating the proposed mechanism.

  4. Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics (United States)

    Sreekanth, T. S.

    Large Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics begin{center} begin{center} Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar, Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT Micro-physical parameters of rainfall such as rain drop size & fall speed distribution, mass weighted mean diameter, Total no. of rain drops, Normalisation parameters for rain intensity, maximum & minimum drop diameter from different rain intensity ranges, from both stratiform and convective rain events were analysed. Convective -Stratiform classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill was also used. Events which cannot be included in both types are termed as 'mixed precipitation' and identified separately. For the three years 2011, 2012 & 2013, rain events from both convective & stratiform origin are identified from three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Micro-physical characterisation was done for each rain events and analysed. Ground based and radar observations were made and classification of stratiform and convective rainfall was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001). Radar bright band and non bright band analysis was done for confimation of stratifom and convective rain respectievely. Atmospheric electric field data from electric field mill is also used for confirmation of convection during convective events. Statistical analyses revealed that the standard deviation of rain drop size in higher rain rates are higher than in lower rain rates. Normalised drop size distribution is ploted for selected events from both forms. Inter relations between various precipitation parameters were analysed in three

  5. Impact of merging methods on radar based nowcasting of rainfall (United States)

    Shehu, Bora; Haberlandt, Uwe


    Radar data with high spatial and temporal resolution are commonly used to track and predict rainfall patterns that serve as input for hydrological applications. To mitigate the high errors associated with the radar, many merging methods employing ground measurements have been developed. However these methods have been investigated mainly for simulation purposes, while for nowcasting they are limited to the application of the mean field bias correction. Therefore this study aims to investigate the impact of different merging methods on the nowcasting of the rainfall volumes regarding urban floods. Radar bias correction based on mean fields and quantile mapping are analyzed individually and also are implemented in conditional merging. Special attention is given to the impact of spatial and temporal filters on the predictive skill of all methods. The relevance of the radar merging techniques is demonstrated by comparing the performance of the forecasted rainfall field from the radar tracking algorithm HyRaTrac for both raw and merged radar data. For this purpose several extreme events are selected and the respective performance is evaluated by cross validation of the continuous criteria (bias and rmse) and categorical criteria (POD, FAR and GSS) for lead times up to 2 hours. The study area is located within the 128 km radius of Hannover radar in Lower Saxony, Germany and the data set constitutes of 80 recording stations in 5 min time steps for the period 2000-2012. The results reveal how the choice of merging method and the implementation of filters impacts the performance of the forecast algorithm.

  6. The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Schol, M.A.; Shanley, J.B.; Zegarra, J.P.; Coplen, T.B.


    The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ??18O and ??2H. Precipitation enriched in , 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

  7. Validating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Hongjie; Sharif, Hatim; Zeitler, Jon


    SummaryThis study examines the performance of the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and Stage III precipitation products, using a high-density rain gauge network located on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country. As point-area representativeness error of gauge rainfall is a major concern in assessment of radar rainfall estimation, this study develops a new method to automatically select uniform rainfall events based on coefficient of variation criterion of 3 by 3 radar cells. Only gauge observations of those uniform rainfall events are used as ground truth to evaluate radar rainfall estimation. This study proposes a new parameter probability of rain detection (POD) instead of the conditional probability of rain detection (CPOD) commonly used in previous studies to assess the capability that a radar or gauge detects rainfall. Results suggest that: (1) gauge observations of uniform rainfall better represent ground truth of a 4 × 4 km 2 radar cell than non-uniform rainfall; (2) the MPE has higher capability of rain detection than either gauge-only or Stage III; (3) the MPE has much higher linear correlation and lower mean relative difference with gauge measurements than the Stage III does; (4) the Stage III tends to overestimate precipitation (20%), but the MPE tends to underestimate (7%).

  8. Verification of SPCZ and ENSO dynamics in the extended reanalysis period using the South Pacific Rainfall Atlas (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Dalu, Giovanni; Diamond, Howard; Gaetani, Marco; Renwick, James


    Ground-based rainfall observations during the pre-satellite era in the South West Pacific were examined for an extreme La Niña event that occurred in 1955-56. The rainfall observations were derived from the South Pacific Rainfall Atlas (SPRAT), a data compilation contributed by the regional meteorological services. The influence of tropical cyclone activity on both monthly and warm season rainfall anomalies were also accounted for using the International Best Tracks Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) tropical cyclone database. The rainfall anomalies from more than 60 southwest Pacific Island stations showed a region of enhanced rainfall in the southwest half of the south Pacific encompassing the Southern Cook Islands, Tonga, Fiji, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. Suppressed rainfall was observed in the northeast corner of the region over the Marquesas, the Northern Cook Islands, Tokelau, and Tuvalu. This pattern is similar to what is expected for La Nina events that occurred during the classic re-analysis period (1958 onward). Elimination of anomalously high historical rainfall totals for individual islands using the IBTrACS data allowed a 'best guess' of the past SPCZ position, suggesting it was probably southwest of the its normal climatological position during the 1955-56 La Nina. A comparison of the 'best guess' SPCZ position fit derived from the rainfall anomalies to the omega velocity furnished by the NOAA-CIRES reanalysis show a remarkably similar position of the SPCZ during the 1955-56 ENSO event. Ground-based rainfall observations that support SPRAT (which extend into the early 1900s and beyond) can therefore confirm the fidelity of the NOAA-CIRES extended 20th century reanalysis and can help to reveal past ENSO and SPCZ dynamics. In addition, the high-resolution daily reanalysis data and IBTrACS information indicate a unique SPCZ control on regional tropical cyclone trajectories into the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during ex-tropical transition

  9. Satellite-based estimation of rainfall erosivity for Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Sterk, G.; Jong, S.M. de


    Rainfall erosivity is a measure for the erosive force of rainfall. Rainfall kinetic energy determines the erosivity and is in turn greatly dependent on rainfall intensity. Attempts for its large-scale mapping are rare. Most are based on interpolation of erosivity values derived from rain gauge data.

  10. Evaluation of Six High-Resolution Satellite and Ground-Based Precipitation Products over Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Leong Tan


    Full Text Available Satellite precipitation products (SPPs potentially constitute an alternative to sparse rain gauge networks for assessing the spatial distribution of precipitation. However, applications of these products are still limited due to the lack of robust quality assessment. This study compares daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual rainfall amount at 342 rain gauges over Malaysia to estimations using five SPPs (3B42RT, 3B42V7, GPCP-1DD, PERSIANN-CDR, and CMORPH and a ground-based precipitation product (APHRODITE. The performance of the precipitation products was evaluated from 2003 to 2007 using continuous (RMSE, R2, ME, MAE, and RB and categorical (ACC, POD, FAR, CSI, and HSS statistical approaches. Overall, 3B42V7 and APHRODITE performed the best, while the worst performance was shown by GPCP-1DD. 3B42RT, 3B42V7, and PERSIANN-CDR slightly overestimated observed precipitation by 2%, 4.7%, and 2.1%, respectively. By contrast, APHRODITE and CMORPH significantly underestimated precipitations by 19.7% and 13.2%, respectively, whereas GPCP-1DD only slightly underestimated by 2.8%. All six precipitation products performed better in the northeast monsoon than in the southwest monsoon. The better performances occurred in eastern and southern Peninsular Malaysia and in the north of East Malaysia, which receives higher rainfall during the northeast monsoon, whereas poor performances occurred in the western and dryer Peninsular Malaysia. All precipitation products underestimated the no/tiny (<1 mm/day and extreme (≥20 mm/day rainfall events, while they overestimated low (1–20 mm/day rainfall events. 3B42RT and 3B42V7 showed the best ability to detect precipitation amounts with the highest HSS value (0.36. Precipitations during flood events such as those which occurred in late 2006 and early 2007 were estimated the best by 3B42RT and 3B42V7, as shown by an R2 value ranging from 0.49 to 0.88 and 0.52 to 0.86, respectively. These results on SPPs’ uncertainties

  11. Future rainfall variations reduce abundances of aboveground arthropods in model agroecosystems with different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann G. Zaller


    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict less frequent but heavier rainfalls and longer drought periods during the growing season. This is expected to alter arthropods in agroecosystems that are important as biocontrol agents, herbivores or food for predators (e.g. farmland birds. In a lysimeter facility (totally 18 3-m2-plots, we experimentally tested the effects of long-term past vs. prognosticated future rainfall variations (15% increased rainfall per event, 25% more dry days according to regionalized climate change models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC on aboveground arthropods in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated at three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem. Soil types were established 17 years and rainfall treatments one month before arthropod sampling; treatments were fully crossed and replicated three times. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling, their mean abundances (± SD differed between April, May and June with 20 ± 3 m-2, 90 ± 35 m-2 and 289 ± 93 individuals m-2, respectively. Averaged across sampling dates, future rainfall reduced the abundance of spiders (Araneae, -47%, cicadas and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha, -39%, beetles (Coleoptera, -52%, ground beetles (Carabidae, -41%, leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, -64%, spring tails (Collembola, -58%, flies (Diptera, -73% and lacewings (Neuroptera, -73% but increased the abundance of snails (Gastropoda, +69%. Across sampling dates, soil types had no effects on arthropod abundances. Arthropod diversity was neither affected by rainfall nor soil types. Arthropod abundance was positively correlated with weed biomass for almost all taxa; abundance of Hemiptera and of total arthropods was positively correlated with weed density. These detrimental effects of future rainfall varieties on arthropod taxa in wheat fields can potentially alter arthropod-associated agroecosystem services.

  12. Do vegetative and reproductive phenophases of deciduous tropical spe-cies respond similarly to rainfall pulses?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Silveira; F. R. Martins; F. S. Araújo


    Deciduous trees with high-density wood that occur in dry seasonal tropical regions respond to rainfall seasonality with synchrony in phenophases. However, they may exhibit interannual differences in synchrony and intensity of phenophases, as strategy for large variations in duration and intensity of rainfall pulses. Nevertheless, it remains unknown how phenophases of deciduous trees of the Brazilian semi-arid region respond to rainfall variations. The phenology of Cordia oncocalyx was monitored in deciduous thorny woodland (Caatinga), from April 2009 to March 2011, and was correlated with rainfall, soil humidity, temperature, and photoperiod. The rainy years 2009 and 2011 exhibited higher duration of rainfall pulses and lower frequency of interpulses, but in 2010 pulse duration and total rainfall were lower. Circular statistics showed leaf flush followed by flowering and fruiting in the rainy season, and leaf fall and seed dispersal in the dry season. Both the vegetative and reproductive phenophases respond similarly to variations in rain pulses, with adjustments in time, duration, and intensity, which were correlated with variations in rainfall and soil humidity, excluding photoperiod as a trigger. Total defoliation occurred in the driest months of each year, November to December 2009 and August to October 2010. A sporadic leaf flush in November 2010 was triggered by occasional rains. Vegeta-tive and reproductive synchronies were high in rainy years, but in 2010 synchrony was low, flowering was delayed and reduced, and, despite the low fruiting, we recorded high density in the seed bank. Lower syn-chrony, temporal separation of phenophases, and storage of fruits on the ground were risk-spreading strategies used by the population in the dry year, which suggest intrapopulation variability in responses to hydric stress. We believe that this plasticity contributes to high species density in the Caatinga.

  13. Statistical Testing of Dynamically Downscaled Rainfall Data for the East Coast of Australia (United States)

    Parana Manage, Nadeeka; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George


    This study performs a validation of statistical properties of downscaled climate data, concentrating on the rainfall which is required for hydrology predictions used in reservoir simulations. The data sets used in this study have been produced by the NARCliM (NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling) project which provides a dynamically downscaled climate dataset for South-East Australia at 10km resolution. NARCliM has used three configurations of the Weather Research Forecasting Regional Climate Model and four different GCMs (MIROC-medres 3.2, ECHAM5, CCCMA 3.1 and CSIRO mk3.0) from CMIP3 to perform twelve ensembles of simulations for current and future climates. Additionally to the GCM-driven simulations, three control run simulations driven by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the entire period of 1950-2009 has also been performed by the project. The validation has been performed in the Upper Hunter region of Australia which is a semi-arid to arid region 200 kilometres North-West of Sydney. The analysis used the time series of downscaled rainfall data and ground based measurements for selected Bureau of Meteorology rainfall stations within the study area. The initial testing of the gridded rainfall was focused on the autoregressive characteristics of time series because the reservoir performance depends on long-term average runoffs. A correlation analysis was performed for fortnightly, monthly and annual averaged time resolutions showing a good statistical match between reanalysis and ground truth. The spatial variation of the statistics of gridded rainfall series were calculated and plotted at the catchment scale. The spatial correlation analysis shows a poor agreement between NARCliM data and ground truth at each time resolution. However, the spatial variability plots show a strong link between the statistics and orography at the catchment scale.

  14. Dry/Wet Conditions Monitoring Based on TRMM Rainfall Data and Its Reliability Validation over Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghu Li


    Full Text Available Local dry/wet conditions are of great concern in regional water resource and floods/droughts disaster risk management. Satellite-based precipitation products have greatly improved their accuracy and applicability and are expected to offer an alternative to ground rain gauges data. This paper investigated the capability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rainfall data for monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin during 1998–2010, and validated its reliability with rain gauges data from 14 national meteorological stations in the basin. The results show that: (1 the daily TRMM rainfall data does not describe the occurrence and contribution rates of precipitation accurately, but monthly TRMM data have a good linear relationship with rain gauges rainfall data; (2 both the Z index and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI based on monthly TRMM rainfall data oscillate around zero and show a consistent interannual variability as compared with rain gauges data; (3 the spatial pattern of moisture status, either in dry months or wet months, based on both the Z index and SPI using TRMM data, agree with the observed rainfall. In conclusion, the monthly TRMM rainfall data can be used for monitoring the variation and spatial distribution of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin.

  15. Correcting temporal sampling error in radar-rainfall: Effect of advection parameters and rain storm characteristics on the correction accuracy (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Chul; Krajewski, Witold F.


    This study offers a method to correct for the radar temporal sampling error when determining radar-rainfall accumulations. The authors evaluate the correction effect with respect to multiple factors associated with storm advection, rainfall characteristics, and different rainfall accumulation time scales. The advection method presented in this study uses linear interpolation of static rain storm locations observed at two intermittent radar sampling times to correct for the missed rainfall accumulations. The advection correction is applied to the high space (0.5 km) and time (5-min) resolution radar-rainfall products provided by the Iowa Flood Center. We use the ground reference data from a high quality and high density rain gauge network distributed over the Turkey River basin in Iowa to evaluate the advection corrected rain fields. We base our evaluation on six rain events and examine the correction performance/improvement with respect to the advection discretization, spatial grid aggregation, rainfall basin coverage, and conditional average rainfall intensity. The results show that the 1-min advection discretization is sufficient to represent the observed distribution of storm velocities for the presented cases. Grid aggregation that is motivated by the need to expedite the computation may induce errors in estimating advection vectors. The authors found that while the advection correction tends to enhance the QPE accuracy for intense rain storms over small or isolated areas, it has little impact on the improvement of light rain estimation.

  16. On evaluation of ShARP passive rainfall retrievals over snow-covered land surfaces and coastal zones

    CERN Document Server

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi


    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed ove...

  17. Investigating the influence of crust and seal development on soil erosion using portable rainfall simulators (United States)

    Neave, Melissa; Rayburg, Scott


    Rainfall simulators provide researchers with a means of controlling the rate of rainfall delivery to a soil surface, thereby eliminating the problem of having to account for the inherent variability and unpredictability of natural rainfall. Although there can be difficulties associated with their application, particularly surrounding the choice of appropriate rainfall intensities and durations, rainfall simulators represent a valuable tool in soil erosion studies and have been widely used to improve our understanding of hillslope runoff and erosion processes. In the present work, portable rainfall simulators were used to examine the progressive development of soil crusts and seals and to consider their influence on sediment yields from paired small plots in southern New Mexico, USA and central New South Wales, Australia. Study results identify that raindrop impacts play an important role in the system of seal and crust development in these environments, with structural crusts (or those formed on surfaces exposed to raindrops) being approximately 40% stronger than depositional crusts (or those formed on surfaces protected from the direct impact of raindrops). In addition, the strength of the depositional crusts reached a plateau after two rainfall events whereas the structural crusts continued to strengthen for at least three rainfall events and, somewhat surprisingly, the development of crusts did not appear to directly reflect seal development. With respect to the influence of crusts and seals on erosion, study results indicate that sediment yields from covered surfaces exceeded those from uncovered surfaces, suggesting that, at this level, the system of erosion is supply-limited and dependent on raindrops dislodging and transporting source soil particles. Materials such as litter and stones lying on the ground surface, however, can confuse this relationship such that both supply-limited and transport capacity-limited controls on erosion become important. Thus

  18. Temporal Variation of Rainfall Intensity, Rainfall Partitioning and its Correlation with Meteorological Elements of Eastern India (United States)

    Tripathi, P.; Chaturvedi, A.


    Rainfall plays a vital role in Indian agriculture hence economy of the country, but very crucial and risky due to its erratic/ unpredictable behavior and uneven distribution. Since monsoonal vagaries in eastern India are very frequent hence involve a great risk in Argil. Production and quality of atmosphere at desired level. Though prediction of onset of monsoon with total quantum of rainfall is available through different agencies but still not accurate and not in consonance of observed behavior. Therefore, surface weather data of meteorological elements needs to be critically examined for prediction of onset of monsoon, rainfall rate and its variability with space and time and strategy to cope the uncertainty of risk (drought and flood etc) needs to be evolved. In the present study an analysis of rainfall of Eastern India (Eastern U.P., Bihar and Jharkhand) has been made for rainfall partitioning, rate of rainfall and its variation with space and time. A location specific six parameter model were developed with multiple correlation technique to predict the medium and long range rainfall forecast and found 65% accurate for long range and 79% accurate to medium range. This will not only help to predict the accurate rainfall but also provides a clue for assessment of quality of rainfall under different aerosol levels of atmosphere which ultimately led to link designers with radio wave propagation. In addition, correlation of physical variables of atmosphere like vapor pressure deficit, dew point and relative humidity were also made with quantum of rainfall, rate of rainfall and its quantitative characteristics in the study area as to understand the mechanism behavior of atmosphere for space research.

  19. Exploring the relationship between malaria, rainfall intermittency, and spatial variation in rainfall seasonality (United States)

    Merkord, C. L.; Wimberly, M. C.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.


    Malaria is a major public health problem throughout tropical regions of the world. Successful prevention and treatment of malaria requires an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the life cycle of both the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites, and its vectors, anopheline mosquitos. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates (TRMM and GPM), evapotranspiration derived from a simplified surface energy balance, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave imagery. Previous studies have found links between malaria cases and total monthly or weekly rainfall in areas where both are highly seasonal. However it is far from clear that monthly or weekly summaries are the best metrics to use to explain malaria outbreaks. It is possible that particular temporal or spatial patterns of rainfall result in better mosquito habitat and thus higher malaria risk. We used malaria case data from the Amhara region of Ethiopia and satellite-derived rainfall estimates to explore the relationship between malaria outbreaks and rainfall with the goal of identifying the most useful rainfall metrics for modeling malaria occurrence. First, we explored spatial variation in the seasonal patterns of both rainfall and malaria cases in Amhara. Second, we assessed the relative importance of different metrics of rainfall intermittency, including alternation of wet and dry spells, the strength of intensity fluctuations, and spatial variability in these measures, in determining the length and severity of malaria outbreaks. We also explored the sensitivity of our results to the choice of method for describing rainfall intermittency and the spatial and temporal scale at which metrics were calculated. Results

  20. A multiplier-based method of generating stochastic areal rainfall from point rainfalls (United States)

    Ndiritu, J. G.

    Catchment modelling for water resources assessment is still mainly based on rain gauge measurements as these are more easily available and cover longer periods than radar and satellite-based measurements. Rain gauges however measure the rain falling on an extremely small proportion of the catchment and the areal rainfall obtained from these point measurements are consequently substantially uncertain. These uncertainties in areal rainfall estimation are generally ignored and the need to assess their impact on catchment modelling and water resources assessment is therefore imperative. A method that stochastically generates daily areal rainfall from point rainfall using multiplicative perturbations as a means of dealing with these uncertainties is developed and tested on the Berg catchment in the Western Cape of South Africa. The differences in areal rainfall obtained by alternately omitting some of the rain gauges are used to obtain a population of plausible multiplicative perturbations. Upper bounds on the applicable perturbations are set to prevent the generation of unrealistically large rainfall and to obtain unbiased stochastic rainfall. The perturbations within the set bounds are then fitted into probability density functions to stochastically generate the perturbations to impose on areal rainfall. By using 100 randomly-initialized calibrations of the AWBM catchment model and Sequent Peak Analysis, the effects of incorporating areal rainfall uncertainties on storage-yield-reliability analysis are assessed. Incorporating rainfall uncertainty is found to reduce the required storage by up to 20%. Rainfall uncertainty also increases flow-duration variability considerably and reduces the median flow-duration values by an average of about 20%.

  1. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment (United States)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei


    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou,

  2. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates from commercial microwave links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fencl


    experimental layouts of ground truth from rain gauges (RGs with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The results suggest that CMLs adjusted by RGs with a temporal aggregation of up to 1 h (i provide precise high-resolution QPEs (relative error  < 7 %, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient  >  0.75 and (ii that the combination of both sensor types clearly outperforms each individual monitoring system. Unfortunately, adjusting CML observations to RGs with longer aggregation intervals of up to 24 h has drawbacks. Although it substantially reduces bias, it unfavourably smoothes out rainfall peaks of high intensities, which is undesirable for stormwater management. A similar, but less severe, effect occurs due to spatial averaging when CMLs are adjusted to remote RGs. Nevertheless, even here, adjusted CMLs perform better than RGs alone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that the joint use of multiple CMLs together with RGs also reduces bias in their QPEs. In summary, we believe that our adjustment method has great potential to improve the space–time resolution of current urban rainfall monitoring networks. Nevertheless, future work should aim to better understand the reason for the observed systematic error in QPEs from CMLs.

  3. Changes in rainfall seasonality in the tropics (United States)

    Feng, X.; Porporato, A. M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.


    Climate change has altered not only the overall magnitude of rainfall but also their seasonal distribution and interannual variability across the world. Such changes in the rainfall regimes will be most keenly felt in arid and semiarid regions, where the availability and timing of water are key factors controlling biogeochemical cycles, primary productivity, and phenology, in addition to regulating regional agricultural production and economic output. Nevertheless, due to the inherent complexity of the signals, a comprehensive framework to understand seasonal rainfall profiles across multiple timescales and geographical regions is still lacking. Here, we formulate a global measure of seasonality and investigate changes in the seasonal rainfall regime across the tropics in the past century. The seasonality index, which captures the effects of both the magnitude and concentration of the rainy season, is highest in the northeast region of Brazil, western and central Africa, northern Australia, and parts of the Caribbean and Southeast Asia (the seasonally dry tropics). Further decomposing rainfall seasonality into its magnitude, duration, and timing components using spectral techniques and information theory, we find marked increase in the interannual variability of seasonality over most of the dry tropics, implying increasing uncertainty in the intensity, duration, and arrival of seasonal rainfall over the past century. We also show that such increase in variability has occurred in conjunction with shifts in the seasonal timing and changes in its overall magnitude. Thus, it is importance to place the analysis of rainfall regimes in these regions into a seasonal context that is most relevant to local ecological and social processes. These changes, if sustained into the next century, will portend significant shifts in the timing of plant activities and ecosystem composition and distribution, with consequences for water and carbon cycling and water resource management in

  4. Development of a Compound Distribution Markov Chain Model for Stochastic Generation of Rainfall with Long Term Persistence (United States)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George


    One of the overriding issues in the rainfall simulation is the underestimation of observed rainfall variability in longer timescales (e.g. monthly, annual and multi-year), which usually results into under-estimation of reservoir reliability in urban water planning. This study has developed a Compound Distribution Markov Chain (CDMC) model for stochastic generation of daily rainfall. We used two parameters of Markov Chain process (transition probabilities of wet-to-wet and dry-to-dry days) for simulating rainfall occurrence and two parameters of gamma distribution (calculated from mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall) for simulating wet-day rainfall amounts. While two models with deterministic parameters underestimated long term variability, our investigation found that the long term variability of rainfall in the model is predominantly governed by the long term variability of gamma parameters, rather than the variability of Markov Chain parameters. Therefore, in the third approach, we developed the CDMC model with deterministic parameters of Markov Chain process, but stochastic parameters of gamma distribution by sampling the mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall from their log-normal and bivariate-normal distribution. We have found that the CDMC is able to replicate both short term and long term rainfall variability, when we calibrated the model at two sites in east coast of Australia using three types of daily rainfall data - (1) dynamically downscaled, 10 km resolution gridded data produced by NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling project, (2) 5 km resolution gridded data by Australian Water Availability Project and (3) point scale raingauge stations data by Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. We also examined the spatial variability of parameters and their link with local orography at our field site. The suitability of the model in runoff generation and urban reservoir-water simulation will be discussed.

  5. Modeling the Distribution of Rainfall Intensity using Hourly Data


    Salisu Dan'azumi; Supiah Shamsudin; Azmi Aris


    Problem statement: Design of storm water best management practices to control runoff and water pollution can be achieved if a prior knowledge of the distribution of rainfall characteristics is known. Rainfall intensity, particularly in tropical climate, plays a major role in the design of runoff conveyance and erosion control systems. This study is aimed to explore the statistical distribution of rainfall intensity for Peninsular Malaysia using hourly rainfall data. Approach: Hourly rainfall ...

  6. A regional landslide warning system based on spatially variable rainfall thresholds (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Rossi, Guglielmo; Rosi, Ascanio; Catani, Filippo


    Rainfall is widely recognized as one of the major causes for landsliding. When studying the conditions of triggering of mass movements at regional scale, a process-based approach is seldom possible because of the complexity in the spatial organization of the involved independent variables (e.g. soil properties). Therefore, empirical methods based on the definition of triggering thresholds are usually employed for the definition of warning systems or for landslide hazard assessments. Such thresholds are defined by observing the characteristics of past rainfall events that have resulted in landslides and selecting the lower bound envelope curve in intensity-duration plots depicting such events. These curves, generally represented by power-law type functions linking, e.g., intensity and duration of the critical rainfall, define the lowest level above which landslides should be expected. In the present work, concerning the territory of Tuscany (ab. 23,000 km2), a similar approach is adopted and described which presents some improvements with respect to traditional methods. First of all, the strong variability of environmental, meteorological and geological factors within the study area, together with evidences from available data on triggering conditions, imply that a single general threshold would be affected by a too large degree of overestimation of hazard and suggest the adoption of locally defined thresholds. The studied area was then partitioned in 25 Alert Zones and each of them has been analyzed separately to provide distinct rainfall thresholds. Secondly, to handle the amount of available data (the analysis regards the period 2000-2007 and involves 408 rainfall events, which were registered by a network of 332 rain-gauges and that caused 2132 landslides), a software has been developed for automatically analyzing rainfall patterns and defining such thresholds. In particular, the automated analysis performs the following tasks: i) Defining, for every rain

  7. Development of Rainfall-Discharge Model for Future NPP candidate Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji-hong; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    By this study, most suitable model for future nuclear power plant site in Yeongdeok to be used to predict peak amount of riverine flooding was developed by examining historical rainfall and discharge data from the nearest gage station which is Jodong water level gage station in Taehwa basin. Sitting a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires safety analyses that include the effects of extreme events such as flooding or earthquake. In light of South Korean government's 15-year power supply plan that calls for the construction of new nuclear power station in Yeongdeok, it becomes more important to site new station in a safe area from flooding. Because flooding or flooding related accidents mostly happen due to extremely intense rainfall, it is necessary to find out the relationship between rainfall and run-off by setting up feasible model to figure out the peak flow of the river around nuclear related facilities.

  8. Spatial estimation of debris flows-triggering rainfall and its dependence on rainfall return period (United States)

    Destro, Elisa; Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean Dominique; Borga, Marco


    Forecasting the occurrence of debris flows is fundamental for issuing hazard warnings, and often focuses on rainfall as a triggering agent and on the use of empirical rainfall thresholds based on rain gauge observations. A recognized component of the uncertainty associated with the use of rainfall thresholds is related to the sampling of strongly varying rainfall variability with sparse rain gauge networks. In this work we examine the spatial distribution of rainfall depth in areas up to 10 km from the debris flow initiation points as a function of return period, and we exploit this information to analyze the errors expected in the estimation of debris flow triggering rainfall when rain gauge data are used. In particular, we investigate the impact of rain gauge density and of the use of different interpolation methods. High-resolution, adjusted radar rainfall estimates, representing the best available spatially-distributed rainfall estimates at the debris flows initiation point and in the surrounding area, are sampled by stochastically generated rain gauge networks characterized by varying densities. Debris flow triggering rainfall is estimated by means of three rainfall interpolation methods: nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting and ordinary kriging. On average, triggering rainfall shows a local peak corresponding to the debris flow initiation point, with a decay of rainfall with distance which increases with the return period of the triggering rainfall. Interpolation of the stochastically generated rain gauge measurements leads to an underestimation of the triggering rainfall that, irrespective of the interpolation methods, increases with the return period and decreases with the rain gauge density. For small return period events and high rain gauge density, the differences among the methods are minor. With increasing the return period and decreasing the rain gauge density, the nearest neighbor method is less biased, because it makes use only of the

  9. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul


    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  10. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zoccatelli


    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" quantifying the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. These statistics describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of catchment-scale storm velocity. The concept of the catchment-scale storm velocity takes into account the role of relative catchment orientation and morphology with respect to storm motion and kinematics. The paper illustrates the derivation of the statistics from an analytical framework recently proposed in literature and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by applying them to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002–2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide useful information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  11. A Study of Rainfall Variations in the Philippines: 1950-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifacio Pajuelas


    Full Text Available The long-period rainfall variations in the Philippines are studied using unfiltered and filtered Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI. To have RAI’s that are representative for each group, zones of quasi-homogeneous climate were constructed based on highly correlated stations (r > 0.75, narrow standard deviation, and period of maximum rainfall using the 1950-1996 monthly rainfall total. Variance analyses of the RAI’s suggest that unfiltered samples do not significantly differ from the normal distribution except for the western part (climate type 1 that have significant positive skewness and peakedness. The RAI’s contain a significant amount of non-random elements and a significant negative change in mean is reflected over the central Visayas and Mindanao (climate type 3. Filtered RAI’s that are not significantly different from the normal distribution (at least for c2 test indicated significant trend over areas with high-variable rainfall (i.e., climate types 1, 2, 4 & 5.In general, long-period rainfall may have changed over the period of study. The 10-year filtered RAI’s have the possibility of falling rate over climate types 1, 2 & 5, but increasing rate over climate type 4. These trends are indicated towards the rainfall-sensitive months (i.e., February through May during El Niño or La Niña events. Falling rate is also significant from October through January over climate type 4. Longer periods (30-year filtered RAI’s have significant negative trend for climate types 2 &4, but positive trend for climate type 5. These trends also occurred during February through May.

  12. Scale dependence of Hortonian rainfall-runoff processes in a semiarid environment (United States)

    Chen, L.; Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.


    Scale dependence of Hortonian rainfall-runoff processes has received much attention in the literature but has not been fully resolved. To further explore this issue, a recently developed model was applied to simulate rainfall-infiltration-runoff processes at multiple spatial scales. The model consists of the coupling between a two-dimensional runoff routing module and a two-layer infiltration module, thus accounting for spatial variability in soil properties, soil surface sealing, topography, and partial vegetation cover. A 76 m2 semiarid experimental plot with sparse cover of vegetation patches and a sealed soil surface in inter-patch bare areas was used as a representative elementary area (REA). A series of four larger artificial plots of different areas was created based on this REA to examine the scale dependence of rainfall-runoff relationships in the case of stationary heterogeneity. Results show that runoff depth (or runoff coefficient) decreases with increasing scale. This trend is more prominent at scales less than 10 times the REA length. Power law relationships can quantitatively describe the scaling law. The major mechanism of the scale effect is run-on infiltration. However, rainfall intensity and soil properties can both affect the scaling trend through their interaction with run-on. Higher intensity and less temporal variability of rainfall can both reduce the scale effect. Temporally intermittent rainfall may produce spatially oscillating infiltration rates at large scales. Vegetation patterns are another factor that may affect the scaling. Random-vegetation patterns, compared with regular patterns with similar statistical properties, change the spatial distributions, but do not significantly change either the total amount and statistical properties of infiltration and runoff or the scale dependence of the rainfall-runoff process.

  13. Downscaling summer rainfall in the UK from North Atlantic ocean temperatures

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    R. L. Wilby


    Full Text Available Annual series of three stochastic rainfall model parameters — the seasonal wet day amount (or intensity, the conditional dry–day probability (or dry–spell persistence, and the conditional wet-day probability (or wet-spell persistence — were examined using daily rainfall records for ten UK stations for the period 1901–1995. The purpose was first, to determine the extent to which these indices of summer (June–August rainfall were correlated with empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs of summer North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies: second, to evaluate the skill of EOFs of preceding winter (December–February SSTs for summer rainfall forecasting and downscaling.Correlation analyses suggest that observed increases in summer dry-spell persistence since the 1970s coincided with positive SST anomalies in the North Atlantic. In contrast, wet-spell persistence and intensities were relatively weakly correlated with the same patterns, implying that the use of SSTs is justifiable for conditioning occurrence but not intensity parameters. Furthermore, the correlation strengths were greater for EOFs of SSTs than those reported for area-average SST anomalies, indicating that the pattern of SST anomalies conveys important information about seasonal rainfall anomalies across the UK. When EOFs of winter SSTs were used to forecast summer rainfall in Cambridge, the skill was once again greater for dry-spells than either wet-spells or intensities. However, even for dry–spells, the correlation with observations — whilst statistically significant — was still rather modest (r Keywords: North Atlantic, ocean temperatures, downscaling, rainfall, forecasting, UK

  14. Scaling properties of rainfall time-series in the urban area of Rome (United States)

    Volpi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Lombardo, F.


    The rainfall fields exhibits a high space-time variability which generates a large degree of uncertainty in modelling the process, thus causing lack of accuracy in many key hydrological problems, such as the forecasting of floods and the management of water resources. The large amount of literature produced in the last thirty years about this issue deals with the development of stochastic models able to represent the non-linearity and intermittence of rainfall in order to perform the downscaling process, i.e. transferring to finer scales the information on rainfall observed or forecasted at large scales. Traditionally, these models are based upon point processes in both the time (e.g. Waymire and Gupta, 1981) and the space-time domain (e.g. Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1986). Although this approach is cluster-based so as to model the physical structure of rainfall, its application may involve an inconvenient mathematical complexity and a large number of parameters, leading to several problems in parameter estimation. Another approach to this problem is based on the empirical detection of some regularity in hydrological observations, such as the scale-invariance properties of rainfall (e.g. Lovejoy and Schertzer, 1985). Models following this approach are based upon the assumption of a power law dependence of all statistical moments on the scale of aggregation. That means scaling properties can provide simple relationships to link the statistical distribution of the rainfall process at different spatial and temporal scales, in the ranges of which the power-low assumption can be verified (Marani, 2003). This work focuses on the analysis of the scaling properties of rainfall time series from a high density rain gauge network covering the Rome's urban area. The network consists of 24 sites, and the gauge record at each site has 10-minute time resolution and about 16-year length (1992-2007). The aim of the study is the identification of temporal scaling regimes, their ranges

  15. Rainfall intensity-duration conditions for mass movements in Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Saito, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Takashi


    Mass movements caused by rainfall events in Taiwan are analyzed during a 7-year period from 2006 to 2012. Data from the Taiwan Soil and Water Conservation Bureau reports were compiled for 263 mass movement events, including 156 landslides, 91 debris flows, and 16 events with both landslides and debris flows. Rainfall totals for each site location were obtained from interpolated rain gauge data. The rainfall intensity-duration ( I-D) relationship was examined to establish a rainfall threshold for mass movements using random sampling: I = 18.10(±2.67) D -0.17(±0.04), where I is mean rainfall intensity (mm/h) and D is the time (h) between the beginning of a rainfall event and the resulting mass movement. Significant differences were found between rainfall intensities and thresholds for landslides and debris flows. For short-duration rainfall events, higher mean rainfall intensities were required to trigger debris flows. In contrast, for long-duration rainfall events, similar mean rainfall intensities triggered both landslides and debris flows. Mean rainfall intensity was rescaled by mean annual precipitation (MAP) to define a new threshold: I MAP = 0.0060(±0.0009) D -0.17(±0.04), where I MAP is rescaled rainfall intensity and MAP is the minimum for mountainous areas in Taiwan (3000 mm). Although the I-D threshold for Taiwan is high, the I MAP -D threshold for Taiwan tends to be low relative to other areas around the world. Our results indicate that Taiwan is highly prone to rainfall-induced mass movements. This study also shows that most mass movements occur in high rainfall-intensity periods, but some events occur before or after the rainfall peak. Both antecedent and peak rainfall play important roles in triggering landslides, whereas debris flow occurrence is more related to peak rainfall than antecedent rainfall.

  16. The impacts of assimilating satellite soil moisture into a rainfall-runoff model in a semi-arid catchment (United States)

    Soil moisture plays a key role in runoff generation processes. As a result, the assimilation of soil moisture observations into rainfall-runoff models is increasingly being investigated. Given the scarcity of ground-based in situ measurements, satellite soil moisture observations offer a valuable da...

  17. Novel SVM-based technique to improve rainfall estimation over the Mediterranean region (north of Algeria) using the multispectral MSG SEVIRI imagery (United States)

    Sehad, Mounir; Lazri, Mourad; Ameur, Soltane


    In this work, a new rainfall estimation technique based on the high spatial and temporal resolution of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is presented. This work proposes efficient scheme rainfall estimation based on two multiclass support vector machine (SVM) algorithms: SVM_D for daytime and SVM_N for night time rainfall estimations. Both SVM models are trained using relevant rainfall parameters based on optical, microphysical and textural cloud proprieties. The cloud parameters are derived from the Spectral channels of the SEVIRI MSG radiometer. The 3-hourly and daily accumulated rainfall are derived from the 15 min-rainfall estimation given by the SVM classifiers for each MSG observation image pixel. The SVMs were trained with ground meteorological radar precipitation scenes recorded from November 2006 to March 2007 over the north of Algeria located in the Mediterranean region. Further, the SVM_D and SVM_N models were used to estimate 3-hourly and daily rainfall using data set gathered from November 2010 to March 2011 over north Algeria. The results were validated against collocated rainfall observed by rain gauge network. Indeed, the statistical scores given by correlation coefficient, bias, root mean square error and mean absolute error, showed good accuracy of rainfall estimates by the present technique. Moreover, rainfall estimates of our technique were compared with two high accuracy rainfall estimates methods based on MSG SEVIRI imagery namely: random forests (RF) based approach and an artificial neural network (ANN) based technique. The findings of the present technique indicate higher correlation coefficient (3-hourly: 0.78; daily: 0.94), and lower mean absolute error and root mean square error values. The results show that the new technique assign 3-hourly and daily rainfall with good and better accuracy than ANN technique and (RF) model.

  18. Estimating hydrological parameters based on rainfall patterns in river basins with no long-term historical observations (United States)

    Shi, Haiyun; Li, Tiejian


    Small and medium river basins may frequently suffer from the destructive hydrological extremes (e.g., floods). However, the common problem in such regions is a lack of long-term historical observations. Meteorological and hydrological station networks in some river basins in China were newly-built only a few years ago, and it is infeasible to estimate hydrological parameters from calibration and validation with a long time period directly. This paper aims to develop a method to estimate the feasible hydrological parameters based on rainfall patterns in such regions. Digital Yellow River Integrated Model (DYRIM) is adopted as the hydrological model, and the feasible hydrological parameters can be estimated based on limited rainfall-runoff events. First, for each rainfall-runoff event, the parameters are independently calibrated with the observed rainfall and hydrological data using a double-layer parallel system. Then, the performances of the simulation results are comprehensively evaluated, and the value ranges of the parameters can be obtained. Finally, the statistical relationships between hydrological parameters and rainfall patterns (i.e., amount and intensity) are established, which are expressed by the statistical equations and the distribution of hydrological parameters with the rainfall patterns. From a sample demonstration, it is concluded that this parameter estimation method will be useful to estimate the feasible hydrological parameters for future rainfall-runoff events in river basins with no long-term historical observations.

  19. Alum and Rainfall Effects on Ionophores in Runoff from Surface-Applied Broiler Litter. (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Franklin, Dorcas; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua


    Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (∼pH 9) vs. alum-amended litters (∼pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration ( runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application.

  20. Association of Taiwan's October rainfall patterns with large-scale oceanic and atmospheric phenomena (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Mong-Ming


    The variability of the amount of October rainfall in Taiwan is the highest among all seasons. The October rainfall in Taiwan is attributable to interactions between the northeasterly monsoon and typhoons and their interaction with Taiwan's Central Mountain Range. This study applied long-term gridded rainfall data for defining the major rainfall pattern for October in Taiwan. The empirical orthogonal function Model 1 (80%) of the October rainfall and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index exhibited a significant out-of-phase coherence in a 2-4 year period band. This is because an easterly flow on the northern edge of an anomalous low-level cyclonic circulation over the South China Sea during a La Niña developing stage increased the occurrence of an autumn cold front and enhanced the northeasterly monsoon toward northern Taiwan. In addition, a southerly flow on the eastern edge of the anomalous cyclone increased the moisture transport from the tropical Pacific toward Taiwan. The warmer sea surface temperature in the South China Sea, Kuroshio, and the subtropical western Pacific, which may have been induced by an ENSO warm phase peak in the preceding winter, promoted the formation of the anomalous low-level cyclonic circulation.

  1. "Wishful thinking" - how much rainfall information can be inferred from soil moisture and runoff? (United States)

    Pan, M.; Zhan, W.; Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.


    In a land surface hydrologic system, rainfall is a major forcing (input) to drive the moisture and energy dynamics and the soil moisture and runoff are the result (output) of such dynamics. Land surface models (LSMs) have long been used to simulate such a dynamic system given the forcing input. The question here is whether, how much, and how the soil moisture and runoff (output) data can be used to recover rainfall (input) information or help improve our existing rainfall estimates. This is essentially to perform an inverse estimation of LSM. Such an inverse operation can help us optimally combine information (e.g. remote sensing observations) gathered across both input and output variables and improve our quantification of different components of the land surface hydrologic system and the consistency among them. However, this is seemingly and indeed no easy task and some consider it more "wishful thinking" than practically meaningful, given the extremely complicated structure and behavior of the land surface hydrologic system. Here we explore two methods for solving the inverse LSM estimation problem (1) the Wiener Filter (WF) based deconvolution approach where the land surface is treated as a stationary linear system with fixed Impulse Response Function (IRF) w.r.t rainfall input and (2) the Particle Filter (PF) based Bayesian approach. The results suggest that while there is a limit of how much such inverse estimation can do under different conditions it is possible to recover a very significant amount of rainfall information from soil moisture and runoff.

  2. The within-day behaviour of 6 minute rainfall intensity in Australia

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    A. W. Western


    Full Text Available The statistical behaviour and distribution of high-resolution (6 min rainfall intensity within the wet part of rainy days (total rainfall depth >10 mm is investigated for 42 stations across Australia. This paper compares nine theoretical distribution functions (TDFs in representing these data. Two goodness-of-fit statistics are reported: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the fitted and observed within-day distribution; and the coefficient of efficiency for the fit to the highest rainfall intensities (average intensity of the 5 highest intensity intervals across all days at a site. The three-parameter Generalised Pareto distribution was clearly the best performer. Good results were also obtained from Exponential, Gamma, and two-parameter Generalized Pareto distributions, each of which are two parameter functions, which may be advantageous when predicting parameter values. Results of different fitting methods are compared for different estimation techniques. The behaviour of the statistical properties of the within-day intensity distributions was also investigated and trends with latitude, Köppen climate zone (strongly related to latitude and daily rainfall amount were identified. The latitudinal trends are likely related to a changing mix of rainfall generation mechanisms across the Australian continent.

  3. The within-day behaviour of 6 minute rainfall intensity in Australia (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Anderson, B.; Siriwardena, L.; Chiew, F. H. S.; Seed, A.; Blöschl, G.


    The statistical behaviour and distribution of high-resolution (6 min) rainfall intensity within the wet part of rainy days (total rainfall depth >10 mm) is investigated for 42 stations across Australia. This paper compares nine theoretical distribution functions (TDFs) in representing these data. Two goodness-of-fit statistics are reported: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the fitted and observed within-day distribution; and the coefficient of efficiency for the fit to the highest rainfall intensities (average intensity of the 5 highest intensity intervals) across all days at a site. The three-parameter Generalised Pareto distribution was clearly the best performer. Good results were also obtained from Exponential, Gamma, and two-parameter Generalized Pareto distributions, each of which are two parameter functions, which may be advantageous when predicting parameter values. Results of different fitting methods are compared for different estimation techniques. The behaviour of the statistical properties of the within-day intensity distributions was also investigated and trends with latitude, Köppen climate zone (strongly related to latitude) and daily rainfall amount were identified. The latitudinal trends are likely related to a changing mix of rainfall generation mechanisms across the Australian continent.

  4. The within-day behaviour of 6 minute rainfall intensity in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Western


    Full Text Available The statistical behaviour and distribution of high-resolution (6 min rainfall intensity within the wet part of rainy days (total rainfall depth >10 mm is investigated for 42 stations across Australia. This paper compares nine theoretical distribution functions (TDFs in representing these data. Two goodness-of-fit statistics are reported: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the fitted and observed within-day distribution; and the efficiency of prediction of the highest rainfall intensities (average intensity of the 5 highest intensity intervals. The three-parameter Generalised Pareto distribution was clearly the best performer. Good results were also obtained from Exponential, Gamma, and two-parameter Generalized Pareto distributions, each of which are two parameter functions, which may be advantageous when predicting parameter values. Results of different fitting methods are compared for different estimation techniques. The behaviour of the statistical properties of the within-day intensity distributions was also investigated and trends with latitude, Köppen climate zone (strongly related to latitude and daily rainfall amount were identified. The latitudinal trends are likely related to a changing mix of rainfall generation mechanisms across the Australian continent.

  5. Multi-satellite rainfall sampling error estimates – a comparative study

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    A. Loew


    Full Text Available This study focus is set on quantifying sampling related uncertainty in the satellite rainfall estimates. We conduct observing system simulation experiment to estimate sampling error for various constellations of Low-Earth orbiting and geostationary satellites. There are two types of microwave instruments currently available: cross track sounders and conical scanners. We evaluate the differences in sampling uncertainty for various satellite constellations that carry instruments of the common type as well as in combination with geostationary observations. A precise orbital model is used to simulate realistic satellite overpasses with orbital shifts taken into account. With this model we resampled rain gauge timeseries to simulate satellites rainfall estimates free of retrieval and calibration errors. We concentrate on two regions, Germany and Benin, areas with different precipitation regimes. Our results show that sampling uncertainty for all satellite constellations does not differ greatly depending on the area despite the differences in local precipitation patterns. Addition of 3 hourly geostationary observations provides equal performance improvement in Germany and Benin, reducing rainfall undersampling by 20–25% of the total rainfall amount. Authors do not find a significant difference in rainfall sampling between conical imager and cross-track sounders.

  6. The Impact of Heavy Rainfall in the Hydrological Regime of Suha River Basin in 2006

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    Full Text Available Recent climate changes mentioned in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 2013 report highlight the fact that in the past 50 years at the planetary level have occurred major changes in all climate components. In this regard the analysis of rainfall oscillations and of their impact on the hydric regime is particularly important, being witnessed in the surface and groundwater level variations. In the Suha River Basin, the year 2006 has been characterized by large rainfall quantities that have been generated, in particular, in June by persistent retrograde cyclonic activity (223 mm at Slătioara 3 hydrometric station, 269.1 mm at Gemenea 5 station, 271.6 mm at Valea lui Ion station and 351.8 mm at Stulpicani. On the main course of Suha, but especially on its tributaries (Gemenea and Slătioara have been recorded very high flow rates (5% and 2% insurance caused by the amounts of rainfall felt in a short time. To estimate the impact of rainfall on the Suha basin hydrological regime we used data collected by the Siret Basin Water Administration-Bacau, being analyzed the rainfall quantities, duration, intensity, tendency and effects.

  7. Subseasonal-to-interannual variability of rainfall over New Caledonia (SW Pacific) (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Barbero, Renaud; Robertson, Andrew W.


    Daily rainfall occurrence and amount at 55 stations over New Caledonia (NC, 20°S, 166°E) are examined throughout the calendar year during 1980-2010 using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Daily rainfall variability is described in terms of six discrete rainfall states identified by the HMM. Three states are interpreted as trade wind regimes associated with persistent low level anticyclonic conditions and weak to strong easterlies. The most prevalent state (state 1; 36 % of days) is dry everywhere and is characterized by an elongated anticyclone centered around Australia; NC is located on the eastern edge of this anticyclone. This state is predominant from mid-May to mid-December and peaks in September. The second most prevalent state (state 2; 27 % of days) and the last trade regime (state 4; 12 % of days) are most frequent in austral summer. States 2 and 4 are associated with the subtropical anticyclone centered south of NC, close to its climatological location in austral summer, and light (state 2) to moderate (state 4) rainfall mostly along the windward coast. A distinct state (state 3; 11 % of days) is mostly associated with wintertime extratropical eastward traveling troughs between New Caledonia and New Zealand, inducing light rainfall over the SW of the main island of New Caledonia. The two last states 5 and 6 are infrequent (skill peaks in September-November.

  8. Comparison of different synthetic 5-min rainfall time series regarding their suitability for urban drainage modelling (United States)

    van der Heijden, Sven; Callau Poduje, Ana; Müller, Hannes; Shehu, Bora; Haberlandt, Uwe; Lorenz, Manuel; Wagner, Sven; Kunstmann, Harald; Müller, Thomas; Mosthaf, Tobias; Bárdossy, András


    For the design and operation of urban drainage systems with numerical simulation models, long, continuous precipitation time series with high temporal resolution are necessary. Suitable observed time series are rare. As a result, intelligent design concepts often use uncertain or unsuitable precipitation data, which renders them uneconomic or unsustainable. An expedient alternative to observed data is the use of long, synthetic rainfall time series as input for the simulation models. Within the project SYNOPSE, several different methods to generate synthetic precipitation data for urban drainage modelling are advanced, tested, and compared. The presented study compares four different approaches of precipitation models regarding their ability to reproduce rainfall and runoff characteristics. These include one parametric stochastic model (alternating renewal approach), one non-parametric stochastic model (resampling approach), one downscaling approach from a regional climate model, and one disaggregation approach based on daily precipitation measurements. All four models produce long precipitation time series with a temporal resolution of five minutes. The synthetic time series are first compared to observed rainfall reference time series. Comparison criteria include event based statistics like mean dry spell and wet spell duration, wet spell amount and intensity, long term means of precipitation sum and number of events, and extreme value distributions for different durations. Then they are compared regarding simulated discharge characteristics using an urban hydrological model on a fictitious sewage network. First results show a principal suitability of all rainfall models but with different strengths and weaknesses regarding the different rainfall and runoff characteristics considered.

  9. Intermittent rainfall in dynamic multimedia fate modeling. (United States)

    Hertwich, E G


    It has been shown that steady-state multimedia models (level III fugacity models) lead to a substantial underestimate of air concentrations for chemicals with a low Henry's law constant (H multimedia models are used to estimate the spatial range or inhalation exposure. A dynamic model of pollutant fate is developed for conditions of intermittent rainfall to calculate the time profile of pollutant concentrations in different environmental compartments. The model utilizes a new, mathematically efficient approach to dynamic multimedia fate modeling that is based on the convolution of solutions to the initial conditions problem. For the first time, this approach is applied to intermittent conditions. The investigation indicates that the time-averaged pollutant concentrations under intermittent rainfall can be approximated by the appropriately weighted average of steady-state concentrations under conditions with and without rainfall.

  10. Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador (United States)

    Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.


    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).

  11. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter


    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  12. Rainfall estimation from soil moisture data: crash test for SM2RAIN algorithm (United States)

    Brocca, Luca; Albergel, Clement; Massari, Christian; Ciabatta, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; de Rosnay, Patricia


    Soil moisture governs the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere and, hence, it represents a key variable for many applications in hydrology and earth science. In recent years, it was demonstrated that soil moisture observations from ground and satellite sensors contain important information useful for improving rainfall estimation. Indeed, soil moisture data have been used for correcting rainfall estimates from state-of-the-art satellite sensors (e.g. Crow et al., 2011), and also for improving flood prediction through a dual data assimilation approach (e.g. Massari et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2014). Brocca et al. (2013; 2014) developed a simple algorithm, called SM2RAIN, which allows estimating rainfall directly from soil moisture data. SM2RAIN has been applied successfully to in situ and satellite observations. Specifically, by using three satellite soil moisture products from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer), AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity); it was found that the SM2RAIN-derived rainfall products are as accurate as state-of-the-art products, e.g., the real-time version of the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) product. Notwithstanding these promising results, a detailed study investigating the physical basis of the SM2RAIN algorithm, its range of applicability and its limitations on a global scale has still to be carried out. In this study, we carried out a crash test for SM2RAIN algorithm on a global scale by performing a synthetic experiment. Specifically, modelled soil moisture data are obtained from HTESSEL model (Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land) forced by ERA-Interim near-surface meteorology. Afterwards, the modelled soil moisture data are used as input into SM2RAIN algorithm for testing weather or not the resulting rainfall estimates are able to reproduce ERA-Interim rainfall data. Correlation, root

  13. Radar Rainfall Estimation using a Quadratic Z-R equation (United States)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Kramer, Stefan


    The aim of this work is to test a method that enables the input of event based drop size distributions to alter a quadratic reflectivity (Z) to rainfall (R) equation that is limited by fixed upper and lower points. Results will be compared to the Marshall-Palmer Z-R relation outputs and validated by a network of gauges and a single polarisation weather radar located close to Essen, Germany. The time window over which the drop size distribution measurements will be collected is varied to note any effect on the generated quadratic Z-R relation. The new quadratic algorithm shows some distinct improvement over the Marshall-Palmer relationship through multiple events. The inclusion of a minimum number of Z-R points helped to decrease the associated error by defaulting back to the Marshall-Palmer equation if the limit was not reached. More research will be done to discover why the quadratic performs poorly in some events as there appears to be little correlation between number of drops or mean rainfall amount and the associated error. In some cases it seems the spatial distribution of the disdrometers has a significant effect as a large percentage of the rain bands pass to the north of two of the three disdrometers, frequently in a slightly north-easterly direction. However during widespread precipitation events the new algorithm works very well with reductions compared to the Marshall-Palmer relation.

  14. Sustainability, productivity, and profitability of agroecosystems under variable rainfall (United States)

    Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.


    Agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements. Hence, it is becoming imperative to sustainably manage the available water resources, while simultaneously meeting yield and profitability targets. Simple, widely applicable models of irrigation provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability and are necessary for short- and long-term water resource management. We consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework that includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. Mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount are employed to compute water requirements, yields, and net economic gain as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point to quantify the risks that a certain target yield or profit is not met for given irrigation strategies, with clear implications on food security

  15. Weak linkage between the heaviest rainfall and tallest storms. (United States)

    Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N; Liu, Chuntao; Zipser, Edward J


    Conventionally, the heaviest rainfall has been linked to the tallest, most intense convective storms. However, the global picture of the linkage between extreme rainfall and convection remains unclear. Here we analyse an 11-year record of spaceborne precipitation radar observations and establish that a relatively small fraction of extreme convective events produces extreme rainfall rates in any region of the tropics and subtropics. Robust differences between extreme rainfall and convective events are found in the rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions, irrespective of region; most extreme rainfall events are characterized by less intense convection with intense radar echoes not extending to extremely high altitudes. Rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions both indicate the importance of warm-rain processes in producing extreme rainfall rates. Our results demonstrate that, even in regions where severe convective storms are representative extreme weather events, the heaviest rainfall events are mostly associated with less intense convection.

  16. Modeling and forecasting rainfall patterns of southwest monsoons in North-East India as a SARIMA process (United States)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.


    Weather forecasting is an important issue in the field of meteorology all over the world. The pattern and amount of rainfall are the essential factors that affect agricultural systems. India experiences the precious Southwest monsoon season for four months from June to September. The present paper describes an empirical study for modeling and forecasting the time series of Southwest monsoon rainfall patterns in the North-East India. The Box-Jenkins Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) methodology has been adopted for model identification, diagnostic checking and forecasting for this region. The study has shown that the SARIMA (0, 1, 1) (1, 0, 1)4 model is appropriate for analyzing and forecasting the future rainfall patterns. The Analysis of Means (ANOM) is a useful alternative to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparing the group of treatments to study the variations and critical comparisons of rainfall patterns in different months of the season.

  17. Highway Capacity Loss Induced by Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan


    Full Text Available The effect of rainfall on capacity reduction on highways has been investigated. Traffic data was generated for both wet and dry conditions. The data analysis showed that the highway section studied was operating in free flow region. A 2.7% capacity loss was obtained for the road. It is argued that no traffic instability could arise from this situation if the state of traffic remains in the free flow regime. However, in the event of the coincidence of fixed bottlenecks and rainfall, instabilities arising from that could lead to further capacity loss.

  18. Using CHIRPS Rainfall Dataset to detect rainfall trends in West Africa (United States)

    Blakeley, S. L.; Husak, G. J.


    In West Africa, agriculture is often rain-fed, subjecting agricultural productivity and food availability to climate variability. Agricultural conditions will change as warming temperatures increase evaporative demand, and with a growing population dependent on the food supply, farmers will become more reliant on improved adaptation strategies. Development of such adaptation strategies will need to consider West African rainfall trends to remain relevant in a changing climate. Here, using the CHIRPS rainfall product (provided by the Climate Hazards Group at UC Santa Barbara), I examine trends in West African rainfall variability. My analysis will focus on seasonal rainfall totals, the structure of the rainy season, and the distribution of rainfall. I then use farmer-identified drought years to take an in-depth analysis of intra-seasonal rainfall irregularities. I will also examine other datasets such as potential evapotranspiration (PET) data, other remotely sensed rainfall data, rain gauge data in specific locations, and remotely sensed vegetation data. Farmer bad year data will also be used to isolate "bad" year markers in these additional datasets to provide benchmarks for identification in the future of problematic rainy seasons.

  19. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek


    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution X-band radar. This makes it a study of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurements with non-polarimetric X-band radar over flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than what can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  20. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek


    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution of the radar combined with the extent of the database make this study a climatological analysis of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurement with non-polarimetric X-band radar over completely flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  1. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu


    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011, the city was deluged with more than double the annual rainfall amount caused by convective storms. We used a high resolution, two-way nested domain WRF model to simulate the two rainfall episodes. Simulations include control runs initialized with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) data and 3-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation experiments conducted by assimilating NCEP prepbufr and radiance observations. Observations from Automated Weather Stations (AWS), synoptic charts, radar reflectivity and satellite pictures from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia are used to assess the forecasting results. To evaluate the impact of the different assimilated observational datasets on the simulation of the major flooding event of 2009, we conducted 3DVAR experiments assimilating individual sources and a combination of all data sets. Results suggest that while the control run had a tendency to predict the storm earlier than observed, the assimilation of profile observations greatly improved the model\\'s thermodynamic structure and lead to better representation of simulated rainfall both in timing and amount. The experiment with assimilation of all available observations compared best with observed rainfall in terms of timing of the storm and rainfall distribution, demonstrating the importance of assimilating different types of observations. Retrospective experiments with and without data assimilation, for three different model lead times (48, 72 and 96-h), were performed to examine the skill of WRF model to predict the heavy rainfall events. Quantitative rainfall analysis of these simulations suggests that 48-h lead time runs with

  2. Changes in the rainfall-streamflow regimes related to climate change in a small catchment in Northern Italy (United States)

    Pieri, Linda; Rondini, Davide; Ventura, Francesca


    Climate change has become an important issue for scientific community, for its numerous impacts, especially on agriculture and environment. To shed light on this phenomenon, long data-sets of meteorological data as well as temperature and rainfall extreme events are needed, since they are important climate variability indicators. In a small semi-agricultural catchment of the Italian Apennines, drained by the Centonara Stream, weather data have been monitored for 30 years (1986-2015). Here, their trend was identified with Mann-Kendall test, and the temperature and precipitation extremes were characterized by means of specific indices. Data were analyzed at event, daily, seasonal, and annual bases. In addition, to understand implications of rainfall patterns on catchment hydrological response, a total of 388 rainfall-streamflow events (recorded during 1994-2009) were analyzed. Results showed a significant increase of temperature (minimum (Tn), mean (Tm), and maximum (Tx)), both at annual and seasonal base, except for Winter, with an annual mean increase of 0.08, 0.09, and 0.13 °C year-1 for Tn, Tm, and Tx, respectively. Annual rainfall data showed a positive trend for the number of wet days, but not in the quantity. In Winter, the rainfall amount and the number of wet days increased. The annual number of rainfall extreme events ( P > 20.2 mm and D > 18.3 h) significantly increased, especially in spring and autumn. The rainfall-streamflow relationship suggested that the flow response of the Centonara Stream depends mainly on the rainfall amount. So, since the number of extreme events ( P > 20.2 mm) is increasing in spring and autumn, an increase of events with high streamflow in these seasons may occur.

  3. Self-Organized Criticality of Rainfall in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang


    Full Text Available Rainfall is a complexity dynamics process. In this paper, our objective is to find the evidence of self-organized criticality (SOC for rain datasets in China by employing the theory and method of SOC. For this reason, we analyzed the long-term rain records of five meteorological stations in Henan, a central province of China. Three concepts, that is, rain duration, drought duration, accumulated rain amount, are proposed to characterize these rain events processes. We investigate their dynamics property by using scale invariant and found that the long-term rain processes in central China indeed exhibit the feature of self-organized criticality. The proposed theory and method may be suitable to analyze other datasets from different climate zones in China.

  4. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.


    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  5. A Simulation Study on the Characteristics of Cloud Microphysics of Heavy Rainfall in the Meiyu Front

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Yongmao; WANG Hanjie; ZHONG Zhong; SONG Shuai


    A heavy rainfall in the Meiyu front during 4-5 July 2003 is simulated by use of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5 (V3-6) with different explicit cloud mierophysical parameterization schemes. The characteristics of microphysical process of convective cloud are studied by the model outputs. The simulation study reveals that: (1) The mesoscale model MM5 with explicit cloud microphysical process is capable of simulating the instant heavy rainfall in the Meiyu front, the rainfall simulation could be improved signifi-cantly as the model resolution is increased, and the Goddard scheme is better than the Reisner or Schultz scheme. (2) The convective cloud in the Meiyu front has a comprehensive structure composed of solid, liquid and vapor phases of water, the mass density of water vapor is the largest one in the cloud; the next one is graupel, while those of ice, snow, rain water and the cloud water are almost same. The height at which mass density peaks for different hydrometeors is almost unchangeable during the heavy rainfall period. The mass density variation of rain water, ice, and graupel are consistent with that of ground precipitation, while that of water vapor in the low levels is 1-2 h earlier than the precipitation. (3) The main contribution to the water vapor budget in the atmosphere is the convergence of vapor flux through advection and convection, which provides the main vapor source of the rainfall. Besides the basic process of the auto-conversion of cloud water to rain water, there is an additional cloud microphysical process that is essential to the formation of instant heavy rainfall, the ice-phase crystals are transformed into graupels first and then the increased graupels mix with cloud water and accelerates the conversion of cloud water to rain water. The positive feedback mechanism between latent heat release and convection is the main cause to maintain and develop the heavy precipitation.

  6. Winter rainfall interception by two mature open-grown trees in Davis, California (United States)

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E. Gregory; Ustin, Susan L.; Grismer, Mark E.; Simpson, James R.


    A rainfall interception measuring system was developed and tested for open-grown trees. The system includes direct measurements of gross precipitation, throughfall and stemflow, as well as continuous collection of micrometeorological data. The data were sampled every second and collected at 30-s time steps using pressure transducers monitoring water depth in collection containers coupled to Campbell CR10 dataloggers. The system was tested on a 9-year-old broadleaf deciduous tree (pear, Pyrus calleryana Bradford) and an 8-year-old broadleaf evergreen tree (cork oak, Quercus suber) representing trees having divergent canopy distributions of foliage and stems. Partitioning of gross precipitation into throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception is presented for these two mature open-grown trees during the 1996-1998 rainy seasons. Interception losses accounted for about 15% of gross precipitation for the pear tree and 27% for the oak tree. The fraction of gross precipitation reaching the ground included 8% by stemflow and 77% by throughfall for the pear tree, as compared with 15% and 58%, respectively, for the oak tree. The analysis of temporal patterns in interception indicates that it was greatest at the beginning of each rainfall event. Rainfall frequency is more significant than rainfall rate and duration in determining interception losses. Both stemflow and throughfall varied with rainfall intensity and wind speed. Increasing precipitation rates and wind speed increased stemflow but reduced throughfall. Analysis of rainfall interception processes at different time-scales indicates that canopy interception varied from 100% at the beginning of the rain event to about 3% at the maximum rain intensity for the oak tree. These values reflected the canopy surface water storage changes during the rain event. The winter domain precipitation at our study site in the Central Valley of California limited our opportunities to collect interception data during non

  7. [Characteristics of soil phosphorus runoff under different rainfall intensities in the typical vegetable plot of Taihu Basin]. (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xia; Yang, Gui-Shan; Yuan, Shao-Feng; Wu, Ye


    Experiments of field runoff plots, which were conducted at vegetable plots in Hongsheng town of Wuxi city--the typical region of Taihu Basin, were designed to assess the effects of different rainfall intensities on soil phosphorus runoff loss from vegetable plots by artificial rainfall simulations. Results showed that there was a relationship of power function between initial runoff-generation time and rainfall intensity. Runoff amount slowly increased under small rainfall intensity, but rapidly increased with rainfall intensity increase. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) were higher at the early stage, then gradually decreased with time and finally reached a comparative steady stage under 0.83, 1.17 and 1.67 mm x min(-1). However they indicated no obvious trend except wavy undulation under 2.50 mm x min(-1). In the course of rainfall-runoff, dissolved phosphorus (DP) gently varied and accounted for 20% - 32% of TP. PP was 68% - 80% of TP and its change trend was consistent with TP. Therefore, PP was main loss form of soil phosphorus runoff. Comparison of different phosphorous loss rate under different rainfall intensities suggested that loss rate of TP and DP under 2.50 mm x min(-1) was 20 times and 33 times higher than that under 0.83 mm x min(-1), which showed that loss rate of PP and DP increased with the increase of rainfall intensities. Results indicated that lots of inorganic dissolved phosphorus (DIP) of phosphorous fertilizer was discharged into water environment by using fertilizer in soil surface before rainfall, which increased loss of DP and greatly aggravated degree of water eutrophication.

  8. Use of Generalised Linear Models to quantify rainfall input uncertainty to hydrological modelling in the Upper Nile (United States)

    Kigobe, M.; McIntyre, N.; Wheater, H. S.


    Interest in the application of climate and hydrological models in the Nile basin has risen in the recent past; however, the first drawback for most efforts has been the estimation of historic precipitation patterns. In this study we have applied stochastic models to infill and extend observed data sets to generate inputs for hydrological modelling. Several stochastic climate models within the Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) framework have been applied to reproduce spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in the Kyoga basin. A logistic regression model (describing rainfall occurrence) and a gamma distribution (describing rainfall amounts) are used to model rainfall patterns. The parameters of the models are functions of spatial and temporal covariates, and are fitted to the observed rainfall data using log-likelihood methods. Using the fitted model, multi-site rainfall sequences over the Kyoga basin are generated stochastically as a function of the dominant seasonal, climatic and geographic controls. The rainfall sequences generated are then used to drive a semi distributed hydrological model using the Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT). The sensitivity of runoff to uncertainty associated with missing precipitation records is thus tested. In an application to the Lake Kyoga catchment, the performance of the hydrological model highly depends on the spatial representation of the input precipitation patterns, model parameterisation and the performance of the GLM stochastic models used to generate the input rainfall. The results obtained so far disclose that stochastic models can be developed for several climatic regions within the Kyoga basin; and, given identification of a stochastic rainfall model; input uncertainty due to precipitation can be usefully quantified. The ways forward for rainfall modelling and hydrological simulation in Uganda and the Upper Nile are discussed. Key Words: Precipitation, Generalised Linear Models, Input Uncertainty, Soil Water

  9. [Characteristics of nutrient loss by runoff in sloping arable land of yellow-brown under different rainfall intensities]. (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Liu, De-Fu; Song, Lin-Xu; Cui, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Gei


    In order to investigate the loss characteristics of N and P through surface flow and interflow under different rainfall intensities, a field experiment was conducted on the sloping arable land covered by typical yellow-brown soils inXiangxi River watershed by artificial rainfall. The results showed that the discharge of surface flow, total runoff and sediment increased with the increase of rain intensity, while the interflow was negatively correlated with rain intensity under the same total rainfall. TN, DN and DP were all flushed at the very beginning in surface flow underdifferent rainfall intensities; TP fluctuated and kept consistent in surface flow without obvious downtrend. While TN, DN and DP in interflow kept relatively stable in the whole runoff process, TP was high at the early stage, then rapidly decreased with time and kept steady finally. P was directly influenced by rainfall intensity, its concentration in the runoff increased with the increase of the rainfall intensity, the average concentration of N and P both exceeded the threshold of eutrophication of freshwater. The higher the amount of P loss was, the higher the rain intensity. The change of N loss was the opposite. The contribution rate of TN loss carried by surface flow increased from 36.5% to 57.6% with the increase of rainfall intensity, but surface flow was the primary form of P loss which contributed above 90.0%. Thus, it is crucial to control interflow in order to reduce N loss. In addition, measures should be taken to effectively manage soil erosion to mitigate P loss. The proportion of dissolved nitrogen in surface flow elevated with the decrease of rainfall intensity, but in interflow, dissolved form was predominant. P was exported mainly in the form of particulate under different rainfall intensities and runoff conditions.

  10. GPM ground validation via commercial cellular networks: an exploratory approach (United States)

    Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Brasjen, Noud; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    The suitability of commercial microwave link networks for ground validation of GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) data is evaluated here. Two state-of-the-art rainfall products are compared over the land surface of the Netherlands for a period of 7 months, i.e., rainfall maps from commercial cellular communication networks and Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). Commercial microwave link networks are nowadays the core component in telecommunications worldwide. Rainfall rates can be retrieved from measurements of attenuation between transmitting and receiving antennas. If adequately set up, these networks enable rainfall monitoring tens of meters above the ground at high spatiotemporal resolutions (temporal sampling of seconds to tens of minutes, and spatial sampling of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers). The GPM mission is the successor of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission). For two years now, IMERG offers rainfall estimates across the globe (180°W - 180°E and 60°N - 60°S) at spatiotemporal resolutions of 0.1° x 0.1° every 30 min. These two data sets are compared against a Dutch gauge-adjusted radar data set, considered to be the ground truth given its accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution and availability. The suitability of microwave link networks in satellite rainfall evaluation is of special interest, given the independent character of this technique, its high spatiotemporal resolutions and availability. These are valuable assets for water management and modeling of floods, landslides, and weather extremes; especially in places where rain gauge networks are scarce or poorly maintained, or where weather radar networks are too expensive to acquire and/or maintain.

  11. Propagation of Rainfall Products uncertainties in hydrological applications : Studies in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Mission (United States)

    Gosset, M.; Roca, R.


    The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gages (or radar) network are generally scarce and generally degrading. The new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere will contribute to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to chose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites. Several sensitivity studies have been carried out in the Oueme Basin in Benin, West Africa, one the instrumented basin that will be used for MT products direct and hydrological validation.

  12. Characterizing rainfall in the Tenerife island (United States)

    Díez-Sierra, Javier; del Jesus, Manuel; Losada Rodriguez, Inigo


    In many locations, rainfall data are collected through networks of meteorological stations. The data collection process is nowadays automated in many places, leading to the development of big databases of rainfall data covering extensive areas of territory. However, managers, decision makers and engineering consultants tend not to extract most of the information contained in these databases due to the lack of specific software tools for their exploitation. Here we present the modeling and development effort put in place in the Tenerife island in order to develop MENSEI-L, a software tool capable of automatically analyzing a complete rainfall database to simplify the extraction of information from observations. MENSEI-L makes use of weather type information derived from atmospheric conditions to separate the complete time series into homogeneous groups where statistical distributions are fitted. Normal and extreme regimes are obtained in this manner. MENSEI-L is also able to complete missing data in the time series and to generate synthetic stations by using Kriging techniques. These techniques also serve to generate the spatial regimes of precipitation, both normal and extreme ones. MENSEI-L makes use of weather type information to also provide a stochastic three-day probability forecast for rainfall.

  13. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  14. Determinants of southeast Ethiopia seasonal rainfall (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.


    The bi-modal climate of SE Ethiopia shares attributes with East Africa, notably that El Niño enhances rainfall, particularly in Sep-Nov season. In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. A statistical forecast algorithm for the Sep-Nov short rains accounts for 54% of variance in 1980-2010. The Apr-Jun predictors include South Atlantic sea surface temperature, east Indian Ocean sea level air pressure and China upper zonal wind. Cooling in the South Atlantic coincides with a strengthened sub-tropical anticyclone, and later to changes in low level winds that bring orographic convection to SE Ethiopia. The slower El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interacts with the faster Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but both signals mature too late for direct use in statistical prediction of Sep-Nov rainfall. Composite differences of the upper divergent circulation exhibit a global wave-2 pattern consistent with satellite-observed convection. One key feature is a zonal gradient in upper velocity potential over the Indian Ocean corresponding with a zonal atmospheric circulation. One outcome of this research is useful forecasts of SE Ethiopia Sep-Nov rainfall that will assist in agricultural planning.

  15. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator. (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly


    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  16. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...

  17. Dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation in Korea according to raindrop shapes obtained by using a 2-D video disdrometer (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Lim; Suk, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hye-Sook; Lee, Gyu-Won; Ko, Jeong-Seok


    Polarimetric measurements are sensitive to the sizes, concentrations, orientations, and shapes of raindrops. Thus, rainfall rates calculated from polarimetric radar are influenced by the raindrop shapes and canting. The mean raindrop shape can be obtained from long-term raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations, and the shapes of raindrops can play an important role in polarimetric rainfall algorithms based on differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP). However, the mean raindrop shape is associated with the variation of the DSD, which can change depending on precipitation types and climatic regimes. Furthermore, these relationships have not been studied extensively on the Korean Peninsula. In this study, we present a method to find optimal polarimetric rainfall algorithms for the Korean Peninsula by using data provided by both a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) and the Bislsan S-band dual-polarization radar. First, a new axis-ratio relation was developed to improve radar rainfall estimations. Second, polarimetric rainfall algorithms were derived by using different axis-ratio relations. The rain gauge data were used to represent the ground truth situation, and the estimated radar-point hourly mean rain rates obtained from the different polarimetric rainfall algorithms were compared with the hourly rain rates measured by a rain gauge. The daily calibration biases of horizontal reflectivity (ZH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) were calculated by comparing ZH and ZDR radar measurements with the same parameters simulated by the 2DVD. Overall, the derived new axis ratio was similar to the existing axis ratio except for both small particles (≤ 2 mm) and large particles (≥ 5.5 mm). The shapes of raindrops obtained by the new axis-ratio relation carried out with the 2DVD were more oblate than the shapes obtained by the existing relations. The combined polarimetric rainfall relations using ZDR and KDP were more efficient than

  18. A wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) dynamic neural network model for real-time flood forecasting using satellite-based rainfall products (United States)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Beria, Harsh; Chatterjee, Chandranath


    Although flood forecasting and warning system is a very important non-structural measure in flood-prone river basins, poor raingauge network as well as unavailability of rainfall data in real-time could hinder its accuracy at different lead times. Conversely, since the real-time satellite-based rainfall products are now becoming available for the data-scarce regions, their integration with the data-driven models could be effectively used for real-time flood forecasting. To address these issues in operational streamflow forecasting, a new data-driven model, namely, the wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) is proposed and evaluated in comparison with four other data-driven models, viz., the linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), static artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet-based ANN (WANN), and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) models. First, the quality of input rainfall products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), viz., TRMM and TRMM-real-time (RT) rainfall products is assessed through statistical evaluation. The results reveal that the satellite rainfall products moderately correlate with the observed rainfall, with the gauge-adjusted TRMM product outperforming the real-time TRMM-RT product. The TRMM rainfall product better captures the ground observations up to 95 percentile range (30.11 mm/day), although the hit rate decreases for high rainfall intensity. The effect of antecedent rainfall (AR) and climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) temperature product on the catchment response is tested in all the developed models. The results reveal that, during real-time flow simulation, the satellite-based rainfall products generally perform worse than the gauge-based rainfall. Moreover, as compared to the existing models, the flow forecasting by the WNARX model is way better than the other four models studied herein with the

  19. Preliminary study on mechanics-based rainfall kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiuqin Ms.


    Full Text Available A raindrop impact power observation system was employed to observe the real-time raindrop impact power during a rainfall event and to analyze the corresponding rainfall characteristics. The experiments were conducted at different simulated rainfall intensities. As rainfall intensity increased, the observed impact power increased linearly indicating the power observation system would be satisfactory for characterizing rainfall erosivity. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity (Momentum=MV, which is related to the observed impact power value. Since there is no significant difference between momentum and impact power, observed impact power can represent momentum for different rainfall intensities. The relationship between momentum and the observed impact power provides a convenient way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy. The value of rainfall kinetic energy based on the observed impact power was higher than the classic rainfall kinetic energy. The rainfall impact power based kinetic energy and the classic rainfall kinetic energy showed linear correlation, which indicates that the raindrop impact power observation system can characterize rainfall kinetic energy. The article establishes a preliminary way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy by using the real-time observed momentum, providing a foundation for replacing the traditional methods for estimating kinetic energy of rainstorms.

  20. Probabilistic forecasts based on radar rainfall uncertainty (United States)

    Liguori, S.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.


    The potential advantages resulting from integrating weather radar rainfall estimates in hydro-meteorological forecasting systems is limited by the inherent uncertainty affecting radar rainfall measurements, which is due to various sources of error [1-3]. The improvement of quality control and correction techniques is recognized to play a role for the future improvement of radar-based flow predictions. However, the knowledge of the uncertainty affecting radar rainfall data can also be effectively used to build a hydro-meteorological forecasting system in a probabilistic framework. This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic forecasting system developed to improve ensemble predictions over a small urban area located in the North of England. An ensemble of radar rainfall fields can be determined as the sum of a deterministic component and a perturbation field, the latter being informed by the knowledge of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the radar error assessed with reference to rain-gauges measurements. This approach is similar to the REAL system [4] developed for use in the Southern-Alps. The radar uncertainty estimate can then be propagated with a nowcasting model, used to extrapolate an ensemble of radar rainfall forecasts, which can ultimately drive hydrological ensemble predictions. A radar ensemble generator has been calibrated using radar rainfall data made available from the UK Met Office after applying post-processing and corrections algorithms [5-6]. One hour rainfall accumulations from 235 rain gauges recorded for the year 2007 have provided the reference to determine the radar error. Statistics describing the spatial characteristics of the error (i.e. mean and covariance) have been computed off-line at gauges location, along with the parameters describing the error temporal correlation. A system has then been set up to impose the space-time error properties to stochastic perturbations, generated in real-time at

  1. Simulation of High Impact Rainfall Events Over Southeastern Hilly Region of Bangladesh Using MM5 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ahasan


    Full Text Available Simulation of high impact rainfall events over southeastern hilly region of Bangladesh has been carried out using Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 conducting two historical rainfall events, namely, 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004. These extraordinary rainfall events were localized over the Rangamati region and recorded 304 mm and 337 mm rainfall on 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004, respectively, over Rangamati within a span of 24 h. The model performance was evaluated by examining the different predicted and derived parameters. It is found that the seasonal monsoon trough has northerly position compared to normal and pass through Bangladesh extending up to northeast India for both cases. The heat low was found to be intense (996 hPa with strong north-south pressure gradient (12–15 hPa. The analysis of the geopotential height field at 200 hPa shows that the Tibetan high is shifted towards south by 7-8° latitudes with axis along 22–25°N for both cases. The analysis of the wind field shows that the areas of high impact rainfall exhibit strong convergence of low level monsoon circulation (~19–58 knots. The strong southwesterlies were found to exist up to 500 hPa level in both cases. The lower troposphere (925–500 hPa was characterized by the strong vertical wind shear (~9–18 ms−1 and high relative vorticity (~20–40 × 10−5 s−1. The analysis also shows that the areas of high impact rainfall events and neighbourhoods are characterized by strong low level convergence and upper level divergence. The strong southwesterly flow causes transportation of large amount of moisture from the Bay of Bengal towards Bangladesh, especially over the areas of Rangamati and neighbourhoods. The high percentage of relative humidity extends up to the upper troposphere along a narrow vertical column. Model produced details structure of the spatial patterns of rainfall over Bangladesh reasonably well though there are some

  2. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental setup and preliminary results (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter; Berne, Alexis


    Microwave links from cellular communication networks have been shown to be able to provide valuable information concerning the space-time variability of rainfall. In particular over urban areas, where network densities are generally high, they have the potential to complement existing dedicated infrastructure to measure rainfall (gauges, radars). In addition, microwave links provide a great opportunity for ground-based rainfall measurement for those land surface areas of the world where gauges and radars are generally lacking. Such information is not only crucial for water management and agriculture, but also for instance for ground validation of space-borne rainfall estimates such as those provided by the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) mission. WURex14 is dedicated to address several errors and uncertainties associated with such quantitative precipitation estimates in detail. The core of the experiment is provided by three co-located microwave links installed between two major buildings on the Wageningen University campus, approximately 2 km apart: a 38 GHz commercial microwave link, provided by T-Mobile NL, and 26 GHz and 38 GHz (dual-polarization) research microwave links from RAL. Transmitting and receiving antennas have been attached to masts installed on the roofs of the two buildings, about 30 m above the ground. This setup has been complemented with a Scintec infrared Large-Aperture Scintillometer, installed over the same path, as well as 5 Parsivel optical disdrometers and an automated rain gauge positioned at several locations along the path. Temporal sampling of the received signals was performed at a rate of 20 Hz. The setup is being monitored by time-lapse cameras to assess the state of the antennas as well as the atmosphere. Finally, data is available from the KNMI weather radars and an automated weather station situated just outside Wageningen. The experiment has been active between August 2014 and December 2015. We give a global overview of

  3. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)


    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  4. Satellite-rainfall estimation for identification of rainfall thresholds used for landslide/debris flow prediction (United States)

    Maggioni, Viviana; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Marra, Francesco; Destro, Elisa; Borga, Marco


    Rainfall-induced landslides and debris flows pose a significant and widespread hazard, resulting in a large number of casualties and enormous economic damages worldwide. Rainfall thresholds are often used to identify the local or regional rainfall conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to result in landslides or debris flows. Rain gauge data are the typical source of information for the definition of these rainfall thresholds. However, in-situ observations over mountainous areas, where these hazards mainly occur, are very sparse or inexistent. Therefore identification and use of gauge-based rainfall thresholds is impossible in many landslide prone areas over the globe. The vast advancements in satellite-based precipitation estimation over the last couple of decades have lead to the creation of a number of global precipitation datasets at various spatiotemporal resolutions. Although several investigations have shown that these datasets can be associated with considerable uncertainty, they provide the only source of precipitation information over many areas around the globe. Therefore it is important to assess their performance in the context of landslide/debris flow prediction and investigate how we can potentially benefit from the information they provide. In this work, we evaluate the performance of three widely used quasi-global satellite precipitation products (3B42v7, PERSIANN and CMORPH) for the identification of rainfall threshold for landslide/debris flow triggering. Products are available at 0.25deg/3h resolution. The study region is focused over the Upper Adige river basin, northern Italy where a detailed database of more than 400 identified debris flows (during period 2000-2015) and a raingauge network of 95 stations, is available. Rain-gauge based rainfall thresholds are compared against satellite-based thresholds to evaluate strengths and limitations in using satellite precipitation estimates for defining rainfall thresholds. Analysis of

  5. General Rainfall Patterns in Indonesia and the Potential Impacts of Local Seas on Rainfall Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Lee


    Full Text Available The relationships between observed rainfall, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and sea surface temperature (SST variations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans were analyzed using a 1° latitude–longitude grid over Indonesia. The Global Summary of the Day rainfall records provide 26 years of rainfall data (January 1985 to August 2010 for 23 stations throughout the Indonesian islands. The ENSO and SST variations were calculated using the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, NINO1 + 2, NINO3, NINO3.4, NINO4, the Dipole Mode Index (DMI for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, and Indian Ocean Basin-wide (IOBW index. The results show that the rainfall in the southern Sumatra and southern Java Islands, which face the Indian Ocean, was positively correlated with the negative IOD, whereas the rainfall in northwestern Sumatra was positively correlated with the positive IOD. In eastern Indonesia, the rainfall was positively correlated with La Niña. The PDO index was also strongly correlated with the rainfall in this region. In central Indonesia, seasonal variations due to monsoons are predominant, and the rainfall exhibited strong negative and positive correlations with the MEI and NINO.WEST, respectively, indicating that high rainfall occurred during strong La Niña episodes. The highly negative and positive correlations with the MEI and NINO.WEST, respectively, in central Indonesia led us to analyze the impacts of Indonesian seas on the rainfall in the region. Using four synoptic-scale scenarios, we investigated the relative residence time of Indonesian seawater along the pathways associated with the Pacific-Indian hydraulic head difference. The results show that when both the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans are warm (positive NINO.WEST and negative DMI, the rainfall intensity over central Indonesia is strongest. This increase is explained by the relationship between the residence time of Indonesian seawater and the

  6. An evaluation of the MSG-based operational rainfall product H05 based on a comparison with the raingauges network in Italy (United States)

    Campo, Lorenzo


    The interest for the monitoring and nowcasting/forecasting the rainfall on large areas is nowadays well established all around the world. The applications span from agriculture purposes to flood and drought monitoring forecasts, with particular interest in flash floods and relatively short but intense events that can cause consistent damages to urban settlements, industrial facilities and agricultural production. While the main and most reliable tool for the rainfall monitoring remains the raingauge, with opportune networks and operational data transmission chains, the extreme spatial variability of the rainfall fields shows all the limits of such instruments. Different alternatives exist, such as meteorological radar and satellite-derived rainfall, that allows a monitoring on medium-large areas with the production of continuous and instantaneous maps at high temporal frequencies. However, these alternatives present different problems on the reliability of the data, both on the rainfall intensity and on the actual presence of rainfall. In this work, the data time series of the Italian raingauges network are employed for an evaluation of the operational satellite rainfall product H05, produced by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF), and based on MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platform. The analysis is constituted by a series of synthetic indexes that compare the rainfall field produced by satellite with the actual point observations obtained by the ground sensors network. The analysis was conducted on the whole Italian territory, in the period 2009-2013.

  7. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater ... Correlation analysis between rainfall and observed WLF data at daily scale and ... data are more realistic than those for daily data, when using long time series.

  8. Summer monsoon rainfall prediction for India - Some new ideas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Present methods of forecasting of mean Indian rainfall for summer monsoon season are critically examined. Considering the wide variations in mean seasonal rainfalls (more than 5 to less than 400 cm) and crops in various regions of India...

  9. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  10. Ground Motions Induced by Precipitation and Fluvial Processes: An Example from Taiwan (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Fang; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju


    Ground motions can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help quantify those natural processes. Here, we used continuous seismic, meteorological and stream data to analyze broadband ground motions during heavy precipitation events in Taiwan. We detected long period seismic signals in drainage basins during two meteorological cases: Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and East Asian rainy season in 2012. The amplitudes of the seismic waveform correlate well with the amount of the precipitation and the derivative of water level and discharge in a nearby river. We proposed that these seismic signals were induced by ground tilt induced by the loading from the increased water volume in the nearby river. Furthermore, we used the seismic data to estimate and quantify the strength of precipitation during such events. The seismically derived precipitation correlates well with the observed meteorological data. It shows that the long period seismic data may be used to monitor rainfall in real-time. Next, we will try to test our tilt hypothesis using other independent datasets.

  11. Scale-wise evolution of rainfall probability density functions fingerprints the rainfall generation mechanism (United States)

    Molini, Annalisa; Katul, Gabriel; Porporato, Amilcare


    Possible linkages between climatic fluctuations in rainfall at low frequencies and local intensity fluctuations within single storms is now receiving significant attention in climate change research. To progress on a narrower scope of this problem, the cross-scale probabilistic structure of rainfall intensity records collected over time scales ranging from hours to decades at sites dominated by either convective or frontal systems is investigated. Across these sites, intermittency buildup from slow to fast time-scales is analyzed in terms of its heavy tailed and asymmetric signatures in the scale-wise evolution of rainfall probability density functions (pdfs). The analysis demonstrates that rainfall records dominated by convective storms develop heavier-tailed power law pdfs across finer scales when compared with their frontal systems counterpart. A concomitant marked asymmetry buildup also emerges across finer time scales necessitating skewed probability laws for quantifying the scale-wise evolution of rainfall pdfs. A scale-dependent probabilistic description of such fat tails, peakedness and asymmetry appearance is proposed and tested by using a modified q-Gaussian model, able to describe the scale wise evolution of rainfall pdfs in terms of the nonextensivity parameter q, a lacunarity (intermittency) correction γ and a tail asymmetry coefficient c, also functions of q.

  12. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt


    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  13. Rainfall Mechanisms for the Dominant Rainfall Mode over Zimbabwe Relative to ENSO and/or IODZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Manatsa


    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s homogeneous precipitation regions are investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA with regard to the underlying processes related to ENSO and/or Indian Ocean Dipole zonal mode (IODZM. Station standardized precipitation index rather than direct rainfall values represent the data matrix used in the PCA. The results indicate that the country’s rainfall is highly homogeneous and is dominantly described by the first principal mode (PC1. This leading PC can be used to represent the major rainfall patterns affecting the country, both spatially and temporarily. The current practice of subdividing the country into the two seasonal rainfall forecast zones becomes irrelevant. Partial correlation analysis shows that PC1 is linked more to the IODZM than to the traditional ENSO which predominantly demonstrates insignificant association with PC1. The pure IODZM composite is linked to the most intense rainfall suppression mechanisms, while the pure El Niño composite is linked to rainfall enhancing mechanisms.

  14. Genesis and mechanism of rainfall-induced hyperconcentrated flows in granular soils


    Della Sala, Maria


    2012-2013 Heavy rainfall on steep hillslopes may cause either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion and different flow-type phenomena may originate in adjacent/overlapping source areas. Consequently, great amount of water and debris can be conveyed at the outlet of steep mountain basins where huge consequences are often registered. Recent studies outline that first-time shallow slides may turn into debris flows or debris avalanches; conversely, slope instabilities initiated by ...

  15. Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of debris flows at La Honda, California (United States)

    Wilson, R.C.; Wieczorek, G.F.


    A simple numerical model, based on the physical analogy of a leaky barrel, can simulate significant features of the interaction between rainfall and shallow-hillslope pore pressures. The leaky-barrel-model threshold is consistent with, but slightly higher than, an earlier, purely empirical, threshold. The number of debris flows triggered by a storm can be related to the time and amount by which the leaky-barrel-model response exceeded the threshold during the storm. -from Authors

  16. Regional simulation of aerosol radiative effects and their influence on rainfall over India using WRFChem model (United States)

    Kedia, Sumita; Cherian, Ribu; Islam, Sahidul; Das, Subrata Kumar; Kaginalkar, Akshara


    A regional climate model, WRFChem has been utilized to simulate aerosol and rainfall distribution over India during July 2010 which was a normal monsoon year. Two identical simulations, one includes aerosol feedback via their direct and indirect effects and other one without any aerosol effect, are structured to understand the impact of aerosol net (direct + indirect) effect on rainfall pattern over India. Model results are accompanied by satellite and ground based observations to examine the robustness of the model simulations. It is shown that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of meteorological parameters, rainfall distribution, aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo reasonably well. Model simulated spatial distribution and magnitude of aerosol optical depth over India are realistic, particularly over northwest India, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading and over Indo-Gangetic Plain region (IGP) where AOD remains high throughout the year. Net (shortwave + longwave) atmospheric heating rate is the highest (> 0.27 K day - 1) over east IGP due to abundant dust and anthropogenic aerosols while it is the lowest over peninsular India and over the Thar desert (< 0.03 K day - 1) which can be attributed to less aerosol concentration and longwave cooling, respectively. It is shown that, inclusion of aerosol direct and indirect effects have strong influence ( ± 20%) on rainfall magnitude and its distribution over Indian subcontinent during monsoon.

  17. Radar Rainfall Estimates for Modeling Flood Response to Orographic Thunderstorms in the Central Appalachians (United States)

    Hicks, N. S.; Smith, J. A.


    We examine the hydrometeorology and hydrology of extreme flooding from orographic convective systems in the central Appalachian region. Analyses of flood response are based on rainfall and discharge observations for major flood events along the western margin of the central Appalachians (16-17 May 1996, 18-19 July 1996, 30-31 July 1996, 28-29 June 1998, and 7-8 July 2001). A distributed hydrologic model is used to access flood response in Appalachian basins with diverse physiographic properties. High-resolution (1 km, 5 minutes) rainfall fields derived from WSR-88D radars in Charleston, West Virginia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania are used for model analyses. Cloud-to-ground lightning and the IFLOWs raingage network provide additional information for hydrometeorological analyses. Flood response is viewed in the context of land surface hydrologic processes and frequency of extreme precipitation events. Orographic convective systems in the Appalachians have produced some of the largest rainfall accumulations in the world for time intervals less than 6 hours and some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks for the U.S. east of the Mississippi River. The 18 July 1942 Smethport, Pennsylvania storm, for example, produced the world record rainfall accumulation of 780 mm in 4.5 hours.

  18. Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using geostationary meteorological satellite data (United States)

    Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol


    Rainfall estimation by geostationary meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.

  19. Investigating changes over time of annual rainfall in Zimbabwe

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    D. Mazvimavi


    Full Text Available There is increasing concern in southern Africa about the possible decline of rainfall as a result of global warming. Some studies concluded that average rainfall in Zimbabwe had declined by 10% or 100 mm during the last 100 years. This paper investigates the validity of the assumption that rainfall is declining in Zimbabwe. Time series of annual rainfall, and total rainfall for (a the early part of the rainy season, October-November-December (OND, and (b the mid to end of the rainy season, January-February-March (JFM are analysed for the presence of trends using the Mann-Kendall test, and for the decline or increase during years with either high or low rainfall using quantile regression analysis. The Pettitt test has also been utilized to examine the possible existence of change or break-points in the rainfall time series. The analysis has been done for 40 rainfall stations with records starting during the 1892–1940 period and ending in 2000, and representative of all the rainfall regions.

    The Mann-Kendal test did not identify a significant trend at all the 40 stations, and therefore there is no proof that the average rainfall at each of these stations has changed. Quantile regression analysis revealed a decline in annual rainfall less than the tenth percentile at only one station, and increasing of rainfall greater than the ninetieth percentile at another station. All the other stations had no changes over time in both the low and high rainfall at the annual interval. Climate change effects are therefore not yet statistically significant within time series of total seasonal and annual rainfall in Zimbabwe. The general perception about declining rainfall is likely due to the presence of multidecadal variability characterized by bunching of years with above (e.g. 1951–1958, 1973–1980 and below (e.g. 1959–1972, 1982–1994 average rainfall.

  20. Rainfall redistribution of a virgin Pinus koraiensis forest and secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A virgin Pinus koraiensis forest in the Xiao-xing'an Mountains was selected to study its rainfall redistribution effect via 97 rainfall occurrences during a growing season.The following results were obtained:1) The canopy interception of the P.koraiensis virgin forest amounted to 98168 mm during a growing season (May to September),which was 19.6 per cent of the total rainfall and 1.3 times that of a secondary Betula platyphylla forest.Compared with other forest types in China (11.4%-36.5%),the ratio of the canopy interception in the virgin pine forest was at a medium level.2) The throughfall of the virgin pine forest was 395.77 mm,which accounted for 78.7% of total precipitation,and the stem-flow was 8.78 mm,accounting for 1.74% of total precipitation.Compared with the secondary birch forest,the virgin pine forest had lower throughfall but higher stem-flow.3) Cubic regression equations (p < 0.01)which describe the relation between throughfall,stem-flow and canopy interception in the virgin pine forest and rainfall in an open field were fitted.A linear regression equation (p < 0.01) was found to be a better fit for the relationship between throughfall of the secondary birch forest and rainfall outside the forest.Factors affecting throughfall and stem-flow were analyzed,with results providing a good reference to the study of rainfall redistribution in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests.

  1. Atmospheric nitrate leached from small forested watersheds during rainfall events: Processes and quantitative evaluation (United States)

    Osaka, Ken'ichi; Kugo, Tatsuro; Komaki, Naoto; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishida, Kei; Nagafuchi, Osamu


    To determine the availability of atmospheric NO3- deposition on forested ecosystems and to understand the interaction between the nitrogen cycle in a forest ecosystem and atmospheric nitrogen input/output, we quantitatively evaluated the atmospheric NO3- passing through forested watersheds by measuring δ18ONO3 leaching during rainfall events in two forest ecosystems (Su-A and Ab-S). Atmospheric NO3- leaching in rainfall events was clearly higher in Ab-S than in Su-A, even for a similar amount of rainfall, which demonstrated that atmospheric NO3- leaching differs among forested watersheds. Our observations suggest that a large part of the atmospheric NO3- leached from the watersheds was derived from surface soil, which was deposited before rainfall events occurred; however, direct atmospheric NO3- leaching via throughfall discharge also contributed, especially at the beginning of rainfall events. In Ab-S, 2.9-37.8% (average = 15.5%) of atmospheric NO3- deposition passed through the watershed, accounting for 3.1-49.8% (average, 26.4%) of the total NO3- leached during rainfall events. The NO3- input was not large, and the NO3- pool and net nitrification rate were small; therefore, nitrogen was not saturated in the soil at Ab-S. Nevertheless, some of the atmospheric NO3- deposition was not assimilated and was leached immediately. Moreover, our observations suggest that the hydrological characteristics of the watersheds, which control the ease of rainwater discharge, strongly influenced the rate of atmospheric NO3- leaching. This suggests that the hydrological characteristics of watersheds influence the availability of atmospheric NO3- deposition in forested ecosystems and the progression of nitrogen saturation.

  2. Effect of Sulphur in Rainfall, Irrigation Water and Percocolating Water on Soil Sulphur in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ten rainfall and irrigation water-collecting posts were set up in different ecotype districts of Jiangxi Province, China, to quarterly measure S content in rainfall and irrigation water. A rainwater chemical composition-collecting device was used to collect the sulphur in rainfall, and the amount of sulphur adsorbed on the resin column in the device was determined. The soil percolating water was gathered using 6 lysimeters, built up according to the profile sequence of the red soil derived from red sandstone and the red soil derived from Quaternary red clay, separately. On the lysimeters peanuts, soybean and radish were grown in rotation. Two treatments were designed: without S addition and with S addition at a rate of 14 kg S ha-1. The SO42- contents in rainfall, irrigation water and soil percolating water were determined by the turbidimetry. The results in 1997 showed that the average annual S content in rainwater was 28.13 kg S ha-1, the average S content in irrigation water was 1.7 mg S L-1, and the average content of SO24- in soil percolation water was 2.30 kg S ha-1 year-1 and 4.70 kg S ha-1 year-1 in treatments without and with sulphur application, respectively. In Jiangxi Province, apart from the losses by runoff and leaching, the sulphur in rainfall available to crops is 7.3 kg S ha-1 year-1 and additional S application is required. When rice is grown, however, irrigation water can supply 6.9 kg S ha-1, which, along with the sulphur in rainfall, can almost meet the S requirement of one cropping of rice.

  3. Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall Trends in Vaal-Harts Irrigation Scheme, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Adeyemo


    Full Text Available Agriculture is crucially dependent on the timely availability of adequate amount of water and a conducive climate. Temperature and rainfall patterns impact the availability of water for agricultural uses. Therefore, temperature and rainfall are twin important environmental factors in agricultural activities such as tillage, planting, irrigation and mechanization. The characteristics of the Vaal-Harts temperature data for year 1996 to 2010 and rainfall data for year 1983 to 2010 were examined in this study using statistical techniques. Basic statistical properties of the data were determined using the mean, variance, coefficient of variation and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Temperature and rainfall observations with the average of about 17.44 were used. The minimum and maximum temperatures recorded were 9.720C and 23.520C. The Coefficient of variation (CV was found to be about 29.59. Variance is a measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out; and the variance of this set of observations is 26.625. The average yearly temperature increases insignificantly by a constant of about 0.117 (p = 0.163; 95% CI: -0.054 – 0.288, while rainfall shows decreasing trend annually which means that the dry season will be drier. The involvement of non-zero values in the serial correlation indicated the significance of the deterministic component in the data. The results of this analysis enhance our understanding of the characteristics of air temperature and rainfall in the study area for effective planning of farming operations.

  4. Performance of CMORPH, TMPA, and PERSIANN rainfall datasets over plain, mountainous, and glacial regions of Pakistan (United States)

    Hussain, Yawar; Satgé, Frédéric; Hussain, Muhammad Babar; Martinez-Carvajal, Hernan; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Cárdenas-Soto, Martin; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Akhter, Gulraiz


    The present study aims at the assessment of six satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) in Pakistan. For each assessed products, both real-time (RT) and post adjusted (Adj) versions are considered to highlight their potential benefits in the rainfall estimation at annual, monthly, and daily temporal scales. Three geomorphological climatic zones, i.e., plain, mountainous, and glacial are taken under considerations for the determination of relative potentials of these SREs over Pakistan at global and regional scales. All SREs, in general, have well captured the annual north-south rainfall decreasing patterns and rainfall amounts over the typical arid regions of the country. Regarding the zonal approach, the performance of all SREs has remained good over mountainous region comparative to arid regions. This poor performance in accurate rainfall estimation of all the six SREs over arid regions has made their use questionable in these regions. Over glacier region, all SREs have highly overestimated the rainfall. One possible cause of this overestimation may be due to the low surface temperature and radiation absorption over snow and ice cover, resulting in their misidentification with rainy clouds as daily false alarm ratio has increased from mountainous to glacial regions. Among RT products, CMORPH-RT is the most biased product. The Bias was almost removed on CMORPH-Adj thanks to the gauge adjustment. On a general way, all Adj versions outperformed their respective RT versions at all considered temporal scales and have confirmed the positive effects of gauge adjustment. CMORPH-Adj and TMPA-Adj have shown the best agreement with in situ data in terms of Bias, RMSE, and CC over the entire study area.

  5. Analysis of the heavy rainfall from Typhoon Plum using Doppler Radar (United States)

    Jin, W.; Qu, Y.


    Using reanalysis and observational data and Doppler radar data, the structure and characteristics of the synoptic and mesoscale meteorological background are analyzed for a heavy rainfall over Xiaoshipeng town of Yingkou City in Liaoning province, China. The results show that: (1) several synoptic scale patterns formed the background for the heavy rainfall: the Pacific subtropical high extended to the West; a strong tropical storm named "Plum" moved to the northwest after it had landed; Northwest jet transported a lot of the water vapor to Liaoning; the weak cold air of Baikal Lake moved to south along the ridge before the northwest flow impact to Liaoning. (2) the factors conducive to strong convective precipitation: the existence of a deep wet layer, a narrow CAPE zone and a relative weak vertical wind sheer. (3) there is nonstop generation of new mesoscale convective cells during the heavy rainfall. There exists a maximum wind zone of 24m/s in the lower layer and a strong radar echo with 35dBz above 5km. And the variation of the low level southwest jet is in step with the variation of rainfall amount. The cyclonic convergence of the warm wet air in the mid-low level is a factor triggering and strengthening convection. The nonstop generation of mesoscale convective cells and the water vapor transport from the low level southwest jet are pushing the rainfall radar echo to above 40dBz and lasting for more than 5 hours and are considered the direct cause of this heavy rainfall.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Taofeeq Sholagberu


    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff is the active agent of soil erosion which often resulted in land degradation and water quality deterioration. Its aggressiveness to induce erosion is usually termed as rainfall erosivity index or factor (R. R-factor is one of the factors to be parameterized in the evaluation of soil loss using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and its reversed versions (USLE/RUSLE. The computation of accurate R-factor for a particular watershed requires high temporal resolution rainfall (pluviograph data with less than 30-minutes intensities for at least 20 yrs, which is available only in a few regions of the world. As a result, various simplified models have been proposed by researchers to evaluate R-factor using readily available daily, monthly or annual precipitation data. This study is thus aimed at estimating R-factor and to establish an approximate relationship between R-factor and rainfall for subsequent usage in the estimation of soil loss in Cameron highlands watershed. The results of the analysis showed that the least and peak (critical R-factors occurred in the months of January and April with 660.82 and 2399.18 MJ mm ha-1 h-1year-1 respectively. Also, it was observed that erosivity power starts to increase from the month of January through April before started falling in the month of July. The monthly and annual peaks (critical periods may be attributed to increased rainfall amount due to climate change which in turn resulted to increased aggressiveness of rains to cause erosion in the study area. The correlation coefficient of 0.985 showed that there was a strong relationship rainfall and R-factor.

  7. Distribution of incident rainfall through vegetation in a watershed located in southern Spain (United States)

    Moreno Perez, Maria Fatima; Roldan Cañas, Jose; Perez Arellano, Rafael; Cienfuegos, Ignacio


    The rainfall interception by vegetation canopy is one of the main factors involved in soil moisture and runoff because a large proportion returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. This may assume evaporation loss between 20 and 40% of the rain, so it should be taken into account in basin water balances, especially in arid and semi-arid regions with scanty rainfall. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of rainwater through the canopy of trees and shrub present in the watershed of "The Cabril" (Cordoba, Spain). The incident precipitation, throughfall and cortical flow were quantified for 2 agricultural years, 2010/11 and 2011/12, in the predominant vegetation, rockrose (Cistus ladanifer) and tree pines (Pinus pinea), in order to determine the volume of precipitation intercepted, and the influence of the rainfall intensity and duration on interception. 1134.4 mm of rain were collected on 102 storms. 31.4% was intercepted and evaporated into the atmosphere in the pines, and 19% in the rockrose. Cortical flow represented 0.3% in pine and 17,7% in rockrose, and throughfall represented 68.3% in pine and 63.3% in rockrose. Despite numerical differences exist between vegetation cover, the results indicate that there are significant correlations between throughfall, cortical flow and interception with precipitation in both pine and rockrose. The amount of water needed to saturate the tops of the pines showed variations between 1.6 and 9.5 mm. Variation in rockrose is 1.8 to 3.9 mm depending on the intensity of rainfall. The interception reached their highest values with less intense rainfall, decreasing considerably when rainfall duration and intensity increase. It can be seen that precipitation events exceeding 20 mm cause an increase of moisture beneath the surface of pine greater than outside. The opposite is produced when events are less than 20 mm. This can be explained because the interception in the small events is very high.

  8. Rainfall interception at the intrastorm scale: insights from a mature coniferous forest (United States)

    Iida, S. I.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Shimizu, A.; Shimizu, T.; Tamai, K.; Nobuhiro, T.; Kabeya, N.; Noguchi, S.; Sawano, S.; Araki, M.


    Canopy interception of rainfall is a mature subject. Nonetheless, the canopy interception process is inadequately understood at the intrastorm scale. To help fill our void of knowledge of intrastorm canopy interception, we employed detailed and fine-scale temporal measurements of meteorological and hydrological measurements from a mature coniferous forest in Japan. Throughfall was collected in a total area of 4 m2 and stemflow was measured for 14 trees of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), and hourly intensity of interception loss was calculated as the difference between hourly intensity of gross rainfall and the sum of intensities of throughfall and stemflow. We specifically compared differences in canopy interception between the first and second halves of rainfall. Our results indicated that the interception intensity was larger at the initial stage of rainfall event and that interception intensity does not depend solely on intensity of gross rainfall. The accumulated amounts of interception intensity during the first half were quite larger than those of the second half. We found the decreases in the accumulated interception intensity caused by the higher mean wind speed for only the first half. These findings strongly suggested that water storage on tree surface is the single most important factor affecting the interception loss at this site, outweighing losses by wet canopy evaporation and splash during rain. This study adds insights into intrastorm interception dynamics which are necessary to better model and forecast interception losses at the watershed scale. Publication note: This presentation is based on the following submitted article: Iida, S., Levia, D.F., Shimizu, A., Shimizu, T., Tamai, K., Nobuhiro, T., Kabeya, N., Noguchi, S., Sawano, S. and Araki, M. Intrastorm scale rainfall interception dynamics in a mature coniferous forest stand.


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    Full Text Available Aggressiveness erosive force of rainfall is the express of kinetic energy and potential energy of rain water runoff on slopes. In the absence of a database for the analysis of parameters that define the torrencial rainfall, the rainfall erosivity factor was calculated by Fournier Index, Modified Fournier Index based on the monthly and annual precipitation.


    Ushiyama, Motoyuki

    "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is a newly-coined word by mass media of Japan. The four major newspaper publishing companies began to use this word frequently from the beginning of August, 2008. The definition of "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is not clear. It was found from the result of newspaper article analysis from 2008 to 2009 that short-time very heavy rainfall events are called "Guerilla heavy rainfall". In this study, the rainfall event of 80mm or more of rainfalls of 1 hour and 149mm or less of rainfalls was defined as "Guerilla heavy rainfall". 104 events of "Guerilla heavy rainfall" were extracted from AMeDAS precipitation data from 1979 to 2008. There were two victims of these heavy rainfall events in total. They killed at basement or underpass. Although inundation above the floor level occurred in 38% of event, the damage of 100 or more buildings was 9%. We may say that "Guerilla heavy rainfall" does not cause large-scale damage. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that damage caused by "Guerilla heavy rainfall" is generated well in high-risk area of flood, such as basement, underpass, low land and river park.

  11. Models are likely to underestimate increase in heavy rainfall in the extratropical regions with high rainfall intensity (United States)

    Borodina, Aleksandra; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto


    Model projections of regional changes in heavy rainfall are uncertain. On timescales of few decades, internal variability plays an important role and therefore poses a challenge to detect robust model response in heavy rainfall to rising temperatures. We use spatial aggregation to reduce the major role of internal variability and evaluate the heavy rainfall response to warming temperatures with observations. We show that in the regions with high rainfall intensity and for which gridded observations exist, most of the models underestimate the historical scaling of heavy rainfall and the land fraction with significant positive heavy rainfall scalings during the historical period. The historical behavior is correlated with the projected heavy rainfall intensification across models allowing to apply an observational constraint, i.e., to calibrate multimodel ensembles with observations in order to narrow the range of projections. The constraint suggests a substantially stronger intensification of future heavy rainfall than the multimodel mean.

  12. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brijesh Kumar; Kanhu Charan Patra; Venkat Lakshmi


    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought)for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, dailyprecipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validatedagainst daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June–September or JJAS) from 2005–2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPHcan detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall.The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas,TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimatesthe amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capturethe high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well asthe plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfallproducts with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrenceof high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies thatTRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for thetopography.

  13. Global amount of dust in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fukugita, Masataka


    It is pointed out that the total amount of dust in the Universe that is produced in stellar evolution in the entire cosmic time is consistent with the observed amount, if we add to the dust amount inferred for galactic discs the amount recently uncovered in galactic haloes and the surrounding of galaxies in reddening of the quasar light passing through the vicinity of galaxies. The inventory concerning the dust closes. This implies that dust produced from stars should survive effectively for the cosmic time, and that a substantial amount of dust is produced in the burning phase of evolved stars of intermedaite mass.

  14. Slope runoff study in situ using rainfall simulator in mountainous area of North China%华北山区坡地产流规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静洁; 杨聪; 刘昌明; 宋献方; 胡珊珊; 李发东; 唐常源


    Simulated rainfall is a valid tool to examine the runoff generation on the slope. 13 simulated rainfall experiments with different rainfall intensities and durations are completed in a 5 m ×10 m experimental plot in mountainous area of North China. Simultaneously, rainfall, surface runoff, soil-layer flow, mantel-layer flow and soil moisture are monitored respectively. From the results, it is found that the hydrographs in all layers have the characteristics of rapid rise and fall. The recessions of surface flow and soil-layer flow are much faster than that of mantel-layer flow. Surface flow, the main contributor, makes up more than 60% of the total runoff in the study area. It even exceeds 90% in the cases of high intensity rainfall events. Runoff coefficient (ratio of total runoff to rainfall amount) is mainly influenced by rainfall amount, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture, and the relationship can be well ex-pressed by a multiple linear regression function a = 0.002P + 0.1821 + 4.88Wa - 0.821. The relation between the rainfall intensity and the lag time of three flows (surface runoff, soil-layer flow and mantel-layer flow) is shown to be exponential. Then, the result also shows that the recession constant is 0.75 for surface runoff, is 0.94 for soil-layer and mantel-layer flow in this area. In this study area, the dominant infiltration excess runoff is simulated by Horton model. About 0.10 mm/min percolation is observed under the condition of different rainfall intensities, therefore the value is regarded as the steady infiltration rate of the study area.

  15. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe. (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos


    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha(-1)h(-1)) compared to winter (87MJmmha(-1)h(-1)). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R(2) values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  16. Forecasting and Analysis of Monthly Rainfalls in Ardabil Province by Arima, Autoregrressive, and Winters Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Salahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Rainfall has the highest variability at time and place scale. Rainfall fluctuation in different geographical areas reveals the necessity of investigating this climate element and suitable models to forecast the rate of precipitation for regional planning. Ardabil province has always faced rainfall fluctuations and shortage of water supply. Precipitation is one of the most important features of the environment. The amount of precipitation over time and in different places is subject to large fluctuations which may be periodical. Studies show that, due to the certain complexities of rainfall, the models which used to predict future values will also need greater accuracy and less error. Among the forecasting models, Arima has more applications and it has replaced with other models. Materials and Methods: In this research, through order 2 Autoregrressive, Winters, and Arima models, monthly rainfalls of Ardabil synoptic station (representing Ardabil province for a 31-year period (1977-2007 were investigated. To assess the presence or absence of significant changes in mean precipitation of Ardabil synoptic station, rainfall of this station was divided into two periods: 1977-1993 and 1994-2010. T-test was used to statistically examine the difference between the two periods. After adjusting the data, descriptive statistics were applied. In order to model the total monthly precipitation of Ardabil synoptic station, Winters, Autoregressive, and Arima models were used. Among different models, the best options were chosen to predict the time series including the mean absolute deviation (MAD, the mean squared errors (MSE, root mean square errors (RMSE and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE. In order to select the best model among the available options under investigation, the predicted value of the deviation of the actual value was utilized for the months of 2006-2010. Results and Discussion: Statistical characteristics of the total monthly

  17. Rainfall and temperature effects of nitrogen losses from fertilizer types on grassland in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, D.W.; Oenema, O.


    Differences exist between the Netherlands and the UK in the use of urea and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) fertilizers on grassland. Rainfall and temperature patterns affect the amount of gaseous and leaching N losses from urea and CAN and their agro

  18. Characteristics of the surface-subsurface flow generation and sediment yield to the rainfall regime and land-cover by long-term in-situ observation in the red soil region, Southern China (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jian-Min; Tang, Chong-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Jin


    Land cover and rainfall regime are two important factors that affect soil erosion. In this paper, three land cover types - grass cover, litter cover and bare land - were employed to analyze surface runoff, subsurface flow and sediment loss processes in relation to the rainfall regimes in the red soil region of China. Five rainfall regimes were classified according to 393 rainfall events via a k-means clustering method based on the rainfall depth, duration and maximum 30-min intensity. The highest surface runoff coefficient and erosion amount were found on bare land in all five rainfall regimes, and the lowest were found on grass cover. The litter cover generated the highest subsurface flow rate, followed by the grass cover; the lowest was on bare land. For grass cover and litter cover plots, rainfall events of rainfall regime IV which had the longest duration, greatest depth and lowest intensity had the highest surface runoff coefficient, soil erosion amount and subsurface flow rate. For bare land, storm rainfall events of rainfall regime V had the highest intensity, lowest depth and duration, had the highest surface runoff coefficient and soil erosion amount, but the lowest subsurface flow rate. The highest subsurface flow rate of bare land happened in rainfall regime IV. Surface cover was urgently needed to reduce soil erosion. When the lands under dense surface cover, more attention should be paid to rainfall events that of long duration, high depth but low in intensity which commonly occurred in spring. The interactions of surface-subsurface flow and its effects on soil erosion and nutrient loss were worth considering in the red soil region.

  19. 基于支持向量机的微波链路雨强反演方法∗%Metho d and exp eriment of rainfall intensity inversion using a microwave link based on supp ort vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋堃; 高太长; 刘西川; 印敏; 薛杨


    为提高微波链路雨致衰减反演雨强精度,在Mie散射理论、气体吸收衰减模型以及Gamma雨滴谱分布的基础上,将支持向量机引入到微波链路测量降水中,提出了基于支持向量机的微波链路雨强反演方法,并开展了15—20 GHz频段的视距微波链路与地面雨滴谱仪的同步观测降雨实验.实验结果表明,基于支持向量机的微波链路雨强反演模型的反演雨强与实测雨强的相关系数全部高于0.6,最高达到0.9674;雨强的均方根误差最小值为0.5780 mm/h,累积降雨量的绝对最小误差仅为0.0080 mm;相对偏差大部分在10%以内,最小偏差为0.7425%.实验结果验证了基于支持向量机的微波链路雨强反演方法的有效性、准确性和适用性,对于进一步提高微波链路反演降雨精度、改善降水监测效果具有重要意义.%The precipitation is an important physical phenomenon. The real-time, accurate measurement of rainfall inten-sity has important significance in meteorological support, agriculture, weather forecasting, transportation industry and military mission. However, current methods, such as the rain gauge, the weather radar and meteorological satellite, are unable to meet the needs in all the areas above at present. The network of rain gauge is costly. Meanwhile, rain gauge has low spatial and temporal resolution. And the weather radar has a big deviation because of the ground clutter. Besides, the meteorological satellite is unable to measure the surface rainfall. Thus, a method of using the measure-ment of microwave rain-induced attenuation for rainfall estimation has been presented in meteorological field recently by meteorological experts and it has made some progress. The method based on microwave link has low cost because of using preexisting microwave device. There are also many preexisting microwave transmission networks, which can be used by rainfall field inversion in the future research. The method

  20. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data (United States)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu


    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  1. Effects of variable regolith depth, hydraulic properties, and rainfall on debris-flow initiation during the September 2013 northern Colorado Front Range rainstorm (United States)

    Baum, R. L.; Coe, J. A.; Kean, J. W.; Jones, E. S.; Godt, J.


    Heavy rainfall during 9 - 13 September 2013 induced about 1100 debris flows in the foothills and mountains of the northern Colorado Front Range. Weathered bedrock was partially exposed in the basal surfaces of many of the shallow source areas at depths ranging from 0.2 to 5 m. Typical values of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils and regolith units mapped in the source areas range from about 10-4 - 10-6 m/s, with a median value of 2.8 x 10-5 m/s based on number of source areas in each map unit. Rainfall intensities varied spatially and temporally, from 0 to 2.5 x 10-5 m/s (90 mm/hour), with two periods of relatively heavy rainfall on September 12 - 13. The distribution of debris flows appears to correlate with total storm rainfall, and reported times of greatest landslide activity coincide with times of heaviest rainfall. Process-based models of rainfall infiltration and slope stability (TRIGRS) representing the observed ranges of regolith depth, hydraulic conductivity, and rainfall intensity, provide additional insights about the timing and distribution of debris flows from this storm. For example, small debris flows from shallower source areas (debris flows from deeper (3 - 5 m) source areas in the western part of the affected area occurred late on September 12. Timing of these flows can be understood in terms of the time required for pore pressure rise depending on regolith depth and rainfall intensity. The variable hydraulic properties combined with variable regolith depth and slope angles account for much of the observed range in timing in areas of similar rainfall intensity and duration. Modeling indicates that the greatest and most rapid pore pressure rise likely occurred in areas of highest rainfall intensity and amount. This is consistent with the largest numbers of debris flows occurring on steep canyon walls in areas of high total storm rainfall.

  2. Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall (United States)

    Koseki, S.; Koh, T.-Y.; Teo, C.-K.


    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite data sets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the Equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β-scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma head (comma tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-α cyclone system. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics.

  3. Rainfall Predictions From Global Salinity Anomalies (United States)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Li, L.; Liu, T.


    We have discovered that sea surface salinity (SSS) is a better seasonal predictor of terrestrial rainfall than sea surface temperature (SST) or the usual pressure modes of atmospheric variability. In many regions, a 3-6 month lead of SSS over rainfall on land can be seen. While some lead is guaranteed due to the simple conservation of water and salt, the robust seasonal lead for SSS in some places is truly remarkable, often besting traditional SST and pressure predictors by a very significant margin. One mechanism for the lead has been identified in the recycling of water on land through soil moisture in regional ocean to land moisture transfers. However, a global search has yielded surprising long-range SSS-rainfall teleconnections. It is suggested that these teleconnections indicate a marked sensitivity of the atmosphere to where rain falls on the ocean. That is, the latent heat of evaporation is by far the largest energy transfer from ocean to atmosphere and where the atmosphere cashes in this energy in the form of precipitation is well recorded in SSS. SSS also responds to wind driven advection and mixing. Thus, SSS appears to be a robust indicator of atmospheric energetics and moisture transport and the timing and location of rainfall events is suggested to influence the subsequent evolution of the atmospheric circulation. In a sense, if the fall of a rain drop is at least equivalent to the flap of a butterfly's wings, the influence of a billion butterfly rainstorm allows for systematic predictions beyond the chaotic nature of the turbulent atmosphere. SSS is found to be particularly effective in predicting extreme precipitation or droughts, which makes its continued monitoring very important for building societal resilience against natural disasters.

  4. Persistent decadal-scale rainfall variability in the tropical South Pacific Convergence Zone through the past six centuries

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    C. R. Maupin


    Full Text Available Observations and reconstructions of decadal-scale climate variability are necessary to place predictions of future global climate change into temporal context (Goddard et al., 2012. This is especially true for decadal-scale climate variability that originates in the Pacific Ocean (Deser et al., 2004; Dong and Lu, 2013. We focus here on the western tropical Pacific (Solomon Islands; ~ 9.5° S, ~ 160° E, a region directly influenced by: the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ, the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP, the Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC, and the Hadley Circulation. We calibrate δ18O variations in a fast growing stalagmite to local rainfall amount and produce a 600 yr record of rainfall variability from the zonally oriented, tropical portion of the SPCZ. We present evidence for large (~ 1.5 m, persistent and decade(s-long shifts in total annual rainfall amount in the Solomon Islands since 1416 ± 5 CE. The timing of the decadal changes in rainfall inferred from the 20th century portion of the stalagmite δ18O record coincide with previously identified decadal shifts in Pacific ocean-atmosphere behavior (Clement et al., 2011; Deser et al., 2004. The 600 yr Solomons stalagmite δ18O record indicates that decadal oscillations in rainfall are a robust characteristic of SPCZ-related climate variability, which has important implications to water resource management in this region.

  5. Geostatistical Analysis of Winter Rainfall for 2013 in Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey (comparison of the past status and future projections) (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza


    Rainfall is one of the most important climatic factor for environmental studies. Several methods (Thiessen polygon, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging etc.) have been used by researchers for spatial interpolation of rainfall data. Kriging is a geostatistical method which is based on spatial correlation between neighbouring observations to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. The study area, Eastern Black Sea Basin is one of the highest rainfall accumulations in Turkey according to the measured station data (1942 - 2011). Eastern Black Sea Basin is the only basin in Turkey with an increase amount of winter (October, November, December) rainfall for 2013 in comparison to the long term mean and previous year winter rainfall. Regarding to the future projections (Ustaoglu, 2011), this basin has one of the strongest increasing trend according to the A2 scenario analysis obtained from RegCM3 regional climate model during the ten years periods (2011 - 2100). In this study, 2013 winter rainfall in the basin is highlighted and compared with the past and future rainfall conditions of the basin. Keywords: Geostatistical Analysis, Winter Rainfall, Eastern Black Sea Basin

  6. Artificial Neural Network for Monthly Rainfall Rate Prediction (United States)

    Purnomo, H. D.; Hartomo, K. D.; Prasetyo, S. Y. J.


    Rainfall rate forecasting plays an important role in various human activities. Rainfall forecasting is a challenging task due to the uncertainty of natural phenomena. In this paper, two neural network models are proposed for monthly rainfall rate forecasting. The performance of the proposed model is assesses based on monthly rainfall rate in Ampel, Boyolali, from 2001-2013. The experiment results show that the accuracy of the first model is much better than the accuracy of the second model. Its average accuracy is just above 98%, while the accuracy of the second model is approximately 75%. In additional, both models tend to perform better when the fluctuation of rainfall is low.

  7. Rainfall-enhanced blooming in typhoon wakes (United States)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Oey, L.-Y.


    Strong phytoplankton blooming in tropical-cyclone (TC) wakes over the oligotrophic oceans potentially contributes to long-term changes in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet blooming has traditionally been discussed using anecdotal events and its biophysical mechanics remain poorly understood. Here we identify dominant blooming patterns using 16 years of ocean-color data in the wakes of 141 typhoons in western North Pacific. We observe right-side asymmetric blooming shortly after the storms, attributed previously to sub-mesoscale re-stratification, but thereafter a left-side asymmetry which coincides with the left-side preference in rainfall due to the large-scale wind shear. Biophysical model experiments and observations demonstrate that heavier rainfall freshens the near-surface water, leading to stronger stratification, decreased turbulence and enhanced blooming. Our results suggest that rainfall plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in TC-induced blooming, with potentially important implications for global biogeochemical cycles especially in view of the recent and projected increases in TC-intensity that harbingers stronger mixing and heavier rain under the storm.

  8. Statistical distribution of rainfall in Uttarakhand, India (United States)

    Kumar, Vikram; Shanu; Jahangeer


    Understanding of rainfall is an important issue for Uttarakhand, India which having varied topography and due to that extreme rainfall causes quick runoff which warns structural and functional safety of large structures and other natural resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to determine the best-fit distribution of the annual series of rainfall data for the period of 1991-2002 of 13 districts of Uttarakhand. A best-fit distribution such as Chi-squared, Chi-squared (2P), exponential, exponential (2P), gamma, gamma (3P), gen. extreme value (GEV), log-Pearson 3, Weibull, Weibull (3P) distributions was applied. Comparisons of best distributions were based on the use of goodness-of-fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi squared. Results showed that the Weibull distribution performed the best with 46% of the total district, while the second best distribution was Chi squared (2P) and log-Pearson. The results of this study would be useful to the water resource engineers, policy makers and planners for the agricultural development and conservation of natural resources of Uttarakhand.

  9. Cyclical components of local rainfall data (United States)

    Mentz, R. P.; D'Urso, M. A.; Jarma, N. M.; Mentz, G. B.


    This paper reports on the use of a comparatively simple statistical methodology to study local short time series rainfall data. The objective is to help in agricultural planning, by diminishing the risks associated with some uncertainties affecting this business activity.The analysis starts by assuming a model of unobservable components, trend, cycle, seasonal and irregular, that is well known in many areas of application. When series are in the realm of business and economics, the statistical methods popularized by the US Census Bureau US National Bureau of Economic Research are used for seasonal and cyclical estimation, respectively. The flexibility of these methods makes them good candidates to be applied in the meteorological context, and this is done in this paper for a selection of monthly rainfall time series.Use of the results to help in analysing and forecasting cyclical components is emphasized. The results are interesting. An agricultural entrepreneur, or a group of them located in a single geographical region, will profit by systematically collecting information (monthly in our work) about rainfall, and adopting the scheme of analysis described in this paper.

  10. Tropical stratospheric circulation and monsoon rainfall (United States)

    Sikder, A. B.; Patwardhan, S. K.; Bhalme, H. N.


    Interannual variability of both SW monsoon (June September) and NE monsoon (October December) rainfall over subdivisions of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema and Tamil Nadu have been examined in relation to monthly zonal wind anomaly for 10 hPa, 30 hPa and 50 hPa at Balboa (9°N, 80°W) for the 29 year period (1958 1986). Correlations of zonal wind anomalies to SW monsoon rainfall ( r=0.57, significant at 1% level) is highest with the longer lead time (August of the previous year) at 10 hPa level suggesting some predictive value for Coastal Andhra Pradesh. The probabilities estimated from the contingency table reveal non-occurrence of flood during easterly wind anomalies and near non-occurrence of drought during westerly anomalies for August of the previous year at 10 hPa which provides information for forecasting of performance of SW monsoon over Coastal Andhra Pradesh. However, NE monsoon has a weak relationship with zonal wind anomalies of 10 hPa, 30 hPa and 50 hPa for Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema and Tamil Nadu. Tracks of the SW monsoon storms and depressions in association with the stratospheric wind were also examined to couple with the fluctuations in SW monsoon rainfall. It is noted that easterly / westerly wind at 10 hPa, in some manner, suppresses / enhances monsoon storms and depressions activity affecting their tracks.

  11. Impact of the rainfall pattern on synthetic pesticides and copper runoff from a vineyard catchment (United States)

    Payraudeau, Sylvain; Meite, Fatima; Wiegert, Charline; Imfeld, Gwenaël


    Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticide is rarely evaluated at the catchment scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of rainfall pattern on the mobilization of synthetic pesticides and copper fungicides in runoff from a small vineyard catchment, both at the plot and catchment scales. During two vineyard growing seasons in 2015 and 2016 (from March to October), we monitored rainfall, runoff, and concentrations of copper and 20 fungicides and herbicides applied by winegrowers at the Rouffach vineyard catchment (France, Alsace; 42.5 ha). Rainfall data were recorded within the catchment while runoff measurement and flow-proportional water sampling were carried out at the outlet of the plot (1486 m2; 87.5 × 17 m) and the catchment. In total, discharges of the 14 runoff events were continuously monitored between March and October 2015 using bubbler flow modules combined with Venturi channels. Detailed and distributed dataset on pesticide applications were extracted from survey (copper formulations and type of pesticides, amount and application dates). Pools of copper and synthetic pesticides were quantified weekly in the topsoil (0-3 cm) by systematic sampling across the catchment. The concentrations of copper (10 dried soil) and synthetic pesticides (close to the quantification limit, i.e. 0.05 µg.L-1) available in the top soil for off-site transport largely differed over time. Between March and October, an accumulation of copper of 10% was observed in the top-soil while pesticide concentration decreased below the quantification limits after a few days or weeks following application, depending of the compounds. The average runoff generated at the plot scale was very low (0.13% ± 0.30). The maximum runoff reached 1.37% during the storm of July 22, 2015. Synthetic pesticides exported by runoff was less than 1‰ of

  12. WRF simulation of the heavy rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines during tropical cyclone Ketsana: a sensitivity study (United States)

    Cruz, F. T.; Narisma, G. T.


    In September 2009, tropical cyclone Ketsana brought record rainfall over Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, resulting in widespread flooding and incapacitated the city for days. The extensive damage caused by heavy rainfall events such as this highlights the need to have an effective weather prediction model to forecast these extreme events for the Philippines. As an initial step towards this goal, this study aims to examine the sensitivity of the rainfall simulation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the physical parameterization schemes related to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics processes. Comparison with observation data shows that the PBL scheme influences the spatial distribution of rainfall, whereas the microphysics scheme can affect rainfall magnitudes. The PBL scheme can also affect the intensity and track of the tropical cyclone as indicated in the surface latent heat flux and vertical velocity, as well as the magnitude of the mixing ratio of the different hydrometeors, which consequently affects the simulated rainfall. On the other hand, microphysics schemes can also influence the vertical distribution of each hydrometeor, likely due to differences in the treatment of ice phase processes and its interaction with the PBL scheme. Among the schemes tested, the model simulation using the ACM2 PBL and the WSM6 microphysics schemes captures this particular heavy rainfall event, in terms of spatial distribution, amount and timing. The results of this study show the importance of the PBL and microphysics schemes in simulating heavy rainfall, as well as the high potential of using WRF for future forecasts, especially for extreme weather events in the Philippines.

  13. Comparison of rainfall and stemflow peak intensities and infiltration patterns for a mature coastal forest in British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena


    Most studies on stemflow have focused on the amount of stemflow in different forests or for different rainfall events. So far, few studies have looked at how stemflow intensity varies during rainfall events and how peak stemflow intensities compare to peak rainfall intensities. High stemflow intensities at the base of the tree, where roots and other preferential flow pathways are prevalent, may lead to faster and deeper infiltration of stemflow than rainfall and thus affect soil moisture dynamics and potentially also subsurface stormflow generation. We measured stemflow intensities for three Western hemlock, two Western red cedar, two Douglas-fir and one Birch tree in a mature coniferous forest in coastal British Columbia to determine how stemflow intensities were related to rainfall intensity. We sprayed a blue dye tracer on two Western hemlock trees (29 and 52 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) to determine how stemflow water flows through the soil and to what depth it infiltrates. We also applied the blue dye tracer to an area between the trees to compare infiltration of stemflow with rainfall. Stemflow increased linearly with event total precipitation for all trees. The larger trees almost exclusively had funneling ratios (i.e. the volume of stemflow per unit basal area divided by the rainfall) smaller than one, regardless of species and event size. The funneling ratios for the small trees were generally larger for larger events (up to a funneling ratio of 20) but there was considerable scatter in this relation. Trees with a DBH clay layer but where roots were able to penetrate the clay layer, the infiltrating water flowed deeper into the soil and (almost) reached the soil-bedrock interface. Stemflow appeared to infiltrate deeper (122 cm) than rainfall (85 cm) but this difference was in part due to variations in maximum soil depth. These results suggest that even though stemflow is only a minor component of the water balance, the double funnelling of stemflow

  14. An Establishment of Rainfall-induced Soil Erosion Index for the Slope Land in Watershed (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Shu, Chia-Chun; Chen, Ying-Hui


    With more and more concentrated extreme rainfall events as a result of climate change, in Taiwan, mass cover soil erosion occurred frequently and led to sediment related disasters in high intensity precipiton region during typhoons or torrential rain storms. These disasters cause a severely lost to the property, public construction and even the casualty of the resident in the affected areas. Therefore, we collected soil losses by using field investigation data from the upstream of watershed where near speific rivers to explore the soil erosion caused by heavy rainfall under different natural environment. Soil losses induced by rainfall and runoff were obtained from the long-term soil depth measurement of erosion plots, which were established in the field, used to estimate the total volume of soil erosion. Furthermore, the soil erosion index was obtained by referring to natural environment of erosion test plots and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). All data collected from field were used to compare with the one obtained from laboratory test recommended by the Technical Regulation for Soil and Water Conservation in Taiwan. With MATLAB as a modeling platform, evaluation model for soil erodibility factors was obtained by golden section search method, considering factors contributing to the soil erosion; such as degree of slope, soil texture, slope aspect, the distance far away from water system, topography elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The distribution map of soil erosion index was developed by this project and used to estimate the rainfall-induced soil losses from erosion plots have been established in the study area since 2008. All results indicated that soil erodibility increases with accumulated rainfall amount regardless of soil characteristics measured in the field. Under the same accumulated rainfall amount, the volume of soil erosion also increases with the degree of slope and soil permeability, but decreases with the

  15. Investigation of the aerosol-cloud-rainfall association over the Indian summer monsoon region (United States)

    Sarangi, Chandan; Nand Tripathi, Sachchida; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Koren, Ilan; Sivanand Pai, D.


    intensification of surface rain amounts was applicable to all the meteorological sub-regimes over the ISMR. Hence, we believe that these results provide a step forward in our ability to address aerosol-cloud-rainfall associations based on satellite observations over the ISMR.

  16. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex (United States)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.


    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  17. A study on WRF radar data assimilation for hydrological rainfall prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu


    assimilation are evaluated by examining the rainfall temporal variations and total amounts which have direct impacts on rainfall–runoff transformation in hydrological applications. It is found that by solely assimilating radar data, the improvement of rainfall forecasts are not as obvious as assimilating meteorological data; whereas the positive effect of radar data can be seen when combined with the traditional meteorological data, which leads to the best rainfall forecasts among the five modes. To further improve the effect of radar data assimilation, limitations of the radar correction ratio developed in this study are discussed and suggestions are made on more efficient utilisation of radar data in NWP data assimilation.

  18. Satellite radiometric remote sensing of rainfall fields: multi-sensor retrieval techniques at geostationary scale

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    F. S. Marzano


    Full Text Available The Microwave Infrared Combined Rainfall Algorithm (MICRA consists in a statistical integration method using the satellite microwave-based rain-rate estimates, assumed to be accurate enough, to calibrate spaceborne infrared measurements on limited sub-regions and time windows. Rainfall retrieval is pursued at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations, that is at a spatial resolution of few kilometers and a repetition period of few tens of minutes. The actual implementation is explained, although the basic concepts of MICRA are very general and the method is easy to be extended for considering innovative statistical techniques or measurements from additional space-borne platforms. In order to demonstrate the potentiality of MICRA, case studies over central Italy are also discussed. Finally, preliminary results of MICRA validation by ground based remote and in situ measurements are shown and a comparison with a Neural Network (NN based technique is briefly illustrated.

  19. Projected changes of rainfall event characteristics for the Czech Republic

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    Svoboda Vojtěch


    Full Text Available Projected changes of warm season (May–September rainfall events in an ensemble of 30 regional climate model (RCM simulations are assessed for the Czech Republic. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time and only heavy events are considered. The changes of rainfall event characteristics are evaluated between the control (1981–2000 and two scenario (2020–2049 and 2070–2099 periods. Despite a consistent decrease in the number of heavy rainfall events, there is a large uncertainty in projected changes in seasonal precipitation total due to heavy events. Most considered characteristics (rainfall event depth, mean rainfall rate, maximum 60-min rainfall intensity and indicators of rainfall event erosivity are projected to increase and larger increases appear for more extreme values. Only rainfall event duration slightly decreases in the more distant scenario period according to the RCM simulations. As a consequence, the number of less extreme heavy rainfall events as well as the number of long events decreases in majority of the RCM simulations. Changes in most event characteristics (and especially in characteristics related to the rainfall intensity depend on changes in radiative forcing and temperature for the future periods. Only changes in the number of events and seasonal total due to heavy events depend significantly on altitude.

  20. Deterministic Approach for Estimating Critical Rainfall Threshold of Rainfall-induced Landslide in Taiwan (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chien; Tan, Chih-Hao; Chen, Mien-Min; Su, Tai-Wei


    Taiwan is an active mountain belt created by the oblique collision between the northern Luzon arc and the Asian continental margin. The inherent complexities of geological nature create numerous discontinuities through rock masses and relatively steep hillside on the island. In recent years, the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme natural events due to global warming or climate change brought significant landslides. The causes of landslides in these slopes are attributed to a number of factors. As is well known, rainfall is one of the most significant triggering factors for landslide occurrence. In general, the rainfall infiltration results in changing the suction and the moisture of soil, raising the unit weight of soil, and reducing the shear strength of soil in the colluvium of landslide. The stability of landslide is closely related to the groundwater pressure in response to rainfall infiltration, the geological and topographical conditions, and the physical and mechanical parameters. To assess the potential susceptibility to landslide, an effective modeling of rainfall-induced landslide is essential. In this paper, a deterministic approach is adopted to estimate the critical rainfall threshold of the rainfall-induced landslide. The critical rainfall threshold is defined as the accumulated rainfall while the safety factor of the slope is equal to 1.0. First, the process of deterministic approach establishes the hydrogeological conceptual model of the slope based on a series of in-situ investigations, including geological drilling, surface geological investigation, geophysical investigation, and borehole explorations. The material strength and hydraulic properties of the model were given by the field and laboratory tests. Second, the hydraulic and mechanical parameters of the model are calibrated with the long-term monitoring data. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical program, GeoStudio, was employed to perform the modelling practice. Finally

  1. Forecasting Rainfall Time Series with stochastic output approximated by neural networks Bayesian approach

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    Cristian Rodriguez Rivero


    Full Text Available The annual estimate of the availability of the amount of water for the agricultural sector has become a lifetime in places where rainfall is scarce, as is the case of northwestern Argentina. This work proposes to model and simulate monthly rainfall time series from one geographical location of Catamarca, Valle El Viejo Portezuelo. In this sense, the time series prediction is mathematical and computational modelling series provided by monthly cumulative rainfall, which has stochastic output approximated by neural networks Bayesian approach. We propose to use an algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs using the Bayesian inference. The result of the prediction consists of 20% of the provided data consisting of 2000 to 2010. A new analysis for modelling, simulation and computational prediction of cumulative rainfall from one geographical location is well presented. They are used as data information, only the historical time series of daily flows measured in mmH2O. Preliminary results of the annual forecast in mmH2O with a prediction horizon of one year and a half are presented, 18 months, respectively. The methodology employs artificial neural network based tools, statistical analysis and computer to complete the missing information and knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative behavior. They also show some preliminary results with different prediction horizons of the proposed filter and its comparison with the performance Gaussian process filter used in the literature.

  2. Rainfall thresholds for forecasting landslides in the Seattle, Washington, area - exceedance and probability (United States)

    Chleborad, Alan F.; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.


    Empirical rainfall thresholds and related information form a basis for forecasting landslides in the Seattle area. A formula for a cumulative rainfall threshold (CT), P3=3.5-0.67P15, defined by rainfall amounts (in inches) during the last 3 days (72 hours), P3, and the previous 15 days (360 hours), P15, was developed from analysis of historical data for 91 landslides that occurred as part of 3-day events of three or more landslides between 1933 and 1997. Comparison with historical records for 577 landslides (including some used in developing the CT) indicates that the CT captures more than 90 percent of historical landslide events of three or more landslides in 1-day and 3-day periods that were recorded from 1978 to 2003. However, the probability of landslide occurrence on a day when the CT is exceeded at any single rain gage (8.4 percent) is low, and additional criteria are needed to confidently forecast landslide occurrence. Exceedance of a rainfall intensity-duration threshold I=3.257D-1.13, for intensity, I, (inch per hour) and duration, D, (hours), corresponds to a higher probability of landslide occurrence (42 percent at any 3 rain gages or 65 percent at any 10 rain gages), but it predicts fewer landslides. Both thresholds must be used in tandem to forecast landslide occurrence in Seattle.

  3. The Indian summer monsoon rainfall: interplay of coupled dynamics, radiation and cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra


    Full Text Available The Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR, which has a strong connection to agricultural food production, has been less predictable by conventional models in recent times. Two distinct years 2002 and 2003 with lower and higher July rainfall, respectively, are selected to help understand the natural and anthropogenic influences on ISMR. We show that heating gradients along the meridional monsoon circulation are reduced due to aerosol radiative forcing and the Indian Ocean Dipole in 2002. An increase in the dust and biomass-burning component of the aerosols through the zonal monsoon circulation resulted in reduction of cloud droplet growth in July 2002. These conditions were opposite to those in July 2003 which led to an above average ISMR. In this study, we have utilized NCEP/NCAR reanalyses for meteorological data (e.g. sea-surface temperature, horizontal winds, and precipitable water, NOAA interpolated outgoing long-wave radiation, IITM constructed all-India rainfall amounts, aerosol parameters as observed from the TOMS and MODIS satellites, and ATSR fire count maps. Based on this analysis, we suggest that monsoon rainfall prediction models should include synoptic as well as interannual variability in both atmospheric dynamics and chemical composition.

  4. The Indian summer monsoon rainfall: interplay of coupled dynamics, radiation and cloud microphysics (United States)

    Patra, P. K.; Behera, S. K.; Herman, J. R.; Maksyutov, S.; Akimoto, H.; Yamagata, Y.


    The Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR), which has a strong connection to agricultural food production, has been less predictable by conventional models in recent times. Two distinct years 2002 and 2003 with lower and higher July rainfall, respectively, are selected to help understand the natural and anthropogenic influences on ISMR. We show that heating gradients along the meridional monsoon circulation are reduced due to aerosol radiative forcing and the Indian Ocean Dipole in 2002. An increase in the dust and biomass-burning component of the aerosols through the zonal monsoon circulation resulted in reduction of cloud droplet growth in July 2002. These conditions were opposite to those in July 2003 which led to an above average ISMR. In this study, we have utilized NCEP/NCAR reanalyses for meteorological data (e.g. sea-surface temperature, horizontal winds, and precipitable water), NOAA interpolated outgoing long-wave radiation, IITM constructed all-India rainfall amounts, aerosol parameters as observed from the TOMS and MODIS satellites, and ATSR fire count maps. Based on this analysis, we suggest that monsoon rainfall prediction models should include synoptic as well as interannual variability in both atmospheric dynamics and chemical composition.

  5. Estimation of evapotranspiration for a small catchment as an input for rainfall-runoff model (United States)

    Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Kazimierz; Krajewski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Marta


    One of the methods for determination of floods is application of mathematical rainfall-runoff models. Usually, it is possible to distinguish a number of steps for calculation of hydrograph of the flood. The first step is the calculation of effective rainfall which is a difference between total rainfall and losses (amount of water which do not participate in flood formation like interception, infiltration, evaporation etc.) . One of the most common method for determination of effective rainfall is a USDA-SCS method were losses are connected with type of the soils, vegetation and soil moisture. Those factors includes the Curve Number factor (CN). However there is also different approach for determination of losses were soil moisture is calculated as a function of evapotranspiration. In this study, the meteorological data from year 2002-2012 were used for determination of daily evapotranspiration (ETo) by use of FAO Penmana-Monteitha model for Zagozdzonka river catchment in central Poland. Due to gaps in metrological data, some other simpler methods of ETo calculation were applied like Hargraves model and Grabarczyk (1976) model. Based on received results the uncertainty of ETo was calculated. Grabarczyk S., 1976. Polowe zuzycie wody a czynniki meteorologiczne. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 181, 495-511 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The investigation described in the poster is part of the research project KORANET founded by PL-National Center for Research and Development (NCBiR).

  6. Impacts of changing rainfall regime on the demography of tropical birds (United States)

    Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Benson, Thomas J.; Stager, Maria; Sly, Nicholas D.; Tarwater, Corey E.


    Biodiversity in tropical regions is particularly high and may be highly sensitive to climate change. Unfortunately, a lack of long-term data hampers understanding of how tropical species, especially animals, may react to projected environmental changes. The amount and timing of rainfall is key to the function of tropical ecosystems and, although specific model predictions differ, there is general agreement that rainfall regimes will change over large areas of the tropics. Here, we estimate associations between dry season length (DSL) and the population biology of 20 bird species sampled in central Panama over a 33-year period. Longer dry seasons decreased the population growth rates and viability of nearly one-third of the species sampled. Simulations with modest increases in DSL suggest that consistently longer dry seasons will change the structure of tropical bird communities. Such change may occur even without direct loss of habitat--a finding with fundamental implications for conservation planning. Systematic changes in rainfall regime may threaten some populations and communities of tropical animals even in large tracts of protected habitat. These findings suggest the need for collaboration between climate scientists and conservation biologists to identify areas where rainfall regimes will be able to plausibly maintain wildlife populations.

  7. Key pluvial parameters in assessing rainfall erosivity in the south-west development region, Romania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monica Dumitraşcu; Carmen-Sofia Dragotă; Ines Grigorescu; Costin Dumitraşcu; Alina Vlăduţ


    Located in the south-western part of Romania, the south-west development region overlaps the main relief forms: the Carpathians mountains, the Getic Subcarpathians, the Getic piedmont, the Romanian plain and the Danube valley. The study aims at providing an overview on the main pluvial parameters and their role in assessing rainfall erosivity in the study area. The authors assessed the occurrence, frequency and magnitude of some of the most significant pluvial parameters and their impact on the climatic aggressiveness in the study area. Thus, the monthly and annual mean and extreme climatic values for different rainfall related parameters (e.g., maximum amounts of precipitation/24 hr, heavy rainfall), as well as relevant indices and indicators for pluvial aggressiveness (Fournier, Fournier Modified, Angot) were calculated. The rainfall erosivity was assessed in order to provide both the spatial distribution of the triggering extreme weather phenomena and the resulted intensity classes for the analysed indices and indicators. The authors used long-term precipitation records (1961–2010) for the selected relevant meteorological stations distributed throughout all analysed relief units.

  8. Recent changes in extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia: 1971-2005 (United States)

    Wan Zin, Wan Zawiah; Jamaludin, Suhaila; Deni, Sayang Mohd; Jemain, Abdul Aziz


    This paper assesses recent changes in extremes of annual rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia based on daily rainfall data for ten rain-gauged stations over the period 1971-2005. Eight indices that represent the extreme events are defined and analyzed. Maps of trends for these indices, which are extreme dry spell (XDS), extreme rain sum (XRS), extreme wet day intensities at 95% and 99% percentiles (I95 and I99), proportion of extreme wet day to the total wet day (R95 and R99), and frequency of extreme wet day at 95% and 99% percentiles (N95 and N99), were analyzed based on annual data and seasons. When the indices are evaluated annually, the Mann-Kendall and linear regression trend tests showed increasing trends in the extreme intensity indices (I95 and I99) at two stations. A significant decrease in N99, associated with the frequency of extremely wet days, was observed at 60% of the stations. The change points for these indices are found to occur in the period of the 1980s. There is no significant trend detected for XDS, XRS, and proportion of extreme rainfall over total rainfall amount indices during the period considered in this study. Descriptive analysis of indices during the monsoon period showed that the annual spatial pattern for the peninsula is very much influenced by the northeast monsoon where the highest mean values for majority of the indices occur during this time period.

  9. Rainfall characterisation by application of standardised precipitation index (SPI) in Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Yusof, Fadhilah; Hui-Mean, Foo; Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli; Ching-Yee, Kong


    The interpretations of trend behaviour for dry and wet events are analysed in order to verify the dryness and wetness episodes. The fitting distribution of rainfall is computed to classify the dry and wet events by applying the standardised precipitation index (SPI). The rainfall amount for each station is categorised into seven categories, namely extremely wet, severely wet, moderately wet, near normal, moderately dry, severely dry and extremely dry. The computation of the SPI is based on the monsoon periods, which include the northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and inter-monsoon. The trends of the dry and wet periods were then detected using the Mann-Kendall trend test and the results indicate that the major parts of Peninsular Malaysia are characterised by increasing droughts rather than wet events. The annual trends of drought and wet events of the randomly selected stations from each region also yield similar results. Hence, the northwest and southwest regions are predicted to have a higher probability of drought occurrence during a dry event and not much rain during the wet event. The east and west regions, on the other hand, are going through a significant upward trend that implies lower rainfall during the drought episodes and heavy rainfall during the wet events.

  10. Rare earth elements tracing the soil erosion processes on slope surface under natural rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Mingyong [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tan Shuduan [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Dang Haishan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Quanfa, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    A field experiment using rare earth elements (REEs) as tracers was conducted to investigate soil erosion processes on slope surfaces during rainfall events. A plot of 10 m x 2 m x 0.16 m with a gradient of 20{sup o} (36.4%) was established and the plot was divided into two layers and four segments. Various REE tracers were applied to the different layers and segments to determine sediment dynamics under natural rainfall. Results indicated that sheet erosion accounted for more than 90% of total erosion when the rainfall amount and density was not large enough to generate concentrated flows. Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface, and the primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed. In rill erosion, sediment discharge mainly originated from the toe-slope and moved upwards as erosion intensified. The results obtained from this study suggest that multi-REE tracer technique is valuable in understanding the erosion processes and determining sediment sources. - Highlights: > Soil erosion processes with rare earth elements was conducted under natural rainfall. > Experimental setup developed here has seldom implemented in the world. > Sheet erosion is the main erosion type and main contributor to sediment loss. > Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface. > The primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed.

  11. Observed daily large-scale rainfall patterns during BOBMEX-1999

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mitra; M Das Gupta; R K Paliwal; S V Singh


    A daily rainfall dataset and the corresponding rainfall maps have been produced by objective analysis of rainfall data. The satellite estimate of rainfall and the raingauge values are merged to form the final analysis. Associated with epochs of monsoon these rainfall maps are able to show the rainfall activities over India and the Bay of Bengal region during the BOBMEX period. The intra-seasonal variations of rainfall during BOBMEX are also seen using these data. This dataset over the oceanic region compares well with other available popular datasets like GPCP and CMAP. Over land this dataset brings out the features of monsoon in more detail due to the availability of more local raingauge stations.

  12. Multi-daily rainfall climatology and change for water resource management (United States)

    Gajic-Capka, M.; Capka, B.


    The ongoing study on precipitation regime in the Croatian Drava River basin is intended to be used by decision makers in water and energy resource management. One side aspect of this study is the variability in daily and multi-daily amounts (2- and 5-days), the indices defined by WMO and amended by the end-users, which are critical for applications in assessment and maintenance of flooding. The daily rainfall series are from the period 1961-2000, collected at two rain gauges: Varazdin in the upper part of the Croatian Drava River basin and Osijek in the low one, not far from its mouse into the Danube River. The applied Gamma probability distribution makes it possible to estimate the likelihood of rainfall at different durations within a specific range. The generalized extreme value distribution is employed to compute the design values of annual maximal 1-, 2- and 5-day precipitation amounts with different return periods indicating at precipitation risk. In addition to the extreme precipitation characteristics of the current climate, the evolution of trends in annual maximal 1-, 2- and 5-day rainfall amounts are derived from linear regression during the period 1901-2007 at Osijek and for the both stations since 1951. Statistical significance at the 5% confidence level is established using the Mann-Kendall rank non-parametric test. The coefficients of variation, indicating interannual variability, are then computed for consecutive 30-year moving time windows (1 year step) for each parameter. Trends for 30-year periods with the 10-year step (1901-1930, 1911-1940, ....) were computed to detect the possible changes in variability. At the level of the synoptic measurements, the analysis of weather types related to the extreme rainfall events would be deduced.

  13. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.


    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  14. Experiences of citizen-based reporting of rainfall events using lab-generated videos (United States)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon, Juan


    Hydrologic studies rely on the availability of good-quality precipitation estimates. However, in remote areas of the world and particularly in developing countries, ground-based measurement networks are either sparse or nonexistent. This creates difficulties in the estimation of precipitation, which limits the development of hydrologic forecasting and early warning systems for these regions. The EC-FP7 WeSenseIt project aims at exploring the involvement of citizens in the observation of the water cycle with innovative sensor technologies, including mobile telephony. In particular, the project explores the use of a smartphone applications to facilitate the reporting water-related situations. Apart from the challenge of using such information for scientific purposes, the citizen engagement is one of the most important issues to address. To this end effortless methods for reporting need to be developed in order to involve as many people as possible in these experiments. A potential solution to overcome these drawbacks, consisting on lab-controlled rainfall videos have been produced to help mapping the extent and distribution of rainfall fields with minimum effort [1]. In addition, the quality of the collected rainfall information has also been studied [2] by means of different experiments with students. The present research shows the latest results of the application of this method and evaluates the experiences in some cases. [1] Alfonso, L., J. Chacón, and G. Peña-Castellanos (2015), Allowing Citizens to Effortlessly Become Rainfall Sensors, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands [2] Cortes-Arevalo, J., J. Chacón, L. Alfonso, and T. Bogaard (2015), Evaluating data quality collected by using a video rating scale to estimate and report rainfall intensity, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands

  15. Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Lee, Shing Yip; Duke, Norman C.; Warnken, Jan


    The speculation that climate change may impact on sustainable fish production suggests a need to understand how these effects influence fish catch on a broad scale. With a gross annual value of A$ 2.2 billion, the fishing industry is a significant primary industry in Australia. Many commercially important fish species use estuarine habitats such as mangroves, tidal flats and seagrass beds as nurseries or breeding grounds and have lifecycles correlated to rainfall and temperature patterns. Correlation of catches of mullet (e.g. Mugil cephalus) and barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) with rainfall suggests that fisheries may be sensitive to effects of climate change. This work reviews key commercial fish and crustacean species and their link to estuaries and climate parameters. A conceptual model demonstrates ecological and biophysical links of estuarine habitats that influences capture fisheries production. The difficulty involved in explaining the effect of climate change on fisheries arising from the lack of ecological knowledge may be overcome by relating climate parameters with long-term fish catch data. Catch per unit effort (CPUE), rainfall, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and catch time series for specific combinations of climate seasons and regions have been explored and surplus production models applied to Queensland's commercial fish catch data with the program CLIMPROD. Results indicate that up to 30% of Queensland's total fish catch and up to 80% of the barramundi catch variation for specific regions can be explained by rainfall often with a lagged response to rainfall events. Our approach allows an evaluation of the economic consequences of climate parameters on estuarine fisheries, thus highlighting the need to develop forecast models and manage estuaries for future climate change impact by adjusting the quota for climate change sensitive species. Different modelling approaches are discussed with respect to their forecast ability.

  16. Increasing spatial resolution of CHIRPS rainfall datasets for Cyprus with artificial neural networks (United States)

    Tymvios, Filippos; Michaelides, Silas; Retalis, Adrianos; Katsanos, Dimitrios; Lelieveld, Jos


    The use of high resolution rainfall datasets is an alternative way of studying climatological regions where conventional rain measurements are sparse or not available. Starting in 1981 to near-present, the CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) dataset incorporates a 5km×5km resolution satellite imagery with in-situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series for trend analysis, severe events and seasonal drought monitoring. The aim of this work is to further increase the resolution of the rainfall dataset for Cyprus to 1km×1km, by correlating the CHIRPS dataset with elevation information, the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from satellite images at 1km×1km and precipitation measurements from the official raingauge network of the Cyprus' Department of Meteorology, utilizing Artificial Neural Networks. The Artificial Neural Networks' architecture that was implemented is the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) trained with the back propagation method, which is widely used in environmental studies. Seven different network architectures were tested, all with two hidden layers. The number of neurons ranged from 3 to10 in the first hidden layer and from 5 to 25 in the second hidden layer. The dataset was separated into a randomly selected training set, a validation set and a testing set; the latter is independently used for the final assessment of the models' performance. Using the Artificial Neural Network approach, a new map of the spatial analysis of rainfall is constructed which exhibits a considerable increase in its spatial resolution. A statistical assessment of the new spatial analysis was made using the rainfall ground measurements from the raingauge network. The assessment indicates that the methodology is promising for several applications.

  17. Prognostic Aspects of Sub-seasonal Rainfall Characteristics using the Outputs of General Circulation Model: An Application of Statistical Downscaling and Temporal Disaggregation (United States)

    Singh, A.; Mohanty, U. C.; Ghosh, K.


    Most regions of India experience varied rainfall duration during the southwest monsoon, changes in which exhibit major impact not only agriculture, but also other sectors like hydrology, agriculture, food and fodder storage etc. In addition, changes in sub-seasonal rainfall characteristics highly impact the rice production. As part of the endeavor seasonal climate outlook, as well as information for weather within climate may be helpful for advance planning and risk management in agriculture. The General Circulation Model (GCM) provide an alternative to gather information for weather within climate but variability is very low in comparison to observation. On the other hand, the spatial resolution of GCM predicted rainfall is not found at the observed station/grid point. To tackle the problem, initially a statistical downscaling over 19 station of Odisha state is undertaken using the atmospheric parameters predicted by a GCM (NCEP-CFSv2). For the purpose, an extended domain is taken for analyzing the significant zone for the atmospheric parameters like zonal wind at 850hPa, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), geopotential height. A statistical model using the pattern projection method is further developed based on empirical orthogonal function. The downscaled rainfall is found better in association with station observation in comparison to raw GCM prediction in view of deterministic and probabilistic skill measure. Further, the sub-seasonal and seasonal forecast from the GCMs can be used at different time steps for risk management. Therefore, downscaled seasonal/monthly rainfall is further converted to sub-seasonal/daily time scale using a non-homogeneous markov model. The simulated weather sequences are further compared with the observed sequence in view of categorical rainfall events. The outcomes suggest that the rainfall amount are overestimated for excess rainfall and henceforth larger excess rainfall events can be realized. The skill for prediction of rainfall

  18. Passive microwave rainfall retrieval: A mathematical approach via sparse learning (United States)

    Ebtehaj, M.; Lerman, G.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.


    Detection and estimation of surface rainfall from spaceborne radiometric imaging is a challenging problem. The main challenges arise due to the nonlinear relationship of surface rainfall with its microwave multispectral signatures, the presence of noise, insufficient spatial resolution in observations, and the mixture of the earth surface and atmospheric radiations. A mathematical approach is presented for the detection and retrieval of surface rainfall from radiometric observations via supervised learning. In other words, we use a priori known libraries of high-resolution rainfall observations (e.g., obtained by an active radar) and their coincident spectral signatures (i.e., obtained by a radiometer) to design a mathematical model for rainfall retrieval. This model views the rainfall retrieval as a nonlinear inverse problem and relies on sparsity-promoting Bayesian inversion techniques. In this approach, we assume that small neighborhoods of the rainfall fields and their spectral signatures live on manifolds with similar local geometry and encode those neighborhoods in two joint libraries, the so-called rainfall and spectral dictionaries. We model rainfall passive microwave images by sparse linear combinations of the atoms of the spectral dictionary and then use the same representation coefficients to retrieve surface rain rates from the corresponding rainfall dictionary. The proposed methodology is examined by the use of spectral and rainfall dictionaries provided by the microwave imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR), aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Pros and cons of the presented approach are studied by extensive comparisons with the current operational rainfall algorithm of the TRMM satellite. Future extensions are also highlighted for potential application in the era of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparing the retrieved rain rates for Hurricane Danielle 08/29/2010 (UTC 09:48:00). (Top panel) PR-2A

  19. Uncertainty of Areal Rainfall Estimation Using Point Measurements (United States)

    McCarthy, D.; Dotto, C. B. S.; Sun, S.; Bertrand-Krajewski, J. L.; Deletic, A.


    The spatial variability of precipitation has a great influence on the quantity and quality of runoff water generated from hydrological processes. In practice, point rainfall measurements (e.g., rain gauges) are often used to represent areal rainfall in catchments. The spatial rainfall variability is difficult to be precisely captured even with many rain gauges. Thus the rainfall uncertainty due to spatial variability should be taken into account in order to provide reliable rainfall-driven process modelling results. This study investigates the uncertainty of areal rainfall estimation due to rainfall spatial variability if point measurements are applied. The areal rainfall is usually estimated as a weighted sum of data from available point measurements. The expected error of areal rainfall estimates is 0 if the estimation is an unbiased one. The variance of the error between the real and estimated areal rainfall is evaluated to indicate the uncertainty of areal rainfall estimates. This error variance can be expressed as a function of variograms, which was originally applied in geostatistics to characterize a spatial variable. The variogram can be evaluated using measurements from a dense rain gauge network. The areal rainfall errors are evaluated in two areas with distinct climate regimes and rainfall patterns: Greater Lyon area in France and Melbourne area in Australia. The variograms of the two areas are derived based on 6-minute rainfall time series data from 2010 to 2013 and are then used to estimate uncertainties of areal rainfall represented by different numbers of point measurements in synthetic catchments of various sizes. The error variance of areal rainfall using one point measurement in the centre of a 1-km2 catchment is 0.22 (mm/h)2 in Lyon. When the point measurement is placed at one corner of the same-size catchment, the error variance becomes 0.82 (mm/h)2 also in Lyon. Results for Melbourne were similar but presented larger uncertainty. Results

  20. Planting Patterns and Deficit Irrigation Strategies to Improve Wheat Production and Water Use Efficiency under Simulated Rainfall Conditions. (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Xu, Yueyue; Ma, Xiangcheng; Ahmad, Irshad; Kamran, Muhammad; Dong, Zhaoyun; Cai, Tie; Jia, Qianmin; Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Zhikuan


    The ridge furrow (RF) rainwater harvesting system is an efficient way to enhance rainwater accessibility for crops and increase winter wheat productivity in semi-arid regions. However, the RF system has not been promoted widely in the semi-arid regions, which primarily exist in remote hilly areas. To exploit its efficiency on a large-scale, the RF system needs to be tested at different amounts of simulated precipitation combined with deficit irrigation. Therefore, in during the 2015-16 and 2016-17 winter wheat growing seasons, we examined the effects of two planting patterns: (1) the RF system and (2) traditional flat planting (TF) with three deficit irrigation levels (150, 75, 0 mm) under three simulated rainfall intensity (1: 275, 2: 200, 3: 125 mm), and determined soil water storage profile, evapotranspiration rate, grain filling rate, biomass, grain yield, and net economic return. Over the two study years, the RF treatment with 200 mm simulated rainfall and 150 mm deficit irrigation (RF2150) significantly (P RF2150 treatment thus achieved a higher WUE (76%) and RIWP (21%) compared to TF. Grain-filling rates, grain weight of superior and inferior grains, and net economic profit of winter wheat responded positively to simulated rainfall and deficit irrigation under both planting patterns. The 200 mm simulated rainfall amount was more economical than other precipitation amounts, and led to slight increases in soil water storage, total dry matter per plant, and grain yield; there were no significant differences when the simulated rainfall was increased beyond 200 mm. The highest (12,593 Yuan ha(-1)) net income profit was attained using the RF system at 200 mm rainfall and 150 mm deficit irrigation, which also led to significantly higher grain yield, WUE, and RIWP than all other treatments. Thus, we recommend the RF2150 treatment for higher productivity, income profit, and improve WUE in the dry-land farming system of China.

  1. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall. (United States)

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L


    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  2. Hydro-meteorological Inverse Problems via Sparse Regularization: Advanced frameworks for rainfall spaceborne estimation (United States)

    Ebtehaj, Mohammad

    The past decades have witnessed a remarkable emergence of new spaceborne and ground-based sources of multiscale remotely sensed geophysical data. Apart from applications related to the study of short-term climatic shifts, availability of these sources of information has improved dramatically our real-time hydro-meteorological forecast skills. Obtaining improved estimates of hydro-meteorological states from a single or multiple low-resolution observations and assimilating them into the background knowledge of a prognostic model have been a subject of growing research in the past decades. In this thesis, with particular emphasis on precipitation data, statistical structure of rainfall images have been thoroughly studied in transform domains (i.e., Fourier and Wavelet). It is mainly found that despite different underlying physical structure of storm events, there are general statistical signatures that can be robustly characterized and exploited as a prior knowledge for solving hydro-meteorological inverse problems such rainfall downscaling, data fusion, retrieval and data assimilation. In particular, it is observed that in the wavelet domain or derivative space, rainfall images are sparse. In other words, a large number of the rainfall expansion coefficients are very close to zero and only a small number of them are significantly non-zero, a manifestation of the non-Gaussian probabilistic structure of rainfall data. To explain this signature, relevant family of probability models including Generalized Gaussian Density (GGD) and a specific class of conditionally linear Gaussian Scale Mixtures (GSM) are studied. Capitalizing on this important but overlooked property of precipitation, new methodologies are proposed to optimally integrate and improve resolution of spaceborne and ground-based precipitation data. In particular, a unified framework is proposed that ties together the problems of downscaling, data fusion and data assimilation via a regularized variational

  3. A Modeling Study of Surface Rainfall Processes Associated with a Torrential Rainfall Event over Hubei, China, during July 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yushu; CUI Chunguang


    The surface rainfall processes associated with the torrential rainfall event over Hubei,China,during July 2007 were investigated using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model.The model integrated the large-scale vertical velocity and zonal wind data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) for 5 days.The time and model domain mean surface rain rate was used to identify the onset,mature,and decay periods of rainfall.During the onset period,the descending motion data imposed in the lower troposphere led to a large contribution of stratiform rainfall to the model domain mean surface rainfall.The local atmospheric drying and transport of rain from convective regions mainly contributes to the stratiform rainfall.During the mature periods,the ascending motion data integrated into the model was so strong that water vapor convergence was the dominant process for both convective and stratiform rainfall.Both convective and stratiform rainfalls made important contributions to the model domain mean surface rainfall. During the decay period,descending motion data input into the model prevailed,making stratiform rainfall dominant.Stratiform rainfall was mainly caused by the water vapor convergence over raining stratiform regions.

  4. Effects of sea surface temperature, cloud radiative and microphysical processes, and diurnal variations on rainfall in equilibrium cloud-resolving model simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhe; Li Xiao-Fan; Zhou Yu-Shu; Gao Shou-Ting


    The effects of sea surface temperature(SST),cloud radiative and microphysical processes,and diurnal variations on rainfall statistics are documented with grid data from the two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model simulations.For a rain rate of higher than 3 mm.h-1,water vapor convergence prevails.The rainfall amount decreases with the decrease of SST from 29℃ to 27 ℃,the inclusion of diurnal variation of SST,or the exclusion of microphysical effects of ice clouds and radiative effects of water clouds,which are primarily associated with the decreases in water vapor convergence.However,the amount of rainfall increases with the increase of SST from 29 ℃ to 31 ℃,the exclusion of diurnal variation of solar zenith angle,and the exclusion of the radiative effects of ice clouds,which are primarily related to increases in water vapor convergence.For a rain rate of less than 3 mm·h-1,water vapor divergence prevails.Unlike rainfall statistics for rain rates of higher than 3 mm.h-1,the decrease of SST from 29 ℃ to 27 ℃ and the exclusion of radiative effects of water clouds in the presence of radiative effects of ice clouds increase the rainfall amount,which corresponds to the suppression in water vapor divergence.The exclusion of microphysical effects of ice clouds decreases the amount of rainfall,which corresponds to the enhancement in water vapor divergence.The amount of rainfall is less sensitive to the increase of SST from 29℃ to 31℃ and to the radiative effects of water clouds in the absence of the radiative effects of ice clouds.

  5. Simulation of radar rainfall errors and their propagation into rainfall-runoff processes (United States)

    Aghakouchak, A.; Habib, E.


    Radar rainfall data compared with rain gauge measurements provide higher spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar data obtained form reflectivity patterns are subject to various errors such as errors in Z-R relationship, vertical profile of reflectivity, spatial and temporal sampling, etc. Characterization of such uncertainties in radar data and their effects on hydrologic simulations (e.g., streamflow estimation) is a challenging issue. This study aims to analyze radar rainfall error characteristics empirically to gain information on prosperities of random error representativeness and its temporal and spatial dependency. To empirically analyze error characteristics, high resolution and accurate rain gauge measurements are required. The Goodwin Creek watershed located in the north part of Mississippi is selected for this study due to availability of a dense rain gauge network. A total of 30 rain gauge measurement stations within Goodwin Creak watershed and the NWS Level II radar reflectivity data obtained from the WSR-88dD Memphis radar station with temporal resolution of 5min and spatial resolution of 1 km2 are used in this study. Radar data and rain gauge measurements comparisons are used to estimate overall bias, and statistical characteristics and spatio-temporal dependency of radar rainfall error fields. This information is then used to simulate realizations of radar error patterns with multiple correlated variables using Monte Calro method and the Cholesky decomposition. The generated error fields are then imposed on radar rainfall fields to obtain statistical realizations of input rainfall fields. Each simulated realization is then fed as input to a distributed physically based hydrological model resulting in an ensemble of predicted runoff hydrographs. The study analyzes the propagation of radar errors on the simulation of different rainfall-runoff processes such as streamflow, soil moisture, infiltration, and over-land flooding.

  6. Assessment of C-band Polarimetric Radar Rainfall Measurements During Strong Attenuation. (United States)

    Paredes-Victoria, P. N.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.


    In the modern hydrological modelling and their applications on flood forecasting systems and climate modelling, reliable spatiotemporal rainfall measurements are the keystone. Raingauges are the foundation in hydrology to collect rainfall data, however they are prone to errors (e.g. systematic, malfunctioning, and instrumental errors). Moreover rainfall data from gauges is often used to calibrate and validate weather radar rainfall, which is distributed in space. Therefore, it is important to apply techniques to control the quality of the raingauge data in order to guarantee a high level of confidence in rainfall measurements for radar calibration and numerical weather modelling. Also, the reliability of radar data is often limited because of the errors in the radar signal (e.g. clutter, variation of the vertical reflectivity profile, beam blockage, attenuation, etc) which need to be corrected in order to increase the accuracy of the radar rainfall estimation. This paper presents a method for raingauge-measurement quality-control correction based on the inverse distance weighted as a function of correlated climatology (i.e. performed by using the reflectivity from weather radar). Also a Clutter Mitigation Decision (CMD) algorithm is applied for clutter filtering process, finally three algorithms based on differential phase measurements are applied for radar signal attenuation correction. The quality-control method proves that correlated climatology is very sensitive in the first 100 kilometres for this area. The results also showed that ground clutter affects slightly the radar measurements due to the low gradient of the terrain in the area. However, strong radar signal attenuation is often found in this data set due to the heavy storms that take place in this region and the differential phase measurements are crucial to correct for attenuation at C-band frequencies. The study area is located in Sabancuy-Campeche, Mexico (Latitude 18.97 N, Longitude 91.17º W) and

  7. Feasibility of High-Resolution Soil Erosion Measurements by Means of Rainfall Simulations and SfM Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Hänsel


    Full Text Available The silty soils of the intensively used agricultural landscape of the Saxon loess province, eastern Germany, are very prone to soil erosion, mainly caused by water erosion. Rainfall simulations, and also increasingly structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry, are used as methods in soil erosion research not only to assess soil erosion by water, but also to quantify soil loss. This study aims to validate SfM photogrammetry determined soil loss estimations with rainfall simulations measurements. Rainfall simulations were performed at three agricultural sites in central Saxony. Besides the measured data runoff and soil loss by sampling (in mm, terrestrial images were taken from the plots with digital cameras before and after the rainfall simulation. Subsequently, SfM photogrammetry was used to reconstruct soil surface changes due to soil erosion in terms of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs for the pre- and post-event (resolution 1 × 1 mm. By multi-temporal change detection, the digital elevation model of difference (DoD and an averaged soil loss (in mm is received, which was compared to the soil loss by sampling. Soil loss by DoD was higher than soil loss by sampling. The method of SfM photogrammetry-determined soil loss estimations also include a comparison of three different ground control point (GCP approaches, revealing that the most complex one delivers the most reliable soil loss by DoD. Additionally, soil bulk density changes and splash erosion beyond the plot were measured during the rainfall simulation experiments in order to separate these processes and associated surface changes from the soil loss by DoD. Furthermore, splash was negligibly small, whereas higher soil densities after the rainfall simulations indicated soil compaction. By means of calculated soil surface changes due to soil compaction, the soil loss by DoD achieved approximately the same value as the soil loss by rainfall simulation.

  8. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of 21st century using RegCM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Mizanur Rahman; Md Nazrul Islam; Ahsan Uddin Ahmed; F Georgi


    Regional Climate Model of version 3 (RegCM3) was driven with Emissions Scenarios A2 of ECHAM4 at 0.54° × 0.54° horizontal grid resolution in two parameterizations: Grell scheme with Arakawa–Schubert (GAS) and Fritch–Chappell (GFC) assumptions. The simulated rainfall and mean surface air temperature were calibrated and validated against ground-based observed data in Bangladesh during the period 1961–1990. The Climate Research Unit (CRU) data is also used for understanding the model performance. Better performance of RegCM3 obtained through validation process, made it confident in utilizing it in rainfall and temperature projection for Bangladesh in the middle of 21st century. Rainfall and mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated rainfall and temperature are not directly useful in application-oriented tasks. However, after calibration and validation, reasonable performance can be obtained in estimating seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change of rainfall for Bangladesh is about +35% for monsoon season (JJAS), −67% for pre-monsoon (MAM), −12% for post-monsoon (ON) and 107% for winter (DJF) for 2050. O