WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground pea gravel

  1. Survival of Ancylostoma caninum on bare ground, pea gravel, and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D L

    1975-12-01

    Studies were done to determine the survival of infective Ancylostoma caninum 3rd-stage larvae on 3 ground covers commonly used in dog run construction: bare ground, pea gravel, and concrete. Changes in numbers of recovered larvae were compared to meterologic data and the most significant weather variables were determined. Larvae were recovered 1 to 7 days on bare ground. Larvae survived longer in the fecal mass (mean of 3 days) than on the bare ground (mean of 2 days). Rain was the most significant variable, in that it was positive in its effects (higher larval count) early in the experiment (causing fecal mass breakdown and release of larvae) and negative (lower larval count) later in the experiment (spreading larvae away from test site). Larvae were also recovered 1 to 7 days on pea gravel. They were recovered for a mean 2.6 days from the fecal sample, a mean of 1.5 days from the rocks directly below the fecal mass, and a mean of 1.3 days from the remaining rocks. Here also, rain was the most significant weather factor. It was negatively significant (lower larval count) for the fecal mass (spreading of the larvae) and positive for those in the pebbles (increasing the moisture in the pebbles). Survival time of larvae on concrete was shorter than that on the other 2 substrates: from 0 to 2 days. Larvae were recovered a mean of 1.3 days from the fecal mass and a mean of 0., days from the surrounding concrete. Rain was positively significant early in the experiments in that it released trapped larvae from the fecal mass. Sunlight consistently was negatively significant (lower larval count) due to its lethality to the unprotected larvae.

  2. Transport of Escherichia coli and F-RNA bacteriophages in a 5 m column of saturated pea gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Lester W.; Mackenzie, Margaret L.; Karki, Naveena; Braithwaite, Robin R.; Hall, Carollyn H.; Flintoft, Mark J.

    2010-09-01

    The relative transport and attenuation of bacteria, bacteriophages, and bromide was determined in a 5 m long × 0.3 m diameter column of saturated pea gravel. The velocity ( V), longitudinal dispersivity ( αx) and total removal rate ( λ) were calculated from the breakthrough curves at 1 m, 3 m, and 5 m, at a flow rate of 32 L h - 1 . Inactivation ( μ) rates were determined in survival chambers. Two pure culture experiments with Escherichia coli J6-2 and F-RNA phage MS2 produced an overall V ranking of E. coli J6-2 > MS2 > bromide, consistent with velocity enhancement, whereby larger particles progressively move into faster, central streamlines of saturated pores. Removal rates were near zero for MS2, but were higher for E. coli J6-2. In two sewage experiments, E. coli and F-RNA phage Vs were similar (but > bromide). This was attributed to phage adsorption to colloids similar in size to E. coli cells. Sewage phage removal rates were higher than for the pure MS2 cultures. The application of filtration theory suggested that, whereas free phage were unaffected by settling, this was the primary removal mechanism for the colloid-associated phage. However, cultured and sewage E. coli removal rates were similar, suggesting the dominance of free E. coli cells in the sewage. When MS2 was attached to kaolin particles, it was transported faster than free MS2, but at similar rates to sewage phage. The μ values indicated little contribution of inactivation to removal of either cultured or sewage microorganisms. The results showed the importance of association with colloids in determining the relative transport of bacteria and viruses in gravels.

  3. Slag gravel for combined unbound materials in roads and ground works. Handbook; Slaggrus foer sammansatta obundna material i vaeg- och anlaeggningsbyggande. Handbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyllgren, Per (Skanska Sverige (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The market situation for waste products in Sweden was first surveyed in a report sponsored by the Swedish Construction Industry Development Fund (SBUF). An umbrella project for alternative ground materials for roads and rail roads lead by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) et al and sponsored among others by the Swedish Road Administration (Vaegverket), produced a series of handbooks. One of those deals with composed unbound mixtures, to make use of large volume waste materials in ground works. The umbrella project also focuses on the environmental issues in a joint report for all kinds of materials, which is an important supporting document. This report presents an adapted version of this composed concept to slag gravel from household and industrial waste incinerators. This project is funded by the Swedish waste and energy research organizations Vaermeforsk and Avfall Sverige along with the SBUF and the building company of Skanska. One important task is to link parties concerned, in order to collectively find adapted solutions from environmental and market points of view. The practical work was tied to selected companies in waste treatment and energy production at the front line of development: SYSAV in Malmoe; Renova in Goeteborg; and Umeaa Energi in Umeaa. The outcome depends on participation of able operators, capable of capitalizing these new business opportunities. This project engaged several local gravel producers and contractors as Sydsten and AaGAB in Malmoe and Skanska. The testing of several mixtures of slag gravel, crushed rock and reclaimed asphalt and trial activities resulted in useful production experiences and material characteristics. It is all summed up in general production and building recommendations. The washing of slag gravel reduces the leaching of soluble substances and improves the geotechnical performance, especially regarding the fines. The key factors in making slag gravel accepted are occupational safety, a secured surrounding

  4. Portland Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jacobsen, F. R.

    gravel are determined by drained triaxial tests have been performed in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and cylindrical specimens with equal height and diameter in order to obtain homogeneous stress and strain conditions during the tests....

  5. The influence of water stress on biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and on N rhizodeposition during reproductive growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahieu, S.; Germont, Florent; Aveline, A.

    2009-01-01

    are estimated. Moreover, grain legume crops are largely influenced by water stress while the world area exposed to drought periods may increase in the coming years due to global warming. This work aims to quantify biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and N...... of flowering (59 days after sowing, DAS 59), at the end of the drought period applied during pod filling (DAS 74) and at maturity (DAS 101). Water stress strongly affected pea dry weight and N accumulation. In both stressed treatments, nodule biomass and N content were reduced by about 65% in the absence...... rhizodeposition by a pea (Pisum sativum L.) when influenced by water stress. In a controlled environment, pea plants were exposed to a severe drought or not stressed, either at flowering or during pod filling. N rhizodeposition was measured using the split root method and plants were harvested at the end...

  6. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  7. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  8. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  9. Pretreatment of turkey fat-containing wastewater in coarse sand and gravel/coarse sand bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi Singh; Cai, Ling; Tuovinen, Olli H; Mancl, Karen M

    2010-02-01

    Fat, oil and grease in wastewater can be difficult to treat because of their slow decomposition. Traditional pretreatment facilities to remove fat, oil and grease from wastewater are increasingly costly. The hypothesis in this study was that pretreatment of animal fat-containing wastewater in sand and sand/gravel filters facilitates the conversion of slowly degradable organic matter measured as the difference between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) for subsequent biological treatment. The pretreatment was evaluated using simulated turkey-processing wastewater and coarse sand and sand/gravel filters at a constant hydraulic loading rate of 132L/m(2)/day. Two types of fixed media reactors were employed: (i) one set with a varying depth of coarse sand, and (ii) the second was similar but with an additional pea gravel cap. The results indicated that the relative removal of COD was slightly improved in the sand bioreactors with a pea gravel cap irrespective of the depth of coarse sand, but partial conversion to BOD(5) was not consistently demonstrated. Pea gravel may act as a sieve to entrap organic matter including fat globules from the wastewater. Multiple dosing at the same daily loading rate slightly improved the treatment efficiency of the sand bioreactors. The ratios of influent-COD/effluent-COD were always greater than 1.0 following a change in the dosing frequency after a rest period, suggesting that organic matter, specifically fat globules in this case, was retained by the column matrix.

  10. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  11. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...

  12. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  13. 柔性基础下筋箍碎石桩复合地基变形机理及其沉降分析方法%Deformation mechanism and settlement analysis method of reinforced-hoop-gravel-pile composite ground under flexible foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文贵; 赵聚才; 贺敏; 王江营

    2014-01-01

    筋箍碎石桩复合地基是一种新型的软土地基处理方法,其沉降分析是地基处理加固设计的重要依据。因此,首先结合柔性基础下筋箍碎石桩复合地基的工程特点,通过深入研究筋箍碎石桩复合地基变形力学机理,将复合地基划分为碎石桩筋箍段、非筋箍段和下卧层三部分,建立出筋箍碎石桩复合地基沉降计算模型。然后,通过考虑筋箍碎石桩复合地基筋箍段桩土相对滑移和非筋箍段桩土径向变形即“鼓胀效应”特点,引入典型桩土单元分析模型,分别建立出碎石桩筋箍段和非筋箍段压缩变形计算方法,进而提出了柔性基础下筋箍碎石桩复合地基沉降分析新方法。最后,通过工程实例计算,并与实测值及现有方法计算结果进行对比分析,表明该方法更能反映工程实际情况,克服了现有方法分析结果偏于危险的缺陷。%The reinforced-hoop-gravel-pile composite ground is a new method for treating soft soil ground, and its settlement analysis method is an important basis of the ground foundation reinforcement design. Firstly, the mechanical mechanism of the reinforced-hoop-gravel-pile composite ground under flexible foundation is discussed based on its engineering characteristics. The composite ground is divided into three sections: reinforced-hoop section, unreinforced-hoop section of gravel-pile and substratum section. A settlement analysis model for the reinforced-hoop-grave-pile composite ground is developed. Secondly, the pile-soil relative slip of the reinforced-hoop section and the radial deformation (e.g., lateral displacement of gravel pile) of the unreinforced-hoop section are taken into account. An analytical model with typical pile-soil element is imported, and the compressive deformation analysis methods for the reinforced-hoop and unreinforced-hoop sections are established respectively. Therefore, a new settlement analysis method

  14. Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.

  15. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  16. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  17. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  18. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  19. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  20. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  1. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  2. Shrinkage Properties of Cement Stabilized Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Cement stabilized gravel is an attractive material in road construction because its strength prop-erties are accommodating the increasingly higher requirements to the bearing capacity of a base course. However, reflection cracking of cement stabilized gravel is a major concern. In this pa......-per the shrinkage properties of cement stabilized gravel have been documented under various temperature and relative humidity conditions. Two cement contents corresponding to a 28-days compressive strength of 6.2 MPa and 12.3 MPa have been tested and compared. It is found that the coefficient of linear expansion...... for the two cement contents is 9.9 × 10-6 ⁰C-1 and 11.3 × 10-6 ⁰C-1, respectively. Furthermore, it is found that reflecting cracking can mainly be explained by temperature dependent shrinkage rather than moisture dependent shrinkage....

  3. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  4. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  5. Shelf Life Extension of Maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. Spread Using Sous Vide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ķirse Asnate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous vide packaging on the shelf life of maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. spread. Pea spreads were made of ground re-hydrated cooked maple peas ‘Bruno’ (Pisum sativum var. arvense L., to which salt, citric acid, oil, and spices were added. Pea spread was stored in polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE film pouches, packaged in vacuum and hermetically sealed. Pea spread pouches were heat treated in a water bath, then rapidly cooled in ice-water and stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C. Sous vide was applied in three different heat regimens +(65.0; 80.0 and 100.0 ± 0.5 °C with cooking times 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min at a constant temperature. Total plate count was determined according to ISO 4833-1:2014 on Plate Count Agar and Enterobacteriaceae determination was performed in accordance with ISO 21528-2:2004 on Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar. Total plate count in pea spread without thermal treatment was 3.41 log10 CFU g−1, in all sous vide packaged pea spread samples microbial contamination was significantly lower (p < 0.05. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in any samples. It is possible to extend the shelf life of sous vide maple pea spread up to 14 weeks when stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C.

  6. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  7. GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  8. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST-ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  9. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST/ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of 30% yard waste compost, 20% zero-valent iron (ZVI), 5% limestone and 45% pea gravel by volume was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The pilo...

  10. GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  11. GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  12. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST-ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  13. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST/ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of 30% yard waste compost, 20% zero-valent iron (ZVI), 5% limestone and 45% pea gravel by volume was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The pilo...

  14. GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and.... (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term is... the words “frozen” or “quick frozen”. The name of the food shall include a declaration of...

  16. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  17. Molecular Prediction of Pea Footrot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebimieowei Etebu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PCR based assays were developed in this study to quantitatively predict pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation. Pea footrot disease due to Nectria haematococca (anamorph Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi is linked to the presence of six pea pathogenicity (PEP genes (PDA1, PEP1, PEP2, PEP3, PEP4 and PEP5. Whilst molecular assays have been used recently to selectively detect these genes in soil- DNA, quantitative molecular assay has been extended to only the PEP3 gene whose role in pea pathogenicity is yet unknown. In this research, PCR-based quantification assays were developed to quantify the two pea pathogenicity genes (PDA and PEP5 with identified roles in pea pathogenicity from soil-DNA obtained from fields with pea footrot histories. Results showed that the quantitative molecular assays developed herein were both efficient. Amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR assay for the PDA and PEP5 gene were 97 and 89%, respectively. PDA and PEP5 gene copy numbers were shown to vary significantly (p = 0.01 between fields. However, the PDA gene copy numbers were relatively higher than those of the PEP5 gene in agricultural fields. The genes, especially PEP5 gene, were comparable to and positively correlated to the number of spores of pathogenic N. haematococca, and footrot disease. The PDA gene alone in soil could not cause footrot disease in peas after 8 weeks of planting; assays directed at it alone may therefore be insufficient to predict pea footrot disease. However, the molecular assay targeting the PDA alongside the PEP5 gene offers the opportunity for quantitative prediction of pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation.

  18. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  19. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach pea seeds contained very low grain weight, density, hydration capacity,  hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index than the green pea and field pea. Beach pea had higher amount of crude protein, ash, crude fibre and polyphenols, but lower in starch content than the green pea and field pea. Without any treatment to beach pea seeds the water uptake capacity was very low. Mechanical treatment to beach pea seeds increasedthe water uptake percentage. The recovery of hull was 3 to 6 times higher in beach pea than that of green pea and field pea. The crude protein  content in beach pea hull was 2-5% higher than others. The beach pea hull, dhal and whole seeds were good source of macro- and micro- minerals than that of the other two peas. The electron microscopic  structure of beach pea hull crude fibre showed a very close and compact structure than green pea and field pea hull crude fibre structure. Lowering the hardness of beach pea seeds with mechanical or chemical treatments will give more scope for their utilization in the human nutrition.

  20. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  1. Riverbank erosion induced by gravel bar accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Habersack, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    Riverbank erosion is known to be strongly fluvially controlled and determination of shear stresses at the bank surface and at the bank toe is a crucial point in bank erosion modeling. In many modeling attempts hydraulics are simulated separately in a hydrodynamic-numerical model and the simulated shear stresses are further applied onto the bank surface in a bank erosion model. Hydrodynamics are usually simulated at a constant geometry. However, in some cases bed geometry may vary strongly during the event, changing the conditions for hydrodynamics along the bank. This research seeks to investigate the effect of gravel bar accretion during high discharges on final bank retreat. At a restored section of the Drava River bed widenings have been implemented to counter bed degradation. There, in an initiated side-arm, self-dynamic widening strongly affects bed development and long-term connectivity to the main channel. Understanding the riverbank erosion processes there would help to improve planning of future restoration measures. At one riverbank section in the side-arm large bank retreat was measured repeatedly after several flow events. This section is situated between two groins with a distance of 60 m, which act as lateral boundaries to the self-widening channel. In front of this bank section a gravel bar developed. During low flow condition most discharge of the side-arm flows beside the gravel bar along the bank, but shear stresses are too low for triggering bank erosion. For higher discharges results from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model suggested shear stresses there to be generally low during the entire events. At some discharges the modeled flow velocities even showed to be recirculating along the bank. These results didn't explain the observed bank retreat. Based on the modeled shear stresses, bank erosion models would have greatly underestimated the bank retreat induced by the investigated events. Repeated surveys after events applying

  2. Pseudo-skin model for gravel-filled perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onyekonwu, M.O. [Laser Engineering Consultants/Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Okonkwo, F.C. [University of Port Harcourt Uniport, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    1997-11-05

    This paper discusses pressure losses due to flow in perforations filled with gravel or with formation material. These pressure losses are added to the pressure losses caused by convergence to perforations to obtain the pseudo-skin due to gravel-filled perforations. Calculation of the pressure loss due to convergence to perforation is discussed elsewhere. The flow in the perforation tunnel could be turbulent or laminar. Therefore, we calculated the pressure losses in a gravel-filled perforation using Forchheimer`s equation or Darcy`s law. However, we expect that the flow in such tunnels will be turbulent. Results from our model agree with experimental data published elsewhere. Also, our results show that pressure losses during flow through gravel-filled perforations could be substantial. Therefore, productivities of gravel pack completions may differ significantly from perforated completions in competent formation without gravel pack

  3. Studies susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pinodes (Jones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find plants resistant to Ascochyta pinodes causing leaf and pod spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in the field in the period 1975-1979 on artificially inoculated field plots. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Bodil, Borek, Jubilat, Karo, Meteor, Rondo and Żółty Pomorski were to found be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions pea and field pea cultivars were examined for susceptibility. to pathotypes 3 and 5 of Ascochyta pinodes. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Bodil, Borek, Jubilat, Karo, Meteor, Rondo and Żółty Pomorski to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pinodes.

  4. Putrescine metabolism in pea seedligs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wielgat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of putrescine (Putr. and N-carbamoylputrescine (N-CPutr. fed to excised pea seedlings was studied. Contrary to great toxicity of higher than 0.5% Putr., N-CPutr. even at higher concentration was not toxic for the plants. The detoxication of plant cells by carbamoylation of Putr. was postulated. No differences were found in ornithine carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.3. activity between plants fed with Putr. or N-CPutr. The most label from 14C-putrescine was found in γ-aminobutyric acid. No labeled N-CPutr. was detected. The "oscillatory" mechanism of N-CPutr. synthesis in higher plants was postulated.

  5. Use of GPR technique in surveying gravel road wearing course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarenketo, Timo; Vesa, Heikki

    2000-04-01

    During summer 1998 a series of tests were conducted in Finland in order to find out how Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology can be utilized at both the project and network level, when surveying the wearing course thickness of gravel roads. The second objective was to investigate the possibilities of applying dielectricity information obtained using the GPR surface reflection method when determining the quality of the gravel road wearing course. In this study GPR was tested at the project level on highway 9241 Simo in Northern Finland, where the information provided by the GPR and laboratory research was used in designing and proportioning a new wearing course. In the network level studies, performed in the maintenance areas of Kemi and Karstula in Northern and Central Finland the goal for using GPR was to inspect the condition and thickness of the wearing course and evaluate the need for additional wearing course material. The total length of the roads under survey was approximately 200 km and both a 1.5 GHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna were tested in this study. The research results show that GPR can be used to measure the thickness of the wearing course, the average measuring error against reference drilling measurements being 25 mm, which is considerably larger than the error of radar measurements in paved roads. To a great extent this is due to the fact that the thickness of the wearing course varies greatly even in the road's cross-section and thus a single reference thickness does not represent the actual thickness of the area measured with the GPR. The wearing course can often get mixed up with lower layers, which makes it difficult to determine the exact layer interfaces. For this reason reference information must always be used along with the GPR measurement results. Of the two GPR antennae tested, the horn antenna proved to be the more effective in measurements. The dielectric value of the wearing course, measured using the horn

  6. FOLIAR OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR GARDEN PEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion BOZGA; Oli mpia PANDIA; Saracin, Ion; Ioan Christi GANEA

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was the research and controlled study of the main physiological processes of the garden pea, the type Redondo, with the purpose of knowing adaptability the natural conditions in the area. In this purpose, was observed the special behavior of the garden pea Redondo, at the meteorological conditions that exist in this study (temperature, moist, light intensity) determining physiological that took place: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, perspiration, absorption and i...

  7. Success may be expected in packing with gravel and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Quite successful has been the use of gravel packs to control sand production in heavy-oil wells at the Morichal field in E. Venezuela. However, the oil and gravel squeeze is not recommended for wells with a high water-oil ratio.

  8. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  9. Gravel extraction and planform change in a wandering gravel-bed river: The River Wear, Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Duncan; Warburton, Jeff; Bracken, Louise

    2008-02-01

    Within-channel alluvial gravel extraction is one of the most important forms of anthropogenically induced morphological change in river channels. In British rivers commercial gravel extraction was widespread between the 1930s and 1960s, and limited gravel extraction operations to reduce flood risk or maintain navigation continue to the present day. Despite this, gravel extraction has received little attention in UK river studies. This paper examines the significance of within-channel gravel extraction, during the period 1945-1960, on the planform of the River Wear in northern England. The study focuses on two 3 km piedmont reaches at Wolsingham and Harperley Park, located at the margin of the upland zone. Examination of detailed archival accounts of the gravel extraction operations, supplemented by the analysis of aerial photographs has enabled the impact of gravel extraction on the channel of the River Wear to be determined. Sediment budget calculations suggest large sediment deficits in both study reaches, however, assessing potential impacts simply in terms of a sediment deficit may be misleading as channel adjustments depend on local factors and a detailed consideration of the reach-scale sediment budget. Differences in the nature of channel adjustments of both reaches were found to be primarily a function of the method of gravel extraction employed. Overall patterns of channel change along the extraction reaches, over the past 150 years, were similar to reaches where gravel extraction was not practiced. This highlights the difficulty of trying to establish the significance of different processes where both local (gravel extraction) and catchment-scale factors (climate and land use) are operating.

  10. The Dispersion and Burial of Well-Mixed Gravels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last two decades, results from numerous tracing experiments have shed light on grain kinematics in gravel-bed channels, including the distance of grain displacement and the depth of vertical mixing. However, most of these studies report results for relatively short temporal and spatial scales, when the behavior of tagged gravels may not reflect the overall streambed dynamics. The purpose of this talk is to highlight the grain kinematics of well-mixed gravels. Field observations come from a tracing experiment operated for nearly 20 years in Carnation Creek, which is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. The small gravel-bed river with pool-riffle-bar morphology and large woody debris experiences an average of 15 ± 5 floods per year, which facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates typically under partial sediment transport conditions. The magnetically tagged gravels, which range in size from 16 to 180 mm, have been recovered more than 10 times over the study period. Evaluation of the spatial distribution of tagged gravels over time documents the complex evolution of streamwise dispersion. Once tracers are well mixed vertically, the displacement of mobile gravels is only partly influenced by the tracer starting position in the bed morphology and its depth of burial before a given flooding period.

  11. Removal of uranium from gravel using soil washing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Kye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of nuclear technology has led to increasing radioactive waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the nuclear sites. Fine grained soils with a size of less than 4 mm are normally decontaminated using soil washing and electro-kinetic technologies. However, there have been few studies on the decontamination of gravels with a size of more than 4 mm. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination of gravel contaminated with radionuclides. The main objective of the present study on soil washing was to define the optimal condition for acid treatment of uranium-polluted gravel. In this study, soil washing method was applied to remove uranium from gravel. The gravel was crushed and classified as particle sizes. The gravel particles were treated with sulfuric acid in a shaking incubator at 60 .deg. C and 150 rpm for 3 h. The optimal particle size of gravel for soil washing in removal of uranium was between 0.45 and 2.0 mm.

  12. PEA: Polymorphic Encryption Algorithm based on quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Komninos, N.; Mantas, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a polymorphic encryption algorithm (PEA), based on basic quantum computations, is proposed for the encryption of binary bits. PEA is a symmetric key encryption algorithm that applies different combinations of quantum gates to encrypt binary bits. PEA is also polymorphic since the states of the shared secret key control the different combinations of the ciphertext. It is shown that PEA achieves perfect secrecy and is resilient to eavesdropping and Trojan horse attacks. A securit...

  13. Control of winter forage pea diseases by pea-oat intercropping under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Živanov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad to investigate the effect of forage winter pea and winter oat intercropping on ascochyta blight and powdery mildew infections. Seeding rations of pea and oat in Treatment 1 (50:50% and Treatment 2 (75:25%, respectively reduced ascochyta leaf infection by 32.5% and 12.8%, and powdery mildew infection by 12.3% and 17.5%, respectively, compared to pea monoculture used as a control (Treatment 3. The same seeding rations in Treatment 1 and 2 reduced ascochyta blight on pea plants by 37.2% and 18.3%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between the treatments in reducing powdery mildew on plants. The effects of different treatments on the average number of pods per plant, seed per pod, shriveled pods and seed weight were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Negative but not statistically significant effects on those measured parameters were registered in Treatments 2 and 3, while Treatment 1 showed positive effects on all parameters except shriveled pods. According to all data obtained in this research, the intercropping mixture of pea and oat at 50:50% seeding ratio had the best effect on the measured parameters while the intercropping mixture of pea and oat at 75:25% seeding ratio had low to moderate effect in comparison with pea monocrop.

  14. Experiment on Physical Desalinisation of Uranium-contaminated Gravel Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jai-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a result, the method to wash uranium-contaminated gravels could not get satisfactory desalinization rate. During the long oxidization process it was judged that uranium penetrated inside the gravels, so we tried to increase the desalinization rate by fragmentizing them into pieces and then washing them. The desalinization rate after fragmentizing the gravels into pieces and washing them brought a satisfactory result.. However, we could obtain desired concentration for gravels with high uranium concentration by fragmentizing them and breaking them further into even smaller pieces. Likewise, desalinization using soil washing process is complicated and has to go through multiple washing steps, resulting in too much of waste fluid generated accordingly. The increase of waste fluid generated leads to the increase in by-products of the final disposal process later on, bringing a not good economic result. Furthermore, taking into account that the desalinization rate is 65% during soil washing process, it is expected that gravel washing will show a similar desalinization result; it is considered uneasy to have a perfect desalinization only by soil washing. The grinding method is actually used in the primary desalinization process in order to desalinize radioactivity-contaminated concrete. This method does desalinization by grinding the radioactivity-contaminated area of the concrete surface with desalinization equipment, which enables a near-to-perfect desalinization for relatively thinly contaminated surface. Likewise, this research verified the degree of desalinization by applying the grinding method and comparing it to the fragmentizing-washing method, and attempted to find a method to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively. In order to desalinize uranium-contaminated gravels more effectively and compare to the existing washing-desalinization method, we conducted a desalinization experiment with grinding method that grinds gravel surface. As a

  15. Pea proteins for piglets: effects on digestive processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Guen, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    White-flowered pea ( Pisum sativum ) contains 20 to 25% crude protein (Nx6.25). The pea proteins consist in globulins (60%) and albumins (25%). Because the pea albumin proteins have biological activities due to their metabolic roles in the seed, some of them are called antinutritional factors (ANFs)

  16. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath...

  17. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  18. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  19. Experimental investigation on heat transport in gravel-sand materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureschat, Gerald; Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    out in a small size experiment. The experiment consists of a highly insulated box filled with two kinds of sand material crossed by a plastic heat pipe. Heat transfer is measured under dry and water satured conditions in a cross-section.The conclusions are clear. To obtain necessary heat conduction......The project is a basic study on the expected thermal behaviour of gravel storage initiated as a part of a research and demonstration gravel storage for seasonal heat storage.The goal of the investigation is to determine the heat transfer between heat pipes and sand-gravel storage media by carrying...... media no convectional heat transport is found. It would be relevant to extend the investigation to media that enables convectional heat transport. A last conclusion is that such experiments, necessary for proper designing of sand-gravel storage types, are a very cheap form of collecting information...

  20. Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: biofilm; constructed wetland; gravel; microbial activity; phenol. INTRODUCTION ... Microorganisms and natural physico-chemical processes are responsible for ..... (1986) Role of aquatic plants in wastewater treatment by artificial ...

  1. Quarries, Gravel Pits, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Quarries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gravel Pits'. Data by this publisher are often...

  2. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain: Primary Epiploic Appendagitis (PEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbanu Erkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA is a rare disease caused by torsion or spontaneous thrombosis of the central vein that drains epiploic appendages (EA. Primary Epiploic Appendagitis (PEA is an ischemic infarction. Although PEA is a self-limiting disease and does not require surgical intervention in most cases, it may mimic diseases that require surgical intervention or aggressive medical therapy, such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, or cholecystitis. In order to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention, PEA should be kept in mind when patients present with acute abdominal pain. In this report, we present a PEA case admitted with abdominal pain.

  3. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  4. Penetration and survival of riparian tree roots in compacted coarse gravel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Michael; Weissteiner, Clemens; Konzel, Christoph; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    covered by a 10 cm thick concrete layer, small boxes were filled and compacted with 6 gravel size mixtures (all but hydraulic bound mixture) up to the top of the boxes. In total 18 large boxes and 36 small boxes were constructed. Six month after planting the cuttings, above- and below-ground biomass was analysed for the first 6 large boxes and the first 12 small boxes. Soil moisture conditions were also analysed by 21 soil-moisture sensors (3 in each large box and 3 in the surrounding soil) in order to detect different soil moisture conditions throughout time. First results showed that after six months a slightly increase of root biomass production was detected in the finer gravel size mixtures.

  5. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar sirup, dextrose... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves....

  6. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  7. Swimming of the pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.P.C.; Muller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have to deal with different hydrodynamic regimes, depending on their size and speed during locomotion. The pea crab swims by beating the third and fourth pereiopod on opposite sides as pairs. Using particle tracking velocimetry and high-speed video recording, we quantify the kinema

  8. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  9. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  10. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  11. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  12. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  13. MANUAL. Fly ash in civil engineering, Gravel roads; HANDBOK. Flygaska i mark- och vaegbyggnad, Grusvaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munde, Hanna; Svedberg, Bo; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Ekdahl, Peter; Neren, Jens [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Vaerme Norden

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash based on biofuels or coal has been used as construction material for a long time in roads and other civil engineering applications. Some example, where it has been used in roadbase and subbase of gravel roads, are in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland, Vaestmanland and in Finland. The use of fly ash has contributed to good function for example as bearing capacity, thaw and frost capacity and good durability. This has also reduced costs for maintenance. The objective of this project was to develop a manual to provide a base for contemporary use of fly ash in road constructions. In the manual experience from studies, field tests and regulations has been compiled. The manual handles fly ash as base for products to be used in base and subbase in gravel roads. Future user of the guidelines are mainly consultant engineers and contractors. However the aim of the manual is to also support road administrators, environmental authorities and industry. The project has been carried out parallel to another ongoing national project titled 'Guidelines, Use of alternative materials in civil engineering'. The objective of that project is to establish a base for handling of alternative materials in Sweden. Fly ash in gravel roads are mainly used in two typical applications, one without any additive in a single layer and one with fly ash mixed with gravel. The use of flyash provides functional properties such as increased stiffness, stability and enhanced frost and thaw capacity for the road construction in total. Furthermore the products based on fly ash will have low permeability and good frost and thaw durability. These properties are for example related to fly ash quality, design and construction and are in general expected to be better than for traditional constructions using, for example, sand or gravel. The properties can be enhanced further by using binders such as cement and Merit. Fly ash should always be used above the ground water table with

  14. Dispersion Rates of Gravel Sizes in a Natural Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. Few studies are available to inform on the streamwise rate of gravel dispersion in natural channels, especially over a longer time scale. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify both the mean and maximum rates of different size fractions over 17 flood seasons. Empirical observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. An average of 15 ± 5 floods per year facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. About 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. Streamwise dispersion rates were quantified for the eight size fractions as virtual velocities based on 11 tracer recoveries completed between 1991 and 2008. Maximum velocities were calculated using the 10 largest values for each fraction. During the study period 258 floods capable of moving bedload occurred, with two exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. The hydrological forcing driving the dispersion process was quantified by expended flow energy. Fractional virtual velocities as a function of flow energy are fairly well described by power functions. In absolute terms, finer gravels have higher rates of dispersion than coarser gravels as expected. A slowdown in mean velocities over time occurs more quickly with finer gravels; function exponents range from -0.2 to -0.5. Maximum velocities adjusted more quickly than mean values, with function exponents spanning from -0.4 to -0.8. These grain size differences contribute to the streamwise sorting of bed material.

  15. The gravel sand transition in a disturbed catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, A. David

    1999-03-01

    More than 40 million cubic metres of mining waste were supplied to the Ringarooma River between 1875 and 1984, leading to successive phases of aggradation and degradation. The natural bed material is gravel but, given the volume of introduced load and the fact that much of the input was less than 5 mm in diameter, the size composition of the bed changed from gravel to sand during the phase of downstream progressive aggradation. A very sharp gravel-sand transition developed in which median grain size decreased from over 30 mm to under 3 mm in less than 500 m. With upstream supplies of mining debris becoming depleted first, degradation followed the same downstream progressive pattern as aggradation, causing the transition to migrate downstream. By 1984, the river could be regarded as a series of zones, each characterized by a particular bed condition: a natural cobble-gravel bed, unaffected by mining inputs (0-32 km); pre-disturbance bed re-exposed by degradation over 35-40 years (32-53 km); sandy substrate with a gravel armour produced by differential transport during degradation (53-65 km); sand dominated but with developing surface patches of coarser material (65-75 km); sandy bed reflecting the size composition of the original mining input (75-118 km). Although the gravel-sand transition itself is sharp, the transitional zone is lengthy (53-75 km). As degradation continues, the gravel-sand transition is expected to progress downstream but it has remained in a stable position for 12 years. Indeed, two major floods during the period released large quantities of sand from the sub-armour layer and newly-formed banks of mine tailings, causing fining both above and below the transition. Surface grain size is an adjustable component in the transitional zone as the river strives to recover from a major anthropogenic disturbance.

  16. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, J.S.; Hermsen, J.M.; Valentine, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  17. Channel Response to Gravel Mining Activities in Mountain Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Luis López S.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of bed material from active river channels usually affects the bed profile of the streambed, causing progressive degradation upstream and downstream of the extraction site. These effects can extend for kilometers affecting hydraulic structures located in the vicinity of the river reach. In this paper, the geomorphic effects of gravel mining are reviewed and summarized. Some cases in Venezuelan streams are presented to illustrate the problem. To describe the processes of erosion and sedimentation in a gravel extraction pit, a recent developed mathematical model for the simulation of flow and sediment transport in gravel-cobble bed streams is applied to a hypothetical case of gravel mining in a river channel. A simple rectangular dredge pit is imposed as initial condition in the channel bed, and changes in bed elevations and grain size distribution of bed material are calculated by using the numerical model. The process of deposition within the pit, and the downstream and upstream migration of the erosion wave are well simulated by the model and closely resemble the phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. The response of the friction coefficient to the changes in flow and bed elevations shows the importance in modeling adequately flow resistance and sediment transport in gravel-cobble bed streams.

  18. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  19. FOLIAR OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR GARDEN PEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOZGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was the research and controlled study of the main physiological processes of the garden pea, the type Redondo, with the purpose of knowing adaptability the natural conditions in the area. In this purpose, was observed the special behavior of the garden pea Redondo, at the meteorological conditions that exist in this study (temperature, moist, light intensity determining physiological that took place: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, perspiration, absorption and index of the foliar surface. During the vegetation have been realized observations regarding: moment of arising, apparition of the first real leaves, dynamics of formation leaves and their dimensions, the number of plant leaves, formation of ramification of the roots, apparition of the floral buds, opening flowers, formation of fruits and reaching full maturity.

  20. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  1. Characterization of fluvial islands along three different gravel-bed rivers of North-Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Picco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available River islands are defined as discrete areas of woodland vegetation located in the riverbed and surrounded by either water-filled channels or exposed gravels, exhibiting some stability and remaining exposed during bank-full flows. Islands are very important from both morphological and ecological points of view, representing the most natural condition of a fluvial system and are strongly influenced by human impacts. This study aims at analyzing the morphological and vegetation characteristics of three different typologies of islands (pioneer, young and stable in three distinct rivers in the NE of Italy, affected by different intensities of human pressure. The study was conducted on several sub-reaches of the Piave, Brenta and Tagliamento rivers. The first is a gravel-bed river, which suffered intense and multiple human impacts, especially due to dam building and in-channel gravel mining. The same alterations can also be observed in the Brenta river, which also presents bank protections, hydropower schemes and water diversions. On the other hand, the Tagliamento river is a gravel-bed river characterized by a high level of naturality and very low human pressures. The analyses were conducted using aerial photographs and LiDAR data acquired in 2010 in order to define and distinguish the three different island typologies and to obtain a characterization of ground and vegetation features. The results suggest that the fluvial islands lie at different elevations and this fact implies a different resistance capacity during flood events. Pioneer islands and young islands lie at lower elevations than stable islands causing a lower capacity to survive during considerable flood events, in fact in most cases those islands typologies were removed by ordinary floods. Stable islands lie at higher elevations and only intense and infrequent flood events (RI > 10-15 years are able to determine considerable erosions. Regarding the characteristics of vegetation, we can

  2. Disturbance of fluvial gravel substrates by signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen; Reid, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The reworking of substrates by organisms, termed bioturbation, is considered a fundamental processes in marine and terrestrial environments but has remained relatively unstudied in fluvial environments. This studies looks at the bioturbation of fluvial gravel substrates by signal crayfish, an internationally important invasive species. We investigated the impact of signal crayfish activity in a laboratory flume. Bioturbation by crayfish on both loose arrangements of gravel and water-worked surfaces were studied and two sizes of narrowly-graded gravel were used; 11 - 16 mm and 16 - 22 mm. A laser scanner was used to obtain high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of gravel surfaces before and after crayfish activity. These DEMs were used to quantify topographic and structural changes to the surfaces due to the activity of crayfish. It was found that crayfish moved substantial quantities of material from all surfaces within six hours of introduction. The majority of the disturbance was associated with small scale (≤ 1 median grain diameter) movements of surface grains due to walking and foraging by crayfish. This textural change resulted in a structural alteration to the substrate surface. After six hours of crayfish activity, there was a 14% reduction in the imbrication of the grains from water-worked surfaces. Crayfish also constructed shallow pits and heaped excavated material into a series of mounds around its edge. Crayfish would always posture in pits in the same way. They would fold their vulnerable tails under their body and place their claws in front of their heads. When in pits crayfish predominately orientated themselves so they were facing an upstream direction. This implies that crayfish dig pits in order to streamline their bodies in the flow and lower their protrusion. Although pits and mounds contributed a relatively small proportion to the overall disturbance of substrates, they significantly increased the roughness of substrates. Pit and

  3. Sediment supply controls equilibrium channel geometry in gravel rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Allison M.; Finnegan, Noah J.; Willenbring, Jane K.

    2017-03-01

    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the channel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a commonly used assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size (τbf*/τc*). We find that τbf*/τc* is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.35, n = 96) than in river reaches elsewhere on the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels patterns in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local τbf*/τc* at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing τbf*/τc*, suggesting channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as also shown through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.

  4. Spatial rooting patterns of gliricidia, pigeon pea and maize intercrops and effect on profile soil N and P distribution in southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Janssen, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competition or complementarity between tree and crop roots for below ground resources have been a major debate in simultaneous systems. Root studies were conducted in three cropping systems, namely: sole maize, pigeon pea/maize intercropping and Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia)/maize in

  5. Subsurface investigation with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data was collected on a small test plot at the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research & Education Facility in Columbus, Ohio. This test plot was built to USGA standards for a golf course green, with a constructed sand layer just beneath the surface overlying a gravel layer, that i...

  6. Improving sand and gravel utilization and land-use planning. - 3D-modelling gravel resources with geospatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad Libach, Lars; Wolden, Knut; Dagestad, Atle; Eskil Larsen, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    The Norwegian aggregate industry produces approximately 14 million tons of sand and gravel aggregates annually to a value of approximately 100 million Euros. Utilization of aggregates are often linked to land-use conflicts and complex environmental impacts at the extraction site. These topics are managed on a local municipal level in Norway. The Geological Survey of Norway has a database and a web map service with information about sand and gravel deposits with considerable volumes and an importance evaluation. Some of the deposits covers large areas where the land-use conflicts are high. To ease and improve land-use planning, safeguard other important resources like groundwater and sustainable utilization of sand and gravel resources - there is a need for more detailed information of already mapped important resources. Detailed 3D-models of gravel deposits is a tool for a better land-use- and resource management. By combining seismic, GPR and resistivity geophysical profile data, borehole data, quaternary maps and lidar surface data, it has been possible to make 3D-models of deposits and to further research the possibilities for distinguishing different qualities and volumes. Good datasets and a detailed resource map is a prerequisite to assess geological resources for planners, extractors and neighbours. Future challenges lies in use of, often old, geophysical data, and combining these. What kind of information is it possible to grasp from depth-data that actually argues for a more detailed delineation of resources?

  7. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  8. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  9. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  10. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  11. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  12. Effect of presowing magnetic treatment on properties of pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Haq, Z. U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    The pea seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal magnetic fields. The effects of electromagnetic treatment on seedling growth and chlorophyll contents and have been investigated. Seed were sown after magnetic field treatment according to ISTA under controlled laboratory conditions. The magnetic filed treatment of seeds increased the growth significantly (Pmagnetic field could be used to enhance the growth in pea plant.

  13. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  14. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Volcanic eruption; or (8) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if due to a cause of loss contained in... the county. Green peas. Shell type and pod type peas that are grown under a processor contract to be... with section 12, all production from any basic unit in excess of the amount under contract will...

  15. 40 CFR 436.30 - Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction sand and gravel subcategory. 436.30 Section 436.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Construction Sand and Gravel Subcategory § 436.30 Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and...

  16. 75 FR 3915 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Sand and Gravel Activities on... for three sand and gravel activities proposed on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and described in... noncompetitive basis, the rights to OCS sand, gravel, or shell resources for shore protection, beach or...

  17. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  18. Prediction of sand transport over immobile gravel from supply limited to capacity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prediction of the transport of sand in armored gravel reaches downstream of dams is complicated by variable bed conditions ranging from sand transported through gravel to sand in transport over buried gravel. Knowledge of the rate of sand transport in these conditions, however, is necessary for...

  19. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  20. Flow resistance in a compound gravel-bed bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Afzalimehr; Manouchehr Heidarpour; Alireza Salimi

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of a gravel-bed in a compound bend (similar to sinusoidal top view) of a natural river (Zayandehrud River flowing through Isfahan, Iran) has been investigated for flow resistance analysis, measuring the velocity with a micro current meter. The data were analysed and the following observations were made. In a compound bend, the law of the wall can be valid for up to 66% of the flow depth from the bed. The parabolic law is the most effective method for the determination of shear velocity. Based on the existing criteria for verifying the equilibrium boundary layer, the flow cannot be in equilibrium. The shear stress distribution and the sediment transport parameters have considerable influence on resistance to flow. Froude number and the flow depth relative to the representative gravel size have little effect on the flow resistance estimation.

  1. Experimental investigation on heat transport in gravel-sand materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureschat, Gerald; Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    out in a small size experiment. The experiment consists of a highly insulated box filled with two kinds of sand material crossed by a plastic heat pipe. Heat transfer is measured under dry and water satured conditions in a cross-section.The conclusions are clear. To obtain necessary heat conduction...... in sand-gravel material, the storage media is to be water satured. In this case, handling of such material on site is rather complex. The conduction is highly dependent on the thermal properties of the storage media and so is the overall thermal performance of a storage applying such media. For sandy...... media no convectional heat transport is found. It would be relevant to extend the investigation to media that enables convectional heat transport. A last conclusion is that such experiments, necessary for proper designing of sand-gravel storage types, are a very cheap form of collecting information...

  2. Symbiotic N2 fixation in pea and field bean estimated by 15N fertilizer dilution in field experiments with barley as a reference crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    years. At the full bloom/flat pod growth stage from 30 to 59 per cent of total N2 fixation had taken place. The proportion of total N derived from N2 fixation at maturity was higher in seeds than in vegetative plant parts and amounted to 59.5, 51.3 and 66.3 per cent of total above-ground plant N...... in the two pea cultivars and field bean, respectively (three-year means). The recovery of fertilizer N was 62.2, 70.2, 52.1, and 69.5 per cent in the two pea cultivars, field bean and barley, respectively. Growth analysis indicated that barley did not meet the claims for an ideal reference crop in the15N...... fertilizer dilution technique for estimating N2 fixation in pea and field bean. ‘Starter’-N neither increased the seed yield nor the N content of the grain legumes....

  3. Foam used to drill, gravel-pack deep gas well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, J.

    1984-05-07

    Surface-generated or preformed stable foam recently has been used as the circulating medium to drill-in and gravel-pack open hole completions along the Gulf Coast. With minor modifications to conventional tools and procedures, preformed stable foam is a viable alternative to current practices in completing underpressured reservoirs. Postproduction results indicate this is a cost-effective and reliable completion method.

  4. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Comparison of different forms of gravel as aggregate in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru ORITOLA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gradation plays an important role in the workability, segregation, and pump ability of concrete. Uniformly distributed aggregates require less paste which will also decrease bleeding, creep and shrinkage while producing better workability, more durable concrete and higher packing. This attempt looks at the effect of particle size distribution pattern for five types of gravel aggregate forms, angular, elongated, smooth rounded, irregular and flaky as related to the strength of concrete produced. Different forms of naturally existing gravel aggregate were collected from a particular location and tests were carried out on them to determine their gradation. Based on the gradation the aggregates were used to prepare different samples of grade 20 concrete with water-cement ratio of 0.5. The particle size distribution resulted in coefficients of uniformity ranging from 1.24 to 1.44. The granite aggregate, which serves as a reference, had a coefficient of uniformity of 1.47. Tests were conducted on fresh and hardened concrete cube samples. The concrete sample CT5 recorded a slump of 32mm and highest compressive strength value of 21.7 N/mm2, among the concrete produced from different forms of gravel.

  6. Suitability of Periwinkle Shell as Partial Replacement for River Gravel in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel MANASSEH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of periwinkle shells, a small gastropod sea snail (mollusk, as a replacement of river gravel in concrete production was investigated. Physical and mechanical properties of the shells and well-graded river gravel were determined and compared. Concrete cubes were prepared using proportions of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3, 3:1 and 0:1 periwinkle shells to river gravel by weight, as coarse aggregate. Compressive strength tests were carried out on the periwinkle gravel concrete cubes. The bulk density of the periwinkle shells was found to be 515 kg/m3 while that for river gravel was 1611 kg/m3. The aggregate impact values for periwinkle shells and river gravel were 58.59 % and 27.1 % respectively. Concrete cubes with periwinkle shells alone as coarse aggregate were lighter and of lower compressive strengths compared to those with other periwinkle: gravel properties. The 28-day density and compressive strength of periwinkle were 1944 kg/m3 and 13.05 N/mm2 respectively. Density, workability and the compressive strength of periwinkle concrete increased with increasing inclusion of river gravel. From this study, it can be concluded that periwinkle shells can be used as partial replacement for river gravel in normal construction works especially in places where river gravel is in short supply and periwinkle shells are readily available.

  7. [Fasciation in pea: basic principles of morphogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniushin, A A; Gostimskiĭ, S A

    2006-01-01

    A study of fasciated pea Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae) mutant Shtambovy in comparison with the wild type (Nemchinovsky cultivar) has shown that fasciation is a result of abnormal cohesion of axial or other structures which arise in a superfluous amount due to uncontrolled meristic processes. In some cases, the organs with the same number and position as in the wild type can be fascinated. Subsequent defasciation and some features of tissue differentiation suggest that the meristem of a fasciated shoot retains a certain degree of discreteness which reflects its complex structure. The number and position of leaves in a node is a function of the diameter of the leaf primordium inhibitory zone, size of the shoot apical meristem, and number of bundles in a shoot. In the absence of the apex proliferative activity combined with the reduction of phyllomes in the upper nodes, abnormal cohesion of the second order axes, racemes, can take place. As a result, inflorescences of special type develop.

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pea Island NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  9. [Narrative report : Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge : Year 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1941 narrative report for Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge lists wildlife observed on the refuge and compares it with 1940 data. Water conditions,...

  10. Transient expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: Pea plants, acidic fibroblast growth factor, leave injection, plant ... It plays important roles in various stages of development and morphogenesis and also in angiogenesis and wound healing processes (Basilico and.

  11. Võimuliitlased ei pea Kiisleri kiirreformi võimalikuks / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Reformierakond ja Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond tunnistavad haldusreformi vajalikkust, kuid ei pea võimalikuks regionaalminister Siim-Valmar Kiisleri plaani jätta juba sel sügisel Eestisse vaid 20 omavalitsust

  12. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    Keywords: green pea, chickpea, snack, frying, steaming, baking, microwave cooking, sensory .... characteristic of volatiles derived from cooked dhal. Assessors ... snacks could be attributed to crust formation during frying. According to Gupta.

  13. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  14. Narrative report : Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge : Year 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1940 narrative report for Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge provides a roster of army personnel and service personnel, a summary of education, information...

  15. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  17. Salmon as biogeomorphic agents in gravel-bed rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spawning salmon have been known to affect streambed texture, influence sediment transport, and play an important geomorphological role in streams by digging nests or redds. We examined the impact of salmon and floods on channel morphology, bed material dispersion and yield, bed surface texture and stability, fine sediment dynamics and nutrient retention of small gravel bed streams in British Columbia, Canada. Channel morphology and dynamics of a large number of streams in British Columbia are partially or wholly affected by fish bioturbation. The scale of the impact is controlled by the salmon species, population density, and channel size and characteristics. Sediment transport measurements show that salmon play a significant role in erosion and deposition within the channel by promoting vertical and longitudinal mixing of the substrate, as well as by changing the relative mobility of the gravel on the bed. The action of salmon bioturbation promotes distinctive bedforms and packing of sediment grains. In streams with dense populations of sockeye or chum salmon the whole surface of spawning reaches may be modified, as bars are excavated and pools are filled. For chinook salmon the organization of spawning bedforms ranges from scattered mounds or ‘gravel pile-ups’ to well-ordered dunes. Such dunes extend for hundreds of meters to kilometres along the river bed. They exhibit amplitudes of more than one metre and wavelengths of 10 to 15 m. Our conclusion that mass-spawning fish can dominate sediment transport in mountain drainage basins has fundamental implications for understanding channel morphology, aquatic ecosystem dynamics, stream responses to environmental change, and river restoration programs.

  18. Sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation planning using microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariffin, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the application of microcomputers, also known as personal computers, in planning for sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation at a site in Story County, Iowa. This site, called the Arrasmith Pit, is operated by Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc. The Arrasmith site, which encompasses an area of about 25 acres, is a relatively small site for aggregate mining. However, planning for the concurrent mine operation and reclamation program at this site is just as critical as with larger sites and the planning process is the same.

  19. Particulate removal processes and hydraulics of porous gravel media filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, J. M.; Phoenix, V. R.; Dorea, C. C.; Haynes, H.; Sloan, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) are rapidly gaining acceptance as a low-cost tool for treating urban runoff pollutants close to source. Road runoff water in particular requires treatment due to the presence of high levels of suspended particles and heavy metals adsorbed to these particles. The aim of this research is to elucidate the particle removal processes that occur within gravel filters that have so far been considered as 'black-box' systems. Based on these findings, a better understanding will be attained on what influences gravel filter removal efficiency and how this changes throughout their design life; leading to a more rational design of this useful technology. This has been achieved by tying together three disparate research elements: tracer residence time distribution curves of filters during clogging; 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of clogging filters and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of complex filter pore networks. This research relates column average changes in particle removal efficiency and tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) due to clogging with non-invasive measurement of the spatial variability in particle deposition. The CFD modelling provides a link between observed deposition patterns, flow velocities and wall shear stresses as well as the explanations for the change in RTD with clogging and the effect on particle transport. Results show that, as a filter clogs, particles take a longer, more tortuous path through the filter. This is offset by a reduction in filter volume resulting in higher flow velocities and more rapid particle transport. Higher velocities result in higher shear stresses and the development of preferential pathways in which the velocity exceeds the deposition threshold and the overall efficiency of the filter decreases. Initial pore geometry is linked to the pattern of deposition and subsequent formation of preferential pathways. These results shed light on the 'black-box' internal

  20. Gravel Image Segmentation in Noisy Background Based on Partial Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Because of wide variation in gray levels and particle dimensions and the presence of many small gravel objects in the background, as well as corrupting the image by noise, it is difficult o segment gravel objects. In this paper, we develop a partial entropy method and succeed to realize gravel objects segmentation. We give entropy principles and fur calculation methods. Moreover, we use minimum entropy error automaticly to select a threshold to segment image. We introduce the filter method using mathematical morphology. The segment experiments are performed by using different window dimensions for a group of gravel image and demonstrates that this method has high segmentation rate and low noise sensitivity.

  1. Scientific Bases of Innovation Technology of Drill-Hole Equipment by Cryogenic-Gravel Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коzhevnikov, А.А.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing technologies of cryogenic-gravel filter element and equipment of drill-hole water receiving part by a cryogenic-gravel filter are described. Compoundings of mineral binder and cryogenically-gravel composition are substantiated. Patterns of physical fields influence on the change of their properties and technological operations of equipping drill-hole water receiving part on changes of physical, mechanical, thermal and technological properties of experimental cryogenic gravel filter element are established. Parameters of delivery technology of cryogenicgravel filter to drill-hole water receiving part are theoretically and experimentally worked out.

  2. On the structure of turbulent gravel bed flow: Implications for sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Seyed Hossein; Righetti, Maurizio; Wharton, Geraldene; Romano, Giovanni Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the turbulent flow field over gravel particles as a first step towards understanding sediment transport in a gravel bed river. Specifically, the vertical momentum flux in gravel bed turbulent flow was investigated with particular attention to the near-bed region. Spatial organization of vertical momentum flux was studied with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a horizontal layer 1mm above the gravel crests. The vertical momentum flux through the water column was described with digital PIV measurements in three vertical planes. The data showed that near the gravel bed, net turbulent momentum flux spatially varies with respect to bed topography. Analysis of the vertical velocity data revealed that near the gravel particle crests, there is a significant net vertical form-induced momentum flux approximately with the same order of magnitude as the net vertical turbulent momentum flux. Above the crests, total net vertical momentum flux is positive. However, below the crests, despite noticeable positive form-induced momentum flux, total net vertical momentum flux is negative. Results of quadrant analysis show that variation of turbulent net vertical momentum flux through water column is in agreement with prevalence of upward movement of low velocity flow (known as ejection) above gravel crests and downward movement of high velocity flow (known as sweep) below gravel crests. Below gravel crests (- 0.1 particles but their contribution is not sufficient to move fine particles in the longitudinal direction.

  3. Suitability of Periwinkle Shell as Partial Replacement for River Gravel in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Joel MANASSEH; Olufemi I. AGBEDE

    2009-01-01

    The suitability of periwinkle shells, a small gastropod sea snail (mollusk), as a replacement of river gravel in concrete production was investigated. Physical and mechanical properties of the shells and well-graded river gravel were determined and compared. Concrete cubes were prepared using proportions of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3, 3:1 and 0:1 periwinkle shells to river gravel by weight, as coarse aggregate. Compressive strength tests were carried out on the periwinkle gravel concrete cubes. The bulk d...

  4. A study on the decontamination of the gravels contaminated by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ukryang; Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Moon, Jaikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The amount of gravels contaminated by uranium is usually about 10% of the contaminated soil. Since such contaminated gravels show different kinds and volumes, it would cost a considerable amount of money if they are to be disposed of without going through any special process. Also, there has not been any particular way or technology for processing the gravels contaminated by uranium. Therefore, various fundamental experiments and researches have been carried out for the decontamination of the gravels contaminated by uranium. Through such experiments and researches, it has been possible to obtain some significant results. The acid cleaning process, which is based on the application of the soil cleaning method, can be regarded as one of the major ways used for decontamination. When the gravels contaminated by uranium are cleaned as they are, most of them tend to show an extremely-low level of decontamination. Therefore, it could be said that the inside of each gravel is also contaminated by uranium. As a result, the gravels contaminated by uranium need to be crushed before being cleaned, which would result in a higher level of efficiency for decontamination compared to the previous way. Therefore, it is more effective to crush the subject gravels before cleaning them in terms of decontamination. However, such test results can only be applied to the gravels contaminated by an average level of uranium concentration. Regarding the gravels showing a higher level of uranium concentration than the average, it is still necessary to carry out more researches. Therefore, this study focused on the level of efficiency for decontamination after the contaminated gravels were crushed before being cleaned, in order to find a way to effectively dispose of the gravels contaminated by high-concentration uranium and secure a high level of efficiency for decontamination. In order to decontaminate the gravels which were contained in the soil contaminated by uranium and showed a higher

  5. The Persistence of Potential Refugia Mapped from Gravel Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Floods disturb aquatic habitats. On an event basis, flood characteristics control the spatial extent and depth of streambed disturbance for a given river and set limits to the amount of channel refugia for biota. The aim of this research is to quantify the area of potential refugia that persists over a long flood series and therefore affects many generations of aquatic populations. Field observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Streambed disturbance was documented by monitoring the three-dimensional positions of about 2500 magnetically tagged gravels over 277 floods. Tracer movement and burial observations were used to produce cellular maps of the frequency of bed disturbance within a GIS. The streambed exhibits different frequencies of disturbance as expected. The most active areas make up about 1% of the streambed and tend to be located near the channel thalweg. Undisturbed areas constitute more than 25% of the bed, and provide distinct areas of longer-term refugia that persist over the range of flood magnitudes observed. In addition to validating a key aspect of partial sediment transport, the results suggest that the natural variability of floods facilitates diverse aquatic communities by ensuring the availability of channel refugia over time.

  6. 不同粉碎方式的碗豆粉对豌豆挂面品质的影响%Influences of pea flour milled by different methods on the quality of pea dried noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓红; 沈群; 张敏; 李芳; 谭斌

    2016-01-01

    Making dried noodles with mixed wheat flour and yellow pea flour which was ground by Pin mill (PM),Roller mill(RM),Stone mill(SM)and Hammer mill(HM).The qualities of pea flour and the dried noodles were evaluated.The effect of milling method on the qualities of pea flour and the dried noo-dles was discussed.The result showed that The particle size of yellow pea flours milled by RM and PM are smaller with more uniformity than that milled by HMand SM.The particle size of pea flours (D[4, 3],D[3,2],d(0.5),d(0.9))correlates very significantly negative with damaged starch content(r were-0.929,-0.708,-0.757,-0.978 respectively );The pea noodles containing flour milled by RM were smoother,with better uniformity and appearance and higher score.Next was that by PM.While some granules can be seen on surface of the pea noodles which contained pea flour milled by HM and SM.The total scores of the noodles contain pea flour milled by RMand PMare 91.4 and 91.8 respective-ly,which were suitable to grind flore for making dried noodles than Stone mill and Hammer mill.%用四种粉碎方式(锤磨、针磨、辊磨和石磨)得到的脱皮黄豌豆粉,制作豌豆粉挂面,并对豌豆粉和豌豆挂面的品质进行评价,探讨粉碎方式对豌豆及豌豆挂面品质的影响规律。结果表明:辊磨制备的豌豆粉粒度分布均匀,粒度最小,其次是针磨,锤磨和石磨制得的豌豆粉粒度较大,且分布不均匀;豌豆粉粒径的 D[4,3]、D[3,2]、d(0.5)、d(0.9)与损伤淀粉含量均呈极显著的负相关关系(r 分别为-0.929、-0.708、-0.757、-0.978);辊磨的豌豆挂面表面光滑、均匀,外观好,感观得分最高,其次是针磨的豌豆挂面,锤磨和石磨的豌豆挂面表面有肉眼可见的小白色颗粒,外观稍差;辊磨的豌豆挂面和针磨玩豆挂面的总分最高,分别为91.4分,和91.8分,适合制作豆类挂面。

  7. Gene-based SNP discovery and genetic mapping in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Anoop; Ramsay, Larissa; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Stonehouse, Robert; Li, Rong; Condie, Janet; Shunmugam, Arun S K; Liu, Yong; Jha, Ambuj B; Diapari, Marwan; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Gregoire; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E; Warkentin, Thomas D; Sharpe, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Gene-based SNPs were identified and mapped in pea using five recombinant inbred line populations segregating for traits of agronomic importance. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the world's oldest domesticated crops and has been a model system in plant biology and genetics since the work of Gregor Mendel. Pea is the second most widely grown pulse crop in the world following common bean. The importance of pea as a food crop is growing due to its combination of moderate protein concentration, slowly digestible starch, high dietary fiber concentration, and its richness in micronutrients; however, pea has lagged behind other major crops in harnessing recent advances in molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, partly due to its large genome size with a large proportion of repetitive sequence, and to the relatively limited investment in research in this crop globally. The objective of this research was the development of a genome-wide transcriptome-based pea single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker platform using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 1,536 polymorphic SNP loci selected from over 20,000 non-redundant SNPs identified using deep transcriptome sequencing of eight diverse Pisum accessions were used for genotyping in five RIL populations using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The first high-density pea SNP map defining all seven linkage groups was generated by integrating with previously published anchor markers. Syntenic relationships of this map with the model legume Medicago truncatula and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) maps were established. The genic SNP map establishes a foundation for future molecular breeding efforts by enabling both the identification and tracking of introgression of genomic regions harbouring QTLs related to agronomic and seed quality traits.

  8. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    or relative yield advantage of 53% was obtained from intercropping 75 Faba bean: 25% field pea. ... sole crop and intercropping with field pea is a viable option for sustainable productivity in ... competitive ability of the crops varies with plant.

  9. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  10. Pea enation mosaic virus genoma RNA contains no polyadenylate sequences and cannot be aminoacylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, T L; De Zoeten, G A; Hall, T C

    1978-01-01

    An active synthetase enzyme preparation from peas (Pisum sativum L.) did not catalyze the aminoacylation of pea enation mosaic virus RNA. The viral RNA was shown not to contain polyadenylic acid sequences.

  11. Quantifying Stream Bed Gravel Mobility from Friction Angle Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M. A.; Dunne, T.

    2012-12-01

    A method to measure friction angles using force gauges was field tested to determine its utility at quantifying critical shear stress in a gravel bedded reach of the San Joaquin River in California. Predictions of mobility from friction angles were compared with observations of the movement of tagged particles from locations for which local shear stress was quantified with a validated 2-D flow model. The observations of movement, distance of travel, and location of the end of travel were made after extended flow releases from Friant dam. Determining the critical shear stress for gravel bed material transport currently depends upon bedload sampling or tracer studies. Often, such measurements can only be made during occasional and untimely flow events, and at limited, suboptimal locations. Yet, theoretical studies conclude that the friction angle is an important control on the critical shear stress for mobility of any grain size, and therefore of the excess shear stress which strongly influences bedload transport rate. The ability to predict bed mobility at ungauged and unmonitored locations is also an important requirement for planning of flow regimes and channel design. Therefore, a method to measure friction angles that can be performed quickly in low flow conditions would prove useful for river management and research. To investigate this promising method friction angle surveys were performed at two riffle sites where differences in bed material size and distribution, and channel slope were observed. The friction angle surveys are sensitive enough to detect differences between the sites as well as spatially and temporally within a single riffle. Low friction angles were observed along the inside of a long bend where sand content was greater (by ~20%) than other surveyed locations. Friction angles decreased slightly after a depositional event associated with transient large woody debris and bank erosion, and increased again after a 5 year return interval flow

  12. PRESERVING QUALITY OF FROZEN GREEN PEAS DURING LONG TIME STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA DIMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the degree which fresh green peas maintain their technological properties and nutritional components during long-term storage, for a period of 24 months, in a defined condition of the air, at maximum -18°C. Peas were blanched, at four different durations of this operation and the same temperature of the blanching water, 95°C. The peas were frozen after end stored. In conditions of long-term storage of frozen peas, it has been found a considerable loss of the initial content of vitamin C and damage of chlorophyll (total, a and b, under the action of chlorophyllase, causing some gray compounds. The conditions of the storage in frozen stage produced a distortion of color and sensorial qualities, higher as the storage temperature was higher than prescribed. It was found that the best results in preserving quality of peas during long-term storage (24 months were obtained for the blanched samples at 4 minutes at 95°C. The reducing of the content of vitamin C, chlorophyll a and b, and sensorial qualities was the lowest, overall.

  13. 75 FR 68606 - Chetco River Gravel Mining Executive and Technical Teams; Notification of Availability of Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Chetco River Gravel Mining Executive and Technical Teams... Chetco River Gravel Mining Executive and Technical Teams. These work products consist of meeting agendas...: The Executive and Technical Teams were established in 2007 as part of an initiative to evaluate, on...

  14. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  15. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United States from Kenya only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other applicable...

  17. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI AGENCY: Department of the Navy... of the Navy announces the availability of, the Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and... appropriate. Dates and Addresses: The waiting period for the Final PEA and FONSI will end 30 days...

  18. Research review of the cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam is a new style of dam that owes the advantages both of the concrete faced rock-fill dam (CRFD) and roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dam,because of which it has attracted much attention of experts home and abroad.At present,some researches on physic-mechanical property of CSG material and work behavior of CSG dam have been done.This paper introduces the development and characteristics of CSG dam systematically,and summarizes the progress of the study on basic tests,constitutive relation of CSG material and numerical analysis of CSG dam,in addition,indicates research and application aspect of the dam.

  19. STABILITY OF GRAVEL BED RIVERS BASED ON SIEVE ANALYSIS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas DITTRICH

    2001-01-01

    Research was carried out at the University of Karlsruhe in the last 10 years to modify existing formulas and improve our knowledge on the determination of the stability of stream beds consisting of gravels and stones. Streams in the middle mountain region with typical slopes of I = 0.05% to 0.8% as well as those with distinct step-pool structures and slopes of I > 4% and I ≤10% were investigated. Most of the experiments were conducted in the Theodor-Rehbock Laboratory. However, some of the results that had been obtained under laboratory conditions could be verrified with existing field data. In the following, the results and formulas of practical importance will be introduced and discussed.

  20. The model test of restoration project of the gravel beach of Chen Village fishing port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. X.; Gui, J. S.; Sun, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Gravel beach is a case in coastal landform by wave action. It is more and more crucial for the environment of coastal engineering in recent years. However, it is poorly studied for it in China. And this paper which is based on the model test of Restoration Project of the Gravel Beach of Chen Village Fishing Port, uses two dimensional normal physical models, aiming at exploring the movement of gravel beach under wave action and verifying the stability of the gravel beach section. The test depends on different water levels (designed high water level, designed low water level, and extreme high water level) and return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 years once). Finally, two distinct experimental sections are got under the changed conditions and the movement law of gravels is obtained.

  1. Bedload pulses in a hydropower affected alpine gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Johann; Kreisler, Andrea; Rindler, Rolf; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the sediment resupply and transport dynamics at the Upper Drau River upstream of Lienz (Eastern Tyrol, Austria). Due to a hydropower plant, a 24 km long river reach of this alpine gravel bed river is under residual flow conditions, although sediment is still resupplied into the reach through many active torrents and tributaries. As a result, sediment deposition in the residual flow reach intensified, hence increasing maintenance efforts to stabilize this river section and ensure flood protection. In combination with a new sediment management program, a continuous bedload monitoring system was installed 2 km downstream of the residual reach in 2001 to support the development of adapted sediment management strategies. The surrogate bedload monitoring system consists of 16 impact plate geophones, installed over a 17 m wide cross section. The unprecedented 15-year dataset of high-resolution bedload intensity revealed a complex process of gravel storage and intermittent resupply from the residual reach, allowing the authors a detailed analysis of frequently occurring bedload pulses. These transport features are triggered by increased discharges during floods in the residual reach and created pronounced anticlockwise bedload hysteresis or, with a temporal shift to the event peak, caused distinct shifts in the bedload activity downstream. Bedload pulses produce very high bedload fluxes while in transit, tend to increase bedload flux in the post-event phase, and can alter and reduce the upstream sediment storage leading to a lowering of bedload availability for future pulses. The observed time lags between main discharge events and the arrival of the macro-pulses are correlated with mean water discharge during pulse propagation, thus enabling a prediction of the pulse arrival at the monitoring station solely based on the hydrograph. In combination with the hydrological setup of the reach, the observed bedload pulse time lags allowed an estimation of

  2. Sedimentology of Martian Gravels from Mardi Twilight Imaging: Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James B.; Malin, Michael C.; Minitti, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative sedimentologic analysis of gravel surfaces dominated by pebble-sized clasts has been employed in an effort to untangle aspects of the provenance of surface sediments on Mars using Curiosity's MARDI nadir-viewing camera operated at twilight Images have been systematically acquired since sol 310 providing a representative sample of gravel-covered surfaces since the rover departed the Shaler region. The MARDI Twilight imaging dataset offers approximately 1 millimeter spatial resolution (slightly out of focus) for patches beneath the rover that cover just under 1 m2 in area, under illumination that makes clast size and inter-clast spacing analysis relatively straightforward using semi- automated codes developed for use with nadir images. Twilight images are utilized for these analyses in order to reduce light scattering off dust deposited on the front MARDI lens element during the terminal stages of Curiosity's entry, descent and landing. Such scattering is worse when imaging bright, directly-illuminated surfaces; twilight imaging times yield diffusely-illuminated surfaces that improve the clarity of the resulting MARDI product. Twilight images are obtained between 10-30 minutes after local sunset, governed by the timing of the end of the no-heat window for the camera. Techniques were also utilized to examine data terrestrial locations (the Kau Desert in Hawaii and near Askja Caldera in Iceland). Methods employed include log hyperbolic size distribution (LHD) analysis and Delauney Triangulation (DT) inter-clast spacing analysis. This work extends the initial results reported in Yingst et al., that covered the initial landing zone, to the Rapid-Transit Route (RTR) towards Mount Sharp.

  3. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    estimated that about one-third of the water used in the State in 1956, or 400,000 acre-feet, came from ground-water sources. In 1957, 71 percent of the irrigation water used in the State came from underground sources, and ground water was used for irrigation in 57 of the State's 77 counties. More than 300 of the towns and cities of the State obtain all their municipal water supplies from ground water. The major ground-water reservoirs, or aquifers, of Oklahoma may be classed in four general groups: (1) semiconsolidated sand and gravel underlying the High Plains, (2) unconsolidated alluvial deposits of sand and gravel along streams and adjacent to valleys, (3) sandstone aquifers, and (4) limestone aquifers, including, for the purpose of this generalized breakdown, dolomite and gypsum. The locations of these major aquifers are shown on figure 1. Areas on that map do not correspond exactly to outcrops, but are the areas where the formations contain significant quantities of potable water. Near their edges rock formations may be cut through by streams or they may be too thin to contain much water. On the other hand, some formations contain fresh ground water for many miles downdip from their outcrop areas, where wells must first penetrate overlying rocks to reach them. (available as photostat copy only)

  4. Early embryo invasion as a determinant in pea of the seed transmission of pea seed-borne mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Maule, A J

    1992-07-01

    Seed transmission of an isolate of pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV) in several pea genotypes has been studied. Cross-pollination experiments showed that pollen transmission of PSbMV did not occur and accordingly, virus was not detected in pollen grains by ELISA or electron microscopy. Comparative studies between two pea cultivars, one with a high incidence of seed transmission and one with none, showed that PSbMV infected the floral tissues (sepals, petals, anther and carpel) of both cultivars, but was not detected in ovules prior to fertilization. Virus was detected equally well in seed coats of the progeny in both cultivars. Analysis of virus incidence and concentration in pea seeds of different developmental stages demonstrated that in the cultivar with a high incidence of seed transmission, PSbMV directly invaded immature embryos, multiplied in the embryonic tissues and persisted during seed maturation. In contrast, the cultivar without seed transmission did not show invasion of immature embryos by the virus; there was no evidence for virus multiplication or persistence during embryo development and seed maturation. Hence seed transmission of PSbMV resulted from direct invasion of immature pea embryos by the virus and the block to seed transmission in the non-permissive cultivar probably occurred at this step.

  5. Quality of peas modelled by a structural equation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Martens, Magni

    2000-01-01

    The quality of peas has been studied in a joint project between a pea producing company in Denmark and several research institutions. The study included quality from a consumer point of view based on market research and quality from more internal company points of view based on measurement...... in a PLS structural model with the Total Food Quality Model as starting point. The results show that texture and flavour do have approximately the same effect on consumers' perception of overall quality. Quality development goals for plant breeders would be to optimse perceived flavour directly...... by increasing the amount of sugars and more indirectly by improving the perception of colour through darker and less yellow peas. Perceived texture can be optimised by focusing on selected texture measurements. Udgivelsesdato: JUL...

  6. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, S.; Gibbs, R. A.; Gerardo, N. M.;

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first...... published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we...... include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired...

  7. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment...... and natural abundance techniques were used to determine N accumulation in the crops from the soil, fertilizer and symbiotic N2 fixation. Intercrops of pea and wheat showed maximum productivity without the supply of N fertilizer. Intercropping increased total dry matter (DM) and N yield, grain DM and N yield......, grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  8. Response of grain size of Quaternary gravels to climate and tectonics in the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The widely distributed thick gravel deposits along the rim of the Tibetan Plateau have been long thought to be the product of rapid tectonic uplift of the plateau. However, this has been challenged by recent works that suggest these thick gravels may be the result of climate change. In this paper we carried out a detailed field measurement of gravel grain sizes from the Jiuquan and Gobi Gravel Beds in the top of the Laojunmiao section in the Jiuxi Basin in the northern margin of Qilian Mts. (northern Tibetan Plateau). The results suggest that the grain sizes of the Jiuquan and Gobi Gravel Beds over the last 0.8 Ma are characterized by nine coarse-fine cycles having strong 100-ka and 41-ka periodicities that correlate well with the loess-paleosol monsoon record and isotopic global climatic record from deep sea sediments as well as by a long trend of coarsening in gravel grain size. The coarse gravel layers were formed during the warm-humid interglaciations while the fine layers correspond to the cold-dry glaciations. Because the paleoclimate in NW China began to get dramatically drier after the mid-Pleistocene, we think the persistent coarsening of gravel grain size was most probably caused by the rapid uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau, and that the orbital scale cyclic variations in gravel grain size were driven by orbital forcing factors that were superimposed on the tectonically-forced long-term coarsening trend in gravel size. These findings also shed new light on the interaction results of climate and tectonics in relation to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  10. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, S.; Gibbs, R. A.; Gerardo, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first...... from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between...

  11. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  12. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  13. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  14. Consolidation analysis of composite foundation with partially penetrated cement fly-ash gravel (CFG) piles under changing permeable boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新军; 赵增明; 徐洞斌

    2015-01-01

    Based on the double-layered foundation theory, the composite ground with partially penetrated cement fly-ash gravel (CFG) piles was regarded as a double-layered foundation including the surface reinforced area and the underlying untreated stratum. Due to the changing permeability property of CFG piles, the whole consolidation process of the composite ground with CFG piles was divided into two stages, i.e., the early stage (permeable CFG pile bodies) and the later stage (impermeable pile bodies). Then, the consolidation equation of the composite foundation with CFG piles was established by using the Terzaghi one-dimensional consolidation theory. Consequently, the unified formula to calculate the excess pore water pressure was derived with the specific solutions for the consolidation degree of composite ground, reinforced area and underlying stratum under instant load obtained respectively. Finally, combined with a numerical example, influencing rules by main factors (including the replacement ratem, the treatment depthh1, the permeability coefficientKs1,Kv2and compression modulusEs1,Es2 of reinforced area and underlying stratum) on the consolidation property of composite ground with CFG piles were discussed in detail. The result shows that the consolidation velocity of underlying stratum is slower than that of the reinforced area. However, the consolidation velocity of underlying stratum is slow at first then fast as a result of the transferring of effective stress to the underlying stratum during the dissipating process of excess pore water pressure.

  15. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum via Intercropping and its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel eTeshome

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L. pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.. This trait is expressed in some genotypes (Np genotypes of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of neoplastic pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36% whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10% and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of neoplastic pods dropped significantly (7%. In order to enhance neoplastic expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of neoplastic pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping neoplastic genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in neoplastic genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting neoplastic formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  16. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  17. Acoustic seafloor discrimination with echo shape parameters: A comparison with the ground truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Tȩgowski, J.; Laban, C.; Simons, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Features extracted from echosounder bottom returns are compared with the ground truth in a North Sea survey area. The ground truth consists of 50 grab samples for which the grain size distribution, and the gravel and shell contents were determined. Echo envelopes are analysed for two single-beam ech

  18. Analysing hyporheic exchange processes during unsteady flow in a small gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Andreas; Schuetz, Tobias; Krein, Andreas; Bierl, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying hyporheic exchange in gravel dominated rivers still remains a challenging task in stream ecology and hydrology, in particular during unsteady flow. We adopted three strategies to decipher exchange processes with the hyporheic zone during unsteady boundary conditions. First, artificial floods were generated in the mid-mountain gravel bed river system of the Olewiger Bach, Germany (24 km2). The advantage of the artificial flood approach lies in the selective control of governing processes by experimental design. Consequently, hydraulic boundary conditions such as maximum discharge, runoff volume and flood duration are steerable during the field experiments and the composition of the discharged water (e.g. low conductivity values) is known. Second, hyporheic exchange was analysed via heat dynamics using air, water and sediment pore water temperatures. Temperature dynamics in the hyporheic zone were monitored at the head, mid and tail of a riffle using specific lances (length: 67 cm, Ø: 3cm) containing temperature sensors in depths of 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 45 and 65 cm. Short-term temperature variability during the unsteady artificial flood waves were analysed in high resolution of 10-30 seconds. In order to capture long-term seasonal fluctuations and dynamics during natural floods temperature was continuously measured at 5-min resolution. However, heat transfer in the hyporheic zone is affected by both advective and conductive transport. In a third strategy we therefore measure electrical conductivity and selected solutes in pore water during three artificial floods in 2015. Pore water was sampled from different sediment depths (5, 15, 25 and 45 cm) via stainless steel multilevel probes (length: 58 cm, Ø: 4cm). The investigation of temperature and pore water dynamics reveals that precedent hydrological conditions and ground-water levels are significant determinants for hyporheic exchange during unsteady flow. Stable groundwater stratification in spring for

  19. Hydrogeophysics of gravel-dominated alluvial floodplains in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald B.

    Multi-electrode surface electrical resistivity (ERI) profiles of the floodplains show lenticular features with high resistivity within a domain of lower resistivity. Floodplain subsoil is composed of mixture of coarse and fine fractions (less than 0.25 mm). The proportion of the fine fraction from cores at the sites shows a negative power relationship with both resistivity (R2 = 0.85) and hydraulic conductivity (R 2 = 0.72), suggesting that the fine content is the major factor in the hydraulic and electrical behavior of the gravel subsoil. A linear relationship between hydraulic conductivity and resistivity is significant and the resulting equation Ksat = 0.11rho allows resistivity (rho) to be interpreted as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). The median hydraulic conductivity on all profiles from all sites was at least 20 m d-1, which is within the range for gravel soils. This high hydraulic conductivity suggests that at least half of the subsurface at each floodplain is likely to behave as a "high-flow domain" with the ability to conduct water at rates of 20 m d-1 or greater. Several ERI profiles at Barren Fork Creek (BFC) had high resistivity values that were significantly higher than the remaining ERI profiles at BFC and the other sites measured at the 84th percentile. Those ERI profiles were obtained from an area within the BFC study site where a trench injection test found a tracer (Rhodamine WT) to move in a manner that suggests preferential flow. A storm runoff pulse passed the BFC site over May 1-5, 2009 featuring 2.2 m of stage increase, which caused the water table to rise into the gravel-dominated vadose zone at the site. Water table maps, corresponding to the times when stream elevation matched the selected hydraulic conductivity elevations, were prepared from pressure transducers placed in monitoring wells at the site. It appeared that there was little attenuation of the energy of the storm pulse even at the furthest point in the study site: at

  20. Distribution of uranium and thorium in dolomitic gravel fill and shale saprolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D H; Watson, D B

    2015-03-21

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) the distribution of U and Th in dolomitic gravel fill and shale saprolite, and (2) the removal of uranium from acidic groundwater by dolomitic gravel through precipitation with amorphous basaluminite at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) field site west of the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex in East Tennessee. Media reactivity and sustainability are a technical concern with the deployment of any subsurface reactive media. Because the gravel was placed in the subsurface and exposed to contaminated groundwater for over 20 years, it provided a unique opportunity to study the solid and water phase geochemical conditions within the media after this length of exposure. This study illustrates that dolomite gravel can remove U from acidic contaminated groundwater with high levels of Al(3+), Ca(2+), NO(3-), and SO4(2-) over the long term. As the groundwater flows through high pH carbonate gravel, U containing amorphous basaluminite precipitates as the pH increases. This is due to an increase in groundwater pH from 3.2 to ∼6.5 as it comes in contact with the gravel. Therefore, carbonate gravel could be considered as a possible treatment medium for removal and sequestration of U and other pH sensitive metals from acidic contaminated groundwater. Thorium concentrations are also high in the carbonate gravel. Thorium generally shows an inverse relationship with U from the surface down into the deeper saprolite. Barite precipitated in the shallow saprolite directly below the dolomitic gravel from barium present in the acidic contaminated groundwater.

  1. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  2. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  3. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbergen, K.; Stone, M.; Krishnappan, B.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.

    2015-03-01

    While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (under the maximum applied shear stresses (1.11 Pa) used in the experiment. The gravel bed had an entrapment coefficient (ratio between the entrapment flux and the settling flux) of 0.2. Accordingly, when flow conditions are sufficient to produce a shear stress that will mobilize the armour layer of the gravel bed (>16 Pa), cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  4. The hebridological analysis of productivity traits in pea hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Володимирівна Коблай

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the nature of inheritance of quantitative traits that influence productivity of pea hybrids were obtained first and second generations for which sample and varieties with different leaf morphotype are served as parental form. As the results of hybridological analysis it is determined the degree of domination and revealed the heterosis combinations

  5. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... widely in private contracts, government procurement and marketing communication. Standards developed... facilitate the marketing of the class, Smooth Yellow Dry Peas and help ensure the purity of classes for Whole... Section 203(c) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (AMA) (7 U.S.C. 1622(c)), directs and...

  7. Ly$\\alpha$ and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Rhoads, James E; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, Junxian

    2016-01-01

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly$\\alpha$-emitting galaxies. To probe their Ly$\\alpha$ escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We extract the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of UV continuum from both the 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum in most Green Peas. The deconvolved Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of the Ly$\\alpha$ spatial profile is about 2 to 4 times that of the UV continuum in most cases. The Ly$\\alpha$ light shows significant offsets from the UV continuum in four galaxies and central absorption in one galaxy. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find the blue wing of the Ly$\\alpha$ line has a larger spatial extent than...

  8. Maanteeamet ei pea uue maantee ehitamist õigustatuks / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 8. dets. 2004, lk. 1, 4. Maanteeamet ei pea Kukruse-Jõhvi teelõigu asemele uue maantee ehitamist asulast põhja poole rahaliselt õigustatuks, kuna transiitliikluse Kukruselt väljasuunamine ei vähendaks kahe linna ühendava tee turvalisust ning investeeringud tuleks õnnetuste vältimiseks teha topelt

  9. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  10. Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

    2007-02-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection.

  11. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  12. Siiliga seotud kahjud on pea kõik heastatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Kaitseväe peastaabi pressiesindaja sõnul on kaitsevägi praeguseks lõpetanud pea kõikide kevadel aset leidnud suurõppuse Siil ajal tekitatud kahjustuste kõrvaldamise. Ligi 60 registreeritud juhtumist moodustasid suurema osa pinnase ning kruusateede kahjustused ning neid parandas kaitseväe pioneeripataljon

  13. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during diff

  14. The Rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with the appropriate bacteria. This is in contrast to the

  15. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned...

  16. Function-structure relationships of acetylated pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches were studied and the results showed that their properties were strongly related to the chemical fine structures of the starches. Furthermore, granular starches were modified using two types of chemical acetylation reagents and then separated into different si

  17. The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Reid, R.N.; Asch, R.G.; Guida, V.G.; Blackwood, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. is present on the Georges Bank fishing grounds in a gravel habitat where the benthic invertebrate fauna has been monitored annually since 1994. The species was not noted before 2002 when large colonies were first observed; and by 2003 and 2004 it covered large areas of the seabed at some locations. The latest survey in 2005 documented the tunicate's presence in two gravel areas that total more than 67 nm2 (230 km2). The affected area is located on the Northern Edge of the bank in United States waters near the U.S./Canada boundary ( Fig. 1). This is the first documented offshore occurrence of a species that has colonized eastern U.S. coastal waters from New York to Maine during the past 15–20 years ( U.S. Geological Survey, 2006). Video imagery shows colonies coalescing to form large mats that cover more than 50% of the seabed along some video/photo transects. The affected area is an immobile pebble and cobble pavement that lies at water depths of 40 to 65 m where strong semidiurnal tidal currents reach speeds of 1 to 2 kt (50–100 cm/s). The water column is mixed year round, ensuring a constant supply of nutrients to the seabed. Annual temperatures range from 4 to 15 °C ( Mountain and Holzwarth, 1989). The gravel areas are bounded by sand ridges whose mobile surfaces are moved daily by the strong tidal currents. Studies commenced here in 1994 to characterize the gravel habitat and to document the effects of fishing disturbance on it ( Collie et al., 2005).

  18. SEISMIC VELOCITY DETERMINATION IN GRAVEL AND SANDS USING PIEZOCRYSTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamarina Juan Carlos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact determination of seismic waves' propagation velocities has great importance in the geotechnics due to from that it is possible to determine, among other parameters, the dynamic ones: Elasticity E, Rigidity G, Poisson !, compressibility B; as well as to reach a knowledge on the stress-strain behavior for the studied soil samples. The seismic waves transmission considered in tests at laboratory scale carried out in the present work is a phenomenon that produces very small deformation, and so doesn't disturb the material. This allows
    to apply the results in a more general scale to study the behavior of soils in situ and to predict their answer to stress.
    With the purpose to study the response of particulate material subjected to seismic excitements at small scale, samples of gravels and sands were successively introduced in an odometric cell, exciting them with impulsive signals and registering the corresponding seismograms through general purpose piezoelectric transducers embedded in ends of the cell.
    The distance source-receiver was interval increased, which enabled, from the corresponding regression straight lines, to calculate in precise form the propagation velocities (for P waves.
    The tests were carried out in samples of dry alluvial soil with three different grain sizes. The respective frequency spectra of the signals were determined for two packing modes: loose and compact, what added information on the medium characteristics.

  19. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Sung KIM; Chan-Joo LEE; Won KIM; Yong-Jeon KIM

    2010-01-01

    Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge,and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated.Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth,and over a certain range it appears to remain constant.Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that,although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge,there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values.For this reason,uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables.On average,a 20%increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity,but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach.Finally,the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined.A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation,but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%.Conversely,the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  20. Thermal EOR requires special design for gravel packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, J.B.; Zaleski, T.E.

    1986-11-17

    Successful gravel-packed completions in thermal recovery wells depend upon proper design and selection of downhole equipment. Equipment designed for normal geothermal environments will generally lack the strength necessary to maintain satisfactory performance throughout the life of the well. Due to increased energy demand, domestic energy shortages, and the increasing cost and risk of exploring for new reserves, enchanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed, pilot tested, and applied in many areas. Methods of which allow operators to take advantage of existing wells and surface equipment are particularly economically attractive. With the unstable price of oil in today's market, few EOR projects will economically justify the re-drilling of wells and replacement of surface facilities to increase production. The most popular EOR method employed for the production of heavy crudes is thermal recovery. Productivity is increased by improving oil mobility and transmissibility in the reservoir. Improvement of ultimate recovery and displacement efficiency is also gained through crude oil expansion and more favorable mobility ratios with injected fluids. Thermal recovery processes involve four major methods: hot waterflooding, cyclic steam injection, steam drive, and in situ combustion. The most basic of these is hot water-flooding which is also the least effective of the thermal recovery processes, because the technique merely involves the injection of hot water and can be adapted to a waterflood project with few surface equipment changes.

  1. Analysis of the Blasting Compaction on Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The settlement control is critical for the safety of road based on high filled embankment. The traditional construction methods have the characteristic with less soil thickness compacted at a time. There are many advantages to compact the gravel soil with blasting. The cavity in soil is formed by blasting and its fillings to form a composite foundation for the embankment. The field data show this composite foundation can meet the requirement of loading and settlement control with less construction time. In geotechnical blasting, the high temperature due to blasting will swell the material around, so its worthy to do the coupled analysis with thermal mechanics (TM and blasting compaction in the high filled embankment. In this paper, a 3D model is built with FLAC3D to simulate a single hole to predict the range and degree of thermal propagation. Then, the thermal strains got from the model are used to estimate the displacement of surrounding soil to predict the degree of compaction and optimize the distribution of blast holes in plan.

  2. Sedimentology of rocky shorelines: 4. Coarse gravel lithofacies, molluscan biofacies, and the stratigraphic and eustatic records in the type area of the Pleistocene Hulopoe Gravel, Lanai, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Felton, E.; Crook, Keith A. W.; Keating, Barbara H.; Kay, E. Alison

    2006-02-01

    During the Pleistocene, the south flank of Lanai was the site of repeated erosion and deposition as a consequence of glacio-eustasy superimposed on tectono-isostasy. Throughout this time, terrigenous and bioclastic gravel was generated along mainly rocky shorelines. Gravelly sediment was deposited in topographically low areas of the shoreface and inner shelf that later were uplifted isostatically. The sedimentary lithofacies and biofacies in these deposits are distinctive, but they represent a deposystem and suite of environments that hitherto have not been studied systematically. These unrecognised circumstances have fuelled controversies about the nature and significance of the Hulopoe Gravel, most notably the claim that it represents a mega-tsunami deposit. The Hulopoe Gravel in its type area displays a lithofacies succession that encompasses a complete disconformity-bounded transgressive-regressive cycle on a sand-poor rocky shoreline. This succession incorporates not only a distinctive vertical assemblage of rocky shoreline litho- and biofacies, but also internal disconformities that record episodes of erosion and non-deposition during shoreline migration. Repetition of the lithofacies succession imparts overall stratigraphic order to the Hulopoe Gravel. Four unconformity-bounded transgressive-regressive cycles correspond to eustatic highstands of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7, superimposed on continuing tectono-isostatic uplift driven by growth of the island of Hawaii. This study of the Hulopoe Gravel demonstrates that the sedimentary record of mixed volcaniclastic-carbonate depositional systems developed on rocky shorelines of tropical and subtropical oceanic island coasts can be preserved. This record may include depositional products of both transgressive and regressive shorelines. Although tsunami and giant submarine landslides are known to occur in the Hawaiian Islands, deposits and features that result from tsunami inundation above the shoreline, such

  3. Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  4. Virtual velocity of tracers in a gravel-bed river using size-based competence duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual velocity (Vi) of river gravels is commonly used to determine sediment transport rates and gravel dispersion dynamics. Virtual velocity is calculated from tracer gravel step-length data as the distance travelled divided by the duration of competence. However, no allowance is usually made for differences in competence duration according to grain size. In this investigation, Vi of gravel tracer clasts for the River Rede, Northumberland, UK, is calculated using a method that takes into consideration an approximation of size-based competence duration. Although scaled transport distance data compared favourably to past studies, it was the comparatively smaller clasts that tended to have lower Vi in comparison to coarser clasts, because of their longer competence duration, contrasting with previously published research. The key findings of the study serve as proof of concept and should be adopted in future studies that focus upon Vi estimation.

  5. Bedload transport of sand-gravel mixtures with antidunes: flume experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez González, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the interaction between flow and sediment in alluvial channels is studied from an empirical approach, for conditions close or pertaining to supercritical flow, and for four types of sediment: sand, gravel and two mixtures with sand and gravel in a relative proportion of 70-30 and 55-45, respectively. The objective is to obtain by means of laboratory experiments a data set with the characteristics of flow, sediment transport, bed configurations and sediment sorting patterns in ...

  6. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  7. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, F Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria J; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor H; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Nelson, Cara R; Proctor, Michael F; Rood, Stewart B

    2016-06-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologic-altering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth.

  8. The physical and mechanical properties of laterite gravels from southeastern Nigeria relative to their engineering performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, C. O.

    Laterite gravels are used extensively as aggregates for highway construction, concrete making and fills in SE Nigeria. This paper presents results of laboratory investigations carried out to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of these gravels. High mechanical strength, as measured by aggregate crushing (AC), and Los Angeles abrasion (LAA) values were found to be significant factors controlling the performance. Results indicate that significant correlations exist between these and specific gravity, water absorption and angularity of the gravels. No clear distinction in physical and mechanical properties could be found between the laterite gravels formed over sandstones and shales, indicating perhaps that effects of parent rock on the physical and mechanical nature of laterite gravels is of secondary importance. It is proposed that laterite gravels with AC and LAA values in the range of 30-40% and 34-45%, respectively and 10% fines value of between 8 and 4 tonnes be used only for medium and light trafficked roads. Those with AC and LAA values of less than 30% and 34%, respectively and 10% fines value of greater than 8 tonnes can be used for heavily trafficked roads, provided that acceptable gradation, plasticity limits (on the fines) and other construction specifications are met.

  9. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, F. Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Nelson, Cara; Proctor, Michael F; Rood, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologicaltering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth.

  10. TRANSPORT OF GRAVELS WITH DIFFERENT RANGES OF GRAIN SIZES IN A STEEP CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jau-Yau LU; Chih-Chiang SU

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the transport mechanism of gravel-bed rivers is very important for the river management and engineering works. The main objective of this study was to conduct a series of laboratory experiment in a steep flume to investigate the particle segregation and the transport rate of nonuniform gravel. Median sizes of 15 mm and 7.5 mm, and gradation coefficients of 1.5 and 2.0 were selected for the particle size distributions of nonuniform gravel. In addition to the 36 sets of data collected in this study, 635 sets of existing data for gravel with both nonuniform and nearly uniform sizes were analyzed. According to the results of the sieve analysis and the related theory, hiding functions for both particle size distributions of this study were derived. An attempt was made to develop an Einstein-type transport relationship for nonuniform gravel using dimensionless parameters with mean size as a representative particle size. A modified Schoklitsch-type sediment transport equation with a critical unit flow discharge was also developed to reasonably predict the transport rate of gravels. In addition, an artificial neural network (ANN) model with a back-propagation network (BPN) algorithm was also applied in this study.

  11. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, F. Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Nelson, Cara R.; Proctor, Michael F.; Rood, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologic-altering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth. PMID:27386570

  12. Stream-power model of meander cutoff in gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, M.; De Vincenzo, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we propose a one-dimensional model for the prediction of the large-time evolution of river meanders (pre-cutoff conditions) characterized by gravel bed and negligible suspended load. Due to its relatively simple structure, it may be a fast and easy tool to forecast the time evolution of a bend when the symptoms of an incipient instability suggest quantifying the time left for river exploitation as a naturalistic or a commercial resource and timely planning, if needed, the site management and restoration. Most of the previous research on meandering rivers focused on linearized theories that apply to very small bend amplitudes and very large radii of curvature. The dynamics of meander growth and cutoff was typically afforded by case-sensitive numerical simulations or by descriptive methods aimed at deriving purely empirical laws relating the hydraulics to some geomorphological parameters. The present approach combines the immediacy of a general analytical model with the accuracy of a fluid-mechanical background. The model focuses on energetic principles and interprets the mechanism of meander cutoff as the achievement of limit conditions in terms of river stream power. The corresponding analytical solution, which consists in a 1-D deterministic integro-differential equation governing the meander pre-cutoff phase, accounts for the influence of the morphological and sedimentological parameters by the downstream migration rate and the radius of the meander osculating circle. The results, expressed in terms of instable meander lifetime, are in good agreement with the data obtained from a number of field surveys documented in literature. Additionally, the proposed fluid-mechanical model allows identifying the physical mechanisms responsible for some peculiarities of large-time meander evolution like the decreasing skewness and asymmetry.

  13. Coherent Turbulent Flow Structures in a Gravel-Bed River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W.; Macmahan, J. H.; Reniers, A. J.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Swick, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of coherent turbulent flow structures were examined during multi-day deployments with three different sensors in a gravel-bed river reach section of the Kootenai River, ID in August 2010. In-situ river velocities were measured using a custom 2 MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) head, an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), and a lagged array of six electromagnetic current meters (ECM) mounted on a GPS-equipped portable aluminum frame. The frame was deployed in the river which varied from 0.6 to 1m water depths and 0.5 to 1.5 m/s velocities. It was also deployed in a small channel, near riffle pools, and on the lee of river obstructions. The ECM array was horizontally mounted on a 4m length pole attached to the frame, oriented in the stream-wise direction, with a sampling frequency of 16 Hz. The lagged spacing of the six ECMs was set to resolve coherent motions from up to 8m in length. The ADCP was fitted with a custom head to measure the along beam velocities in all three axes, with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, 35cm bins, with a maximum range of 10m. The upstream beam is used to describe the coherent structures in the stream-wise velocity. An iterative maximum likelihood estimator is used to evaluate the streamwise wavenumber-frequency spectrum. The coherent structures measured by the ECM array and ADCP are compared to validate the results by the new ADCP head. Turbulent measurements from the 32 Hz sampled ADV are compared to the ADCP and ECM. Our unique approach provides spatial measurements in river reaches (depths) previously not examined. The flow structure as a function of river feature, bed roughness, and flow velocity are described in the stream-wise and lateral directions. This effort was supported by the Office of Naval Research Coastal Geosciences Program.

  14. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  15. The influence of topology on hydraulic conductivity in a sand-and-gravel aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R.H.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of geophysical logging and tracer testing was conducted in a single well that penetrated a sand-and-gravel aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Geophysical logs and flowmeter/pumping measurements were obtained to estimate vertical profiles of porosity ??, hydraulic conductivity K, temperature, and bulk electrical conductivity under background, freshwater conditions. Saline-tracer fluid was then injected into the well for 2 h and its radial migration into the surrounding deposits was monitored by recording an electromagnetic-induction log every 10 min. The field data are analyzed and interpreted primarily through the use of Archie's (1942) law to investigate the role of topological factors such as pore geometry and connectivity, and grain size and packing configuration in regulating fluid flow through these coarse-grained materials. The logs reveal no significant correlation between K and ??, and imply that groundwater models that link these two properties may not be useful at this site. Rather, it is the distribution and connectivity of the fluid phase as defined by formation factor F, cementation index m, and tortuosity ?? that primarily control the hydraulic conductivity. Results show that F correlates well with K, thereby indicating that induction logs provide qualitative information on the distribution of hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of ??, which incorporates porosity data, with K produces only a slightly better correlation and further emphasizes the weak influence of the bulk value of ?? on K. Copyright ?? 2009 The Author(s) are Federal Government Employees. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  16. Oxidative processes in soybean and pea seeds: effect of light, temperature, and water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Oxidative processes are probable determinants of longevity of seeds in storage. Measurements of actual oxygen uptake rates were made for soybean and pea seeds as a comparison of short and long lived seeds when light, temperature, and moisture contents were varied. In both peas and soybeans, the oxygen uptake was depressed at low temperatures (water contents (water contents and at temperatures greater than 22 degrees C are much less. Light enhances the level of oxygen uptake in pea, but reduces the level of oxygen uptake in soybean. The complexities of the interactions of oxygen uptake with environmental conditions in soybean compared to pea suggest that oxidative processes occur in soybean at low water contents, but are essentially absent in pea. It is suggested that the additional oxidative processes in soybean with moisture contents between 0.10 and 0.24 gram per gram may contribute to the poorer longevity of soybean seed compared to pea seed.

  17. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  18. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  19. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  20. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  1. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  2. Effect of pectin methylesterase gene expression on pea root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, F; Zhu, Y; Hawes, M C

    1999-06-01

    Expression of an inducible gene with sequences common to genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) was found to be tightly correlated, both spatially and temporally, with border cell separation in pea root caps. Partial inhibition of the gene's expression by antisense mRNA in transgenic pea hairy roots prevented the normal separation of root border cells from the root tip into the external environment. This phenotype was correlated with an increase in extracellular pH, reduced root elongation, and altered cellular morphology. The translation product of the gene exhibited PME activity in vitro. These results are consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that the demethylation of pectin by PME plays a key role in cell wall metabolism.

  3. The QE numerical simulation of PEA semiconductor photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xudong; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Minghua

    2011-01-01

    Several kinds of models have already been proposed for explaining the photoemission process. The exact photoemission theory of semiconductor photocathode was not well established after decades of research. In this paper an integral equation of quantum efficiency (QE) is constructed to describe the photoemission of positive electron affinity (PEA) semiconductor photocathode based on three-step photoemission model. The influences of forbidden gap, electron affinity, photon energy, incident angle, degree of polarization, refractive index, extinction coefficient, initial/final electron energy, relaxation time and external electric field on the QE of PEA semiconductor photocathode are taken into account. In addition, a computer code is also programmed to calculate the QE of K2CsSb photocathode theoretically at 532nm wavelength, the result is in line with the experimental value by and large. What are the reasons caused to the distinction between the experimental measuring and theoretical QE are discussed.

  4. Quality of peas modelled by a structural equation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Martens, Magni

    2000-01-01

    The quality of peas has been studied in a joint project between a pea producing company in Denmark and several research institutions. The study included quality from a consumer point of view based on market research and quality from more internal company points of view based on measurement...... expressed by consumers as a function of the objective measurements of quality, eg the physical/chemical variables? (3) Which of the measured objective variables are most important for further product development? In the paper we describe consumer evaluations as a function of physical/chemical variables...... in a PLS structural model with the Total Food Quality Model as starting point. The results show that texture and flavour do have approximately the same effect on consumers' perception of overall quality. Quality development goals for plant breeders would be to optimse perceived flavour directly...

  5. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  6. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  7. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  8. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, peanut, roughpea, sainfoin, sesbania, sourclover, soybean...) Soybean and lupine. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves...

  10. Pea3 transcription factors and wnt1-induced mouse mammary neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baker

    Full Text Available The role of the PEA3 subfamily of Ets transcription factors in breast neoplasia is controversial. Although overexpression of PEA3 (E1AF/ETV4, and of the related factors ERM (ETV5 and ER81 (ETV1, have been observed in human and mouse breast tumors, PEA3 factors have also been ascribed a tumor suppressor function. Here, we utilized the MMTV/Wnt1 mouse strain to further interrogate the role of PEA3 transcription factors in mammary tumorigenesis based on our previous observation that Pea3 is highly expressed in MMTV/Wnt1 mammary tumors. Pea3 expression in mouse mammary tissues was visualized using a Pea3(NLSlacZ reporter strain. In normal mammary glands, Pea3 expression is predominantly confined to myoepithelial cells. Wnt1 transgene expression induced marked amplification of this cell compartment in nontumorous mammary glands, accompanied by an apparent increase in Pea3 expression. The pattern of Pea3 expression in MMTV/Wnt1 mammary glands recapitulated the cellular profile of activated beta-catenin/TCF signaling, which was visualized using both beta-catenin immunohistochemistry and the beta-catenin/TCF-responsive reporter Axin2(NLSlacZ. To test the requirement for PEA3 factors in Wnt1-induced tumorigenesis, we employed a mammary-targeted dominant negative PEA3 transgene, DeltaNPEA3En. Expression of DeltaNPEA3En delayed early-onset tumor formation in MMTV/Wnt1 virgin females (P = 0.03, suggesting a requirement for PEA3 factor function for Wnt1-driven tumor formation. Consistent with this observation, expression of the DeltaNPEA3En transgene was profoundly reduced in mammary tumors compared to nontumorous mammary glands from bigenic MMTV/Wnt1, MMTV/DeltaNPEA3En mice (P = 0.01. Our data provide the first description of Wnt1-mediated expansion of the Pea3-expressing myoepithelial compartment in nontumorous mammary glands. Consistent with this observation, mammary myoepithelium was selectively responsive to Wnt1. Together these data suggest the MMTV

  11. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  12. Reproducible hairy root transformation and spot-inoculation methods to study root symbioses of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemow Scott R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pea has lagged behind other model legumes in the molecular study of nodulation and mycorrhizae-formation because of the difficulty to transform its roots and its poor growth on agar plates. Here we describe for pea 1 a transformation technique which permits the complementation of two known non-nodulating pea mutants, 2 a rhizobial inoculation method which allows the study of early cellular events giving rise to nodule primordia, and 3 a targeted fungal inoculation method which allows us to study short segments of mycorrhizal roots assured to be infected. These tools are certain to advance our knowledge of pea root symbioses.

  13. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  14. Timing of early Quaternary gravel accumulation in the Swiss Alpine Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Claude; Naki, Akçar; Susan, Ivy-Ochs; Fritz, Schlunegger; Peter, Kubik W.; Andreas, Dehnert; Joachim, Kuhlemann; Meinert, Rahn; Christian, Schlüchter

    2017-01-01

    Deckenschotter ('Cover Gravels') are proximal glaciofluvial gravels located in the northern Alpine Foreland mainly beyond the extent of the Last Glacial Maximum. They cover Tertiary Molasse or Mesozoic bedrock with an erosional unconformity. In Switzerland, Deckenschotter are referred to as Höhere (Higher) and Tiefere (Lower) Deckenschotter based on their topographical positions with a significant phase of incision that separates these two units. For this study, we performed sedimentological analyses to identify the provenance, transport mechanisms and depositional environment of these gravels. In addition, we established the chronology of the Höhere Deckenschotter gravels at Stadlerberg using cosmogenic 10Be depth-profile dating technique. The inherited 10Be concentration then allowed estimation of a catchment-wide palaeo-denudation rate. The results from clast fabric investigations indicate that braided rivers within a glaciofluvial environment transported these sediments to the study site mainly as bedload. In addition, the petrographic composition of the deposits shows that a large portion of the gravels was derived through erosional recycling of Miocene Molasse conglomerates. Some material was additionally sourced in the northern Central Alps. We then conclude that gravel accumulation in the Swiss Alpine Foreland was completed at 1.9 ± 0.2 Ma. This age, however, represents a minimum age and the oldest 10Be depth-profile age ever obtained for a geological unit. Furthermore, a palaeo-denudation rate of c. 0.3-0.4 mm/a was estimated for the catchment of Stadlerberg gravels. Finally, elevation differences between the bedrock underlying the Höhere Deckenschotter and the modern base level imply a long-term regional incision rate of c. 0.12 mm/a.

  15. A new geophone device for understanding environmental impacts caused by gravel bedload during artificial floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Ryota; Kawahara, Yoshihisa; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Tsuboshita, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    To assess the contribution of gravel bedload on the removal of attached-algae and aquatic plants from a cobble-bed river during small floods, we propose a geophone type method for measuring the local bedload of non-uniform sized gravel. Due to limited peak discharge for focused events during our study, a large fraction of bed material (here cobbles) was immobile and only a small fraction of bed material (sand and gravel) was expected to be transported during the flushing flows we analyzed. The device we developed has a size equivalent to immobile bed material and a shape similar to bed material (rounded cobbles) at the site. The instrument's design allows avoidance of disturbances in river bed micro-topography during installation and local bedload transport during floods. A flume experiment was conducted in order to establish an empirical algorithm for estimating the diameter of impacted gravel, and uncertainty related to diameter estimation is discussed. The proposed method was utilized to quantify gravel bedload in a cobble-bed river during flushing flows. We also discuss the contribution of measured gravel bedload during flushing flows on the removal of attached-algae (up to a 37% reduction in chlorophyll-a density) and aquatic plants (a reduction of 38% in dry mass per area). Based on time variation for the measured gravel bedload, we also suggest the propagation of a bed-form composed of the fine sediment fraction migrating on immobile larger sediment and implications for the propagation of the fine sediment wave for attached-algae removal.

  16. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  17. OPPORTUNITIES TO USE PEA - WHEAT MIXES IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  18. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Ly$\\alpha$ Escape

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Star-formation in galaxies generates a lot of Ly$\\alpha$ photons. Understanding the escape of Ly$\\alpha$ photons from galaxies is a key issue in studying high redshift galaxies and probing cosmic reionization with Ly$\\alpha$. To understand Ly$\\alpha$ escape, it is valuable to study analogs of high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in nearby universe. However, most nearby analogs have too small a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width and escape fraction compared to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. One different group of nearby analogs are "Green Pea" galaxies, selected by their high equivalent width optical emission lines. Here we show that Green Pea galaxies have strong Ly$\\alpha$ emission lines and high Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction (see also Henry et al. 2015), providing an opportunity to solve Ly$\\alpha$ escape problem. Green Peas have a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width distribution similar to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. The Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction correlates with many quantities of Ly$\\alpha$ profile, especially the...

  19. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  20. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  1. Anticipatory and reactive crouching of pea aphids in response to environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Matan; Talal, Stav; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Animals use different strategies to deal with changing environmental conditions. While standing and feeding on their host plant, aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) may be exposed to detrimental environmental perturbations, such as strong winds. If aphids are forcibly blown off the plant and spend time on the ground, they will face additional dangers by both ground-dwelling predators and detrimental soil temperature. It is therefore adaptive for aphids to behave in a way that lowers the risk of being removed from the plant. We observed that pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) display a specific crouched body posture, previously undescribed, which reduces their chance of being carried off from the plant by sudden winds. We exposed aphids in the laboratory to different cues indicative of a windy environment: wind, plant vibration, and visual stimuli. We found that aphids crouch in two situations: 1) reactively, when they are being pulled by a continuous gust of wind threatening to dislodge them. 2) Anticipatorily, when environmental cues, such as plant vibration or continuous movement near their host plant, may signify that sudden wind gusts are expected. Crouching aphids were less likely to be dislodged by a sudden air stream or plant vibration than were aphids that did not crouch. Crouching thus improves the aphids' chances of remaining on their host plant under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  2. PRELIMINARY PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GRAVEL PIT AND WINTERPONDS NEAR JAGODNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of plankton populations have been performed in the gravel pit and two winterponds near the place Jagodno, Novo Čiće, in the vicinity of Velika Gorica. Our goal was to examine plankton composition of the gravel pit and winterponds, two ecosystems characterized by specific life–conditions which change with time and space. Investigations were conducted during June 2007. Plankton samples were collected from water surface layer at four locations (two locations in the gravel pit and one location in each of two winterponds. Along with plankton sample collecting, measurements were made of some physico–chemical parameters (water temperature, pH–values and dissolved oxygen content in water. Water temperature at two sampling locations in the gravel pit and one location at each of the winterponds depended on the surrounding air temperature, and ranged from 22.5ºC to 23.6ºC. pH–reaction was alkaline, ranging from 8. 23 to 9. 02. Dissolved oxygen content in the gravel pit was around 10 mg/O2; in winterponds it ranged from 7.6 to 9.7 mg/O2 (Table 1. At the gravel pit locations total number of 32 phytoplankton species were determined; in winterponds were determined 37 (microphytic species? while zooplankton was represented in the phytoplankton community composition at the four locations with 5 species. Phytoplankton species determined in the samples from two gravel pit locations belonged to the system groups Dinophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta while in the samples from winterpond locations, along with the mentioned system groups, were found as well the representatives from the groups Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Zooplankton species belonged to the groups Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda (Table 2. In gravel pit locations dominated diatoms or Bacillarophyceae while in winterponds the majority of phytoplankton mass consisted of the representatives of the species Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Qualitative

  3. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  4. Effect of percentage of low plastic fines on the unsaturated shear strength of compacted gravel soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low plastic fines in gravel soils affect its unsaturated shear strength due to the contribution of matric suction that arises in micro and macro pores found within and between aggregates. The shear strength of five different types of prepared gravel soils is measured and is compared with a theoretical model (Fredlund et al., 1978 to predict the unsaturated shear strength. The results are consistent to a great extent except the case of dry clayey gravel soil. It is also found that on inundation of gravel soils containing plastic fines greater than 12% a considerable reduction in both the strength and the stiffness modulus is noticed. This 12% percentage is close to the accepted 15% percentage of fines given by ASTM D4318 (American society for testing material. The angle of internal friction that arises due to matric suction decreases with the increase of degree of saturation of soil. The hysteresis of some tested gravel soils is measured and found that it increases by increasing the percentage of fines.

  5. Experiments of Multi-element Composite Foundation with Steel Pipe Pile and Gravel Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhi; ZHENG Jun-jie

    2008-01-01

    A set of self-developed apparatus for foundation physical model were utilized to conduct model tests of the multi-element composite foundation with a steel pipe pile and several gravel piles. Some load-bearing characteristics of the multi-element composite foundation, including the curves of foundation settlement, stresses of piles, pile-soil stress ratio, and load-sharing ratio of piles and soil, were obtained to study its working performances in silty sand soil. The experimental results revealed that the multi-element composite foundation with steel pipe pile and gravel pile contributed more than the gravel pile composite foundation in improving the bearing capacity of the silty fine sand.

  6. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  7. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  8. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  9. Structural implications of mutations in the pea SYM8 symbiosis gene, the DMI1 ortholog, encoding a predicted ion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Anne; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Yousafzai, Faridoon

    2007-01-01

    8 alleles of pea, which fall into the same complementation group as R25. The sym8 mutants are phenotypically similar to Medicago truncatula dmi1 mutants and map to a syntenic location. We used sequence homology to isolate the pea ortholog of M. truncatula DMI1 and have shown that the cloned pea...

  10. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.Pea bacterial blight (Pseudom

  11. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  12. Heat-induced gelation of pea legumin: Comparison with soybean glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Gel network formation of pea legumin (8.4% on a protein basis, pH 7.6) was monitored via dynamic rheological measurements. Gelation was performed in the absence and presence of the thiol-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide, at different rates of heating and cooling. Overall, it was shown that pea legu

  13. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  14. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  15. Simple Identification of the Neutral Chlorinated Auxin in Pea by Thin Layer Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1980-01-01

    One of the neutral chlorinated auxins of immature pea seeds was readily identified by thin layer procedures simple enough to serve in student's laboratory courses. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was extracted from 50 g of commercial, frozen peas by either water or acetone, concentrated...

  16. Heat-Induced Gelation of Pea Legumin: Comparison with Soybean Glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Vereijken, J.M.; Happe, R.P.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Gel network formation of pea legumin (8.4% on a protein basis, pH 7.6) was monitored via dynamic rheological measurements. Gelation was performed in the absence and presence of the thiol-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide, at different rates of heating and cooling. Overall, it was shown that pea

  17. Heat-Induced Gelation of Pea Legumin: Comparison with Soybean Glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Vereijken, J.M.; Happe, R.P.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Gel network formation of pea legumin (8.4% on a protein basis, pH 7.6) was monitored via dynamic rheological measurements. Gelation was performed in the absence and presence of the thiol-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide, at different rates of heating and cooling. Overall, it was shown that pea legu

  18. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  19. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  20. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  1. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble albumin

  2. On the Quest of Cellular Functions of PEA-15 and the Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 KDa (PEA-15, a ubiquitously expressed small protein in all mammals, is known for decades for its potent interactions with various protein partners along distinct biological pathways. Most notable interacting partners of PEA-15 include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, the Fas-associated death domain (FADD protein involving in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC, and the phospholipase D1 (PLD1 affecting the insulin sensitivity. However, the actual cellular functions of PEA-15 are still mysterious, and the question why this protein is expressed in almost all cell and tissue types remains unanswered. Here we synthesize the most recent structural, biological, and clinical studies on PEA-15 with emphases on its anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammative properties, and propose a converged protective role of PEA-15 that maintains the balance of death and survival in different cell types. Under conditions that this delicate balance is unsustainable, PEA-15 may become pathological and lead to various diseases, including cancers and diabetes. Targeting PEA-15 interactions, or the use of PEA-15 protein as therapeutics, may provide a wider window of opportunities to treat these diseases.

  3. Hydrology of the sand-and-gravel aquifer, southern Okaloosa and Walton Counties, northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L.R.; Barr, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The sand-and-gravel aquifer in southern Okaloosa and Walton Counties, northwest Florida, extends from land surface to depth of 50 to 150 feet. Intervening layers of clay generally separate the aquifer into an unconfined surficial zone, composed principally of fine to medium sand, and a lower confined zone, consisting of variable amounts of medium to coarse sand and gravel. Well yields of 50 to 500 gallons per minute are possible in most of the area, and yields of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute can be developed in parts of southwestern Okaloosa County. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  5. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  6. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    and 35% of the pea residue N were unaccounted for. Since these apparent losses are comparable to almost twice the amounts of pea and barley residue N taken up by the perennial ryegrass crop, there seems to be a potential for improved crop residue management in order to conserve nutrients in the soil......Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  7. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  8. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  9. Analysis of pea HMG-I/Y expression suggests a role in defence gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Choi, Jane J; Hadwiger, Lee A

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY HMG-I/Y proteins are characterized by the presence of AT-hook motifs, DNA binding domains that recognize AT-rich tracts of DNA. By facilitating protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions in the vicinity of these AT-rich binding sites, HMG-I/Y positively or negatively regulates gene expression. Several pea defence gene promoters have AT-rich tracts of DNA that are potential targets for modulation via HMG-I/Y. In this study, a comparison of the expression of a pea defence gene (DRR206) mRNA relative to the expression of HMG-I/Y mRNA was monitored by Northern analysis following the inoculation of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani or treatment with chitosan and a F. solani DNase (Fsph DNase). In pea pod endocarp tissue, HMG-I/Y expression was observed at high levels in untreated tissue and at lower levels 6 h following inoculation or wounding of the tissue. Western blots with an antipea HMG-I/Y polyclonal antibody also revealed that pea HMG-I/Y is expressed at decreased levels 6 h following inoculation or elicitor treatment. HMG-I/Y extracted from pea caused alterations in the gel migration of radio-labelled AT-rich sequences from the pea DRR206 promoter, suggesting that similar interactions could exist in vivo. Agroinfiltration was utilized to express the pea HMG-I/Y gene in tobacco containing a chimeric gene fusion of a promoter from the PR gene, DRR206, and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient expression of pea HMG-I/Y led to a decrease in GUS reporter gene activity in the heterologous tobacco system. These data implicate pea HMG-I/Y abundance in the down-regulation of DRR206 gene expression, and possibly HMG-I/Y depletion in the expression of defence genes in pea.

  10. Acetylation of pea isolate in a torus microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, J; Guéguen, J; Berot, S; Popineau, Y; Nouri, L

    1997-02-20

    Acetylation, which acts on the amino groups of proteins, allows to increase the solubility and the emulsifying properties of pea isolate. Acetylation by acetic anhydride was carried out in a torus microreactor in semibatch and continuous conditions. The mixing characteristics, obtained by a residence time distribution (RTD) method, are the same in batch and continuous processes. The maximum acetylation degree reached by the torus reactor is higher than with the stirred reactor. Torus reactors are more efficient than stirred ones as shown by a conversion efficiency, defined by the quantity of modified lysine groups by consumed acetic anhydride. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 409-414, 1997.

  11. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  12. Genetic analysis of pod dehiscence in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F; Brauner, Soren; Przyborowski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the dehiscent pod character was investigated in two recombinant inbred populations using a simplified correlation analysis. The approach identified three regions on the pea genome that affect the expression of pod dehiscence. The region on linkage group III corresponded to the expected position of Dpo, a gene known to influence pod dehiscence. A locus on linkage group V appeared to have a slightly smaller effect on expression of the phenotype. The third region was observed only in one cross, had a greater effect than Dpo, and was postulated to be yellow pod allele at the Gp locus

  13. Lipogenesis and Redox Balance in Nitrogen-Fixing Pea Bacteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Jason J; Masakapalli, Shyam K; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Webb, Isabel U C; Green, Rob; Watmough, Nicholas J; Kruger, Nicholas J; Ratcliffe, R George; Poole, Philip S

    2016-10-15

    Within legume root nodules, rhizobia differentiate into bacteroids that oxidize host-derived dicarboxylic acids, which is assumed to occur via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to generate NAD(P)H for reduction of N2 Metabolic flux analysis of laboratory-grown Rhizobium leguminosarum showed that the flux from [(13)C]succinate was consistent with respiration of an obligate aerobe growing on a TCA cycle intermediate as the sole carbon source. However, the instability of fragile pea bacteroids prevented their steady-state labeling under N2-fixing conditions. Therefore, comparative metabolomic profiling was used to compare free-living R. leguminosarum with pea bacteroids. While the TCA cycle was shown to be essential for maximal rates of N2 fixation, levels of pyruvate (5.5-fold reduced), acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA; 50-fold reduced), free coenzyme A (33-fold reduced), and citrate (4.5-fold reduced) were much lower in bacteroids. Instead of completely oxidizing acetyl-CoA, pea bacteroids channel it into both lipid and the lipid-like polymer poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), the latter via a type III PHB synthase that is active only in bacteroids. Lipogenesis may be a fundamental requirement of the redox poise of electron donation to N2 in all legume nodules. Direct reduction by NAD(P)H of the likely electron donors for nitrogenase, such as ferredoxin, is inconsistent with their redox potentials. Instead, bacteroids must balance the production of NAD(P)H from oxidation of acetyl-CoA in the TCA cycle with its storage in PHB and lipids. Biological nitrogen fixation by symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in legume root nodules is an energy-expensive process. Within legume root nodules, rhizobia differentiate into bacteroids that oxidize host-derived dicarboxylic acids, which is assumed to occur via the TCA cycle to generate NAD(P)H for reduction of N2 However, direct reduction of the likely electron donors for nitrogenase, such as ferredoxin, is inconsistent with their redox

  14. Impact of gravel mining on benthic invertebrate communities in a highly dynamic gravel-bed river: an integrated methodology to link geomorphic disturbances and ecological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, María; Gibbins, Chris; Vericat, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.; Buendia, Cristina; Lobera, Gemma

    2014-05-01

    Water and sediments are transported along river channels. Their supply, transport and deposition control river morphology and sedimentary characteristics, which in turn support habitat. Floods disturb river channels naturally although anthropogenic impacts may also contribute. River channel disturbance is considered the main factor affecting the organization of riverine communities and contributes to key ecological processes. In this paper we present an integrated methodology designed to analyze the impacts of in-channel gravel mining on benthic invertebrate communities. The study is conducted in the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees). A 11 km river reach is being monitored in order to understand the effects of floods and gravel mining on channel morphodynamics and invertebrate communities. The study reach is located in and upland gravel-bed system historically and currently affected by periodical episodes of in-channel sediment mining. This methodology has been developed in the background of the research project MorphSed. An integrated methodology of four components (Co) has been designed and is being implemented: (Co1) acquisition of high resolution imagery to generate topographic models before and after channel disturbances. Floods and in-channel gravel mining are considered natural and anthropogenic disturbances, respectively. Topographic models are obtained by means of combining automated digital photogrammetry (SfM) and optical bathymetric models. Event-scale models are used to assess the spatial extent and magnitude of bed disturbance. (Co2) Invertebrate sampling in 5 representative reaches along the study site. Invertebrate surber samples are providing data to define assemblages and their characteristics (composition, density, distribution, traits). These data is used to assess the spatial extent of channel disturbance impacts on the taxonomic and trait structure of communities. (Co3) Monitoring flow and sediment transport in the upstream and downstream

  15. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  16. A laboratory experiment on the evolution of a sand gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias Borras, V.; Ferrara, V.; Stecca, G.; Blom, A.

    2015-01-01

    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. A bed composed of a bimodal sediment mixture was installed with a uniform slope and an gradual fining pattern. At the upstream end of the flume the initial bed consisted of 100% gravel,

  17. Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems; for general many-body Hamiltonians, there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10^-5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wavefunctions than c...

  18. Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremiášová Renata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates response of vegetation on gravel bars to management measures and floods. The management measures consisted of the partial removal of gravel and vegetation cover, and were applied to six gravel bars on the Ostravice River, Czech Republic. Unexpected floods occu-rred in 2010, with the amplitude of 5- to 50-year repetition. Research of vegetation on the gravel bars consisted of vegetation survey before the management works; the monitoring of vegetation development over the following year and the verification of the relationships of species diversity, successional stages and the biotope conditions with the help of multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis. Vegetation on the gravel bars was at different successional stages, and had higher diversity and vegetation cover before the management measures and floods. The mul-tivariate analysis revealed a shift toward initial successional stages with high demand on moisture, temperature and light after both management measures and floods.

  19. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    modulus of elasticity. Tensile and compressive strength were found to depend both on aggregate type and on the properties of the interfacial zone close to the aggregate surface. Freeze-thaw scaling resistance was good with crushed granite, whereas sea gravel led to more severe scaling caused by porphyry...

  20. Ecological effects of re-introduction of salmonid spawning gravel in lowland Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben; Kronvang, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    is still functional. The intensive study of three streams showed that spawning was enhanced by the introduction of spawning gravel at the restored sites compared to control sites and that habitat quality generally were improved. Our results also suggest complex interactions exist between spawning activity...

  1. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, L.D.; Marin, L.M.; Visscher, J.T.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF) in a multi-stage filtration (MSF) plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It s

  2. Predicting bed load transport of sand and gravel on Goodwin Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed load transport rates are difficult to predict in channels with bed material composed of sand and gravel mixtures. The transport of bed load was measured on Goodwin Creek, and in a laboratory flume channel with a similar bed material size distribution. The range of bed load transport rates meas...

  3. Numerical Analysis on Soil and Rock Formation of Ancient Gravel Strata Around Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Research samples were taken from an ancient gravel stratum which is not only a representative soil layer along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in East China, but also one of the primary Neozoic strata in Nanjing district. Located mostly on the second and third terraces, the ancient gravel strata formed the geomorphic landscapes of terrace and step. They were complex in constitution, varied widely in stability, of multiple sources, locally derived, and associated with braided streams in the deposition environment. A CIPW (Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington) method modified by the author was used to analyze the soi-rock-forming materials of finer grains (less than 2 mm in size) of the ancient gravel stratum. Results of the analysis showed that the sandy grains were composed of apatite, ilmenite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, enstatite and free quartz, the clay mainly of kaolinite, and the cement of a combination of silicon, aluminum and iron at a ratio of 46:44:10. In the soil-rock-forming processes, including compactional solidification, water- stable illuviation-cementation, homogeneous overgrowth and so on, the loose soil-rock-forming components gradually changed into consolidated soil and further to the early stage of lithification. Meanwhile, from the analysis, we found that the ancient gravel stratum had been protected by the overlying Xiashu loess or basalt and the overloading resulted in overconsolidated strata. The modified CIPW method was applicable and effective for semi-quantitative analysis.

  4. Frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel used in Pearl-Chain Bridges: an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Andersen, Iben Brøndum

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel determined by the ASTM D5918-13 standard as a conservative estimate of the frost heave risk of fill in overfilled arch bridges, particularly in Pearl-Chain Bridges. Frost heave of granular materials has been of great research interest...

  5. Gravel seeding - A suitable technique for restoring the seabed following marine aggregate dredging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith; Ware, Suzanne; Vanstaen, Koen; Barry, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of offshore marine habitats is a relatively new concept, with attempts in the European Union being largely instigated by requirements of various strategic directives. In this experiment, we investigate the practicality and effectiveness of gravel seeding, using a commercial aggregate dredging vessel, in order to recreate a gravel habitat. The experimental design consisted of a Treatment and Control site, both within an area of historic dredging characterised by an overburden of sand, and a gravel dominated Reference site. All sites were surveyed, using a combination of acoustic, camera and grab techniques, 2 months before, and then at 0, 12 and 22 months after the deposition of 4444 m 3 of gravel dominated sediments within the Treatment site. Although financial and practical constraints limited replication of the Treatment to one area, and so precluded strong statistical conclusions, our results suggested that the technique was both practically feasible, and successful in terms of returning the physical and biological attributes at the Treatment site to a state more representative of gravelly substrata in the wider, un-impacted environment.

  6. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  7. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Glasbergen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (16 Pa, cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  8. Labour-based bitumen roads as cost-effective alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available . As part of the Gundo Lashu Programme for Labour Intensive Rural Roads Maintenance that is currently being implemented in Limpopo Province, the training of 24 emerging contractors in rehabilitation of rural gravel roads was carried out. These emerging...

  9. Repeat-pulse 13CO2 labeling of canola and field pea: implications for soil organic matter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Amy; Knight, Diane; Farrell, Richard; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2010-10-15

    Both the quantity and quality of plant residues can impact soil properties and processes. Isotopic tracers can be used to trace plant residue decomposition if the tracer is homogeneously distributed throughout the plant. Continuous labeling will homogeneously label plants but is not widely accessible because elaborate equipment is needed. In order to determine if the more accessible repeat-pulse labeling method could be used to trace plant residue decomposition, this labeling procedure was employed using (13)CO(2) to enrich field pea and canola plants in a controlled environment. Plants were exposed weekly to pulses of 33 atom% (13)CO(2) and grown to maturity. The distribution of the label throughout the plant parts (roots, stem, leaves, and pod) and biochemical fractions (ADF and ADL) was determined. The label was not homogeneously distributed throughout the plant; in particular, the pod fractions were less enriched than other fractions indicating the importance of continuing labeling well into plant maturity for pod-producing plants. The ADL fraction was also less enriched than the ADF fraction. Because of the heterogeneity of the label throughout the plant, caution should be applied when using the repeat-pulse method to trace the fate of (13)C-labeled residues in the soil. However, root contributions to below-ground C were successfully determined from the repeat-pulse labeled root material, as was (13)C enrichment of soil within the top 15 cm. Canola contributed more above- and below-ground residue C than field pea; however, canola was also higher in ADF and ADL fractions indicating a more recalcitrant residue.

  10. An Investigation into the Processes and Quantity of Dust Emissions over Gravel and Sand Deserts in North-Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcai; Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqian; Wu, Guoxi; Cui, Xujia

    2017-06-01

    Year-long field observations have shown that there are spatial and temporal variations in the quantity of dust emissions for particulate matter {<}10 μm (PM10), particulate matter {<}63 μm (PM63) and vertical dust flux over different gravel surfaces (with loose sand, without loose sand, with a crust, and without a crust), with the greatest emissions occurring in the spring. The largest quantity of PM10 and PM63 emissions occurred over gravel with a loose sand surface (1.1 × 10^{-3} and 10.2 × 10^{-3} kg m^{-1} day^{-1}, respectively). The gravel surface without loose sand and without a crust presents the lowest values of PM63 (1.6 × 10^{-3} kg m^{-1} day^{-1}) and PM10 (3.3 × 10^{-4} kg m^{-1} day^{-1}). However, the vertical dust flux was largest at over sandy surface (373 × 10^{-3 } kg m^{-2} day^{-1}). Multivariate correlation analysis indicates that the quantity of PM10 is strongly negatively correlated to gravel coverage (R^{2 }= 0.55). The quantity of PM10 dust emissions over a gravel surface with loose sand is approximately three times greater than that of a gravel surface with a crust. The mean quantity of PM10, PM63 and vertical dust flux over a gravel surface decreased with increasing gravel coverage. By comparing the quantity of PM10 dust emissions over gravel and sandy deserts, we found that gravel deserts and sandy deserts are both major sources of dust for dust storms in this region.

  11. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  12. Analysis on Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Drying of Green Peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Taşkın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic energy-assisted industrial dryer has been analyzed. The dryer has been tested in various weather and working conditions with 3 kg of green peas from 75.6% initial moisture content to 20% final moisture content (w.b.. The effect of various drying air temperatures at three levels (40, 50, and 60°C and two distinct air velocities (3 m/s and 4 m/s was examined. Drying performance was assessed with regard to criteria including drying kinetics, specific and total energy consumption, and color and rehydration ratio. The results have proved that total drying duration reduces as air velocity rate and drying air temperature raise. Relying upon the drying durations, the generation performances of photovoltaic panels were between 5.261 and 3.953 W. On the other part, energy consumptions of dryer were between 37.417 and 28.111 W. The best specific energy consumption was detected in 50°C at 3 m/s for 600 minutes with 7.616 kWh/kg. All drying conditions caused darkening as color parameters. Rehydration assays have showed that rehydrated green peas attained higher capacity with raised air temperature and air velocity.

  13. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  14. Gene knockdown by RNAi in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rispe Claude

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Results Here, we described the development of RNAi by micro-injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Injection of dsRNA into whole aphid body induced the silencing of two marker genes with different expression patterns: the ubiquitously expressed Ap-crt genes encoding a calreticulin and the gut specific Ap-cath-L gene encoding a cathepsin-L. Time-course analysis of the silencing showed similar temporal patterns for both genes: inhibition started at 1 day after injection, reached its maximum at 5 days and stopped at 7 days. A comparable 40% decrease of gene expression was observed for Ap-crt and Ap-cath-L. Conclusion The pea aphid is the first Hemipteran insect for which genome sequence will be available soon. The gene knockdown technique developed in this study will be an essential post-genomic tool for further investigations in aphidology.

  15. Ethylene Signaling Influences Light-Regulated Development in Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, James L; Foo, Eloise M; Hecht, Valérie; Ridge, Stephen; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Reid, James B

    2015-09-01

    Plant responses to light involve a complex network of interactions among multiple plant hormones. In a screen for mutants showing altered photomorphogenesis under red light, we identified a mutant with dramatically enhanced leaf expansion and delayed petal senescence. We show that this mutant exhibits reduced sensitivity to ethylene and carries a nonsense mutation in the single pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of the ethylene signaling gene ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2). Consistent with this observation, the ein2 mutation rescues the previously described effects of ethylene overproduction in mature phytochrome-deficient plants. In seedlings, ein2 confers a marked increase in leaf expansion under monochromatic red, far-red, or blue light, and interaction with phytochromeA, phytochromeB, and long1 mutants confirms that ein2 enhances both phytochrome- and cryptochrome-dependent responses in a LONG1-dependent manner. In contrast, minimal effects of ein2 on seedling development in darkness or high-irradiance white light show that ethylene is not limiting for development under these conditions. These results indicate that ethylene signaling constrains leaf expansion during deetiolation in pea and provide further evidence that down-regulation of ethylene production may be an important component mechanism in the broader control of photomorphogenic development by phytochrome and cryptochrome.

  16. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  17. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2003-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants.

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  19. Gravel deposit produced by a flash paleoflood in a succession of Quaternary terraces in the Plain of Vic (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch, Josep; Barriendos, Mariano; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    In contrast with the abundance of studies of fluvial terraces, caused by river dynamics, there are very few descriptions of alluvial deposits produced by flash floods and mass movements. This study describes a late Pleistocene sedimentary deposit produced by a flash paleoflood and attempts to explain its genesis and its source areas. The Plain of Vic, drained by the river Ter and its tributaries, is one of the eastern erosive basins bordering the sedimentary Ebre basin (NE Iberian Peninsula). This plain has a length of 35 km and an average width of 8 km with a N-S direction and lies mainly on the Marls of Vic Fm. These materials are the less resistant lithologic members of the monocline Paleogene stratigraphic succession that dips to the west. The basal resistant bed that forms the eastern cuesta is the Sandstones of Folgueroles Fm. On the top, the resistant lithologic beds that form the scarp face are the sandstones of La Noguera in the Vidrà Fm. On the scarp face, various coalescent alluvial bays have been developed, which have accumulated up to eight levels of alluvial terraces. In one of them, formed by the river Mèder and the Muntanyola stream, a gravel deposit up to 5 m thick formed in a single episode outcrops, in a position T4,. A dating of the river Ter T5 has obtained an age of 117.9 ± 9.5 Ky. The accumulation of gravel erodes another level of metric thickness of the same lithological characteristics and texture. The deposit does not have any internal structure or organization of pebbles. At its base, there are several metric blocks coming directly from the slopes. The accumulation of gravel is block-supported with a sandy matrix. The pebbles size is centimetric to decimetric (90%). Its texture is subrounded. Lithologically, the deposit consists mostly of sandstone and limestone from the top of the series. On the ground, the accumulation of gravel is elongated, with a maximum length and width of 550 m by 160 m and a slope surface of 2.54%. With an area

  20. Effects of gravel mulch on emergence of galleta grass seedlings. Oral summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office, Technology Development and Program Management Division, has identified the need to clean up several sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range contaminated with surface plutonium. An important objective of the project identified as the Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop technologies to stabilize and restore the disturbed sites after decontamination. Revegetation of these contaminated sites will be difficult due to their location in the arid Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The major factors which will affect successful plant establishment and growth at these sites are limited and sporadic precipitation, limited soil water, extreme air and soil temperatures, limited topsoil, and herbivory . Research has shown that providing microsites for seed via mulching can aid in plant emergence and establishment. Since many of the soils at the sites slated for plutonium decontamination have a large percentage of gravel in the upper 10 cm of soil, the use of gravel as mulch could provide microsites for seed and stabilize soils during subsequent revegetation of the sites. In July 1992, EG&G/EM Environmental Sciences Department initiated a greenhouse study to examine the possible benefits of gravel mulch. The specific objectives of this greenhouse study were to: (1) determine the effects seedling emergence and soil water, and (2) determine effects of irrigation rates on seedling emergence for gravel mulches and other conventional seedbed preparation techniques. A secondary objective was to determine the depth of gravel mulch that was optimal for seedling emergence. Results from this greenhouse study will assist in formulating specific reclamation plans for sites chosen for cleanup.

  1. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  2. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Pbars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  4. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  5. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L., however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. Results 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia. Among those ESTs specifically expressed

  6. Impact of climate and diseases on pea yields: what perspectives with climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénézit Maud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For farmers, pea crop is characterized by a large yield variability between years, between areas, and even between fields in a same small area in a given year. In dry year, spring pea crops are mostly affected by water stress and high temperature but significant yield losses can also be caused by a root disease, Aphanomyces euteiches, particularly during wet years. Winter pea can escape partially from drought, high temperature, and root disease during the reproductive phase of the crop cycle. However, when winters are mild, without progressive negative temperatures, which provide frost acclimation, available cultivars are not resistant enough to frost and are susceptible to aerial diseases such as ascochyta blight and bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, thus leading to yield losses. A better adaptation of sowing dates, an improvement of lodging resistance and a limitation of the sowing density can limit the development of ascochyta blight for winter pea crops. For spring pea, an increased use of Aphanomyces soil test could avoid to sow the crop in infested fields. Current spring pea varieties are the result of changes in plant architecture including the reduction of 1000-seed weight that have led to yield losses by increasing the fragility of variety facing these stresses. The development of a pea crop model, simulating the effect of various stress encountered on winter and spring pea crops, can help to better define the regions adapted for the production of these two types of cultivars, and also help the breeders to better define and choose which trait to improve in order to increase the pea productivity and yield stability. National and European projects are in course to breed new varieties more adapted to different stresses.

  7. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  8. Rheological and textural properties of cracker dough with addition of pea dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming aware of health benefits of dietary fiber intake. In past years, the development of products containing different fiber is increasing. The aim of this research was to look into the effect of addition pea fiber to dough for crackers. Rheological and textural properties were evaluated. In order to develop dough in which wheat flour was partly substituted with pea fiber, it was necessary to increase water content. The addition of 5% and 10% of pea fiber affected intramolecular linkages of gluten and lowered elastic properties of the dough. Dough with addition of 30% of fiber was brittle, grainy and impossible to process.

  9. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  10. PEA-15 Induces Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and is Associated with Prolonged Overall Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Rosen, Daniel; Wei, Caimiao; Kazansky, Anna; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Itamochi, Hiroaki; KONDO, Seiji; Liu, Jinsong; Ueno, Naoto T

    2008-01-01

    Phospho-enriched protein in astrocytes (PEA-15) is a 15-kDa phosphoprotein that slows cell proliferation by binding to and sequestering extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting ERK-dependent transcription and proliferation. In previous studies of E1A human gene therapy for ovarian cancer, we discovered that PEA-15 induced the antitumor effect of E1A by sequestering activated ERK in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of PEA-15 ...

  11. PED/PEA-15对前列腺癌细胞凋亡的影响%The effect of PED/PEA-15 on prostate cancer cells apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓勇; 陈晓春; 余勇军; 梁涛

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨PED/PEA-15在前列腺癌细胞(PC-3)中的表达及意义.方法:用RT-PCR法检测PC-3中PED/PEA-15的表达,并扩增出PED/PEA-15全长基因,以pEGFP-N1为载体构建其真核表达质粒.以脂质体法转染PED/PEA-15真核表达载体至PC-3中,用流式细胞和MTT法检测PED/PEA-15对PC-3凋亡和生长的影响.结果:PED/PEA-15在PC-3中表达.酶切和DNA测序证实PED/PEA-15的真核表达载体构建成功.转染PED/PEA-15真核载体的PC-3细胞凋亡下调,且对肿瘤杀伤因子KillerTRAIL的敏感性亦下降.结论:抗凋亡因子PED/PEA-15可阻抑PC-3的凋亡,PED/PEA-15的表达对前列腺癌的发展有重要作用.

  12. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Shi, Linlu; Wen, Li; Chen, Junzhu; Duo, Hairui; Lei, Guangchun

    2015-01-01

    Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m) aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs) to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1) the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2) the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3) the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance) had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management.

  13. [Runoff and sediment yielding processes on red soil engineering accumulation containing gravels by a simulated rainfall experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian-hua; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Bai, Yun; Deng, Li-qiang; Li, Jian-ming; Li, Yao-lin

    2015-09-01

    Engineering accumulation formed in production and construction projects is characterized by unique structure and complex material composition. Characteristics of soil erosion on the engineering accumulation significantly differ from those on farmland. An artificially simulated rainfall experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of rainfall intensity on the processes of runoff and sediment yielding on the engineering accumulation of different gravel contents (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) in red soil regions. Results showed that the initial time of runoff generation decreased with increases in rainfall intensity and gravel content, the decreased amplitudes being about 48.5%-77.9% and 4.2%-34.2%, respectively. The initial time was found to be a power function of rainfall intensity. Both runoff velocity and runoff rate manifested a trend of first rising and then in a steady state with runoff duration. Rainfall intensity was found to be the main factor influencing runoff velocity and runoff rate, whereas the influence of gravel content was not significant. About 10% of gravel content was determined to be a critical value in the influence of gravel content on runoff volume. For the underlying surface of 10% gravel content, the runoff volume was least at rainfall intensity of 1.0 mm · min(-1) and maximum at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). The runoff volume in- creased 10%-60% with increase in rainfall intensity. Sediment concentration showed a sharp decline in first 6 min and then in a stable state in rest of time. Influence of rainfall intensity on sediment concentration decreased as gravel content increased. Gravels could reduce sediment yield significantly at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). Sediment yield was found to be a linear function of rainfall intensity and gravel content.

  14. Effects of gravel on infiltration, runoff, and sediment yield in landslide deposit slope in Wenchuan earthquake area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyang; He, Binghui; Chen, Zhanpeng; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Chuan; Wang, Renxin

    2016-06-01

    Amounts of landslide deposits were triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake with magnitude 8.0 on May 12, 2008. The landslide deposits were composed of soil and rock fragments, which play important roles in hydrological and erosion processes in the steep slope of landslide deposits. The mixtures of soil and gravels are common in the top layers of landslide deposits, and its processes are obviously different with the soil without gravels. Based on the data of field investigation, a series of simulated scouring flow experiments with four proportion of gravel (0, 25, 33.3, and 50 %) and three scouring flow rates (4, 8, 12 L/min) under two steep slopes (67.5, 72.7 %) were conducted sequentially to know the effects of proportion of gravel on infiltration capacity, runoff generation, and sediment production in the steep slope of landslide deposit. Results indicated that gravel had promoted or reduced effects on infiltration capacity which could affect further the cumulative runoff volume and cumulative sediment mass increase or decrease. The cumulative infiltration volume in 25 % proportion of gravel was less than those in 0, 33.3, and 50 % proportion of gravel. The cumulative runoff volume was in an order of 25 > 0 > 33.3 > 50 % while cumulative sediment mass ranked as 25 > 33.3 > 0 > 50 % with different proportions of gravel. A significant power relationship was found between scouring time and cumulative runoff volume as well as cumulative sediment mass. The relationship between average soil and water loss rate and proportion of gravel was able to express by quadratic function, with a high degree of reliability. The results have important implications for soil and water conservation and modeling in landslide deposit but also provide useful information for the similar conditions.

  15. The Effect of Fines in Mixed Size Sediment Transport in a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. M.; Baumgardner, S.; Gaffney, J.; Wilcock, P.; Paola, C.

    2011-12-01

    Washload is a widely recognized concept that remains difficult to define. In a gravel-bed river, washload has been defined as those sizes present in the bed only in small proportions. It has also been defined as the portion of transported sediment that has little effect on bed material transport. We experimentally investigate the impact of fine sediment on the mobility and composition of a gravel bed. We conducted flume experiments using a constant water discharge and feed rate of gravel. After reaching steady state, we doubled the feed rate by feeding sediment of finer size, using size ratios from 1:1 to 1:16. As we decrease the size of the fine particles relative to the size of the gravel particles, the system transitions between three regimes. (1) For particle size ratios close to one, the bed slope increases to supply the additional shear stress needed to transport the additional load of similar-sized particles. (2) For intermediate particle size ratios the increased fines content increases the mobility of the sediment mix, resulting in a decreased bed slope. The bed composition is a mix of fine and coarse grains. (3) For the largest particle size ratios (the smallest fines), the additional fines travel primarily in suspension and cause essentially no change in bed slope, though the subsurface becomes clogged with fine sediment. The behavior for near-unity and intermediate particle size ratios can be predicted using a mixed-size bed-material transport formula. For the mixtures with the smallest fine particles, the presence of fines has little effect on the mobility of the gravel and thus the total transport can no longer be predicted with a bed material transport formula. These results provide useful insights concerning the nature of wash load. The effect of sediment feed on gravel mobility and bed slope is not controlled solely by the amount of fines in the bed (the first definition of wash load), but also depends strongly on the relative grain size of the

  16. PEA-15真核表达载体的构建及表达%Construction and expression of eukaryotic expression vector of PEA-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弘广; 庄晓飞; 王春利; 郭石平; 马炎炎

    2014-01-01

    目的 构建PEA-15真核表达载体pcDNA3.1-PEA-15,并在人类食管癌细胞(EC-109)中表达.探讨PEA-15对EC-109细胞的影响.方法 采用反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术检测EC-109细胞中的PEA-15基因表达.构建重组真核表达载体pcDNA3.1-PEA-15.酶切及测序鉴定重组质粒正确后,脂质体介导转染至EC-109细胞中.采用RT-PCR、Western blot法检测基因及蛋白表达.四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法检测细胞生长抑制率.结果 RT-PCR显示PEA-15在EC-109细胞中表达.PCR扩增片段与预期片段大小相符,测序结果表明真核表达载体pcDNA3.1-PEA-15构建成功.转染后的细胞中PEA-15表达均增加(t值分别为4.078、5.269,均P<0.05).转染质粒72h后,细胞的生长抑制率较转染空质粒组降低[(7.12±0.86)%、(12.55±1.78)%,t=6.163,P<0.05].结论 成功构建重组真核表达载体pcDN A3.1-PEA-15,并在EC-109细胞中进行了表达;转染后对食管癌细胞生长有促进作用,其表达可能促进食管癌的发生.%Objective To construct the eukaryotic expression vector of pcDNA3.1-PEA-15 and express it in the human esophageal cancer (EC-109) cells,and to explore the effect of PEA-15 on EC-109 cells.Methods The PEA-15 gene was amplified from EC-109 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ligated to eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1.After confirmation of recombinant plasmid was correctly by endonuc]eases digestion and DNA sequencing,the construct was transfected it into EC-109 through liposome inducing.The expression of PEA-15 in transfected EC-109 was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.The cell growth inhibition ratio was evaluated by MTT assay.Results RT-PCR indicated that PEA-15 was highly expressed in EC-109 cells.The amplified fragment by RT-PCR was coincident with hypothesis enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing confirmed that the pcDNA3.1-PEA-15 was constructed successfully.The expression of PEA-15 gene was increased obviously

  17. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  18. Unveiling the nature of the "Green Pea" galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo; Pérez-Montero, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    We review recent results on the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact, low-mass starburst galaxies at redshifts between 0.1-0.3 recently named to as "Green Pea" galaxies. These galaxies are genuine metal-poor galaxies ($\\sim$ one fifth solar) with N/O ratios unusually high for galaxies of the same metallicity. In combination with their known general properties, i.e., size, stellar mass and star-formation rate, these findings suggest that these objects could be experiencing a short and extreme phase in their evolution. The possible action of both recent and massive inflow of gas, as well as stellar feedback mechanisms are discussed here as main drivers of the starburst activity and their oxygen and nitrogen abundances.

  19. Two ways of plant regeneration from immature cotyledons of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nadolska-Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different systems of plant regeneration via organogenesis and embryogenesis from immature cotyledons of pea (Pisum sativum L. were developed. The first system was direct multiple shoot regeneration from the proximal to the embryo axis, injured part of cotyledon. The ability of six Polish cultivars to shoot formation was very high. The percent of regenerating cotyledons was from 73 to 86 and mean number of shoots from 3.5 to 9.9 after seven weeks of culture. This multiplification could be prolonged for next several months. The second system was somatic embryogenesis, initiating from the same part of cotyledon simultaneously with slowly proliferating callus. Only three out of six cultivars formed embryoids. The differences of ability to embryo formation ranged between 43% of responding explants for Heiga cultivar to only 6% for Cud Ameryki. The mean number of embryoids was from 4.2 to 2.3.

  20. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : January 1 to December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during 2002. The report begins with an...

  2. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during 1993. The report begins with an...

  3. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1 - December 31, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period September 1 - December 31, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1942. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Sept. 1, to Dec. 31, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : January 1 to December 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  10. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1 through December 31, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  11. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  13. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for period September 1 to December 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  14. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  15. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for period September 1 to December 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River NWR and Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  17. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 - August 31, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  18. [Labelling of nif-plasmid pEA9 from Enterobacter agglomerans 339].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-jun; Klingmüller, Walter

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe the in vivo labelling of the plasmid pEA9 in Enterobacter agglomerans 339 with a kanamycin resistance gene. For labelling purposes the donor plasmid pST5 was constructed. This plasmid contains the nif ENX region from pEA9,in which a kanamycin resistance gene is cloned.pST5 was transformed into E.a.339 and subsequently cured from the host. Curing was achieved with AP medium. Fourty strains that had lost pST5,but retained the kanamycin resistance, could be isolated. It showed that none of these clones contained co-integrates of pST5 and pEA9. This is evident that in all clones the kanamycin resistance gene was integrated into pEA9 by homologous recombination.

  19. Planning and Accomplishment Narrative : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : FY-1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge highlights and accomplishments for the 1973 fiscal year. Wildlife-wildlands...

  20. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during 1994. The report begins with an...

  1. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  2. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  4. The role of the ETS gene PEA3 in the development of motor and sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, David R; Frank, Eric

    2002-12-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors includes two members, ER81 and PEA3, which are expressed in groups of sensory and motor neurons supplying individual muscles. To investigate a possible role of these genes in determining sensory and/or motor neuron phenotype, we studied mice in which each of these genes was deleted. In contrast to the deletion of ER81, which blocks the formation of projections from muscle sensory neurons to motor neurons in the spinal cord, deletion of PEA3 causes no obvious effects on sensory neurons or on their synaptic connections with motor neurons. PEA3 does play a major role in the formation of some brachial motoneurons however. Motoneurons innervating the cutaneous maximus muscle, which are normally PEA3(+), fail to develop normally so that postnatally the muscle is innervated by few motoneurons and is severely atrophic. Other studies suggest that these motoneurons initially appear during development but fail to contact their normal muscle targets.

  5. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  6. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River NWR and Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during 2003. The report begins with an...

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  9. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  10. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  12. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during 1996. The report begins with an...

  13. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  14. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  15. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Sept 1 to Dec 31, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period September 1 - December 31, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  19. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1 - December 31, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  20. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  2. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period May 1 through August 31, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  4. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  5. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1 - December 31, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period May 1 through August 31, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  7. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to Aug. 31, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  9. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 to August 31, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period May 1 through August 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  11. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period September 1 through December 31, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period January 1 to April 30, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  14. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1949 to August 31, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. [Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 - August 31, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  17. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  19. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  2. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  3. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 - August 31, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  4. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  5. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1 through December 31, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period January 1 to April 30, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for period September 1 to December 31, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period January 1 to April 30, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, 1948 to August 31, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  11. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period May 1 through August 31, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  12. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 to August 31, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  13. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  14. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  15. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  16. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Period September 1 - December 31, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Public and Wildlife Use on Beaches of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes beach use data from 1977. Data includes weekly shore bird, ghost crab cavities, and public use counts. These counts were done on both Pea Island...

  18. Impact of Low Concentration of Cadmium on Photosynthesis and Growth of Pea and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange and growth characteristics were examined in pea and barley plants using 1 mM Cd treatment. Plants were sown into neutral peat substrate and at a leaf development stage were treated with 1 mM cadmium concentration solution. Gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate; intercellular CO2 concentration; transpiration rate; water use efficiency were measured with portable photosynthesis system LI-6400 on the fifth day after Cd treatment. Under Cd stress the photosynthetic rate of pea and barley plants decreased by 16.7 % (p 2 concentration decreased by 27.4 % (p 2 reduction processes of Cd treated pea leaves increased (because intercellular CO2 concentration decreased, but that had no positive effect on a photosynthetic rate, and the photosynthetic rate of pea decreased by 4 % more than that of barley. The changes of dry biomass of cadmium treated plants were weak and statistically insignificant.

  19. Fiscal year 1939 : Narrative report : Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge : Camp BF-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1939 narrative report for Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge provides a roster of army personnel and service personnel, a summary of camp life, a list of...

  20. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. Fine structure of fusion products from soybean cell culture and pea leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, L C; Constabel, F; Gamborg, O L

    1977-01-01

    Protoplasts from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves and cultured soybean (Glycine max L.) cells were fused by means of polyethylene glycol and subsequently cultured for one week. Both agglutinated protoplasts and cultured fusion products were examined by electron microscopy. Agglutination occurred over large areas of the plasma membranes. The membrane contanct was discontinuous and irregularly spaced. Many cultured fusion products regenerated cell walls and divided to form cell clusters. Fusion of pea and soybean interphase nuclei occurred in some cells. The detection of heterochromatin typical of pea in the synkaryon, even after division, suggests the cells were hybrids. The cytoplasm of the cells from the fusion products contained both soybean leucoplasts and pea chloroplasts. The chloroplasts had apparently ceased dividing and some showed signs of degenerating. Large multinucleate fusion products developed cell walls but failed to divide.

  3. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  4. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1, to August 31, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  5. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish

  6. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to April 30, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  7. SSR genetic linkage map construction of pea(Pisum sativum L.) based on Chinese native varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelian; Sun; Tao; Yang; Junjie; Hao; Xiaoyan; Zhang; Rebecca; Ford; Junye; Jiang; Fang; Wang; Jianping; Guan; Xuxiao; Zong

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat(SSR)markers have previously been applied to linkage mapping of the pea(Pisum sativum L.)genome.However,the transferability of existing loci to the molecularly distinct Chinese winter pea gene pool was limited.A novel set of pea SSR markers was accordingly developed.Together with existing SSR sequences,the genome of the G0003973(winter hardy)×G0005527(cold sensitive)cross was mapped using 190 F2individuals.In total,157 SSR markers were placed in 11 linkage groups with an average interval of 9.7 cM and total coverage of 1518 cM.The novel markers and genetic linkage map will be useful for marker-assisted pea breeding.

  8. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May 1 to August 31, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  9. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River and Pea Island NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 to December 31, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  11. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : September 1, to December 31, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report for the period January 1 through April 30, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pea Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  13. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River NWR and Pea Island NWR summarizes Refuge activities during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alligator River NWR and Pea Island NWR summarizes Refuge activities during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Unfolding the fast neutron spectra of a BC501A liquid scintillation detector using GRAVEL method

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yonghao; Lei, Jiarong; An, Li; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shao, Jianxiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the neutron energy spectra is useful in basic research and applications. The overall procedure of measuring and unfolding the fast neutron energy spectra with BC501A liquid scintillation detector is described. The recoil proton spectrum of Am-Be neutrons was obtained experimentally. With the NRESP7 code, the response matrix of detector was simulated. Combining the recoil proton spectrum and response matrix, the unfolding of neutron spectra was performed by GRAVEL iterative algorithm. A MatLab program based on the GRAVEL method was developed. The continuous neutron spectrum of Am-Be source and monoenergetic neutron spectrum of D-T source have been unfolded successfully and are in good agreement with their standard reference spectra. The unfolded Am-Be spectrum are more accurate than the spectra unfolded by artificial neural networks in recent years.

  16. Unfolding the fast neutron spectra of a BC501A liquid scintillation detector using GRAVEL method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YongHao; Chen, XiMeng; Lei, JiaRong; An, Li; Zhang, XiaoDong; Shao, JianXiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, XinHua

    2014-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of the neutron energy spectra is useful in basic research and applications. The overall procedure of measuring and unfolding the fast neutron energy spectra with BC501A liquid scintillation detector is described. The recoil proton spectrum of 241Am-Be neutrons was obtained experimentally. With the NRESP7 code, the response matrix of detector was simulated. Combining the recoil proton spectrum and response matrix, the unfolding of neutron spectra was performed by GRAVEL iterative algorithm. A MatLab program based on the GRAVEL method was developed. The continuous neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be source and monoenergetic neutron spectrum of D-T source have been unfolded successfully and are in good agreement with their standard reference spectra. The unfolded 241Am-Be spectrum are more accurate than the spectra unfolded by artificial neural networks in recent years.

  17. Improving the behavior of body roads by the use of gravel-slag mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinane, Hocine; Oucief, Hocine; Merzoud, Mouloud

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of wastes industrial stemming of the iron and steel industry has influenced negatively the environment. The adopted policy had for mission to eliminate these undesirable wastes by recycling them by their utilization in adequate areas. The objective of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of a gravel-slag based on crystallized and granulated slag, activated by lime. One will be interested in the study of resistance to punching and the bearing ratio of this slag through Proctor tests, CBR and by compression, tensile tests, for use in the layers of pavement (Foundation and base layers). The obtained result on gravel-slag show considerable performances, compared with natural aggregates point of resistance and thickness of the layers. Its utilization in the road area has allowed therefore the recycling these industrial wastes, to decrease the pollution, to use a minimum noble product requiring important exploitation energy and an economy on layers of surface realized with costly materials (bituminous concrete).

  18. APPLICATION OF TIME-VARYING VISCOUS GROUT IN GRAVEL- FOUNDATION ANTI-SEEPAGE TREATMENT*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-da; LI Lu; TANG Ju; WANG Dao-zeng

    2011-01-01

    The time-varying viscosity of common grout and the controllable grout are measured with a rotation viscometer in experiments. The time-varying viscosity of grout is analyzed according to the characteristics in the process of anti-seepage treatment for gravel foundation. The principle of effective stress for porous medium is applied to analyzes the fluid-structure coupling in grouting. In the consideration of coupling physical variables, dynamic models of porosity, permeability and viscosity are constructed.The difiusion radius can thus be defined by the foundational porosity. The distribution of holes in field experiments is designed according to the diffusion radius of grout. Then, the permeability test is designed to verify the grout effect. The calculated diffusion radius coincides with experimental results, and the permeability meets the requirements of the project, which is valuable for the anti-seepage treatment in gravel foundation.

  19. Gravel Accumulation in Deposits of Viscous Debris Flows with Hyper-concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuyi; TAN Rongzhi; JAN Chyandeng; TIAN Bing

    2009-01-01

    According to the observational data of viscous debris flows with hyper-concentration, debris flows can be classified into three types: high-viscous, viscous, and sub-viscous debris flows. Distinct formation mechanism of different graded bedding structures in deposits of viscous debris flows was analyzed in this paper by using their yield-stress ratio and flow plug ratio. This paper specially analyzed the effect of Weissenberg which the gravels in squirm condition of hyper-concentration viscous flows would tend to move vertically, and the formation mechanism of the gravels accumulated at surface was also studied. The analysis in this paper can establish a foundation for the studies on differentiation of bedding structures of debris flow deposits and studies on dynamic parameters of debris flows.

  20. Crumb rubber impact to the mechanical performance of concrete based at round gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaka, Wafa; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    Today the concrete is used more than any other construction material, with almost four (4) billion cubic meters used worldwide [1]. Throughout history, mankind has used concrete in construction. Concrete has not only been used in the construction of buildings such as dwelling areas but also in bridges, roads, tunnels, airports and water dams. It is a heterogeneous composite resulting from cement, aggregates, water and a limited quantity of adjuvant. The round gravel is an existing traditional material within the formulation of concrete. It is high in resistance to fragmentation and widely spread out in grand quantity in the Saharian regions. However, its utilization remains rare in different types of construction. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the use of local materials (Round gravel) with polymer industrial products (Crumb Rubber). This one is used to enhance the density, homogeneity, malleability and strength of the construction material.

  1. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  2. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  3. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the

  4. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (ppeas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  5. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Corinne Royer; Vanessa Eyraud; Lamis Karaki; Frédéric Gressent; Pedro Da Silva

    2011-01-01

    International audience; PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand man...

  6. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Numerical Analysis on Soil and Rock Formation of Ancient Gravel Strata Around Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAJIA; CHENXINMIN

    2001-01-01

    Research samples were taken from an ancient gravel stratum which is not only a representative soil layer along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in East China ,but also one of the primary Neozoic strata in Nanjing district.Located mostly on the second and third terraces,the ancient gravel strata formed the geomorphic landscapes of terrace and step.They were complex in constitution,varied widely in stability,of multiple sources,locally derived ,and associated with braided streams in the deposition environment ,A CIPW(Cross,Iddings,Pirsson and Washington) method modified by the author was used to analyze the soil-rock-forming materials of finer grains(less than 2 mm in size) of the ancient gravel stratum.Results of the analysis showed that the sandy grains were composed of apatite,ilmenite,potassium feldspar,plagioclase,enstatite and free quartz,the clay mainly of kaolinite,and the cement of a combination of silicon,aluminum and iron at a ratiof of 46:44:10.In the soil-rock-forming processes, including compactional solidifiation,water-stable illuviation-cementation,homogneous overgrowth and so on,the loose soil-rock-forming components gradually changed into consolidated soil and further to the early stage of lithification.Meanvwhile,from ,the analysis,we found that the ancient gravel stratum had been protected by overlying Xiashu loess or basalt and the overloading resulted in overconsolidated strata ,The modified CIPW method was applicale and effective for semi-quantitative analysis.

  8. Vegetation control of gravel-bed channel morphology and adjustment: the case of Carex nudata

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2010-12-01

    In the high energy, gravel- to cobble-bed Middle Fork John Day River of eastern Oregon, C. nudata (torrent sedge) germinates on gravel bars and forms tussocks 0.5 m across by 0.3m high or larger, with dense, tough root masses that are very resistant to erosion. Tussocks may be uprooted during floods (probably >Q-5yr), travel as boulder-sized masses, and may re-root where deposited. Individual tussocks, however, commonly persist for more than a decade in one position. When established, these tussocks behave more like channel obstructions than typical stream side sedges. Lines of C. nudata tussocks form on the stream side margin of former bare gravel bars, creating a secondary flow path and an eroding bank on their landward side. C. nudata also forms small mid-channel islets with bed scour at their base and occasional lee depositional zones. Chains of mid-channel islets can anchor pool boundaries. Observations in the field and from aerial photo time sequences suggest the following evolutionary model for channels with C. nudata. C. nudata establishes on a bare gravel bar, and can stabilize the bar surface or create erosional forms as described above. C. nudata fosters weaker sedges and other species that help extend stabilization of the bar surface. Mid-channel islets form through selective uprooting of tussocks. Observations of a reach where cattle grazing was eliminated in 2000 show that C. nudata has expanded. It has stabilized some formerly active bar surfaces but is now causing bank erosion and channel widening in some locations. In this case, C. nudata mediated the potentially stabilizing effects of management change by increasing channel instability in some respects.

  9. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation stat...

  10. Biological and Physical Conditions at a Newly Placed Gravel Bar Habitat in the Tombigbee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Jsp( ot s ch (il,,ii al d rodUCtS. Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF MRii AGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM o 7--1 I&. REPORT SERURITY...the Buttahatchie River than at the gravel bar. Water temperature was lower at the former site because of canopy cover- age , which limited heating by...lax oullhead minnow C Catostomidae Cycteptus elongatus Blue sucker U .Tctiobus cyprineltus Bigmouth buffalo U ictiobus bubalus Smalimouth buffalo C

  11. Molecular diversity of native rhizobia trapped by five field pea genotypes in Indian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, K; Dudeja, S S; Yadav, R K

    2011-02-01

    Five pea cultivars; HFP 4, HVP 3-5, HFP 9426, Jayanti and Hariyal, being grown in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were used to isolate native rhizobia. Selected 54 rhizobia, from all cultivars, were authenticated as rhizobia by plant infectivity test. Along with nodulation, symbiotic effectiveness in terms of symbiotic ratios showed wide range of effectiveness of pea rhizobia from 1.11 to 5.0. DNA of all the 54 rhizobia was extracted and amplified by PCR, using ERIC and 16S rDNA primers. Dendrogram based on ERIC profiles of these 54 rhizobia showed the formation of 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. Dendrogram based on RFLP of 16S rDNA by three restriction endonucleases; Msp I, Csp 6I and Rsa I; also formed 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. However, positioning of subclusters was different from that of ERIC based dendrogram. Majority of the isolates i.e. 64.8% by ERIC profiles and 44.4% by RFLP of 16S rDNA formed one cluster. Isolates from same nodule were not 100% similar. Considering each cluster representing a rhizobial genotype, both techniques used to assess molecular diversity indicated the presence of 13 genotypes of field pea rhizobia in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm soil. Two pea rhizobial genotypes were able to nodulate all the five pea cultivars. Furthermore, high strain richness index (0.43-0.5) of field pea rhizobia was observed by both the techniques.

  12. 豌豆猪肉灌肠的研制%Development of pea pork sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩

    2014-01-01

    The peas and pork were taken as raw materials. Through single factor experiment and or-thogonal experiment, the processing technology and ingredients of the pea pork sausage were studied. The effect of four factors of pea, fat to lean ratio, soy protein and starch on the pea pork sausage quality was studied and analyzed. After formulation screening, the optimum proportion of pea pork sausage was de-fined. The result showed that pea 10%, fat to lean ratio 3∶7, soy protein 4% and starch 6%.%以豌豆和猪肉为主要原料,采用单因素、正交试验的方法,对豌豆灌肠生产工艺及配料进行了研究,从豌豆、肥瘦比、大豆蛋白、淀粉四个影响豌豆灌肠质量的主要因素进行研究、分析,经过配方筛选,得出豌豆灌肠的最佳配比结果为:豌豆10%,肥瘦比3∶7,大豆蛋白4%,淀粉6%。

  13. [Photosynthetic responses of wheat and pea seedlings to enhanced UV-C radiation and their resistances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Li-Hong; He, Xing-Yuan; Hao, Lin

    2007-03-01

    With wheat and pea seedlings as test materials, this paper studied the effects of UV-C radiation on their leaf photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that enhanced UV-C radiation could markedly decrease the photosynthetic rate (Pn) , stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of pea leaves, but for wheat leaves, these parameters were increased first and decreased then. Under UV-C condition, the CO2 compensation point of leaf was increased for pea, but decreased first and increased then for wheat. With the increasing duration of UV-C radiation, the antioxidant enzyme activities of both test plants increased first and decreased then, except that the POD activity of pea and SOD activity of wheat decreased gradually. All of these suggested that wheat had a stronger resistance to short-time UV-C radiation than pea, but, with the prolonged duration of UV-C radiation, the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and pea were all decreased.

  14. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  15. Yield and quality of sugar snap pea in the Ebro Valley: sowing date and seed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Azpilicueta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L. var. macrocarpon Ser. is an edible-podded sweet pea that is being considered as a new totally mechanized crop to supply raw material to the agri-food industry of the Ebro Valley (Northern Spain. It is of great interest from an agronomic and commercial standpoint but neither its agronomic behaviour nor its adaptation to the area are known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing date and seed density on the growth and yield of the sugar snap pea at industrial scale. Six randomized blocks experiments with four replicates were conducted on irrigated land in Villafranca (Navarra, Spain in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Three experiments for testing sowing dates (Mar., Apr., and May and another three for seed densities (from 75 to 150 plants m-2 were performed. Phenological development, thermal integral and qualitative and quantitative yield controls were performed. Sugar snap pea required 960 ºC d-1 (Tb = 3 ºC from sowing to harvest. The early sowings gave more biomass, but yield was similar. However, Harvest Index and crop morphology varied. The sowing densities had similar yields sowing that sugar snap pea has a bigger adaptation availability. Sugar snap peas can be satisfactorily cultivated at industrial scale in the zone with sowings between Mar. and May and with seeding densities between 75 and 150 plants m-2.

  16. Changes in the germination process and growth of pea in effect of laser seed irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podleśna, Anna; Gładyszewska, Bożena; Podleśny, Janusz; Zgrajka, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-sowing helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation of pea seeds on changes in seed biochemical processes, germination rate, seedling emergence, growth rate, and yield. The first experimental factor was exposure to laser radiation: D0 - no irradiation, D3 - three exposures, D5 - five exposures, and the harvest dates were the second factor. Pre-sowing treatment of pea seeds with He-Ne laser light increased the concentrations of amylolytic enzymes and the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in pea seeds and seedlings. The exposure of seeds to He-Ne laser light improved the germination rate and uniformity and modified growth stages, which caused acceleration of flowering and ripening of pea plants. Laser light stimulation improved the morphological characteristics of plants by increasing plant height and leaf surface area. Irradiation improved the yield of vegetative and reproductive organs of pea, although the effects varied at the different growth stages. The increase in the seed yield resulted from a higher number of pods and seeds per plant, whereas no significant changes were observed in the number of seeds per pod. Both radiation doses exerted similarly stimulating effects on pea growth, development, and yield.

  17. Evaluation of Hydraulic Parameters Obtained by Different Measurement Methods for Heterogeneous Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic parameters for the van Genuchten function is important to characterize soil water movement for watershed management. Accurate and rapid prediction of soil water flow in heterogeneous gravel soil has become a hot topic in recent years. However, it is difficult to precisely estimate hydraulic parameters in a heterogeneous soil with rock fragments. In this study, the HYDRUS-2D numerical model was used to evaluate hydraulic parameters for heterogeneous gravel soil that was irregularly embedded with rock fragments in a grape production base. The centrifugal method (CM, tensiometer method (TM and inverse solution method (ISM were compared for various parameters in the van Genuchten function. The soil core method (SCM, disc infiltration method (DIM and inverse solution method (ISM were also investigated for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity. Simulation with the DIM approach revealed a problem of overestimating soil water infiltration whereas simulation with the SCM approach revealed a problem of underestimating water movement as compared to actual field observation. The ISM approach produced the best simulation result even though this approach slightly overestimated soil moisture by ignoring the impact of rock fragments. This study provides useful information on the overall evaluation of soil hydraulic parameters attained with different measurement methods for simulating soil water movement and distribution in heterogeneous gravel soil.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of sediment size on a mixed sand and gravel beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Diane P.; Walton, Susan M.

    2007-12-01

    Mixed sand and gravel beaches have been the subject of comparatively few studies in the UK. This paper describes the sediment distribution before, during and after a programme of beach nourishment along a section of mixed sand and gravel beach forming part of the Pevensey Bay Coastal Defences, in East Sussex, UK. The beach was recharged in September 2002, and beach profiles were measured along three cross-shore transects from August 2002 to February 2003. Sediment samples were taken along the transects between August and November 2002, and a total of 147 sediment samples were analysed, 40 before nourishment and 107 after nourishment. The majority of the sediment samples were strongly bimodal, with mean sizes varying between a minimum of 0.18 mm (2.48 ϕ) for the sand fraction and a maximum of 27 mm (- 4.74 ϕ) for the gravel. The recharge material was also bimodal but contained more fine sediment than the natural beach material, particularly on the upper beach. The recharge sediment had grain sizes and sorting similar to some of the natural material but lower bimodality parameters than any of the natural sediment. The sediment distributions after recharge contained significantly more fine sediment, particularly on the upper beach. Over time, the beach profile lowered and fine sediment appeared to be selectively transported seawards from the beachface.

  19. Tracing river gravels: Insights into dispersion from a long-term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment dispersion is a fundamental component of the sediment transfer process in gravel-bed rivers. Modeling this process requires an understanding of the collective movement of mixed-size clasts. This study explores the temporal evolution of gravel dispersion to underscore the importance of field observation in informing modeling efforts. Magnetically tagged gravels deployed in Carnation Creek have been monitored repeatedly over 17 years. Four metrics used to describe the extent of dispersion document that the overall shape in the spatial distribution of grain location changes over time. The general trends mask the complexity of the dispersion process, expressed by channel sections where tracers are concentrated regardless of grain size. The distribution of total grain displacement responsible for dispersion evolves as tracers become well mixed. Results demonstrate that observations from the field are crucial to the understanding and modeling of sediment dispersion because they provide key insights into the dispersion process that must be known a priori for mathematical modeling and similar observations cannot be collected using laboratory flumes.

  20. Multiscale statistical characterization of migrating bed forms in gravel and sand bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Lanzoni, Stefano; Wilcock, Peter R.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2011-12-01

    Migrating bed forms strongly influence hydraulics, transport, and habitat in river environments. Their dynamics are exceedingly complex, making it difficult to predict their geometry and their interaction with sediment transport. Acoustic instrumentation now permits high-resolution observations of bed elevation as well as flow velocity. We present a space-time characterization of bed elevation series in laboratory experiments of sand and gravel transport in a large 84 m long, 2.75 m wide flume. We use a simple filtering and thresholding methodology to estimate bed form heights and report that the shape of their probability density function (pdf) remains invariant to discharge for both gravel and sand and has a positive tail slightly thicker than Gaussian. Using a wavelet decomposition, we quantify the presence of a rich multiscale statistical structure and estimate the scale-dependent celerity of migrating bed forms, showing the faster movement of smaller bed forms relative to the larger ones. The nonlinear dynamics of gravel and sand bed forms is also examined, and the predictability time, i.e., the interval over which one can typically forecast the system, is estimated. Our results demonstrate that flow rate as well as bed sediment composition exert a significant influence on the multiscale dynamics and degree of nonlinearity and complexity of bed form evolution.

  1. Effects of sand addition on turbulent flow over an immobile gravel bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, D. G.; Langendoen, E. J.; Kuhnle, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    The factors controlling the complex interaction of a coarse streambed with flow and sediment are difficult to measure. However, planning for reservoir flushing or dam removal requires knowledge of these interactions. In both cases, impounded sediments are introduced to channel beds that have had fine sediment particles removed without replacement. The channel bed pore space interacts with the flow and provides storage for particles. In order to address the need for information on such systems, an adjustable-slope, recirculating laboratory flume was used to study the changes in flow and turbulence caused by sand added to an immobile gravel bed. Detailed measurements were made using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter that collected three velocity components at a rate of 200 Hz. Because of the rough nature of the bed, individual velocity profiles varied significantly; therefore, in order to determine general trends, the data were spatially averaged over six 10 × 20 cm planes parallel to the bed with the lowest plane about 2 cm below the maximum gravel elevation. The increasing elevation of sand relative to the gravel layer resulted in decreased bed shear stress, decreased Reynolds stress, increased relative turbulence intensity, and a near-bed shift toward sweep-dominated turbulence.

  2. Triaxial shear behavior of a cement-treated sand–gravel mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Amini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of parameters, e.g. cement content, cement type, relative density, and grain size distribution, can influence the mechanical behaviors of cemented soils. In the present study, a series of conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted on a cemented poorly graded sand–gravel mixture containing 30% gravel and 70% sand in both consolidated drained and undrained conditions. Portland cement used as the cementing agent was added to the soil at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% (dry weight of sand–gravel mixture. Samples were prepared at 70% relative density and tested at confining pressures of 50 kPa, 100 kPa, and 150 kPa. Comparison of the results with other studies on well graded gravely sands indicated more dilation or negative pore pressure in poorly graded samples. Undrained failure envelopes determined using zero Skempton's pore pressure coefficient (A¯=0 criterion were consistent with the drained ones. Energy absorption potential was higher in drained condition than undrained condition, suggesting that more energy was required to induce deformation in cemented soil under drained state. Energy absorption increased with increase in cement content under both drained and undrained conditions.

  3. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.

  4. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Green Bay N.W. Refuge, Gravel Island N.W. Refuge: Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon NWR, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins...

  5. Diversity of pea (Pisum sativum) accessions based on morphological data for sustainable field pea breeding in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, I; Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Cravero, V P; Cointry, E L

    2011-10-31

    We characterized 13 accessions of dry peas of different origins from various growing regions in Argentina, based on three replications of 20 plants cultivated in 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse, with the objective of selecting those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs. Significant differences were found for length and width of stipule and pod, length of the internodes and leaflets, plant height, total number of nodes, number of nodes at the first pod, number of days to flowering and to harvest, number of pods and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain diameter, demonstrating a high degree of genetic variability. Phenotypic correlation analysis demonstrated that large pods produced more seeds per pod, but the seed weight decreased. Plants with smaller number of nodes in the first pod were more productive. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients indicated a strong inherent association among the different traits. Clustering methods grouped the accessions into five clusters. Cluster 5 included two accessions and showed the highest values for length and width of stipules (4.9 and 4.5 cm, respectively), length of leaflets (7.43 cm) and days to flowering (122.6), while cluster 3, with one accession, and cluster 4, with two accessions, showed the highest values for number of seeds per pod (3.78 and 4.39), number of pods per plant (5.33 and 5.70), length of pods (5.54 and 5.72 cm), and width of pods (1.21 and 1.20 cm, respectively). We conclude that accessions in clusters 3 and 4 would be useful for crosses with other cultivars in pea breeding programs.

  6. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  7. ERβ and PEA3 co-activate IL-8 expression and promote the invasion of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Li; Li, Ji-Yu; Mukaida, Naofumi; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Chen; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Jin, Wei; Shao, Zhi-ming

    2011-03-01

    Metastasis represents the major remaining cause of mortality in human breast cancer. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory chemokine, plays an important role during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we found that IL-8 and ERβ showed positive association. Overexpression of ERβ or PEA3 could up-regulate IL-8 promoter activity, mRNA and secretion; silencing of ERβ or PEA3 decreased IL-8 mRNA and secretion. ERβ and PEA3 increased IL-8 expression through binding to the IL-8 promoter and increased cell invasion. HER2 could increase ERβ and PEA3 expression and their binding to the IL-8 promoter. We conclude that ERβ and PEA3 play important roles in tumor invasion by regulating IL-8 expression, and HER2 maybe the upstream of ERβ and PEA3 - IL-8 pathway.

  8. Adaptive radiation of gobies in the interstitial habitats of gravel beaches accompanied by body elongation and excessive vertebral segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakita Atsushi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seacoasts of the Japanese Arc are fringed by many gravel beaches owing to active tectonic uplift and intense denudation caused by heavy rainfall. These gravel beaches are inhabited by gobies of the genus Luciogobius that burrow into the gravel sediment and live interstitially. Although their habitat and morphology (e. g., reduced fins, elongated, scale-less body, and highly segmented vertebral column are highly unusual among fishes, little is known on how their morphological evolution has facilitated the colonization of interstitial habitats and promoted extensive diversification. We conducted thorough sampling of Luciogobius and related species throughout Japan, and performed molecular phylogenetic analysis to explore the patterns of morphological evolution associated with gravel beach colonization. Results An analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene suggested a remarkable diversity of previously unrecognized species. The species-level phylogeny based on six protein-coding nuclear genes clearly indicated that interstitial species cluster into two distinct clades, and that transitions from benthic or demersal habits to interstitial habits are strongly correlated with an increase in vertebral number. Colonization of gravel beach habitats is estimated to have occurred ca. 10 Ma, which coincides with the period of active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass. Different species of interstitial Luciogobius inhabit sediments with different granulometric properties, suggesting that microhabitat partitioning has been an important mechanism facilitating speciation in these fishes. Conclusion This is the first study to document the adaptation to interstitial habitats by a vertebrate. Body elongation and excessive vertebral segmentation had been the key aspects enhancing body flexibility and fishes' ability to burrow into the gravel sediment. The rich diversity of coastal gravel habitats of the Japanese Arc has likely promoted

  9. A critical perspective on 1-D modeling of river processes : gravel load and aggradation in lower Fraser River.

    OpenAIRE

    R.; Ferguson; Church, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how well a width-averaged morphodynamic model can simulate gravel transport and aggradation along a highly irregular 38-km reach of lower Fraser River and discuss critical issues in this type of modeling. Bed load equations with plausible parameter values predict a gravel input consistent with direct measurements and a sediment budget. Simulations using spatially varying channel width, and forced by dominant discharge or a 20-year hydrograph, match the observed downstream finin...

  10. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vollmer, H. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hepa, V. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely

  11. Formation of gravel pavements during fluvial erosion as an explanation for persistence of ancient cratered terrain on Titan and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alan D.; Breton, Sylvain; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-05-01

    In many terrestrial channels the gravel bed is only transported during rare floods (threshold channels), and rates of erosion are very slow. In this paper we explore how coarse debris delivered to channels on Mars and Titan from erosion may inhibit further erosion once a coarse gravel channel bed develops. Portions of the equatorial region of Titan are fluvially eroded into banded (crenulated) terrain, some of which contains numerous circular structures that are likely highly degraded large impact craters surviving from the late heavy bombardment. No mechanism that can chemically or physically break down ice (likely the most important component of Titans crust) has been unambiguously identified. This paper examines a scenario in which fluvial erosion on Titan has largely involved erosion into an impact-generated megaregolith that contains a modest component of gravel-sized debris. As the megaregolith is eroded, coarse gravel gradually accumulates as a lag pavement on channel beds, limiting further erosion and creating a dissected, but largely inactive, or senescent, landscape. Similar development of gravel pavements occur in ancient mountain belts on Earth, and partially explain the persistence of appreciable relief after hundreds of millions of years. Likewise, coarse gravel beds may have limited the degree to which erosion could modify the heavily cratered terrains on Mars, particularly if weathering were largely due to physical, rather than chemical weathering processes in a relatively cold and/or arid environment.

  12. Geochemical Characteristics and Implications of Eclogite Gravels from Mesozoic Strata at the Northern Margin of Dabie Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双应; 岳书仓; 王道轩; 刘因; 李任伟; 孟庆任; 金福全

    2004-01-01

    The eclogite gravels, which were found in the Mesozoic Fenghuangtai and Maotanchang formations on the northern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt, are rich in K2O ( 1.21% ), ∑REE (278μg/g), and LILE (such as Rb, Ba, K, Th, etc.), with high (La/Yb)N ratios ( 14.4 ), on the basis of the analyses of major elements, rare-earth elements (REE) and trace elements. Their enrichment in LILE, notable Nb-Ta depletion through, and depletion in HFSE relative to REE in comparison with the primitive mantle and N-MORB indicate that the protoliths of the eclogite gravels were formed in an island-arc setting. According to the Th-Hf-Ta discrimination diagram, the protoliths of the eclogite gravels are characterized by volcanic arc basalts. Trace element data indicate that the subducted marine sediments were assimilated in the magma chamber, resulting in the enrichment of LILE in the protoliths. Therefore, the protoliths of the eclogite gravels are considered to have been formed in an inland-arc setting, indicating that there had developed a paleo-inland arc before Triassic collision between the North and South China blocks in the Dabie orogenic belt. There is a marked difference between the eclogite gravels and the eclogites developed along the Dabie orogenic belt, solely based on their geochemical data, especially REE. Therefore, the eclogite gravels may not be derived from eclogite terrains preserved in the Dabie orogenic belt.

  13. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  14. Digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlad, J S; Mathers, J C

    1991-03-01

    The digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets was measured. In the four experimental diets, wheat was included at a constant 500 g/kg whilst peas contributed 0-300 g/kg and these were the only dietary sources of NSP. Separate estimates of digestibility for wheat and peas were obtained by using a multiple linear regression technique which also tested the possibility that the presence of peas might influence the digestibility of wheat NSP. There was little evidence of the latter and it was found that the digestibility of peas NSP (0.84) was considerably greater than that of wheat (0.65). The non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) had twofold greater digestibilities than had cellulose for both foods with essentially all the peas NCP being digested. Faecal alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid concentration increased with feeding of peas, suggesting stimulation of bacterial biomass production in the large intestine using the readily fermented peas NSP. All three major volatile fatty acids produced by large intestinal fermentation were detected in jugular blood and increased significantly with increasing peas inclusion rate in the diet.

  15. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, Richard

    2010-12-09

    Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3\\/ETV4 and ER81\\/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  16. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmann Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3/ETV4 and ER81/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  17. Gravel pads of powerline towers as human-made habitats for ruderal vegetation in some Mediterranean wetlands of Egypt: Implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy I. El-Bana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread of transmission powerlines in many aquatic ecosystems of Egypt, little is known about their ecological impacts. The current study evaluates floristic composition associated with gravel pads constructed for stabilizing powerline towers in the wetlands of Burullus and Manzala. Plant cover was measured for 34 randomly selected in paired gravel pads and adjacent wetlands. Ordination analysis indicated that vegetation on the gravel pads significantly differed from that in wetlands. Thirty-two species were recorded in the gravel pad plots (more than twice the number found in wetlands. Mean species richness was significantly higher in gravel pad plots (3.8 species than in wetland plots (1.7 species. Gravel pad plots had a significantly lower cover than wetlands of Chenopodiaceae (12.9% vs. 28.7% and Poaceae (15.7% vs. 32.2%, while Asteraceae showed higher cover in gravel pad plots (25% than in wetlands (6.7%. Gravel pad plots were consistently occupied by ruderals, weeds and invasive species. Regression analysis showed that total vegetation cover and diversity indices increased significantly with rises in the thickness of the gravel pads. The study highlighted the importance of gravel pad corridors for the abundance of ruderal plant species that could eventually colonize more pristine areas in the adjacent wetlands.

  18. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  19. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration of pea leaves under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Mitochondrial respiration in plants provides energy for biosynthesis, and its balance with photosynthesis determines the rate of plant biomass accumulation (production). Mitochondria are not only the energetic organelles in a cell but they play an essential regulatory role in many basic cellular processes. As plants adapt to real and simulated microgravity, it is very important to understand the state of mitochondria in these conditions. Disturbance of respiratory metabolism can significantly affect the productivity of plants in long-term space flights. We have established earlier that the rate of respiration in root apices of pea etiolated seedlings rose after 7 days of clinorotation. These data indicate the oxygen increased requirement by root apices under clinorotation, that confirms the necessity of sufficient substrate aeration in space greenhouses to provide normal respiratory metabolism and supply of energy for root growth. In etiolated seedlings, substrate supply of mitochondria occurs at the expense of the mobilization of cotyledon nutrients. A goal of our work was to study the ultrastructure and respiration of mitochondria in pea leaves after 12 days of clinorotation during (2 rpm/min). Plants grew at a light level of 180 μµmol m ^{-2} s ^{-1} PAR and a photoperiod of 16 h light/4 h dark. It was showed an essential increase in the mitochondrion area on 53% in palisade parenchyma cells at the sections. Such phenomenon can not be described as swelling of mitochondria, since enlarged mitochondria contained a more quantity of crista 1.76 times. In addition, the cristae total area per organelle also increased in comparison with that in control. An increase in a size of mitochondria in the experimental conditions is supposed to occur by a partial alteration of the chondriom. Thus, a size of 49% mitochondria in control was 0.1 - 0.3 μµm ^{2}, whereas only 26

  20. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. in field pea (Pisum sativum L. organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (foliar fertilizer, as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively. These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators, which provides good insect control and high productivity in pea organic farming conditions.

  1. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  2. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Kęsy, Jacek; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Grobela, Marcin; Motała, Rafał; Bocianowski, Jan; Morkunas, Iwona

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects), on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski) seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase) were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA) and abscisic acid (ABA) was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead) and biotic factor (aphid infestation) on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  3. Protein tyrosine nitration in pea roots during development and senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that is associated with nitro-oxidative damage. No information about this process is available in relation to higher plants during development and senescence. Using pea plants at different developmental stages (ranging from 8 to 71 days), tyrosine nitration in the main organs (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits) was analysed using immunological and proteomic approaches. In the roots of 71-day-old senescent plants, nitroproteome analysis enabled the identification a total of 16 nitrotyrosine-immunopositive proteins. Among the proteins identified, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), an enzyme involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, redox regulation, and responses to oxidative stress, was selected to evaluate the effect of nitration. NADP-ICDH activity fell by 75% during senescence. Analysis showed that peroxynitrite inhibits recombinant cytosolic NADP-ICDH activity through a process of nitration. Of the 12 tyrosines present in this enzyme, mass spectrometric analysis of nitrated recombinant cytosolic NADP-ICDH enabled this study to identify the Tyr392 as exclusively nitrated by peroxynitrite. The data as a whole reveal that protein tyrosine nitration is a nitric oxide-derived PTM prevalent throughout root development and intensifies during senescence. PMID:23362300

  4. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  5. An implantable intracardiac accelerometer for monitoring myocardial contractility. The Multicenter PEA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, A F; Bombardini, T; Corbucci, G; Plicchi, G

    1996-12-01

    As the myocardium contracts isometrically, it generates vibrations that are transmitted throughout the heart. These vibrations can be measured with an implantable microaccelerometer located inside the tip of an otherwise conventional unipolar pacing lead. These vibrations are, in their audible component, responsible for the first heart sound. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in man, the clinical feasibility and reliability of intracavity sampling of Peak Endocardial Acceleration (PEA) of the first heart sound vibrations using an implantable tip mounted accelerometer. We used a unidirectional accelerometer located inside the stimulating tip of a standard unipolar pacing lead: the sensor has a frequency response of DC to 1 kHz and a sensitivity of 5 mV/G (G = 9.81 m/s-2). The lead was connected to an external signal amplifier with a frequency range of 0.05-1,000 Hz and to a peak-to-peak detector synchronized with the endocardial R wave scanning the isovolumetric contraction phase. Following standard electrophysiological studies, sensor equipped leads were temporarily inserted in the RV of 15 patients (68 +/- 15 years), with normal regional and global ventricular function, to record PEA at rest, during AAI pacing, during VVI pacing, and during dobutamine infusion (up to 20 micrograms/kg per min). PEA at baseline was 1.1 G +/- 0.5 (heart rate = 75 +/- 14 beats/min) and increased to 1.3 G +/- 0.9 (P = NS vs baseline) during AAI pacing (heart rate = 140 beats/min) and to 1.4 G +/- 0.5 (P = NS vs baseline) during VVI pacing (heart rate = 140 beats/min). Dobutamine infusion increased PEA to 3.7 G +/- 1.1 (P < 0.001 vs baseline), with a heart rate of 121 +/- 13 beats/min. In a subset of three patients, simultaneous hemodynamic RV monitoring was performed to obtain RV dP/dtmax, whose changes during dobutamine and pacing were linearly related to changes in PEA (r = 0.9; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the PEA recording can be consistently and safely obtained with an

  6. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Jougnot, D.; Genoni, O.; Durst, Y.; Minsley, Burke J.; Vogt, T.; Pasquale, N.; Luster, J.

    2011-01-01

     Self-potentials (SP) are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  7. Influence of bank vegetation and gravel bed on velocity and Reynolds stress distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein AFZALIMEHR; Subhasish DEY

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory flume experimental study on the interaction of bank vegetation and gravel bed on the flow velocity (primarily on the location of the maximum velocity, Umax) and the Reynolds stress distributions. The results reveal that the dip of the maximum velocity below the water surface is up to 35% of flow depth and the difference between Umax and the velocity at the water surface is considerable in the presence of vegetation on the walls. The zone of the log-law varies from y/h=2 up to 15 percent of flow depth and it does not depend on distance from the wall. Deviation of the velocity profile in the outer layer over a gravel bed with vegetation cover on the walls is much larger than the case of flow over a gravel bed without vegetation cover on the walls. The presence of vegetation on the walls changes uniform flow to non-uniform flow. This fact can be explained by considering the nonlinear Reynolds stress distribution and location of maximum velocity in each profile at different distances across the flume. The Reynolds stress distributions at the distance 0.02 m from the wall have negative values and away from the wall, they change the sign taking positive values with specific convex form with apex in higher location. Average of von Karman constant κ for this study is equal to 0.16. Based on κ=0.16, the methods of Clauser and the Reynolds stress are compatible for determination of shear velocity.

  8. Gravel transport by ice in a subarctic river from accurate laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsari, Eliisa; Wang, Yunsheng; Kaartinen, Harri; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Vaaja, Matti; Hyyppä, Hannu; Hyyppä, Juha; Alho, Petteri

    2015-10-01

    For decades the importance of ice and the effects of cold-region processes on river channel morphology have been discussed, with a general consensus as to their importance emerging only recently. River ice cover, anchor ice, frazil ice, and ice jams may not only scour the channel bed and banks but also pick up, transport, and deposit fine sediments and gravels during winter, especially during the spring ice breakup period. However, knowledge of the interactions between coarse sediment transport and ice processes remains insufficient, particularly in rockier river reaches, with a lack of accurate and sufficiently extensive data hindering their quantification. The aim of this study was to quantify and analyse the impact of river ice on gravel transport in a subarctic river during one winter via the acquisition of laser scanning data for the river channel and ice surface. Terrestrial and mobile laser scanning were performed in 2012-2013 on the Tana River in northern Finland. Both of these techniques are considered accurate and applicable for detecting elevation and volumetric changes in river bed, defining gravel clast sizes, and detecting the movement of individual clasts. More importantly, ice surface, thickness, and decay during spring were also captured via laser scanning. In the winter of 2012-2013, a period characterised by an absence of ice jams and mid-winter ice-decay periods, with spring ice breakup discharges close to average yearly conditions, ice had the most significant role, greater than that of flowing water, in erosion and transport of coarse sediment from the channel bed and gently sloping banks. Changes in river bed elevation and volume were recorded throughout the study site, and erosion predominated. In addition to broader scale erosion, the movement of single clasts up to 2 m in size occurred. However, the observed overall channel change patterns did not coincide with the areas of fastest ice decay. The obtained results could also be applied to

  9. Sediment routing through channel confluences: RFID tracer experiments from a gravel-bed river headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, K.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tributary confluences may significantly impact large-scale patterns of sediment transport because of their role in connecting individual streams in a network. These unique locations feature complex flow structures and geomorphic features, and may represent ecological hotspots. Sediment transport across confluences is poorly understood, however. We present research on coarse sediment transport and dispersion through confluences using sediment tracers in the East Fork Bitterroot River, Montana, USA. We tagged a range of gravel (>40 mm) and cobble particles with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags and painted smaller (10-40 mm) gravels, and then we traced them through confluences in a montane river's headwaters. We measured the effects of confluences on dispersion, path length, and depositional location and compare properties of sediment routing with a non-confluence control reach. We also measured topographic change through repeat bed surveys and combined topography, hydraulics, and tracer measurements to calculate basal shear and critical Shields stresses for different grain sizes. Field observations suggest that tagged particles in confluences routed along flanks of scour holes in confluences, with sediment depositing further downstream along bank-lateral bars than within the channel thalweg. Travel distances of RFID-tagged particles ranged up to 35 meters from original seeding points, with initial recovery rates of RFID-tagged tracers ranging between 84-89%. In both confluence and control reaches only partial mobility was observed within the entire tracer population, suggesting a hiding effect imposed by the roughness of the bed. Particles seeded in the channel thalweg experienced further travel distances than those seeded towards the banks and on bars. Differences in dispersion between confluence and control reaches are implied by field observation. This study quantified patterns of sediment routing within confluences and provided insight to the importance

  10. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Linde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-potentials (SP are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  11. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D Langhans

    Full Text Available Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m, distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest, and time of the year (February-November across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy, to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  12. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity.

  13. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  14. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  15. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P microbiota in obese rats.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul R. Dange

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills. is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibility and control to operator. The power was transmitted from pto to gear box. Arrangement of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor was provided on the equipment to facilitate the height of cut and to rotate the conveyer belt. During comparative performance evaluation of developed equipment, the average cutting efficiency and field capacity was found 96.30 % and 0.176 ha/hr respectively. There was increase in fuel consumption and plant damage with increase in speed of operation. The average operation cost of newly developed tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was 64.71% less as compared with manual harvesting of pigeon pea crop. The time saved was almost 1/3rd to that of manual harvesting.

  17. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  18. The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Radiation in the "Green Pea" Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, A E

    2013-01-01

    Although Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the Universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z=0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' SDSS spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {\\lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {\\lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the...

  19. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  20. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  1. Developing Sand-Gravel Viscous Oil Reservoir in Le'an Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shenghou

    1995-01-01

    @@ The main oil-bearing series of Le'an Oilfield, Shengli Oil Province, which was discovered in 1970s are sand-gravel bodies on the base of the Eocene Guantao Formation. It is difficult to produce crude oil with conventional method from this thin reservoir due to its complicated lithology, extra viscous oil and edge water. We have conducted integrated study on geology, reservoir engineering, thermal production technology, horizontal drilling technology and comprehensive study. By five years' field experiment and operation, a prominent effect of development and good economic benefit have been achieved and an example has been set up for thermal recovery from extra viscous reservoir.

  2. Alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses on low volume rural roads: Phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available : • Wages can be negotiated, i.e. that one is not governed by the industry minimum wages. For Limpopo Province the industry minimum is currently about R50/day (~USD7.0). Based on research of acceptable wage rates in the province, a wage of R30/daily task... gravel layers should be compacted to refusal for the plant available and not a specified density. It is necessary, however, that a minimum density is achieved in all cases, preferably 98 per cent of the modified AASHTO maximum dry density. It is thus...

  3. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  4. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  5. Effect of pre-freezing and culinary treatment on the content of amino acids of green pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Lisiewska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Green pea is regarded as an important constituent of a human diet, especially for vegetarians. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the amino acids content in green pea and the quality of pea protein. The study covered raw seeds; fresh seeds cooked to consumption consistency; and two kinds of frozen products prepared for consumption: frozen seeds obtained using the traditional method and frozen seeds of the ready-to-eat type. Compared with the raw material, cooked fresh pea contained more isoleucine (15%, valine (14% and arginine (24% but less tyrosine (17%; cooked pea from the traditional frozen product contained less sulphur-containing amino acids (12% and alanine (13%; while pea from the frozen product of the ready-to-eat type contained a similar or higher amount (from 12% to 38% of amino acids, except for sulphur-containing amino acids (less 12%. The protein of green pea was of very good quality, both in raw seeds and in those prepared for consumption. In comparison with the FAO/WHO/1991 standard, the CS indexes exceeded 100. It was only for sulphuric amino acids that the CS for the ready-to-eat product was 98. The methods of culinary and technological processing applied affected the quality of protein in green pea seeds to a negligible degree.

  6. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  7. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  8. Conductrimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is contaminated plant propagation material, i.e. pea seeds and potato tubers. One of the best ways to contr

  9. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  10. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the a-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  11. Identification of QTL controlling high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot is a common biotic restraint on pea yields worldwide and genetic resistance is the most feasible method for improving pea production. This study was conducted to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium s...

  12. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  13. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)—‘Promiscuous’ anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecule at the interface between nutrition and pharma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel Hesselink, J.M.; Kopsky, D.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (N-palmitoylethanolamine or PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) class of signalling molecules. Earliest reports on the anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of PEA date back to 1957 when its isolation from soy lecithin,

  14. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  15. Field study of gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions: Protective Barrier Program Status Reprt - FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Thiede, M.E.; Kemp, C.J.; Cadwell, L.L. Link, S.O.

    1990-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are collaborating on a field study of the effects of gravel admixtures on plant growth and soil water storage in protective barriers. Protective barriers are engineered earthern covers designed to prevent water, plants, and animals from contacting buried waste and transporting contaminants to groundwater or the land surface. Some of the proposed designs include gravel admixtures or gravel mulches on the barrier surface to control soil loss by wind and runoff. The purpose of this study is to measure, in a field setting, the influence of surface gravel additions on soil water storage and plant cover. The study plots are located northwest of the Yakima Gate in the McGee Ranch old field. Here we report the status of work completed in FY 1989 on the creation of a data management system, a test of water application uniformity, field calibration of neutron moisture gages, and an analysis of the response of plants to various combinations of gravel admixtures and increased rainfall. 23 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Response to water deficit and high temperature of transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) containing a seed-specific alpha-amylase inhibitor and the subsequent effects on pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Majer, Maria José de; Turner, Neil C; Hardie, Darryl C; Morton, Roger L; Lamont, Byron; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2004-02-01

    The effects of water deficit and high temperature on the production of alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alpha-AI-1) were studied in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that were developed to control the seed-feeding pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Transgenic and non-transgenic plants were subjected to water-deficit and high-temperature treatments under controlled conditions in the glasshouse and growth cabinet, beginning 1 week after the first pods were formed. In the water-deficit treatments, the peas were either adequately watered (control) or water was withheld after first pod formation. The high-temperature experiments were performed in two growth cabinets, one maintained at 27/22 degrees C (control) and one at 32/27 degrees C day/night temperatures, with the vapour pressure deficit maintained at 1.3 kPa. The plants exposure to high temperatures and water deficit produced 27% and 79% fewer seeds, respectively, than the controls. In the transgenic peas the level of alpha-AI-1 as a percentage of total protein was not influenced by water stress, but was reduced on average by 36.3% (the range in two experiments was 11-50%) in the high-temperature treatment. Transgenic and non-transgenic pods of plants grown at 27/22 degrees C and 32/27 degrees C were inoculated with pea weevil eggs to evaluate whether the reduction in level of alpha-AI-1 in the transgenic pea seeds affected pea weevil development and survival. At the higher temperatures, 39% of adult pea weevil emerged, compared to 1.2% in the transgenic peas grown at the lower temperatures, indicating that high temperature reduced the protective capacity of the transgenic peas.

  17. Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

  18. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  19. Molecular cloning of GA-suppressed G2 pea genes by cDNA RDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉贤; 张翼凤; 李慧英

    1997-01-01

    GA-treated and non-treated G2 pea cDNAs were compared using a newly developed method called cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA-RDA), and several GA-suppressed mRNAs were found. After cloning of the larger fragments PGAS1-3 ( pea GA-suppressed cDNA 1-3), they were demonstrated to be expressed only in pea tissue not treated with GA3 through Northern analysis. Compared with subtractive hybridization and differ-ential display techniques, this method not only can be easily manipulated but also has a relatively low rate of false posi-tive and is highly repetitive. It is the major progress in molecular cloning techniques.

  20. Techno-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum protein isolates: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high nutritive quality, good techno-functional properties and low cost, legume protein products are becoming the most appropriate alternative to protein products of animal origin. In food industries, these products are usually used as techno-functional additives which provide specific characteristics of final food products. Legume proteins are commonly used as flour, concentrates, and isolates. The greatest application on industrial scale has soy proteins, and to a lesser extent, in the past 20 years, pea protein isolates. The modest use of pea protein is partly a result of insufficient information relating to their techno-functional properties. This paper is an overview of techno-functional properties of pea proteins and their isolates. Also, the paper deals with the possible use of limited enzymatic hydrolysis as a method for the improvement of their techno-functional properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31069

  1. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a ......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T.......05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P ... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  2. Photosynthesis and growth responses of pea Pisum sativum L. under heavy metals stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabrine Hattab; Boutheina Dridi; Lassad Chouba; Mohamed Ben Kheder; Hamadi Bousetta

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the physiological effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in pea (Pisum sativum).Pea plants were exposed to increasing doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and copper chloride (CuCl_2) for 20 d.The examined parameters,namely root and shoot lengths,the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and the rate of photosynthesis were affected by the treatments especially with high metals concentrations.The analysis of heavy metals accumulation shows that leaves significantly accumulate cadmium for all the tested concentrations.However,copper was significantly accumulated only with the highest tested dose.This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of cadmium on photosynthesis and growth in pea plants.These results are valuable for understanding the biological consequences of heavy metals contamination particularly in soils devoted to organic agriculture.

  3. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...... from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N availability and crop N...

  4. Characterisation of a pea hsp70 gene which is both developmentally and stress-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, O P; Drew, J E; Gatehouse, J A

    1997-05-01

    A pea pod cDNA library was screened for sequences specific to lignifying tissue. A cDNA clone (pLP19) encoding the C-terminal region of a hsp70 heat shock protein hybridised only to pod mRNA from pea lines where pod lignification occurred. Expression of pLP19 was induced by heat shock in leaves, stems and roots of pea and chickpea plants. Four different poly(A) addition sites were observed in cDNAs derived from the same gene as pLP19. This gene was fully sequenced; unlike most hsp70 genes, it contains no introns. The 5'-flanking sequence contains heat shock elements and other potential regulatory sequences.

  5. Studying Lyman-alpha escape and reionization in Green Pea galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Gronke, Max; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Dijkstra, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Green Pea galaxies are low-redshift galaxies with extreme [OIII]5007 emission line. We built the first statistical sample of Green Peas observed by HST/COS and used them as analogs of high-z Lyman-alpha emitters to study Ly-alpha escape and Ly-alpha sizes. Using the HST/COS 2D spectra, we found that Ly-alpha sizes of Green Peas are larger than the UV continuum sizes. We found many correlations between Ly-alpha escape fraction and galactic properties -- dust extinction, Ly-alpha kinematic features, [OIII]/[OII] ratio, and gas outflow velocities. We fit an empirical relation to predict Ly-alpha escape fraction from dust extinction and Ly-alpha red-peak velocity. In the JWST era, we can use this relation to derive the IGM HI column density along the line of sight of each high-z Ly-alpha emitter and probe the reionization process.

  6. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... competitive than pea for inorganic N. Consequently, barley obtained a more than proportionate share of the inorganic N in the intercrop. At maturity the total recovery of fertilizer N was not significantly different between crops, averaging 65% of the supplied N. The fertilizer N recovered in pea constituted...... only 9% of total fertilizer-N recovery in the intercrop. The amount of symbiotic N-2 fixation in the intercrop was less than expected from its composition and the fixation in monocrop. This indicates that the competition from barley had a negative effect on the fixation, perhaps via shading...

  7. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  8. Sounds and vibrations in the frozen Beaufort Sea during gravel island construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Charles R; Blackwell, Susanna B; McLennan, Miles Wm

    2008-02-01

    Underwater and airborne sounds and ice-borne vibrations were recorded from sea-ice near an artificial gravel island during its initial construction in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Such measurements are needed for characterizing the properties of island construction sounds to assess their possible impacts on wildlife. Recordings were made in February-May 2000 when BP Exploration (Alaska) began constructing Northstar Island about 5 km offshore, at 12 m depth. Activities recorded included ice augering, pumping sea water to flood the ice and build an ice road, a bulldozer plowing snow, a Ditchwitch cutting ice, trucks hauling gravel over an ice road to the island site, a backhoe trenching the sea bottom for a pipeline, and both vibratory and impact sheet pile driving. For all but one sound source (underwater measurements of pumping) the strongest one-third octave band was under 300 Hz. Vibratory and impact pile driving created the strongest sounds. Received levels of sound and vibration, as measured in the strongest one-third octave band for different construction activities, reached median background levels <7.5 km away for underwater sounds, <3 km away for airborne sounds, and <10 km away for in-ice vibrations.

  9. The possibility of using materials based on secondary gravel in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galitskova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, the wear and tear of housing stock is more than 50%. Each year the number of old and dilapidated housing is growing, but it is gradually replaced by modern buildings. However, wastes accumulated from dismantling of buildings and constructions, are underutilized and, usually are just stored at landfills, or used for temporary roads construction. The purpose of this research is to define construction wastes characteristics and to explore possibilities for recycling of wastes from construction materials production. The paper also analyzes housing stock condition and basic requirements to building materials used in construction; and demonstrates results building materials based on secondary gravel investigation. While working with materials based on waste requirements the authors conducted laboratory research. Thus, the paper presents the analysis of laboratory tests results that made it possible to draw conclusions about the possible use of building materials based on secondary gravel and about their conformity to specified requirements. The researchers also developed proposals and recommendations to improve the competitiveness of such materials.

  10. Large submarine sand waves and gravel lag substrates on Georges Bank off Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.; Harris, Peter T; Baker, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow, continental shelf feature offshore of New England and Atlantic Canada. The bank is mantled with a veneer of glacial debris transported during the late Pleistocene from continental areas lying to the north. These sediments were reworked by marine processes during postglacial sea-level transgression and continue to be modified by the modern oceanic regime. The surficial geology of the Canadian portion of the bank is a widespread gravel lag overlain in places by well sorted sand occurring as bedforms. The most widespread bedforms are large, mobile, asymmetrical sand waves up to 19 m in height formed through sediment transport by strong tidal-driven and possibly storm-driven currents. Well-defined curvilinear bedform crests up to 15 km long form a complex bifurcating pattern having an overall southwest–northeast strike, which is normal to the direction of the major axis of the semidiurnal tidal current ellipse. Minor fields of immobile, symmetrical sand waves are situated in bathymetric lows. Rare mobile, asymmetrical barchan dunes are lying on the gravel lag in areas of low sand supply. On Georges Bank, the management of resources and habitats requires an understanding of the distribution of substrate types, their surface dynamics and susceptibility to movement, and their associated fauna.

  11. Frequency-wavenumber velocity spectra, Taylor's hypothesis, and length scales in a natural gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Ashley, Will; Thornton, Ed

    2012-09-01

    Macroscale turbulent coherent flow structures in a natural fast-flowing river were examined with a combination of a novel 2 MHz Acoustic Doppler Beam (ADB) and a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) to characterize the streamwise horizontal length scales and persistence of coherent flow structures by measuring the frequency (f)-streamwise-wavenumber (ks) energy density velocity spectrum, E(f, ks), for the first time in natural rivers. The ADB was deployed under a range of Froude numbers (0.1-0.6) at high Reynolds numbers (˜106) based on depth and velocity conditions within a gravel bed reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho. The MLE employed on the ADB data increased our ability to describe river motions with relatively long (>10 m) length scales in ˜1 m water depths. The E(f, ks) spectra fell along a ridge described by V = f/ks, where Vis the mean velocity over depth, consistent with Taylor's hypothesis. New, consistent length scale measures are defined based on averaged wavelengths of the low-frequencyE(f, ks) and coherence spectra. Energetic (˜50% of the total spectral energy), low-frequency (f 1 m/s,Lmwere found to be significantly longer than their corresponding coherence lengths, suggesting that the turbulent structures evolve rapidly under these conditions. This is attributed to the stretching and concomitant deformation of preexisting macroturbulent motions by the ubiquitous bathymetry-induced spatial flow accelerations present in a natural gravel bed river.

  12. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A GIS approach to model sediment reduction susceptibility of mixed sand and gravel beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikaas, Hans S; Hemmingsen, Maree A

    2006-06-01

    The morphological form of mixed sand and gravel beaches is distinct, and the process/response system and complex dynamics of these beaches are not well understood. Process response models developed for pure sand or gravel beaches cannot be directly applied to these beaches. The Canterbury Bight coastline is apparently abundantly supplied with sediments from large rivers and coastal alluvial cliffs, but a large part of this coastline is experiencing long-term erosion. Sediment budget models provide little evidence to suggest sediments are stored within this system. Current sediment budget models inadequately quantify and account for the processes responsible for the patterns of erosion and accretion of this coastline. We outline a new method to extrapolate from laboratory experiments to the field using a geographical information system approach to model sediment reduction susceptibility for the Canterbury Bight. Sediment samples from ten representative sites were tumbled in a concrete mixer for an equivalent distance of 40 km. From the textural mixture and weight loss over 40 km tumbling, we applied regression techniques to generate a predictive equation for Sediment Reduction Susceptibility (SRS). We used Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) to extrapolate the results from fifty-five sites with data on textural sediment composition to field locations with no data along the Canterbury Bight, creating a continuous sediment reductions susceptibility surface. Isolines of regular SRS intervals were then derived from the continuous surface to create a contour map of sediment reductions susceptibility for the Canterbury Bight. Results highlighted the variability in SRS along this coastline.

  14. Grain-size distribution in suspension over a sand-gravel bed in open channel flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koeli GHOSHAL; Debasish PAL

    2014-01-01

    Grain-size distributions of suspended load over a sand-gravel bed at two different flow velocities were studied in a laboratory flume. The experiments had been performed to study the influence of flow velocity and suspension height on grain-size distribution in suspension over a sand-gravel bed. The experimental findings show that with an increase of flow velocity, the grain-size distribution of suspended load changed from a skewed form to a bimodal one at higher suspension heights. This study focuses on the determination of the parameter βn which is the ratio of the sediment diffusion coefficient to the momentum diffusion coefficient of n th grain-size. A new relationship has been proposed involvingβn , the normalizing settling velocity of sediment particles and suspension height, which is applicable for widest range of normalizing settling velocity available in literature so far. A similar parameter β for calculating total suspension concentration is also developed. The classical Rouse equation is modified with βn and β and used to compute grain-size distribution and total concentration in suspension, respectively. The computed values have shown good agreement with the measured values of experimental data.

  15. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for diluted bitumen and water in gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S. Zubair; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2017-08-01

    Spills of diluted bitumen (dilbit) to rivers by rail or pipeline accidents can have serious long-term impacts on environment and ecology due to the submergence and trapping of oil within the river bed sediment. The extent of this problem is dictated by the amount of immobile oil available for mass transfer into the water flowing through the sediment pores. An understanding of multiphase (oil and water) flow in the sediment, including oil trapping by hysteretic drainage and imbibition, is important for the development of spill response and risk assessment strategies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure capillary pressure-saturation (Pc-Sw) relationships for dilbit and water, and air and water in gravel using a custom-made pressure cell. The Pc-Sw relationships obtained using standard procedures in coarse porous media are height-averaged and often require correction. By developing and comparing air-water and dilbit-water Pc-Sw curves, it was found that correction was less important in dilbit-water systems due to the smaller difference in density between the fluids. In both systems, small displacement pressures were needed for the entry of non-wetting fluid in gravel. Approximately 14% of the pore space was occupied by trapped dilbit after imbibition, which can serve as a source of long-term contamination. While air-water data can be scaled to reasonably predict dilbit-water behaviour, it cannot be used to determine the trapped amount.

  16. Experimental Analysis of Natural Gravel Covering as Cool Roofing and Cool Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive solutions for building energy efficiency represent an interesting research focus nowadays. In particular, natural materials are widely investigated for their potential intrinsic high thermal energy and environmental performance. In this view, natural stones represent a promising solution as building envelope covering and urban pavement. This paper concerns the experimental characterization of several low-cost and local gravel coverings for roofs and urban paving, properly selected for their natural high albedo characteristics. To this aim, the in-field albedo of gravel samples is measured with varying grain size. These in-field measurements are compared to in-lab measurements of solar reflectance and thermal emissivity. The analysis shows a significant variation of the albedo with varying grain size. Both in-lab and in-field measurements agree that the stones with the finest grain size, i.e., fine sand, have the best optic-thermal performance in terms of solar reflectance (62%. This feature results in the reduction of the surface temperature when exposed to solar radiation. Moreover, a natural mixed stone is compared to the high reflectance stone, demonstrating that the chosen stone presents an intrinsic “cool” behavior. Therefore, this natural, low-cost, durable and sustainable material could be successfully considered as a natural cool roof or cool paving solution.

  17. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  18. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  19. Effect of extrusion on the nutritional value of peas for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejdysz, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the nutritional value of five samples of raw and extruded pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., Tarachalska cv.) from different experimental fields. The study included 150 male 1-day-old Ross 308 chickens, which were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (50 replications each) and kept in individual cages. From days 1 to 16, all birds received only the basal diets. From days 17 to 21, the control group received still the basal diet, but for the two other groups, 20% of basal diet was replaced by raw or extruded peas. Furthermore, the groups receiving raw or extruded peas were divided into five subgroups of 10 animals each, where the diets contained one of the five pea samples of the same cultivar grown at different locations, respectively. On days 19 and 20, excreta were individually collected, and then all chickens were sacrificed and ileal digesta were sampled for determination of ileal digestibility, which was calculated by the difference method. Extrusion of pea seeds decreased the contents of crude fibre, acid and neutral detergent fibre, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic P and resistant starch (RS) (p ≤ 0.05), but increased the contents of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) by approximately 2.25 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). Furthermore, extrusion improved the DM and crude protein digestibility significantly by about 21.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Similar results were observed for the digestibility of all analysed amino acids. In conclusion, extrusion markedly influenced the chemical composition of peas, reduced their contents of phytic P, TIA and RS and consequently had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and AMEN values.

  20. Valor nutricional de produtos de ervilha em comparação com a ervilha fresca Nutritional value of pea products in comparison to fresh peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a composição centesimal e os teores de minerais, taninos e a disponibilidade de ferro e digestibilidade de proteínas em produtos de ervilha comercializados em Piracicaba/SP, em comparação com a ervilha fresca. Ocorreram alterações na composição centesimal, especialmente nas fibras, que se apresentaram em maiores quantidades na ervilha fresca. Os teores de taninos foram baixos. O teor de ferro foi maior na ervilha fresca (27,16 mg/Kg como também sua disponibilidade (28,5%, em conjunto com a sopa liofilizada (27,08%. O menor valor foi apresentado pela ervilha enlatada (14,04%, seguida pela sopa creme congelada (17,81%. Para a digestibilidade, a variação foi de 64,59 a 79,33%, sendo a proteína da sopa liofilizada a de menor digestibilidade. Foi concluído que o consumo de ervilha fresca seria o mais recomendado do ponto de vista nutricional, considerando os parâmetros analisados.The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition, amount of minerals and tannin, and iron availability in pea products sold in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo state, and compare them with fresh peas. Alterations occurred in the components of compositions, especially in fibers which presented a high quantity of fresh peas. Tannin was very low and iron was the highest in fresh peas (27.16 mg/Kg also the availability (28.5%, such as freeze drying soup (27.08%. The lowest value was for canned peas (14.04%, in sequence freezing soup (17.81%. The digestibility range from 64.59 to 79.33%, freeze drying soup presented the lowest digestibility. It was concluded that the consumption of fresh peas was the most recommended from a nutritional point of view, when the analysed parameters were considered.