Sample records for ground operations okinawa

  1. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island (United States)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.


    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  2. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations (United States)

    Doyle, John F.


    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  3. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations (United States)

    Doyle, John F.


    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  4. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland


    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  5. Report on the Okinawa Operation (United States)


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  6. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.


    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  7. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  8. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan,China, Germany, France, the U. S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes,rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic sur-vey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P. , the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan, China, Germany, France, the U.S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes, rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic survey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P., the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  11. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model (United States)


    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  12. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.


    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  13. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo


    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  14. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  15. Remote Operations and Ground Control Centers (United States)

    Bryant, Barry S.; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee


    The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports the International Space Station (ISS) through remote interfaces around the world. The POIC was originally designed as a gateway to space for remote facilities; ranging from an individual user to a full-scale multiuser environment. This achievement was accomplished while meeting program requirements and accommodating the injection of modern technology on an ongoing basis to ensure cost effective operations. This paper will discuss the open POIC architecture developed to support similar and dissimilar remote operations centers. It will include technologies, protocols, and compromises which on a day to day basis support ongoing operations. Additional areas covered include centralized management of shared resources and methods utilized to provide highly available and restricted resources to remote users. Finally, the effort of coordinating the actions of participants will be discussed.

  16. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.


    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  17. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne


    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  18. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan. (United States)

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin


    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Parrish, Joseph C.


    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  20. Web Application Software for Ground Operations Planning Database (GOPDb) Management (United States)

    Lanham, Clifton; Kallner, Shawn; Gernand, Jeffrey


    A Web application facilitates collaborative development of the ground operations planning document. This will reduce costs and development time for new programs by incorporating the data governance, access control, and revision tracking of the ground operations planning data. Ground Operations Planning requires the creation and maintenance of detailed timelines and documentation. The GOPDb Web application was created using state-of-the-art Web 2.0 technologies, and was deployed as SaaS (Software as a Service), with an emphasis on data governance and security needs. Application access is managed using two-factor authentication, with data write permissions tied to user roles and responsibilities. Multiple instances of the application can be deployed on a Web server to meet the robust needs for multiple, future programs with minimal additional cost. This innovation features high availability and scalability, with no additional software that needs to be bought or installed. For data governance and security (data quality, management, business process management, and risk management for data handling), the software uses NAMS. No local copy/cloning of data is permitted. Data change log/tracking is addressed, as well as collaboration, work flow, and process standardization. The software provides on-line documentation and detailed Web-based help. There are multiple ways that this software can be deployed on a Web server to meet ground operations planning needs for future programs. The software could be used to support commercial crew ground operations planning, as well as commercial payload/satellite ground operations planning. The application source code and database schema are owned by NASA.

  1. The IXV Ground Segment design, implementation and operations (United States)

    Martucci di Scarfizzi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Alessandro; Musso, Ivano; Bussi, Diego; Rabaioli, Massimo; Santoro, Gianfranco; Billig, Gerhard; Gallego Sanz, José María


    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an ESA re-entry demonstrator that performed, on the 11th February of 2015, a successful re-entry demonstration mission. The project objectives were the design, development, manufacturing and on ground and in flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system. For the IXV mission a dedicated Ground Segment was provided. The main subsystems of the IXV Ground Segment were: IXV Mission Control Center (MCC), from where monitoring of the vehicle was performed, as well as support during pre-launch and recovery phases; IXV Ground Stations, used to cover IXV mission by receiving spacecraft telemetry and forwarding it toward the MCC; the IXV Communication Network, deployed to support the operations of the IXV mission by interconnecting all remote sites with MCC, supporting data, voice and video exchange. This paper describes the concept, architecture, development, implementation and operations of the ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV) Ground Segment and outlines the main operations and lessons learned during the preparation and successful execution of the IXV Mission.

  2. SILEX ground segment control facilities and flight operations (United States)

    Demelenne, Benoit; Tolker-Nielsen, Toni; Guillen, Jean-Claude


    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link Experiment). Two payloads have been built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) has been embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4 which has been launched successfully in March 1998. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion), which will route the data to ground, will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical Payload Experiment). The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. Due to the complexity and experimental character of this new optical technology, the development, preparation and validation of the ground segment control facilities required a long series of technical and operational qualification tests. This paper is presenting the operations concept and the early results of the PASTEL in orbit operations.

  3. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.


    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  4. CATIA V5 Virtual Environment Support for Constellation Ground Operations (United States)

    Kelley, Andrew


    This summer internship primarily involved using CATIA V5 modeling software to design and model parts to support ground operations for the Constellation program. I learned several new CATIA features, including the Imagine and Shape workbench and the Tubing Design workbench, and presented brief workbench lessons to my co-workers. Most modeling tasks involved visualizing design options for Launch Pad 39B operations, including Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) access and internal access to the Ares I rocket. Other ground support equipment, including a hydrazine servicing cart, a mobile fuel vapor scrubber, a hypergolic propellant tank cart, and a SCAPE (Self Contained Atmospheric Protective Ensemble) suit, was created to aid in the visualization of pad operations.

  5. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.


    Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancements in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. Two Distinct Testing Environments: a) GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage - GODU LH2; b) GODU Autonomous Control - GODU LO2. Scope: I. GODU LH2: a) Investigate alternative storage and distribution architecture for future cryogenic propellant operations. b) Demonstrate advanced cryogenic propellant handling operations (liquefaction, storage and distribution) of normal boiling point and sub-cooled cryogenic propellants. II. GODU L02: a) Develop and demonstrate advanced control and health management technologies and techniques to autonomously control cryogenic propellant servicing operations. b) Investigate modern COTS hardware and control systems in an effort to reduce the "standing army" of engineers associated with maintaining and operating ground systems through the use of health management and autonomous control technologies. Goals: a) Raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRL) of several key technology development areas. b) Reduce operations lifecycle costs of future test programs and launch complexes. c) Demonstrate technologies for future exploration beyond low earth orbit. d) Serve as test environments for extraterrestrial surface operations.

  6. The Interim : until you achieve an operationally responsive ground system (United States)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Lei, Jordan; Miyamoto, Charles; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran


    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive

  7. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 3: Data bank (United States)


    The GOAL (Ground Operations Aerospace Language) test programming language was developed for use in ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. To insure compatibility with a maximum number of applications, a systematic and error-free method of referencing command/response (analog and digital) hardware measurements is a principle feature of the language. Central to the concept of requiring the test language to be independent of launch complex equipment and terminology is that of addressing measurements via symbolic names that have meaning directly in the hardware units being tested. To form the link from test program through test system interfaces to the units being tested the concept of a data bank has been introduced. The data bank is actually a large cross-reference table that provides pertinent hardware data such as interface unit addresses, data bus routings, or any other system values required to locate and access measurements.

  8. Comments on Dietary Restriction, Okinawa Diet and Longevity


    Gavrilova, Natalia S.; Gavrilov, Leonid A.


    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  9. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 2: Compiler (United States)


    The principal elements and functions of the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) compiler are presented. The technique used to transcribe the syntax diagrams into machine processable format for use by the parsing routines is described. An explanation of the parsing technique used to process GOAL source statements is included. The compiler diagnostics and the output reports generated during a GOAL compilation are explained. A description of the GOAL program package is provided.

  10. Grounded Capacitor Oscillators Using A Single Operational Transconductance Amplifier


    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Muhammad Haroon Khan


    New oscillator circuits using operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) are presented. Each circuit uses a single OTA and grounded capacitors. The feasibility of obtaining oscillators with independent control of frequency and oscillation is considered. Also, the feasibility of exploiting, to advantage, the frequency dependence of the OTA-transconductance is considered. This may result in OTA-based RC oscillators using only one externally-connected capacitor.

  11. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management (United States)

    Daniels, James


    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  12. Analysis and Prediction of Weather Impacted Ground Stop Operations (United States)

    Wang, Yao Xun


    When the air traffic demand is expected to exceed the available airport's capacity for a short period of time, Ground Stop (GS) operations are implemented by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The GS requires departing aircraft meeting specific criteria to remain on the ground to achieve reduced demands at the constrained destination airport until the end of the GS. This paper provides a high-level overview of the statistical distributions as well as causal factors for the GSs at the major airports in the United States. The GS's character, the weather impact on GSs, GS variations with delays, and the interaction between GSs and Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) are investigated. The machine learning methods are used to generate classification models that map the historical airport weather forecast, schedule traffic, and other airport conditions to implemented GS/GDP operations and the models are evaluated using the cross-validations. This modeling approach produced promising results as it yielded an 85% overall classification accuracy to distinguish the implemented GS days from the normal days without GS and GDP operations and a 71% accuracy to differentiate the GS and GDP implemented days from the GDP only days.

  13. Combined operation of two ground transmitters for enhanced ionospheric heating (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Groves, K. M.; Liao, C. P.; Rivas, D. R.; Kuo, S. P.


    The combined operation of a high or medium frequency ground transmitter and a VLF transmitter for enhanced ionospheric heating is examined. The high or medium frequency transmitter operating in a pulsed mode produce short-scale density striations that can render the nonlinear mode conversion of the subsequently launched VLF waves into lower hybrid waves. Also if the VLF waves are intense enough, they can excite meter-scale density striations and lower hybrid waves via parametric instabilities. The expected ionospheric effects of the system are discussed.

  14. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems (United States)


    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  15. Engineering a Multimission Approach to Navigation Ground Data System Operations (United States)

    Gerasimatos, Dimitrios V.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.


    The Mission Design and Navigation (MDNAV) Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports many deep space and earth orbiting missions from formulation to end of mission operations. The requirements of these missions are met with a multimission approach to MDNAV ground data system (GDS) infrastructure capable of being shared and allocated in a seamless and consistent manner across missions. The MDNAV computing infrastructure consists of compute clusters, network attached storage, mission support area facilities, and desktop hardware. The multimission architecture allows these assets, and even personnel, to be leveraged effectively across the project lifecycle and across multiple missions simultaneously. It provides a more robust and capable infrastructure to each mission than might be possible if each constructed its own. It also enables a consistent interface and environment within which teams can conduct all mission analysis and navigation functions including: trajectory design; ephemeris generation; orbit determination; maneuver design; and entry, descent, and landing analysis. The savings of these efficiencies more than offset the costs of increased complexity and other challenges that had to be addressed: configuration management, scheduling conflicts, and competition for resources. This paper examines the benefits of the multimission MDNAV ground data system infrastructure, focusing on the hardware and software architecture. The result is an efficient, robust, scalable MDNAV ground data system capable of supporting more than a dozen active missions at once.

  16. Stepped leaders observed in ground operations of ADELE (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Kelley, N.; Lowell, A.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Dwyer, J. R.; Splitt, M. E.; Lazarus, S. M.; Cramer, E. S.; Levine, S.; Cummer, S. A.; Lu, G.; Shao, X.; Ho, C.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Trueblood, J.; Edens, H. E.; Hunyady, S. J.; Winn, W. P.; Rassoul, H. K.


    While the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) was designed primarily to study high-energy radiation associated with thunderstorms at aircraft altitude, it can also be used as a mobile ground-based instrument when mounted in a van. ADELE contains scintillation detectors optimized for faint and bright events and a flat-plate antenna measuring dE/dt. In July and August 2010, ADELE was brought to Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico as a stationary detector and to the Florida peninsula (based at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne) for rapid-response (storm-chasing) operations. In ten days of chasing, stepped-leader x-ray emission was observed from at least four close CG flashes, a much higher rate of success than can be achieved from a stationary detector or array. We will present these four events as well as the results of a study of candidate events of lesser statistical significance. We will also discuss the optimization of lightning-chasing strategies, science goals for future ground campaigns, and what additional instrumentation would be most scientifically beneficial. In the latter category, a proximity sensor (comparing flash and thunder arrival times) and a field mill are particularly important.

  17. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity. (United States)

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A


    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.


    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  19. Anomaly Detection for Next-Generation Space Launch Ground Operations (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Hall, David R.; Taylor, William M.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Brown, Barbara; Ferrell, Bob A.; Waterman, Robert D.


    NASA is developing new capabilities that will enable future human exploration missions while reducing mission risk and cost. The Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) project aims to demonstrate the utility of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) tools in the domain of ground support equipment (GSE) to be used for the next generation launch vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the utility of IVHM tools for GSE, FDIR aims to mature promising tools for use on future missions and document the level of effort - and hence cost - required to implement an application with each selected tool. One of the FDIR capabilities is anomaly detection, i.e., detecting off-nominal behavior. The tool we selected for this task uses a data-driven approach. Unlike rule-based and model-based systems that require manual extraction of system knowledge, data-driven systems take a radically different approach to reasoning. At the basic level, they start with data that represent nominal functioning of the system and automatically learn expected system behavior. The behavior is encoded in a knowledge base that represents "in-family" system operations. During real-time system monitoring or during post-flight analysis, incoming data is compared to that nominal system operating behavior knowledge base; a distance representing deviation from nominal is computed, providing a measure of how far "out of family" current behavior is. We describe the selected tool for FDIR anomaly detection - Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), how it fits into the FDIR architecture, the operations concept for the GSE anomaly monitoring, and some preliminary results of applying IMS to a Space Shuttle GSE anomaly.

  20. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service (United States)

    Roth, Karl


    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  1. Completion of the 200kW power conditioner for Miyakojima battery energy storage system of Okinawa Electric Power Co; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) Miyakojima 200kW denchi denryoku chozoyo denryoku henkan sochi no kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Toshiba delivered the 200kW power conditioner for a Na-S (NAS) battery energy storage system (BESS) to Miyako PV generation demonstration research laboratory of Okinawa Electric Power Co. This power conditioner performs charge/discharge of the NAS battery and additional static var control (SVC) and governor-free control under a condition where both PV cell and NAS battery are connected with a DC circuit. Operation control of the whole BESS and data collection can be carried out by commands from Okinawa island through PHS telephone line. The demonstration study of this system on load leveling by BESS and output fluctuation control for new energy generation is in joint promotion by Toshiba and Okinawa Electric Power Co. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1-centenarians in Okinawa. (United States)

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald Craig; Suzuki, Makoto


    A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world's healthiest and longest-lived people. In this paper we explore the demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Information transfer during contingency operations: Emergency air-ground communications (United States)

    Porter, R. F.


    Safety related problems are reported which occur as a consequence of information transfer deficiencies that arise when air/ground communications are (or should be) used as a resource in inflight emergency situations. The system factors, the human errors, and the associated causes of these problem are defined.

  4. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg


    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  5. Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa (United States)


    Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa A Monograph by Maj Gabriel L. Diana United States Marine Corps School of Advanced...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04-04-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa 5a

  6. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas


    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  7. Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Kwak, Young Hoon; Bong, Pil Yoon; Son, Jin Dam; Cheong, Tae Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byeong Kook; Hwang, In Gul; Kwon, Young Ihn; Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Hag Ju; Yi, Sung Soog; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Shin, Chang Soo; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. Abundant marine micro-fossils such as foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and dinocysts were yielded in the sedimentary section of the above wells. Abundant palynomorphs originated from nearby onshore are also encountered. Based on nannofossils, the bio-stratigraphic zones from NN12 (Amaurolithus tricorniculatus Zone) to NN19 (Pseudoemiliania lacunosa Zone) are established. The sedimentary sequences are divided by local unconformity into Lower and Upper Groups, the ages of which are Late Miocene and Pliocene to Pleistocene, respectively. According to the geochemical analysis results, it is hard to expect a source rock that can generate enough hydrocarbons necessary for migration in the drilled intervals. Even though the thermal maturity reached the oil generation zone in the penetrated intervals, the calculation by the program GENEX of BEICIP shows that the amount of the generated hydrocarbons is not enough for the migration. A good source rock may be expected in the depth deeper than 4300 m horizon. Analysis of over 3300 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 2 well data serves to detail the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the western margin of the Okinawa Trough, offshore southern part of Korea peninsula. The overall tectonic style is characterized by a series of half-Graben and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Tectonics of the rift phase have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with titled fault block, fault and roll-over structure exist. (author). 44 refs.

  8. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting. (United States)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori


    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa.

  9. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards (United States)

    Ingalls, John


    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  10. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  11. Achieving Lights-Out Operation of SMAP Using Ground Data System Automation (United States)

    Sanders, Antonio


    The approach used in the SMAP ground data system to provide reliable, automated capabilities to conduct unattended operations has been presented. The impacts of automation on the ground data system architecture were discussed, including the three major automation patterns identified for SMAP and how these patterns address the operations use cases. The architecture and approaches used by SMAP will set the baseline for future JPL Earth Science missions.

  12. Operations Research Flight Ground Service Education/Outreach (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    This viewgraph presentation describes a nutritional biochemistry assessment of astronauts in preflight, in-flight, and post-flight operations. In-flight collections of blood and urine samples from astronauts to test the effects of Vitamin K, Pro K, Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Iron, and Sodium in spaceflight is shown. A demonstration of a 1-carbon metabolism pathway that determines the existence of enzymes and polymorphisms is also presented.

  13. Improving Air-Ground Operations on the Complex Battlefield (United States)


    of civilians transit the terrain collecting firewood or herding sheep and can easily be confused for insurgents transiting or conducting operations...limitations that the commander and fire support personnel must understand in detail in order to properly integrate and synchronize them to effectively...Commanders and fire support personnel must be 11 prepared to actively synchronize multiple ISR and strike platforms, likely conducting multiple

  14. SCAILET: An intelligent assistant for satellite ground terminal operations (United States)

    Shahidi, A. K.; Crapo, J. A.; Schlegelmilch, R. F.; Reinhart, R. C.; Petrik, E. J.; Walters, J. L.; Jones, R. E.


    NASA Lewis Research Center has applied artificial intelligence to an advanced ground terminal. This software application is being deployed as an experimenter interface to the link evaluation terminal (LET) and was named Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for the Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET). The high-burst-rate (HBR) LET provides 30-GHz-transmitting and 20-GHz-receiving, 220-Mbps capability for wide band communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR-LET terminal consists of seven major subsystems. A minicomputer controls and monitors these subsystems through an IEEE-488 or RS-232 protocol interface. Programming scripts (test procedures defined by design engineers) configure the HBR-LET and permit data acquisition. However, the scripts are difficult to use, require a steep learning curve, are cryptic, and are hard to maintain. This discourages experimenters from utilizing the full capabilities of the HBR-LET system. An intelligent assistant module was developed as part of the SCAILET software. The intelligent assistant addresses critical experimenter needs by solving and resolving problems that are encountered during the configuring of the HBR-LET system. The intelligent assistant is a graphical user interface with an expert system running in the background. In order to further assist and familiarize an experimenter, an on-line hypertext documentation module was developed and included in the SCAILET software.

  15. Characterization of ground state entanglement by single-qubit operations and excitation energies

    CERN Document Server

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Verrucchi, P; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Siena, Silvio De; Verrucchi, Paola


    We consider single-qubit unitary operations and study the associated excitation energies above the ground state of interacting quantum spins. We prove that there exists a unique operation such that the vanishing of the corresponding excitation energy determines a necessary and sufficient condition for the separability of the ground state. We show that the energy difference associated to factorization exhibits a monotonic behavior with the one-tangle and the entropy of entanglement, including non analiticity at quantum critical points. The single-qubit excitation energy thus provides an independent, directly observable characterization of ground state entanglement, and a simple relation connecting two universal physical resources, energy and nonlocal quantum correlations.

  16. Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations (United States)


    Singapore quickly prospered, and in 186 that port as well as Malacca and Penang , two small port enclaves on the western Malay coast, formally became the...operations was clearly indicated in statistical analyses maintained by the British com- mand.90 The British command formed larger Gurkha headquarters...displays the density statistics for the Balkans’ deployments. 5 Ta bl e 6. T ro op D en si ty in th e B al ka ns O pe ra tio ns M ili ta ry Fo

  17. Expectation values of single-particle operators in the random phase approximation ground state. (United States)

    Kosov, D S


    We developed a method for computing matrix elements of single-particle operators in the correlated random phase approximation ground state. Working with the explicit random phase approximation ground state wavefunction, we derived a practically useful and simple expression for a molecular property in terms of random phase approximation amplitudes. The theory is illustrated by the calculation of molecular dipole moments for a set of representative molecules.

  18. Expectation values of single-particle operators in the random phase approximation ground state (United States)

    Kosov, D. S.


    We developed a method for computing matrix elements of single-particle operators in the correlated random phase approximation ground state. Working with the explicit random phase approximation ground state wavefunction, we derived a practically useful and simple expression for a molecular property in terms of random phase approximation amplitudes. The theory is illustrated by the calculation of molecular dipole moments for a set of representative molecules.

  19. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark


    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  20. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C no. and Visual Basic (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon


    Scripting languages have become a common method for implementing command and control solutions in space ground operations. The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL), the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Scripting Language Processor (SLP), and the Spacecraft Control Language (SCL) offer script-commands that wrap tedious operations tasks into single calls. Since script-commands are interpreted, they also offer a certain amount of hands-on control that is highly valued in space ground operations. Although compiled programs seem to be unsuited for interactive user control and are more complex to develop, Marshall Space flight Center (MSFC) has developed a product called the Enhanced and Redesign Scripting (ERS) that makes use of the graphical and logical richness of a programming language while offering the hands-on and ease of control of a scripting language. ERS is currently used by the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Cadre team members. ERS integrates spacecraft command mnemonics, telemetry measurements, and command and telemetry control procedures into a standard programming language, while making use of Microsoft's Visual Studio for developing Visual Basic (VB) or C# ground operations procedures. ERS also allows for script-style user control during procedure execution using a robust graphical user input and output feature. The availability of VB and C# programmers, and the richness of the languages and their development environment, has allowed ERS to lower our "script" development time and maintenance costs at the Marshall POIC.

  1. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.


    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  2. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  3. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies Study (SGOE/T). Volume 5: Technical Information Sheets (TIS) (United States)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.


    The Technology Information Sheet was assembled in database format during Phase I. This document was designed to provide a repository for information pertaining to 144 Operations and Maintenance Instructions (OMI) controlled operations in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and PAD. It provides a way to accumulate information about required crew sizes, operations task time duration (serial and/or parallel), special Ground Support Equipment (GSE). required, and identification of a potential application of existing technology or the need for the development of a new technolgoy item.

  4. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua


    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  5. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Operational Summary, Nevada Proving Grounds, 1 March - 9 June 1953 (United States)


    Forces Special Weapons Project Sandia Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico August 1953 NOTICE This is an extract of OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Operational...Office was superseded by a group of information representatives from the AEC, the FODA ., and the DOD under the direction of Mfr. Morse S&l31 bury, =E...the Directorate of Weapons Ufacts Tests at Sand-ia Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico . 2.4 = = ’HfC A Reports Branch vas organized in the Office of the

  6. Near real-time operation of public image database for ground vehicle navigation (United States)

    Ali, E.; Kozaitis, S. P.


    An effective color night vision system for ground vehicle navigation should operate in near real-time to be practical. We described a system that uses a public database as a source of color information to colorize night vision imagery. Such an approach presents several problems due to differences between acquired and reference imagery. Our system performed registration, colorizing, and reference updating in near real-time in an effort to help drivers of ground vehicles during night to see a colored view of a scene.

  7. Expectation values of single-particle operators in the random phase approximation ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Kosov, Daniel S


    We developed a method for computing matrix elements of single-particle operators in the correlated random phase approximation ground state. Working with the explicit random phase approximation ground state wavefunction, we derived practically useful and simple expression for a molecular property in terms of random phase approximation amplitudes. The theory is illustrated by the calculation of molecular dipole moments. It is shown that Hartree-Fock based random phase approximation provides a systematic improvement of molecular dipole moment values in comparison to M{\\o}ller-Plesset second order perturbation theory and coupled cluster method for a considered set of molecules.

  8. Analysis of Short Time Period of Operation of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsuwanda Selamat


    Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems have been proven to have higher efficiency compared to conventional air source heat pump systems for space heating and cooling applications. While vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE are favorable in GSHP installation, this type of configuration requires higher capital costs as opposed to horizontal configuration. Numerical simulation has been used to accurately predict the thermal performance of GHE. In this paper, numerical analysis of thermal performance for slinky horizontal GHE loops in different orientations and operation modes is discussed. It was found that the loop orientation is not so important due to the little effect it has on thermal performance. While the mean heat exchange rate of copper loop increases 48% compared to HDPE loop, the analysis supports the common claim that heat exchange rate is predominantly limited by the thermal conductivity of the ground. With the same amount of circulation work, the mean heat exchange rate increases by 83%–162% when operated in parallel loops operations. The performance in these operations can be further optimized to 10%–14% increase when spacing between adjacent loops was provided. The spacing helps to minimize interference of heat flow that would penalize the overall thermal performance.

  9. Ground operations and logistics in the context of the International Asteroid Mission (United States)

    The role of Ground Operations and Logistics, in the context of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM), is to define the mission of Ground Operations; to identify the components of a manned space infrastructure; to discuss the functions and responsibilities of these components; to provide cost estimates for delivery of the spacecraft to LEO from Earth; to identify significant ground operations and logistics issues. The purpose of this dissertation is to bring a degree of reality to the project. 'One cannot dissociate development and set up of a manned infrastructure from its operational phase since it is this last one which is the most costly due to transportation costs which plague space station use' (Eymar, 1990). While this reference is to space stations, the construction and assembly of the proposed crew vehicle and cargo vehicles will face similar cost difficulties, and logistics complexities. The uniqueness of long duration space flight is complicated further by the lack of experience with human habitated, and non-refurbishable life support systems. These problems are addressed.

  10. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  11. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment. (United States)

    Chen, Jessie Y C


    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  12. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland


    The NASA Orion Ground Processing Team was originally formed by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Constellation (Cx) Project Office's Orion Division to define, refine and mature pre-launch and post-landing ground operations for the Orion human spacecraft. The multidisciplined KSC Orion team consisted of KSC civil servant, SAIC, Productivity Apex, Inc. and Boeing-CAPPS engineers, project managers and safety engineers, as well as engineers from Constellation's Orion Project and Lockheed Martin Orion Prime contractor. The team evaluated the Orion design configurations as the spacecraft concept matured between Systems Design Review (SDR), Systems Requirement Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The team functionally decomposed prelaunch and post-landing steps at three levels' of detail, or tiers, beginning with functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The third tier FFBDs were used to build logic networks and nominal timelines. Orion ground support equipment (GSE) was identified and mapped to each step. This information was subsequently used in developing lower level operations steps in a Ground Operations Planning Document PDR product. Subject matter experts for each spacecraft and GSE subsystem were used to define 5th - 95th percentile processing times for each FFBD step, using the Delphi Method. Discrete event simulations used this information and the logic network to provide processing timeline confidence intervals for launch rate assessments. The team also used the capabilities of the KSC Visualization Lab, the FFBDs and knowledge of the spacecraft, GSE and facilities to build visualizations of Orion pre-launch and postlanding processing at KSC. Visualizations were a powerful tool for communicating planned operations within the KSC community (i.e., Ground Systems design team), and externally to the Orion Project, Lockheed Martin spacecraft designers and other Constellation Program stakeholders during the SRR to PDR timeframe. Other operations planning

  13. Systems Engineering Approach To Ground Combat Vehicle Survivability In Urban Operations (United States)


    of global urbanization, planning for urban operations is critical to the execution and success of any military campaign. The U.S. Army describes...for the enemy to prepare for the likely attack direction and to plan coordinated attacks against the incoming ground force. Enemy sensors can also...The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) is developing an integrated counter IED suite known as the Counter IED & Mine Suite ( CIMS ). According to Eshel

  14. Operational Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Initiation Forecasting Utilizing S-Band Dual-Polarization Radar (United States)


    cells exhibit considerably more complexity in their charge distributions, the tripole model is adequate to explain lightning formation. Although...application of dual-polarization weather radar. Part II: Warm- and cold- season applications. J. Operational Meteor., 1 (20), 243-264. Kumjian, M. R...Res., 94, 13151–13167. 60 Wolf, P., 2006: Anticipating the initiation, cessation , and frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning, utilizing WSR

  15. Alabama Ground Operations during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Bain, Lamont; Rogers, Ryan; Kozlowski, Danielle; Sherrer, Adam; Saari, Matt; Bigelbach, Brandon; Scott, Mariana; Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Chris; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Phillips, Dustin; Phillips, Chris; Peterson, Harold; Bailey, Jeff; Frederickson, Terryn; Hall, John; Bart, Nicole; Becker, Melissa; Pinkney, Kurtis; Rowe, Scott; Starzec, Mariusz


    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign investigates the impact of deep, midlatitude convective clouds, including their dynamical, physical and lighting processes, on upper tropospheric composition and chemistry. DC3 science operations took place from 14 May to 30 June 2012. The DC3 field campaign utilized instrumented aircraft and ground ]based observations. The NCAR Gulfstream ]V (GV) observed a variety of gas ]phase species, radiation and cloud particle characteristics in the high ]altitude outflow of storms while the NASA DC ]8 characterized the convective inflow. Groundbased radar networks were used to document the kinematic and microphysical characteristics of storms. In order to study the impact of lightning on convective outflow composition, VHF ]based lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) provided detailed three ]dimensional measurements of flashes. Mobile soundings were utilized to characterize the meteorological environment of the convection. Radar, sounding and lightning observations were also used in real ]time to provide forecasting and mission guidance to the aircraft operations. Combined aircraft and ground ]based observations were conducted at three locations, 1) northeastern Colorado, 2) Oklahoma/Texas and 3) northern Alabama, to study different modes of deep convection in a variety of meteorological and chemical environments. The objective of this paper is to summarize the Alabama ground operations and provide a preliminary assessment of the ground ]based observations collected over northern Alabama during DC3. The multi ] Doppler, dual ]polarization radar network consisted of the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR), the UAHuntsville Mobile Alabama X ]band (MAX) radar and the Hytop (KHTX) Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR ]88D). Lightning frequency and structure were observed in near real ]time by the NASA MSFC Northern Alabama LMA (NALMA). Pre ]storm and inflow proximity

  16. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.


    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  17. The Next Generation of Ground Operations Command and Control; Scripting in C Sharp and Visual Basic (United States)

    Ritter, George; Pedoto, Ramon


    This slide presentation reviews the use of scripting languages in Ground Operations Command and Control. It describes the use of scripting languages in a historical context, the advantages and disadvantages of scripts. It describes the Enhanced and Redesigned Scripting (ERS) language, that was designed to combine the features of a scripting language and the graphical and IDE richness of a programming language with the utility of scripting languages. ERS uses the Microsoft Visual Studio programming environment and offers custom controls that enable an ERS developer to extend the Visual Basic and C sharp language interface with the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) telemetry and command system.

  18. Insights into the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone from Operation IceBridge aerogravity (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Elieff, S.; Frearson, N.


    Operation IceBridge acquired 1500 km of geophysical data, at 10 km spacing, in front of the Thwaites Glacier grounding line during the 2009 season. The gravity anomalies recorded by the survey have been used to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the glacier, an area inaccessible to previous surveys. The resulting map reveals previously unseen detail of the Thwaites grounding zone, as well as the spatial extent of features that were formerly only known as points affecting the ice surface. The modeled bathymetry in front of Thwaites Glacier is marked by an undulating ridge running sub-parallel to the grounding line, 40 km seaward. The highest peak on the ridge is in contact with the overlying ice shelf, hindering its flow. Ridge elevation decreases to the west, with a maximum ridge depth of 850 m and an average relief of 350 m. This is comparable in scale to the recently identified ridge crossing the channel of nearby Pine Island Glacier (Jenkins et al., 2010). The present-day grounding line of Thwaites appears to be marked by a more subdued ridge, in which we have identified a 20 km wide hollow, to a water depth of 1200 m. Our model shows that this hollow corresponds to a landward bight in the grounding line, in the region through which the fast ice flow of Thwaites Glacier is focused. This correlation was not visible on previous, coarser scale maps of the grounding line, and shows a clear relationship between the bathymetry and ice flow. Gravity inversions have been constrained by nearby marine surveys, satellite images of the ice rise at the peak of the ridge and radar and laser data from the IceBridge survey to constrain ice thickness. The absolute values of predicted bathymetry are dependent on the density of the rocks in the subsurface, for example the presence or absence of volcanic material or loose sediments. Some models of the geology of the survey area are also proposed. Uncertainty of underlying geology may account for ~100 m errors in the

  19. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev


    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  20. Nutritional factors for longevity in Okinawa--present and future. (United States)

    Mimura, G; Murakami, K; Gushiken, M


    Several factors, such as environment and heredity, are presumed to be related to longevity. Of these nutrition is believed to function as a regulatory factor. Okinawa prefecture is well known as the leading area for longevity in the world. We therefore examined present and past nutrition records together with the background of all the 88 centenarians (18 male, 70 female) who are living in Okinawa in 1991. Their leading occupation was agriculture, and they were in work until the 8th decade. They took rice or potato as carbohydrate with abundant vegetables and vegetable protein or fish protein. Although they did not take a rich diet it was well balanced, and was assumed to be related to longevity because of the decreased incidence of atherosclerosis; together with a good genetic background, suggested by the accumulation of longevity in their siblings.

  1. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.


    NASA is studying a "Proving Ground" near the Moon to conduct human space exploration missions in preparation for future flights to Mars. This paper describes a concept of operations ("conops") for activities in the Proving Ground, focusing on the construction and use of a mobile Cislunar Transit Habitat capable of months-long excursions within and beyond the Earth-Moon system. Key elements in the conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, solar electric propulsion stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a node module with multiple docking ports, habitation and life support blocks, and international robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The conops describes "case studies" of notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission is the delivery of a 10-ton pressurized element, co-manifested with an Orion on a Block 1B Space Launch System rocket, to the Proving Ground. With a large solar electric propulsion stage, the architecture could enable a year-long mission to land humans on a near-Earth asteroid. In the last case, after returning to near-lunar space, two of the asteroid explorers could join two crewmembers freshly arrived from Earth for a Moon landing, helping to safely quantify the risk of landing deconditioned crews on Mars. The conops also discusses aborts and contingency operations. Early return to Earth may be difficult, especially during later Proving Ground missions. While adding risk, limited-abort conditions provide needed practice

  2. Holocene tephra deposits in the northern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of sediments of Core CSH1, which was collected from the northern Okinawa Trough, indicate that large amounts of volcanic materials have deposited in the northern Okinawa Trough during the Holocene. On the basis of down-core variations in mineral and element contents of sediments, two layers in the uppermost section of Core CSH1 characterized by high quartz, Na2O, MnO, K2O, uranium contents and low contents of clay minerals, volatiles, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO and strontium, have been identified as the tephra deposits. Systematic grain-size measurements also suggest that sediments from the northern Okinawa Trough are made up of terrigenous materials and volcanic ashes with different proportion during the Holocene. The sediments of tephra layers in Core CSH1 show bi-modal patterns in grain-size distribution with modal grain-sizes of 74.3 and 7.81 μm,respectively. According to the radiocarbon dating on shells of zooplankton foraminifera, two tephra layers in Core CSH1, formed at 7 250 and 10 870 a BP (cal), approximately correspond to the K-Ah tephra [7 300 a BP (cal)] and the eruption of Kuju Volcano (12~10 ka BP), respectively.

  3. A Near-Term Concept for Trajectory Based Operations with Air/Ground Data Link Communication (United States)

    McNally, David; Mueller, Eric; Thipphavong, David; Paielli, Russell; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei; Lee, Chuhan; Sahlman, Scott; Walton, Joe


    An operating concept and required system components for trajectory-based operations with air/ground data link for today's en route and transition airspace is proposed. Controllers are fully responsible for separation as they are today, and no new aircraft equipage is required. Trajectory automation computes integrated solutions to problems like metering, weather avoidance, traffic conflicts and the desire to find and fly more time/fuel efficient flight trajectories. A common ground-based system supports all levels of aircraft equipage and performance including those equipped and not equipped for data link. User interface functions for the radar controller's display make trajectory-based clearance advisories easy to visualize, modify if necessary, and implement. Laboratory simulations (without human operators) were conducted to test integrated operation of selected system components with uncertainty modeling. Results are based on 102 hours of Fort Worth Center traffic recordings involving over 37,000 individual flights. The presence of uncertainty had a marginal effect (5%) on minimum-delay conflict resolution performance, and windfavorable routes had no effect on detection and resolution metrics. Flight plan amendments and clearances were substantially reduced compared to today s operations. Top-of-descent prediction errors are the largest cause of failure indicating that better descent predictions are needed to reliably achieve fuel-efficient descent profiles in medium to heavy traffic. Improved conflict detections for climbing flights could enable substantially more continuous climbs to cruise altitude. Unlike today s Conflict Alert, tactical automation must alert when an altitude amendment is entered, but before the aircraft starts the maneuver. In every other failure case tactical automation prevented losses of separation. A real-time prototype trajectory trajectory-automation system is running now and could be made ready for operational testing at an en route

  4. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa (United States)

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki


    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  5. Linear magnetic anomalies and tectonic development of the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    -By analyzing the magnetic anomalies, the linear magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are identified. It means that the crust along the spreading axis is broken, and new oceanic crust is formed. Geophysical data have revealed that a model of three extensive episodes occurs in the Okinawa Trough, which can be named as "doming episode" from the Middle to Late Miocene (Phase I), the episode from the Pliocence to Early Pleistocene (Phase Ⅱ ), and the recent "spreading episode" (Phase Ⅲ ). The magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are very similar to those found in the middle Red Sea, indicating that the Okinawa Trough is developing towards the "Red Sea stage". Similar to the Red Sea, there are a "main trough" and a "axial trough" in the Okinawa Trough.

  6. Network operability of ground-based microwave radiometers: Calibration and standardization efforts (United States)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Löhnert, Ulrich; Küchler, Nils; Czekala, Harald


    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are already widely used by national weather services and research institutions all around the world. Most of the instruments operate continuously and are beginning to be implemented into data assimilation for atmospheric models. Especially their potential for continuously observing boundary-layer temperature profiles as well as integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water path makes them valuable for improving short-term weather forecasts. However until now, most MWR have been operated as stand-alone instruments. In order to benefit from a network of these instruments, standardization of calibration, operation and data format is necessary. In the frame of TOPROF (COST Action ES1303) several efforts have been undertaken, such as uncertainty and bias assessment, or calibration intercomparison campaigns. The goal was to establish protocols for providing quality controlled (QC) MWR data and their uncertainties. To this end, standardized calibration procedures for MWR have been developed and recommendations for radiometer users compiled. Based on the results of the TOPROF campaigns, a new, high-accuracy liquid-nitrogen calibration load has been introduced for MWR manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG). The new load improves the accuracy of the measurements considerably and will lead to even more reliable atmospheric observations. Next to the recommendations for set-up, calibration and operation of ground-based MWR within a future network, we will present homogenized methods to determine the accuracy of a running calibration as well as means for automatic data quality control. This sets the stage for the planned microwave calibration center at JOYCE (Jülich Observatory for Cloud Evolution), which will be shortly introduced.

  7. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan. (United States)

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado


    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  8. Longevity and diet in Okinawa, Japan: the past, present and future. (United States)

    Miyagi, S; Iwama, N; Kawabata, T; Hasegawa, K


    Japan has the longest life expectancy at birth (LEB) in the world. Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, previously had the highest longevity indices in the country. However, the latest LEB for men in Okinawa is no higher than the national average. The purpose of this study is to examine why the longevity indices in Okinawa were once the highest in Japan, and to examine the reasons for their recent decline. In 1990, in Okinawa, the age-adjusted death rates (ADR) of the three leading causes of death were lower than their national averages. By 2000, the standard mortality ratios (SMR, Japan=100) of heart disease and cerebrovascular disease for both sexes in Okinawa had increased, compared to their 1990 levels. Both of the ADR of ischemic heart disease and the ADR of cerebrovascular disease for men increased to 45.5 and 63.5 in 2000, up from 42.9 and 59.1 in 1990, respectively, and the SMR of ischemic heart disease for men in Okinawa reached 101 in 2000. Consequently, the national ranking of Okinawa prefecture for LEB of men has dropped. As of 1988, in Okinawa, daily intake of meat and daily intake of pulses were both approximately 90 grams, which is about 20% and 30% higher than the national average, respectively. Also, as of 1988, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables in Okinawa was about 50% higher than the national average. However, by 1998, daily meat intake and fat energy ratio had surpassed 100 grams and 30%, respectively, and daily intake of pulses and green and yellow vegetables had declined to the level of the national average. Recently, young Japanese, particularly young men in Okinawa, have shown a tendency to avoid the traditional dishes of stewed meat and champuru.

  9. Operational impacts to residual stands following ground-based skidding in Hyrcanian Forest, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meghdad Jourgholami


    Hyrcanian (Caspian) Forest in northern Iran has a richness of biological diversity,with endemic and endangered species.The usage of ground-based skidding is well accepted practice for the extraction of timber from the forest,but this operation has tended to cause the greatest environmental problems.The aims of the study were to evaluate and comparison of operational impacts,residual stand damage,regeneration,and to quantify these effects such as:the extent of the damage,wounding patterns,size and distribution after logging operations that utilized two different methods:short-log and long-log.A Timberjack cable skidder was used and the study location was in the Kheyrud Forest.Post harvesting assessment of damage to the residual stand was compared along skid trail by 100% inventory method and also for the assessment of regeneration damage along winching strips.The results show that along winching strips the percentage of damage to the regeneration was 44% and 36%,while the tree damages along skid trails reached 2.3% and 4.1% in the short-log and long-log methods,respectively.The greatest average amount of damage to a bole occurred along the first 1 m up from the ground (97%) and also within 4 m of the skidder centerline (80%).These results show that the short-log method causes less damage to the residual stand than the long-log method.Tree location to skidder trail appears to have a significant effect on the number and height of scars on a tree.Well designed and constructed trails should he wide enough to allow wood extraction from the forest.Damage to the residual stand might be reduced by proper planning and training of logging crews.

  10. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow (United States)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand


    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  11. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry


    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  12. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components (United States)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna


    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  13. Operation of an array of field-change detectors to provide ground truth for FORTE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, R.S.; Eack, K.B.; Eberle, M.H.; Shao, X.M.; Smith, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group; Wiens, K.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Tech., Socorro, NM (United States)


    The authors have deployed an array of fast electric-field-change sensors around the state of New Mexico to help identify the lightning processes responsible for the VHF RF signals detected by the FORTE satellite`s wide-band transient radio emission receivers. The array provides them with locations and electric-field waveforms for events within New Mexico and into surrounding states, and operates continuously. They are particularly interested in events for which there are coincident FORTE observations. For these events, they can correct both the array and FORTE waveforms for time of flight, and can plot the two waveforms on a common time axis. Most of the coincident events are from cloud-go-ground discharges, but the most powerful are from a little-studied class of events variously called narrow bipolar events and compact intra-cloud discharges. They have therefore focused their attention on these events whether or not FORTE was in position to observe them.

  14. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen (United States)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.


    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  15. X-ray-absorption sum rules in jj-coupled operators and ground-state moments of actinide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G; Thole, BT


    Sum rules for magnetic x-ray dichroism, relating the signals of the spin-orbit split core level absorption edges to the ground-state spin and orbital operators, are expressed in jj-coupled operators. These sum rules can be used in the region of intermediate coupling by taking into account the cross

  16. Preliminary design of a space system operating a ground-penetrating radar (United States)

    D'Errico, Marco; Ponte, Salvatore; Grassi, Michele; Moccia, Antonio


    Ground-penetrating radars (GPR) are currently used only in ground campaigns or in few airborne installations. A feasibility analysis of a space mission operating a GPR for archaeological applications is presented in this work with emphasis on spacecraft critical aspects: antenna dimension and power required for achieving adequate depth and accuracy. Sensor parametric design is performed considering two operating altitudes (250 and 500 km) and user requirements, such as minimum skin depth, vertical and horizontal resolution. A 500-km altitude, 6 a.m.-6 p.m. sun-synchronous orbit is an adequate compromise between atmospheric drag and payload transmitted average power (12 kW) to achieve a 3-m penetration depth. The satellite bus preliminary design is then performed, with focus on critical subsystems and technologies. The payload average power requirement can be kept within feasible limits (1 kW) by using NiH2 batteries to supply the radar transmitter, and with a strong reduction of the mission duty cycle ( 40km×1100km are observed per orbit). As for the electric power subsystem, a dual-voltage strategy is adopted, with the battery charge regulator supplied at 126 V and the bus loads at 50 V. The overall average power (1.9 kW), accounting for both payload and bus needs, can be supplied by a 20m2 GaAs solar panel for a three-year lifetime. Finally, the satellite mass is kept within reasonable limits (1.6 tons) using inflatable-rigidisable structure for both the payload antenna and the solar panels.

  17. Chronostratigraphy and deposition rates in the Okinawa Trough region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 王永吉; 刘振夏


    Six representative cores from Okinawa Trough have been dated using AMS 14C, Standard 14C and ESR methods, and comparatively analysed. Systematic measurements of the oriented samples taken from the cores were conducted for obtaining their remnant magnetic polarity. With the aid of the dates obtained, particularly the AMS 14C ages of planktonic foraminiferal tests, two polarity events and two polar wanderings of the earth magnetic field have been defined. Calculations of the deposition rates for all the six core sites indicate rather high values in the trough plain, at least equivalent to those rates reported for the region of the East China Sea. They commonly range from 10 to 30 cm/ka, and even greater than 40 cm/ka in some localities. The deposition rate varied widely with topography and periods of time. In general, it is greater during the postglacial period than during the last glaciation. The chronostratigraphy in the Okinawa Trough region established through this study argues against the pr

  18. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Shiohira, Y; Uezu, Y; Higa, A; Iseki, K


    We assessed the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based screening program in Okinawa, Japan. The significance of metabolic syndrome as a determinant of CKD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6980 participants, aged 30-79 years, participated in a screening program in Tomishiro Chuo Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Data were also analyzed according to the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) that defines abdominal obesity as a waist circumference of > oe =85 cm in men and > or =90 cm in women. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria (> or =1+) or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and CKD was 12.8 and 13.7%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant of CKD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.537 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.277-1.850, P or =60 years; OR 1.254, 95% CI 0.906-1.735, NS). The relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors and the prevalence of CKD was linear using the modified criteria. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant determinant of CKD in men under 60 years of age, in Okinawa, Japan.

  19. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan. (United States)

    Oshiro, Naomasa; Yogi, Kentaro; Asato, Shuko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tamanaha, Koji; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inafuku, Yasuo


    Okinawa being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in Japan. Officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. The implicated species were Variola louti, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus monostigma, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified Lutjanus sp., Plectropomus areolatus, Oplegnathus punctatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Caranx ignobilis and moray eel. Toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, ranged from 0.025 to 0.8 MU/g or above (equivalent to 0.175-5.6 ngCTX1B/g). We collected 612 specimens of fish belonging to L. monostigma, L. bohar, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus russellii, V. louti, Variola albimarginata, and E. fuscoguttatus from the coasts around Okinawa and examined the toxicity of the flesh by the mouse bioassay. The rate of toxic fish was as follows: L. monostigma: 32.3%, L. bohar: 11.9%, V. louti: 14.3%, E. fuscoguttatus: 20.8%. Only one out of 36 samples of V. albimarginata and two of 74 samples of L. russellii were found toxic. None of the 35 samples of L. argentimaculatus was toxic. Nor the L. bohar samples weighing less than 4 kg were toxic. In all toxic samples, CTX1B was detected by LC/MS analysis but CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell


    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  1. Dark fermentation of ground wheat starch for bio-hydrogen production by fed-batch operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M. Yunus [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)


    Ground wheat solution was used for bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation using heat-treated anaerobic sludge in a completely mixed fermenter operating in fed-batch mode. The feed wheat powder (WP) solution was fed to the anaerobic fermenter with a constant flow rate of 8.33 mL h{sup -1} (200 mL d{sup -1}). Cumulative hydrogen production, starch utilization and hydrogen yields were determined at three different WP loading rates corresponding to the feed WP concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 g L{sup -1}. The residual starch (substrate) concentration in the fermenter decreased with operation time while starch consumption was increasing. The highest cumulative hydrogen production (3600 mL), hydrogen yield (465 mL H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch or 3.1 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose) and hydrogen production rate (864 mL H{sub 2} d{sup -1}) were obtained after 4 days of fed-batch operation with the 20 g L{sup -1} feed WP concentration corresponding to a WP loading rate of 4 g WP d{sup -1}. Low feed WP concentrations (10 g L{sup -1}) resulted in low hydrogen yields and rates due to substrate limitations. High feed WP concentrations (30 g L{sup -1}) resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in high concentrations causing inhibition on the rate and yield of hydrogen production. (author)

  2. Ground Operations of the ISS GNC Babb-Mueller Atmospheric Density Model (United States)

    Brogan, Jonathan


    The ISS GNC system was updated recently with a new software release that provides onboard state determination capability. Prior to this release, only the Russian segment maintained and propagated the onboard state, which was periodically updated through Russian ground tracking. The new software gives the US segment the capability for maintaining the onboard state, and includes new GPS and state vector propagation capabilities. Part of this software package is an atmospheric density model based on the Babb-Mueller algorithm. Babb-Mueller efficiently mimics a full analytical density model, such as the Jacchia model. While lacchia is very robust and is used in the Mission Control Center, it is too computationally intensive for use onboard. Thus, Babb-Mueller was chosen as an alternative. The onboard model depends on a set of calibration coefficients that produce a curve fit to the lacchia model. The ISS GNC system only maintains one set of coefficients onboard, so a new set must be uplinked by controllers when the atmospheric conditions change. The onboard density model provides a real-time density value, which is used to calculate the drag experienced by the ISS. This drag value is then incorporated into the onboard propagation of the state vector. The propagation of the state vector, and therefore operation of the BabbMueller algorithm, will be most critical when GPS updates and secondary state vector sources fail. When GPS is active, the onboard state vector will be updated every ten seconds, so the propagation error is irrelevant. When GPS is inactive, the state vector must be updated at least every 24 hours, based on current protocol. Therefore, the Babb-Mueller coefficients must be accurate enough to fulfill the state vector accuracy requirements for at least one day. A ground operations concept was needed in order to manage both the on board Babb-Mueller density model and the onboard state quality. The Babb-Mueller coefficients can be determined operationally

  3. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman


    the design of the equipment can make such operational effort unnecessary. Finally, this paper addresses processes of tying resources to a timeline of tasks performed in ground operations: this enables various overarching analyses, e.g., a summarization of all resources used for a given piece of equipment. Quality Control of data will also be discussed: importing and exporting data from product teams, including spreadsheets-todatabase or data exchange between databases.

  4. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman


    the design of the equipment can make such operational effort unnecessary. Finally, this paper addresses processes of tying resources to a timeline of tasks performed in ground operations: this enables various overarching analyses, e.g., a summarization of all resources used for a given piece of equipment. Quality Control of data will also be discussed: importing and exporting data from product teams, including spreadsheets-todatabase or data exchange between databases.

  5. Operational optical turbulence forecast for the service mode of top-class ground based telescopes (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck; Turchi, Alessio; Fini, Luca


    In this contribution we present the most relevant results obtained in the context of a feasibility study (MOSE) undertaken for ESO. The principal aim of the project was to quantify the performances of an atmospherical non-hydrostatical mesoscale model (Astro-Meso-NH code) in forecasting all the main atmospherical parameters relevant for the ground-based astronomical observations and the optical turbulence (CN2 and associated integrated astroclimatic parameters) above Cerro Paranal (site of the VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the E-ELT). A detailed analysis on the score of success of the predictive capacities of the system have been carried out for all the astroclimatic as well as for the atmospherical parameters. Considering the excellent results that we obtained, this study proved the opportunity to implement on these two sites an automatic system to be run nightly in an operational configuration to support the scheduling of scientific programs as well as of astronomical facilities (particularly those supported by AO systems) of the VLT and the E-ELT. At the end of 2016 a new project for the implementation of a demonstrator of an operational system to be run on the two ESO's sites will start. The fact that the system can be run simultaneously on the two sites is an ancillary appealing feature of the system. Our team is also responsible for the implementation of a similar automatic system at Mt.Graham, site of the LBT (ALTA Project). Our system/method will permit therefore to make a step ahead in the framework of the Service Mode for new generation telescopes. Among the most exciting achieved results we cite the fact that we proved to be able to forecast CN2 profiles with a vertical resolution as high as 150 m. Such a feature is particularly crucial for all WFAO systems that require such detailed information on the OT vertical stratification on the whole 20 km above the ground. This important achievement tells us that all the WFAO systems can rely on automatic

  6. New active-only grounded inductance simulator employing current-mode approach suitable for wide band operation (United States)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Ozcan, Sadri; Kuntman, Hakan


    In this paper, an active-only grounded lossless inductance simulator operating in current-mode is presented. The circuit uses only a current operational amplifier (COA) and an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). The novelty of the proposed circuit is that it uses a COA instead of a voltage operational amplifier (VOA) to take the wider frequency operation advantage of the current-mode approach. The simulation results obtained through SPICE with 0.5 μm standard CMOS technology verify that the designed circuit can be operated up to 30 MHz, which is much higher than the operation frequency of previously reported inductance simulators utilising VOAs. The inductance value of the presented circuit can be adjusted electronically between 3.9 μH and 37 μH via the biasing current of the OTA. A parallel resonance circuit application is also given validating the operation of the proposed inductance simulator.

  7. Operational optical turbulence forecast for the Service Mode of top-class ground based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Turchi, A; Fini, L


    In this contribution we present the most relevant results obtained in the context of a feasibility study (MOSE) undertaken for ESO. The principal aim of the project was to quantify the performances of a mesoscale model (Astro-Meso-NH code) in forecasting all the main atmospherical parameters relevant for the ground-based astronomical observations and the optical turbulence (CN2 and associated integrated astroclimatic parameters) above Cerro Paranal (site of the VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the E-ELT). A detailed analysis on the score of success of the predictive capacities of the system have been carried out for all the astroclimatic as well as for the atmospherical parameters. Considering the excellent results that we obtained, this study proved the opportunity to implement on these two sites an automatic system to be run nightly in an operational configuration to support the scheduling of scientific programs as well as of astronomical facilities (particularly those supported by AO systems) of the VLT a...

  8. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine N. White


    Full Text Available Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef.

  9. Observation of baroclinic eddies southeast of Okinawa Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK; Jae-Hun


    In the region southeast of Okinawa, during May to July 2001, a cyclonic and an anticyclonic eddy were observed from combined measurements of hydrocasts, an upward-looking moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (MADCP), pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs), satellite altimetry, and a coastal tide gauge. The hydrographic data showed that the lowest/highest temperature (T) and salinity (S) anomalies from a 13-year mean for the same season were respectively -3.0/+2.5℃ and -0.20/+0.15 psu at 380/500 dbar for the cyclonic/anticyclonic eddies. From the PIES data, using a gravest empirical mode method, we estimated time-varying surface dynamic height (D) anomaly referred to 2000 dbar changing from -20 to 30 cm, and time-varying T and S anomalies at 500 dbar ranging through about ±2 ℃ and ±0.2 psu, respectively. The passage of the eddies caused variations of both satellite-measured sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and tide-gauge-measured sea level anomaly to change from about –20 to 30 cm, consistent with the D anomaly from the PIESs. Bottom pressure sensors measured no variation related to these eddy activities, which indicated that the two eddies were dominated by baro-clinicity. Time series of SSHA map confirmed that the two eddies, originating from the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent region near 20°―30°N and 150°―160°E, traveled about 3000 km for about 18 months with mean westward propagation speed of about 6 cm/s, before arriving at the region southeast of Okinawa Island.

  10. Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Capability for Ground-Based Pre-Launch Shuttle Operations. Chapter 8 (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander


    This chapter will provide a thorough end-to-end description of the process for evaluation of three different data-driven algorithms for anomaly detection to select the best candidate for deployment as part of a suite of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. These algorithms were deemed to be sufficiently mature enough to be considered viable candidates for deployment in support of the maiden launch of Ares I-X, the successor to the Space Shuttle for NASA's Constellation program. Data-driven algorithms are just one of three different types being deployed. The other two types of algorithms being deployed include a "nile-based" expert system, and a "model-based" system. Within these two categories, the deployable candidates have already been selected based upon qualitative factors such as flight heritage. For the rule-based system, SHINE (Spacecraft High-speed Inference Engine) has been selected for deployment, which is a component of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multimissions), a patented technology developed at NASA's JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and serves to aid in the management and identification of operational modes. For the "model-based" system, a commercially available package developed by QSI (Qualtech Systems, Inc.), TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) has been selected for deployment to aid in diagnosis. In the context of this particular deployment, distinctions among the use of the terms "data-driven," "rule-based," and "model-based," can be found in. Although there are three different categories of algorithms that have been selected for deployment, our main focus in this chapter will be on the evaluation of three candidates for data-driven anomaly detection. These algorithms will be evaluated upon their capability for robustly detecting incipient faults or failures in the ground-based phase of pre-launch space shuttle operations, rather than based oil heritage as performed in previous studies. Robust

  11. Transforming America’s Military: Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations (United States)


    the Vietnam War, Operation Desert One (the failed Iranian hostage rescue attempt), and Operation Urgent Fury (the disjointed Grenada operation) was...airpower could have in the upcoming operation to liberate Kuwait. The former commander of JSOC , Army General (Ret.) Wayne Downing, believed that “no...Operations Air Component Commander JSOC —Joint Special Operations Command JSOTF—Joint Special Operations Task Force 22 JSTARS—Joint Surveillance Target

  12. Ground State Energy of the One-Dimensional Discrete Random Schr\\"{o}dinger Operator with Bernoulli Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Michael


    In this paper, we show the that the ground state energy of the one-dimensional Discrete Random Schr\\"{o}dinger Operator with Bernoulli Potential is controlled asymptotically as the system size N goes to infinity by the random variable, $\\ell_N$ the length the longest consecutive sequence of sites on the lattice with potential equal to zero. Specifically, we will show that with probability one the limit as the system size goes to infinity the ratio of the ground state energy with the energy of a half-sine wave converges to one.

  13. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  14. Miscellaneous information regarding operation and inventory of 618-11 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.R.


    This report is a compilation of inventories and radiation surveys taken for the 618-11 Burial Ground at Hanford. This report deals with waste management activities at the facility during the early to mid-1960s.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun


    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  16. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise


    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  17. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members (United States)


    8) 8 mg twice daily starting the day before the ascent to 4,559 m throughout the 2-day study Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (pɘ.05) and...4,559 m Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (p=0.025); no significant difference existed in arterial O2 saturation during maximal exercise...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2013-0006 The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current

  18. Concentrated Ground Plane Booster Antenna Technology for Multiband Operation in Handset Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Picher


    Full Text Available The current demand in the handset antenna field requires multiband antennas due to the existence of multiple communication standards and the emergence of new ones. At the same time, antennas with reduced dimensions are strongly required in order to be easily integrated. In this sense, the paper proposes a compact radiating system that uses two non-resonant elements to properly excite the ground plane to solve the abovementioned shortcomings by minimizing the required Printed Circuit Board (PCB area while ensuring a multiband performance. These non-resonant elements are called here ground plane boosters since they excite an efficient mode of the ground plane. The proposed radiating system comprises two ground plane boosters of small dimensions of 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm. One is in charge of the low frequency region (0.824-0.960 GHz and the other is in charge of the high frequency region (1.710-2.170 GHz. With the aim of achieving a compact configuration, the two boosters are placed close to each other in a corner of the ground plane of a handset device (concentrated architecture. Several experiments related to the coupling between boosters have been carried out in two different platforms (barphone and smartphone, and the best position and the required matching network are presented. The novel proposal achieves multiband performance at GSM850/900/1800/1900 and UMTS.

  19. Low energy stage study. Volume 3: Conceptual design, interface analysis, flight and ground operations. [launching space shuttle payloads (United States)


    Low energy conceptual stage designs and adaptations to existing/planned shuttle upper stages were developed and their performance established. Selected propulsion modes and subsystems were used as a basis to develop airborne support equipment (ASE) design concepts. Orbiter installation and integration (both physical and electrical interfaces) were defined. Low energy stages were adapted to the orbiter and ASE interfaces. Selected low energy stages were then used to define and describe typical ground and flight operations.

  20. Special Operations Forces and Elusive Enemy Ground Targets: Lessons from Vietnam and the Persian Gulf War (United States)


    Enemy Ground Targets team members to fire their weapons as they were lifted from the forest floor . 4 9 Moving through and searching the jungle...MACVSOG headquarters, and as bartenders and waitresses at MACVSOG compounds, where they 61Prados, Blood Road, p. 274. Yearly totals for SHINING BRASS

  1. Ground Maneuver and Air Interdiction: A Matter of Mutual Support at the Operational Level of War (United States)


    i title, "Air hiit , rdictiii anid thii Nced for Doictrinal hag, rteiRiuo20, I’all 1992. 3t1 8 Fuotrell, 546; 58 9. Otto P’. Weyliaid, holi Air...George H. Doran Co., 1927), 392. There is a striking resemblance here to the deceptive end run of US ground forces in Desert Storm and the ann~hilation

  2. Structural control of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone east of Taiwan Island on the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yanpeng; LIU Baohua; WU Jinlong; LIANG Ruicai; LIU Chenguang; ZHANG Zhengmin


    Based on compositive analysis and interpretation of the observed and historical data, the geophysical field characters and structural properties of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone of the sea area east of Taiwan Island and the primary tectonic stress direction and its variabilities of backarc spreading in the southern Okinawa Trough are studied. It is concluded from the study results that the Gagua "Wedge" Zone is structurally consistent with the Gagua ridge and two fault basins on both sides of the Gagua ridge, and adjusts the moving direction and distance of the western Philippine Sea plate to make the northwestward motion of the plate on its east side change to the northward subduction of the plate on its west side so that the primary tectonic stress direction of the Okinawa Trough changed from NW-SE to nearly N-S, which provided the stress source for the Okinawa Trough to enter the second spreading stage.

  3. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology (United States)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  4. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements (United States)


    A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), AD No.: 14. ABSTRACT...discrete system components or measurements of latency in autonomous systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Basic Video Latency, End -to... End System Latency, Command-to-Action Latency 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 23 19a

  5. Determining the Forces Generated by the Contact of an Electrically-Operated Vehicle with the Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper we analyse the motion of an electric vehicle,when there is only the pure rolling of the wheels on the ground.The equations of holonomic and non-holonomic constraints have been rendered explicitly obtaining 27 equations algebraic-differential system with the same number of unknowns.Besides,this system supplies a model to calculate the bonding reaction forces.

  6. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan


    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  7. Defensive Information Operations in Support of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (United States)


    Report INFOSEC Information Security INFOSYS Information Systems IO Information Operations ISMO Information Systems Management Office...scanning software. “ Much of the success of the Information Systems Management Office ( ISMO ) team comes from educating the Marines on these dangers and

  8. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system (United States)

    Connors, J.; Mauer, R. A.


    Report discusses safety program implementation for large R&D operating system. Analytical techniques are defined and suggested as tools for identifying potential hazards and determining means to effectively control or eliminate hazards.

  9. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.


    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  10. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system (United States)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.


    A perspective on safety program management has been developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  11. Autonomous Inspection Robot for Power Transmission Lines Maintenance While Operating on the Overhead Ground Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a mobile robot capable of clearing such obstacles as counterweights, anchor clamps, and torsion tower. The mobile robot walks on overhead ground wires in 500KV power tower. Its ultimate purpose is to automate to inspect the defect of power transmission line. The robot with 13 motors is composed of two arms, two wheels, two claws, two wrists, etc. Each arm has 4 degree of freedom. Claws are also mounted on the arms. An embedded computer based on PC/104 is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light and thermal infrared cameras are installed to obtain the video and temperature information, and the communication system is based on wireless LAN TCP/IP protocol. A prototype robot was developed with careful considerations of mobility. The new sensor configuration is used for the claw to grasp the overhead ground wires. The bridge is installed in the torsion tower for the robot easy to cross obstacles. The new posture plan is proposed for obstacles cleaning in the torsion tower. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  12. Autonomous Inspection Robot for Power Transmission Lines Maintenance While Operating on the Overhead Ground Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a mobile robot capable of clearing such obstacles as counterweights, anchor clamps, and torsion tower. The mobile robot walks on overhead ground wires in 500KV power tower. Its ultimate purpose is to automate to inspect the defect of power transmission line. The robot with 13 motors is composed of two arms, two wheels, two claws, two wrists, etc. Each arm has 4 degree of freedom. Claws are also mounted on the arms. An embedded computer based on PC/104 is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light and thermal infrared cameras are installed to obtain the video and temperature information, and the communication system is based on wireless LAN TCP/IP protocol. A prototype robot was developed with careful considerations of mobility. The new sensor configuration is used for the claw to grasp the overhead ground wires. The bridge is installed in the torsion tower for the robot easy to cross obstacles. The new posture plan is proposed for obstacles cleaning in the torsion tower. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  13. Nodal sets for ground-states of Schroedinger operators with zero magnetic field in non simply connected domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helffer, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Dept. de Mathematiques; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, M. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Strudthofgasse 4, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Hoffmann-Ostenhof, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)]|[International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria); Owen, M.P. [International Erwin Schroedinger Inst. for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria)


    We investigate nodal sets of magnetic Schroedinger operators with zero magnetic field, acting on a non-simply connected domain in R{sup 2}. For the case of circulation 1/2 of the magnetic vector potential around each hole in the region, we obtain a characterisation of the nodal set, and use this to obtain bounds on the multiplicity of the ground state. For the case of one hole and a fixed electric potential, we show that the first eigenvalue takes its highest value for circulation 1/2. (orig.) With 8 figs., 20 refs.

  14. On-Board and Ground-Based Complexes for Operating the Science Payload of the CORONAS-F Space Mission (United States)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Lisin, D. V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Afanas'ev, A. N.; Osin, A. I.; Schwarz, J.

    To ensure reliable operation of the science payload of the CORONAS-F satellite and to exercise its flexible control in the course of realization of the research program, an on-board and a specialized ground-based control complexes (GCCs) were designed and manufactured at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN). A demand for such systems arose because the service facilities of the satellite basic platform were unable to satisfy the requirements of the unique scientific experiments, i.e., an efficient on-line control of the variety of scientific instruments, managing large amounts of scientific information, etc.

  15. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  16. High-resolution records of thermocline in the Okinawa Trough since about 10000 aBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The present paper uses planktonic foraminifera and their stableisotopes to study the changes in the depth of thermocline (DOT) in the Okinawa Trough since the last 10000 a based on the analysis of Core B-3GC in the northern Okinawa Trough, together with that of the core in the southern Okinawa Trough. As results show, the thermocline was shallow before 6400 aBP, and deepened afterward, then became shallow again from 4000 to 2000 aBP. The DOT fluctuations display a positive correlation with those of sea surface temperature (SST). In addition, the changes in the northern Okinawa Trough are similar to those in the southern trough, implying a possible connection with the variation of the Kuroshio Current. The changes of SST and DOT suggest that the Kuroshio Current changed its intensity or main axis from 4000 to 2000 aBP and around about 6400 aBP respectively. Moreover, the changes of DOT from 8200 to 6400 aBP may indicate a gradual intensification of the Kuroshio Current.

  17. Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis Burden in the Japanese: Comparison between Okinawa and Nagano Residents. (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hasegawa, Yoshimasa; Higa, Moritake; Amano, Rie; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka


    The prevalence of overweight and a change in atherosclerotic lipid profiles may be linked to region-specific differences in atherosclerotic diseases. We evaluated whether the lipid phenotype could be linked to region- and sex-specific differences in the degree of atherosclerosis. Non-diabetic subjects included Okinawa (n=1674) and Nagano (n=1392) residents aged 30-75 years who underwent carotid ultrasonography for the measurement of maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT). Average max IMT was higher in Okinawa men and women, and the increase in max IMT with age was enhanced in men. Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to age and systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were IMT determinants only in men for both Okinawa and Nagano. Meanwhile, HDL-cholesterol was a determinant for Okinawa men and women, but not for Nagano men and women. This is the first report to show region- and sex-specific differences in the determinants for max IMT in a Japanese population. The evaluation of the relationship between lipid profile patterns and region- and sex-specific differences in carotid atherosclerosis burden may be required.

  18. Japan’s Battle of Okinawa, April-June 1945 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 18) (United States)


    effect. Moreover, rice stored in the tunnels began to ferment in the sack, giving it a sour taste when served. Besides that, given the command staff...end of Okinawa in an area three to twelve miles wide and sixteen miles long: the whole battle area was honey - *Communication below battalion level was

  19. Ground-simulation investigations of VTOL airworthiness criteria for terminal-area operations (United States)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Decker, W. A.; Alderete, T. S.; Scott, B. C.; Harper, P. J. G.; Chung, W. W.


    Several ground-based simulation experiments undertaken to investigate concerns related to tilt-rotor aircraft airworthiness were conducted. The experiments were conducted on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator, which permits simulation of a wide variety of aircraft with a high degree of fidelity of motion cueing. Variations in conversion/deceleration profile, type of augmentation or automation, level of display assistance, and meteorological conditions were considered in the course of the experiments. Certification pilots from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) participated, in addition to NASA research pilots. The setup of these experiments on the simulator is summarized, and some of the results highlighted.

  20. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam (United States)


    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  1. The ’In Lieu Of’ Myth. Airmen in Joint Ground Operations (Walker Paper, Number 13) (United States)


    deaths in the other 14 conflicts totaled 5,400, as follows: Burundi (100), Sudan (100), Uganda (200), Colombia (500), Peru (25), India (700...Contingencies. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1995. ———. Army Forces for Operations Other than War. Santa Mon- ica , CA: RAND, 1997. Stockholm International Peace

  2. Ground-level climate at a peatland wind farm in Scotland is affected by wind turbine operation (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Burton, Ralph R.; Lee, Susan E.; Mobbs, Stephen; Ostle, Nicholas; Smith, Victoria; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette


    The global drive to produce low-carbon energy has resulted in an unprecedented deployment of onshore wind turbines, representing a significant land use change for wind energy generation with uncertain consequences for local climatic conditions and the regulation of ecosystem processes. Here, we present high-resolution data from a wind farm collected during operational and idle periods that shows the wind farm affected several measures of ground-level climate. Specifically, we discovered that operational wind turbines raised air temperature by 0.18 °C and absolute humidity (AH) by 0.03 g m-3 during the night, and increased the variability in air, surface and soil temperature throughout the diurnal cycle. Further, the microclimatic influence of turbines on air temperature and AH decreased logarithmically with distance from the nearest turbine. These effects on ground-level microclimate, including soil temperature, have uncertain implications for biogeochemical processes and ecosystem carbon cycling, including soil carbon stocks. Consequently, understanding needs to be improved to determine the overall carbon balance of wind energy.

  3. Paleoceanographic records in the sedimentary cores from the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYanguang; FUYunxia; DUDewen; MENGXianwei; LIANGRuicai; LITiegang; WUShiying


    Two gravity piston cores (Cores 155 and 180) involved in this study were collected from the middle Okinawa Trough. Stratigraphy of the two cores was divided and classified based on the features of planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope changes together with depositional sequence,millennium-scale climatic event comparison, carbonate cycles and AMS14C dating. Some paleoclimatic information contained in sediments of these cores was extracted to discuss the paleoclimatic change rules and the short-time scale events presented in interglacial period. Analysis on the variation of oxygen isotope values in stage two shows that the middle part of the Okinawa Trough may have been affected by fresh water from the Yellow River and the Yangtze River during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The oxygen isotope value oscillating ranges of the cores have verified that the marginal sea has an amplifying effect on climate changes.The δ13C of benthic foraminifera Uvigerina was lighter in the glacial period than that in the interglacial period, which indicates that the Paleo-Kuroshio's main stream moved eastward and its influence area decreased. According to the temperature difference during the “YD” period existing in Core 180 and other data, we can reach the conclusion that the climatic changes in the middle Okinawa Trough area were controlled by global climatic changes, but some regional factors had also considerable influence on the climatechanges. Some results in this paper support Fairbanks's point that the “YD” event was a brief stagnation of sea level rising during the global warming up procession. Moreover,the falling of sea level in the glacial period weakened the exchange between the bottom water of the Okinawa Trough and the deep water of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and resulted in low oxygen state of bottom water in this area.These procedures are the reasons for carbonate cycle in the Okinawa Trough area being consistent with the “Atlantic type”carbonate cycle.

  4. Paleoceanographic records in the sedimentary cores from the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two gravity piston cores (Cores 155 and 180) involved in this study were collected from the middle Okinawa Trough. Stratigraphy of the two cores was divided and classified based on the features of planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope changes together with depositional sequence, millennium-scale climatic event comparison, carbonate cycles and AMS14C dating. Some paleoclimatic information contained in sediments of these cores was extracted to discuss the paleoclimatic change rules and the short-time scale events presented in interglacial period. Analysis on the variation of oxygen isotope values in stage two shows that the middle part of the Okinawa Trough may have been affected by fresh water from the Yellow River and the Yangtze River during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The oxygen isotope value oscillating ranges of the cores have verified that the marginal sea has an amplifying effect on climate changes. The Δ13c of benthic foraminifera Uvigerina was lighter in the glacial period than that in the interglacial period, which indicates that the Paleo-Kuroshio's main stream moved eastward and its influence area decreased. According to the temperature difference during the "YD" period existing in Core 180 and other data, we can reach the conclusion that the climatic changes in the middle Okinawa Trough area were controlled by global climatic changes, but some regional factors had also considerable influence on the climate changes. Some results in this paper support Fairbanks's point that the "YD" event was a brief stagnation of sea level rising during the global warming up procession. Moreover, the falling of sea level in the glacial period weakened the exchange between the bottom water of the Okinawa Trough and the deep water of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and resulted in low oxygen state of bottom water in this area. These procedures are the reasons for carbonate cycle in the Okinawa Trough area being consistent with the "Atlantic type " carbonate cycle.

  5. UAVs for the Operational Commander: Don’t Ground MAV (Manned Aerial Vehicles)! (United States)


    start, taxi, launch, recover and park aircraft on the deck. 78 Studies highlight many gesture recognition difficulties associated with dynamic...American Helicopter Society, 2007). 78 --. CV NATOPS Manual. (Lakehurst, NJ: Naval Air Systems Command, 2007). 79 Venetsky, Larry. Gesture Recognition for...Venetsky, Larry, Mark Husni and Mark Yager. Gesture Recognition for UCAV-N Flight Deck Operations. Problem Definition Final Report. Lakehurst, NJ

  6. Seizing the Digital High Ground: Military Operations and Politics in the Social Media Era (United States)


    certainly be traced to the standard sources: weak governance, low economic opportunity, corruption , income inequality , human rights violations, and...Politics in the Social Media Era 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR Lt Col Andrew Ridland, British Army 5d...of social media, is changing how society operates. Confidentiality is being replaced by openness; information that was hitherto the preserve of a few

  7. Development and evaluation of the Stingray, an amphibious maritime interdiction operations unmanned ground vehicle (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Castelli, Robin


    The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. In 2011, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific conducted user evaluations on a number of small throwable robots and sensors, verified the requirements, and developed the key performance parameters (KPPs) for an MIO robot. Macro USA Corporation was then tasked to design and develop two prototype systems, each consisting of one control/display unit and two small amphibious Stingray robots. Technical challenges included the combination paddle wheel/shock-absorbing wheel, the tradeoff between impact resistance, size, and buoyancy, and achieving adequate traction on wet surfaces. This paper describes the technical design of these robots and the results of subsequent user evaluations by VBSS teams.

  8. Operational Phase Life Cycle Assessment of Select NASA Ground Test Facilities (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Marshall, Timothy J.; McGinnis, Sean


    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is responsible for many large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. In order to accomplish these national objectives, significant energy and resources are consumed. A select group of facilities was analyzed using life-cycle assessment (LCA) to determine carbon footprint and environmental impacts. Most of these impacts stem from electricity and natural gas consumption, used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. Other activities were analyzed but determined to be smaller in scale and frequency with relatively negligible environmental impacts. More specialized facilities use R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, and these unique inputs can have a considerable effect on a facility s overall environmental impact. The results of this LCA will be useful to ATP and NASA as the nation looks to identify its top energy consumers and NASA looks to maximize research output and minimize environmental impact. Keywords: NASA, Aeronautics, Wind tunnel, Keyword 4, Keyword 5

  9. Statistical and Probabilistic Extensions to Ground Operations' Discrete Event Simulation Modeling (United States)

    Trocine, Linda; Cummings, Nicholas H.; Bazzana, Ashley M.; Rychlik, Nathan; LeCroy, Kenneth L.; Cates, Grant R.


    NASA's human exploration initiatives will invest in technologies, public/private partnerships, and infrastructure, paving the way for the expansion of human civilization into the solar system and beyond. As it is has been for the past half century, the Kennedy Space Center will be the embarkation point for humankind's journey into the cosmos. Functioning as a next generation space launch complex, Kennedy's launch pads, integration facilities, processing areas, launch and recovery ranges will bustle with the activities of the world's space transportation providers. In developing this complex, KSC teams work through the potential operational scenarios: conducting trade studies, planning and budgeting for expensive and limited resources, and simulating alternative operational schemes. Numerous tools, among them discrete event simulation (DES), were matured during the Constellation Program to conduct such analyses with the purpose of optimizing the launch complex for maximum efficiency, safety, and flexibility while minimizing life cycle costs. Discrete event simulation is a computer-based modeling technique for complex and dynamic systems where the state of the system changes at discrete points in time and whose inputs may include random variables. DES is used to assess timelines and throughput, and to support operability studies and contingency analyses. It is applicable to any space launch campaign and informs decision-makers of the effects of varying numbers of expensive resources and the impact of off nominal scenarios on measures of performance. In order to develop representative DES models, methods were adopted, exploited, or created to extend traditional uses of DES. The Delphi method was adopted and utilized for task duration estimation. DES software was exploited for probabilistic event variation. A roll-up process was used, which was developed to reuse models and model elements in other less - detailed models. The DES team continues to innovate and expand

  10. Fusion of Landsat TM and ground spectrometry data in monitoring of non-operating mine (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo N.


    Surface mining activities in Europe are estimated to cover an area of 5-10 000 km2. In this paper we suggest that the availability of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for Earth observation allows the collection of environmental and minerelated data for use in the planning and undertaking of mine restoration work on cost-effective basis. The advantage is that these data are acquired digitally and can be easily processed and utilized in various information formats. Important step in the data processing is the verification of airborne data. For this purpose ground spectrometry measurements of samples taken from test sites have been performed. In the last decade several mining areas and corresponding dumps are subject to reclamation process in Bulgaria. We focused our research on one of the most important in the copper production for 20 year period for our country - Asarel-Medet deposit. This mining complex consists of an open mine, the dumps and a processing plant. After ceasing the exploitation of Medet deposit in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period, which is to end this year. To process the data, which characterize the progress of the land cover restoration, several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and are economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  11. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte


    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  12. [総説]Suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective : A consideration of socio-cultural factors


    Naka, Koichi; Willcox, D. Craig; Todoriki, Hidemi; Kageyama, Takayuki; Department of Cli花ical Psychology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Anthropology and Institute for Human Development, Life Course and Aging, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Urban Environment and Health Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan


    In studies of suicide, a common problem is an over-focus on psychopathology of individual suicidal acts. As a result, the social determinants of suicide are often obscured. In order to rectify this situation, in this paper, we took a Durkheimian approach and focused on social factors that may be linked to suicide. We reviewed research on suicide in Okinawa from an international perspective and reconsidered suicide as a socio-cultural phenomenon. We also compared suicide in Okinawa to trends i...

  13. Preparing the ground for an operational handling of long-term emissions in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard;


    hindering the standardisation of a methodology to account for potential impacts from long-term metal emissions, and to describe the characteristics of a robust framework for an operational impact assessment methodology.In order to demonstrate the issues around potential impacts from long-term emissions...... in LCA and derive a scientific basis for developing an adequate LCA methodology to address these impacts, a two-part review on long-term metal emissions is performed that (a) identifies a suitable time-dependent life cycle inventory (LCI) while underlining the problems in existing emission prediction......-term emissions, it is necessary to (i) represent future potential impacts more accurately by estimating time-dependent characterisation factors (CFs) corresponding to changing environmental conditions, (ii) develop more robust estimations by addressing uncertainty and (iii) refer to actual potential impacts...

  14. Forecast indices from ground-based microwave radiometer for operational meteorology (United States)

    Cimini, D.; Nelson, M.; Güldner, J.; Ware, R.


    Today, commercial microwave radiometers profilers (MWRP) are robust and unattended instruments providing real time accurate atmospheric observations at ~ 1 min temporal resolution under nearly all-weather conditions. Common commercial units operate in the 20-60 GHz frequency range and are able to retrieve profiles of temperature, vapour density, and relative humidity. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved from MWRP data are used here to feed tools developed for processing radiosonde observations to obtain values of forecast indices (FI) commonly used in operational meteorology. The FI considered here include K index, Total Totals, KO index, Showalter index, T1 Gust, Fog Threat, Lifted Index, S Index (STT), Jefferson Index, MDPI, Thompson Index, TQ Index, and CAPE. Values of FI computed from radiosonde and MWRP-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles are compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the level of agreement and the value of continuous FI updates. This analysis is repeated for two sites at midlatitude, the first one located at low altitude in Central Europe (Lindenberg, Germany), while the second one located at high altitude in North America (Whistler, Canada). It is demonstrated that FI computed from MWRP well correlate with those computed from radiosondes, with the additional advantage of nearly continuous update. The accuracy of MWRP-derived FI is tested against radiosondes, taken as a reference, showing different performances depending upon index and environmental situation. Overall, FI computed from MWRP retrievals agree well with radiosonde values, with correlation coefficients usually above 0.8 (with few exceptions). We conclude that MWRP retrievals can be used to produce meaningful FI, with the advantage (with respect to radiosondes) of nearly continuous update.

  15. Forecast indices from a ground-based microwave radiometer for operational meteorology (United States)

    Cimini, D.; Nelson, M.; Güldner, J.; Ware, R.


    Today, commercial microwave radiometer profilers (MWRPs) are robust and unattended instruments providing real-time, accurate atmospheric observations at ~ 1 min temporal resolution under nearly all weather conditions. Common commercial units operate in the 20-60 GHz frequency range and are able to retrieve profiles of temperature, vapour density, and relative humidity. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved from MWRP data are used here to feed tools developed for processing radiosonde observations to obtain values of forecast indices (FIs) commonly used in operational meteorology. The FIs considered here include K index, total totals, KO index, Showalter index, T1 gust, fog threat, lifted index, S index (STT), Jefferson index, microburst day potential index (MDPI), Thompson index, TQ index, and CAPE (convective available potential energy). Values of FIs computed from radiosonde and MWRP-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles are compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the level of agreement and the value of continuous FI updates. This analysis is repeated for two sites at midlatitude, the first one located at low altitude in central Europe (Lindenberg, Germany) and the second one located at high altitude in North America (Whistler, Canada). It is demonstrated that FIs computed from MWRPs well correlate with those computed from radiosondes, with the additional advantage of nearly continuous updates. The accuracy of MWRP-derived FIs is tested against radiosondes, taken as a reference, showing different performances depending upon index and environmental situation. Overall, FIs computed from MWRP retrievals agree well with radiosonde values, with correlation coefficients usually above 0.8 (with few exceptions). We conclude that MWRP retrievals can be used to produce meaningful FIs, with the advantage (with respect to radiosondes) of nearly continuous updates.

  16. Forecast indices from ground-based microwave radiometer for operational meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cimini


    Full Text Available Today, commercial microwave radiometers profilers (MWRP are robust and unattended instruments providing real time accurate atmospheric observations at ~ 1 min temporal resolution under nearly all-weather conditions. Common commercial units operate in the 20–60 GHz frequency range and are able to retrieve profiles of temperature, vapour density, and relative humidity. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved from MWRP data are used here to feed tools developed for processing radiosonde observations to obtain values of forecast indices (FI commonly used in operational meteorology. The FI considered here include K index, Total Totals, KO index, Showalter index, T1 Gust, Fog Threat, Lifted Index, S Index (STT, Jefferson Index, MDPI, Thompson Index, TQ Index, and CAPE. Values of FI computed from radiosonde and MWRP-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles are compared in order to quantitatively demonstrate the level of agreement and the value of continuous FI updates. This analysis is repeated for two sites at midlatitude, the first one located at low altitude in Central Europe (Lindenberg, Germany, while the second one located at high altitude in North America (Whistler, Canada. It is demonstrated that FI computed from MWRP well correlate with those computed from radiosondes, with the additional advantage of nearly continuous update. The accuracy of MWRP-derived FI is tested against radiosondes, taken as a reference, showing different performances depending upon index and environmental situation. Overall, FI computed from MWRP retrievals agree well with radiosonde values, with correlation coefficients usually above 0.8 (with few exceptions. We conclude that MWRP retrievals can be used to produce meaningful FI, with the advantage (with respect to radiosondes of nearly continuous update.

  17. Ground tests of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron instrument operation in the passive mode with a Martian soil model (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. N.; Dubasov, P. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Zontikov, A. O.


    The results of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument ground tests in the passive mode of operation are presented in comparison with the numerical calculations. These test series were conducted to support the current surface measurements of DAN onboard the MSL Curiosity rover. The instrument sensitivity to detect thin subsurface layers of water ice buried at different depths in the analog of Martian soil has been evaluated during these tests. The experiments have been done with a radioisotope Pu-Be neutron source (analog of the MMRTG neutron source onboard the Curiosity rover) and the Martian soil model assembled from silicon-rich window glass pane. Water ice layers were simulated with polyethylene sheets. All experiments have been performed at the test facility built at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia).

  18. Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science (United States)

    Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.


    A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

  19. An Impact Analysis of Fiscal Measures to Promote Self-Sustained Economic Development in Okinawa using a Multi-regional CGE Model (Japanese)


    OKIYAMA Mitsuru; IKEGAWA Maria; Tokunaga, Suminori


    This paper analyzes the effective allocation of a comprehensive package of grants to the production activity sectors for the purpose of promoting self-sustained economic development in Okinawa prefecture. We find the following results by using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model comprised of six regions including Okinawa. First, the economic welfare of Okinawa increased by 123.2 billion yen due to a public fiscal transfer of 98.7 billion yen based on the comprehensive packag...

  20. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  1. Sedimentary response to volcanic activity in the Okinawa Trough since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋富清; 李安春; 李铁刚


    To investigate the relationship between volcanic activity and sediment record on regional and temporal scales,158 surface sediment samples were collected from the East China Sea Shelf to the northern Okinawa Trough (OT),and two cores recovered in the northern and southern OT,respectively.Mineralogy,grain-size,and geochemical analyses of those samples show that:1) volcanic glass,volcanic-type pyroxene,hypersthenes,and magnetite increase in sediment influenced by volcanic activity;2) sediment grain sizes (and...

  2. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan (United States)

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya


    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids. PMID:28153910

  3. Deep ventilation in the Okinawa Trough induced by Kerama Gap overflow (United States)

    Nishina, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Seo, Seongbong; Hibiya, Toshiyuki


    Near-bottom water flowing over the Kerama Gap's sills is thought to ventilate the deep water below ˜1100 m depth in the Okinawa Trough and then upwell with 5-10 years residence time. The present study follows up on this phenomenon, using comprehensive profile data of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, currents and turbulence obtained by intensive shipboard observations performed in June 2013 and June 2014 in the region. Strong near-bottom subtidal flow with speeds exceeding 0.5 m s-1 was observed within a layer of about 100 m thickness over the western side of the peak of the main sill. Temperature and salinity sections along the Kerama Gap indicated some depressions and overturns of the deep water downstream of the strong overflow, suggesting the existence of breaking internal gravity waves and hydraulic jumps. Associated vertical diffusivities, estimated using the Thorpe scale and the buoyancy frequency, were three to four orders of magnitude larger than typical values observed in the thermocline of the open ocean (˜10-5 m2 s-1). The dissolved oxygen section also indicated strong vertical mixing and associated upwelling with the entrainment of the near-bottom overflow water into the lower thermocline beneath the Kuroshio in the Okinawa Trough. The present study not only supports the previous conceptual model but also provides new evidence that the Okinawa Trough is an upwelling location where nutrient rich Philippine Sea intermediate water is sucked up into the lower thermocline below the Kuroshio.

  4. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan. (United States)

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y


    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  5. Geographic difference in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Japanese screened subjects: Ibaraki versus Okinawa. (United States)

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Yamagata, Kunihiro


    In Japan, there is a geographic difference in the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Few epidemiologic studies, however, have compared the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among different geographic areas. Other than genetic factors, socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle are targets for modification. We examined the prevalence of CKD among two large community-based screened populations, 40 years of age and older, in Japan: Ibaraki (N = 187,863) and Okinawa (N = 83,150). Prevalence of CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) using the coefficient modified abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) study equation using a standardized serum creatinine value. CKD prevalence was compared among screenees with (+) or without (-) hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg) and hyperglycemia (plasma glucose > or = 126 mg/dl). Both male and female participants in Okinawa had a significantly lower prevalence of hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-) than did patients in Ibaraki. The prevalence of CKD in Okinawa was higher than that in Ibaraki among screenees with hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-), and highest among screenees with hypertension (+)/hyperglycemia (-). The regional difference in CKD prevalence may underlie the variation in ESRD prevalence observed in Japan.

  6. Mercury Anomaly in the Okinawa Trough Sediments—An Indicator of Modern Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一阳; 鄢明才


    The Okinawa Trough is located between the shelf-sea area of the East China Sea and the deep-sea area of western Pacific Ocean.More than 60 chemical elements in the sediments from the shelf area of the East China Sea,the Okinawa Trough and western Pacific Ocean were determined by advanced techniques including neutron acti-vation analysis,X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,atomic fluorescence spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry.Quantitative comparisons of the element abundances of the sediments were made in terms of the enrichment coefficients(K) of the elements.K>1.5 indicates enrichment (K=1.5-2, weak enrichment;K=2-4,strong enrichment) and K>4,anomalous enrichment.The results show that the Okinawa Trough sediments are characterized by Hg anomaly and the enrichment of such elements as Au,Ag,Se,Te,Sb,Cd,Mn,Mo,etc.Detailed studies show that the excess Hg comes from hydrothermal solutions rather than from the continent,sea water ,marine organisms,cosmic dust or vol-canic rocks.Attributed to modern hydrothermal activities on the sea floor ,Hg anomaly can be used as a geochemical indicator of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity.

  7. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.


    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  8. Measurement of high turbidity water behavior by ADCP at Izena Caldera in Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Furuta, S.; Arai, R.; Yamazaki, T.


    Hydrothermal processes associated with spreading centers of plate-tectonics form hydrothermal activities and the resulted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. Given that the SMS deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to be potential sources of gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead, there is a strong possibility that they will be mined near future. In order to take measures against environmental impacts during the mining of SMS deposits, it is important to measure components of hydrothermal origin with high temporal and spatial resolution on site, and to understand the mass circulation and transfer systems around the mining area. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is effective tool for measurement of current field in water column in general. In addition, it is also useful for detection of turbidity profile in the water column simultaneously, applying an acoustic propagation model to the data. Izena Caldera, which is 3 km in short, 6 km in long axes and is generically from1,600 m to 1,700 m in depth, is located at the northwest of Okinawa Island. There both attractive SMS deposits and active hydrothermal vent systems have been confirmed. Because of the active vent systems and a bowl-like geographical structure, a quite unique mass circulation and transfer background condition is expected in Izena Caldera. The mining operation will add plenty of suspended materials into the background condition. For a primary understanding of the background condition, the authors analyzed the ADCP data and found two high-turbidity water zones in Izena Caldera and their behavior relationships with the current structure. The vertical downward current affects one of the high-turbidity zones around 1,220 m in depth. The current velocity against north-south direction and east-west direction affects the other high-turbidity zone 1,550 m in depth. Also the zones are recognized the higher synchronization with the lumi-solar diurnal tide, about 24 hours. The

  9. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi" (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno


    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  10. Effects of silvicultural operations in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest on ground beetles in the genus Brachinus (United States)

    Lynne C. Thompson; Brian Roy Lockhart


    Little information is available on how insects are affected by anthropogenic influences in the bottomland forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. This study investigates one genus of ground beetles that lives in managed forested landscapes to discover which species are positively and negatively influenced by human disturbances. Ground beetles (Carabidae) were collected...

  11. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of volcanic rocks from the northern East China Sea shelf margin and the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; YU Shaoxiong; WANG Xiaoyuan; FU Yongtao; YIN Xuebo; ZHANG Guoliang; WANG Xiaomei; CHEN Shuai


    Volcanic rocks both from the northern East China Sea (NECS) shelf margin and the northern Okinawa Trough are subalkaline less aluminous,and lower in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE).These rocks are higher in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE),thorium and uranium contents,positive lead anomalies,negative Nb-Ta anomalies,and enrichment in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE).Basalts from the NECS shelf margin are akin to Indian Ocean Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB),and rhyolites from the northern Okinawa Trough have the highest 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios.The NECS shelf margin basalts have lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios,εNd and σ18O than the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks.According to 40K-40Ar isotopic ages of basalts from the NECS shelf margin,rifting of the Okinawa Trough may have been active since at least 3.65-3.86 Ma.The origin of the NECS shelf margin basalt can be explained by the interaction of melt derived from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with enriched subcontinental lithosphere.The basalts from both sides of the Okinawa Trough may have a similar origin during the initial rifting of the Okinawa Trough,and the formation of basaltic magmas closely relates to the thinning of continental crust.The source of the formation of the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks was different from that of the middle Okinawa Trough,which could have been generated by the interaction of basaltic melt with an enriched crustal component.From the Ryukyu island arc to East China,the Cenozoic basalts have apparently increasing trends of MgO contents and ratios of LREE to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE),suggesting that the trace element variabilities of basalts may have been influenced by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate,and that the effects of subduction of the Philippine Sea plate on the chemical composition of basaltic melts have had a decreasing effect from the Ryukyu island arc to East China.

  12. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa


    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  13. A New Model of Lithosphere Deformation Beneath the Okinawa Trough Based on Gravity Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lihong; JIANG Xiaodian; ZHANG Weigang


    The Ryukyu trench-arc system can be divided into two types according to its subduction model. The normal sub-duction in the northern part of the Philippine Sea plate creates a hinge sedimentary wedge with large deformation at the col-lision front, while the oblique subduction in the southern part gives rise to a smaller accretion with small deformation thanthat in the northern part. The mechanisms that cause the distinction between these two types have been analysed and calcu-lated by using gravity data based on the lithosphere rheology and the stress state of the lithosphere in the subduction bound-ary. The two types of subduction model are associated with the internal extension in the southern Okinawa Trough and thesmall extension in the northern part. The difference of the stress state between the two types of subduction model is alsomanifested in other tectonic features, such as topography, volcanic activity and crust movement. Modeling bathymetric andgravity data from this area suggests that the oblique subduction of low angle, together with smooth geometry of the overlyingplate crust, results in small stress released on the south of the trench by the subduction plate. The intraplate faults in thesouthern Okinawa Trough behind the trench stand in surplus intensive stress. On the other hand, the normal subduction ofhigh angle, together with strong undulation geometry of the overlying crust, results in more intensive stress released in thenorthern Ryukyu Trench than that in the south. The intraplate faults in the northern Okinawa Trough behind the northernRyukyu Trench stand in small stress.

  14. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  15. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization (United States)


    not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and Abrams will remain in the inventory for 50...time since World War I, that the Army does not have a new ground combat vehicle under development and “at current funding levels, the Bradley and...Jane’s Land Warfare Platforms Armoured Fighting Vehicles, 2016-2017; IHS Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012; and unclassified information provided to

  16. Ground-state energies and charge radii of $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca, and $^{56}$Ni in the unitary-model-operator approach

    CERN Document Server

    Miyagi, Takayuki; Okamoto, Ryoji; Otsuka, Takaharu


    We study the nuclear ground-state properties by using the unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA). Recently, the particle-basis formalism has been introduced in the UMOA and enables us to employ the charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction. We evaluate the ground-state energies and charge radii of $^{4}$He, $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca, and $^{56}$Ni with the charge-dependent Bonn potential. The ground-state energy is dominated by the contributions from the one- and two-body cluster terms, while, for the radius, the one-particle-one-hole excitations are more important than the two-particle-two-hole excitations. The calculated results reproduce the trend of experimental data of the saturation property for finite nuclei.

  17. Paleoenvironmental informa-tion recorded by pollen in B-3GC gravity core in Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on pollen records in B-3GC gravity core, environmental change since 9500 aBP of Okinawa Trough and its adjacent islands was derived. The result showed that the most time during this period was in a warm temperate climate except in middle Holocene (6800-4400 aBP) that was under subtropical climate control. During 9500-8300 aBP and 3100-2000 aBP periods, it appeared colder and drier than the rest time. The original area of pollen sources surrounding Okinawa Trough was covered by evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest alternatively with mixed broad-leaf-conifer forest distributed in high mountainous areas. Usually, these three kinds of forests existed at the same time with difference in altitude. Pollen from subtropical and tropical plants increased obviously in about 5000-6000 aBP, reflecting a great lifting of vegetation zone and expansion of evergreen broad-leaf forest in the study area. However, there was a slight descending of plant zone and shrinking of evergreen broadleaf forest during 9500-8300 aBP and 3000-2000 aBP. During the remaining periods vegetation zone was higher than the present but in a limited range.

  18. The paleoclimatic events and cause in the Okinawa Trough during 50 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Planktonic foraminiferal d18O record for core DGKS9603 from the Okinawa Trough shows a series of climatic fluctuations and sudden cooling events in short time scale during 50 kaBP, which appear to correlate closely to the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events H1-5 recorded in Chine-se loess, the South China Sea, the North Atlantic cores and the Greenland ice cores. Three polarity reversal events, cor-relating to Gothenburg, Mungo and Laschamp events, ap-proximately correspond to Heinrich events H1, H3 and H5 respectively, which could be a cause of global climate changes. The d18O curve of the Okinawa Trough is well asso-ciated with the grain size record of the Lijiayuan loess profile in northwestern China and is somewhat different from the climate fluctuations documented in the Greenland ice cores. These correlation results indicate that regional factors play an important role in controlling the climate changes in the East Asia, and the East Asian Monsoon could be the promi-nent regional controlling factor.

  19. Isotopic Characteristics and Age Dating of the Pumice in Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽蓉; 翟世奎; 申顺喜


    The data on the isotope compositions of rubidium,strontium and oxygen in the pumice ofOkinawa Trough are reported for the first time.The ages of the pumice were successfully dated with themethod of U-series disequilibrium.Then,the material source,crystallization evolution of magma and activi-ty cycles of volcanos are explored.Isotopic data show that pumice magma was originally from the mantle,but had undergone a full crystal-lization differentiation and had been contaminated to a fair extent by crust-derived materials before the mag-ma was erupted out of the sea floor.According to the dating results available so far,the earliest volcaniceruption in Okinawa Trough occurred about 70,000 a ago and the latest eruption was about 10,000 a B.P.During this period,there were three volcanic eruption cycles which were respectively corresponding to themiddle Late Pleistocene,the late Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene.

  20. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years (United States)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping


    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  1. Elemental geochemical records of seafloor hydrothermal activities in the sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; YU Zenghui; DU Tongjun


    The major and minor element contents in the sediment core H9 from the hydrothermal fields of the Okinawa Trough show a sharp change at the depth of 80 cm. The elements enriched in the upper 80 cm core are those enriched in the hydrothermal deposits and in the surface sediments recovered from the hydrothermal fields in the trough, which indicates the input of hydrothermal materials. Comparing with other hydrothermal sediments from Mid-ocean Ridges or the Lau Basin, the degree of the enrichment of elements iron, copper, cobalt, and nickel is relatively low. However, the enrichment of elements manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury is remarkable. The average contents of these elements in the upper 80 cm core sediments are three to six times those in the lower section, and 3 ~ 12 times those in the surface sediments which are not influenced by hydrothermal activities. Hydrothermal activities have contributed significant manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury to the sediments, and these elements are distinct indicators for the hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough. The significant enrichment of these elements in Core H9 upward from the depth 80 cm indicates the start or the significant enhancing of the hydrothermal activity in this area at about 5 740 aB. P. The average accumulation rate of manganese during this period is about 40 461 μg/( cm2 · ka), which is similar to the hydrothermal sediments in the Lau Basin or the East Pacific Rise.

  2. Changes in the demographics and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan (1993 to 2003). (United States)

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Kohagura, Kentaro; Sakima, Atsushi; Iseki, Chiho; Kinjo, Kozen; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Takishita, Shuichi


    To compare the risk factor demographics and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we analyzed two databases from the 1993 (N=143,948) and 2003 (N=154,019) mass screenings in Okinawa, Japan (Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association registry). We estimated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using serum creatinine (SCr) levels. SCr was measured by the modified Jaffe method in 1993 and by enzyme assay in 2003; the relation between the two methods was: SCr (Jaffe) = 0.194 + 1.079 x SCr (enzyme). CKD prevalence was compared using the estimated GFR calculated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. SCr was measured in 66.2% (1993) and 69.8% (2003) of the total screenees. Proteinuria was present in 3.4% (1993) and 4.3% (2003) of the total screened population, respectively. The prevalence of CKD (GFROkinawa, Japan differed between the 1993 and 2003 screenings, but the prevalence of CKD seemed to be similar, or at least did not increase substantially, between the two databases.

  3. [Survey of allergic diseases in 3-year old children in Okinawa City]. (United States)

    Takeda, F; Toma, T; Miyagi, I; Kishimoto, M


    A questionnaire survey was conducted between September 1993 and March 1994 to ascertain the presence of allergic diseases among 3-year old children in Okinawa City of Okinawa Prefecture. Nine hundred and twenty-two questionnaires were sent to caretakers of 3-year old children, with 697 responses of which five invalid cases were deleted for a total of 692 responses which were analyzed. About 30% of these children had allergic diseases as diagnosed by the medical doctor. Among the respondents 15.1% had experience of atopic dermatitis, while 13.9% had experience of asthma. The incidence of atopic dermatitis in this survey was lower than those reported in other prefectures of Japan. Symptoms for atopic dermatitis were more severe during summer. About 15% of the children had been on a diet regimen for prevention or treatment of allergic diseases since the time of conception. Eighteen percent of the respondents used a vacuum cleaner on their bedding. A high proportion of respondents (65.9%) obtained information from newspapers or magazines about allergic diseases.

  4. Sources and burial of organic carbon in the middle Okinawa Trough during late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change (United States)

    Shao, Hebin; Yang, Shouye; Cai, Feng; Li, Chao; Liang, Jie; Li, Qing; Hyun, Sangmin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dou, Yanguang; Hu, Bangqi; Dong, Gang; Wang, Feng


    The sediments from a piston core ECS12A recovered from the middle Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and other biogenic elements to provide constraints on the sources and burial rates of depositional organic matter (OM) and on the changes in primary productivity since 19 ka. The last glacial sediments (ca. 17-19 ka) are characterized by low contents of biogenic elements and well-developed turbidite layers, suggesting low primary productivity but a high component of terrigenous sediment. With rising sea level and enhanced monsoons during the deglacial period, the proportion of marine OM gradually increased. The least negative δ13Corg values and the smallest grain size of sediments deposited ca. 10-14.5 ka indicate high primary productivity and a sedimentary environment dominated by the marine component. The source and burial rates of OM in the Holocene sediments (ca. 5.4-10 ka) were largely controlled by the intensification of the Kuroshio Current, which caused a slight decrease in primary productivity, but strengthened the oceanic circulation in the East China Sea. Overall, the source-to-sink process of OM in the Okinawa Trough is governed by complex interactions between sea level, climate and ocean circulation.

  5. A broad deglacial δ13C minimum event in planktonic foraminiferal records in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The equatorial Pacific upwelling zone has been suspected of playing an important role in the global atmospheric CO2 changes associated with glacial-interglacial cycles.In order to assess the influencing scope of the surface water deglacial δ13C minimum in the tropical Iow-latitude Pacific,the core DGKS9603, collected from the middle Okinawa Trough, was examined for δ13C records of planktonic foraminifera N. dutertrei and G. ruber. The planktonic foraminiferal δ13C records show a clear decreasing event from 20 to 6 cal. kaBP., which is characterized by long duration of about 14 ka and amplitude shift of 0.4 × 10-3. Its minimum value occurred at 15.7 cai kaBP. The event shows fairly synchrony with the surface water deglacial δ13C minimum identiffed in the tropical Pacific and its marginal seas. Because there is no evidence in planktonic foraminiferal fauna and δ18O records for upwelling and river runoff enhancement,the broad deglacial δ13C minimum event in planktonic foraminiferal records revealed in core DGKS9603 might have been the direct influencing result of the deglacial surface water of the tropical Pacific. The identification for the event in the Okinawa Trough provides new evidence that the water evolution in the tropical low-latitude Pacific plays a key role in large regional, even global carbon cycle.

  6. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Investigation of the Efficacy of Modafinil for Maintaining Alertness and Performance in Sustained Military Ground Operations (United States)


    SUSTAINED MILITARY GROUND OPERATIONS Jeffrey Whitmore Patrick Hickey Brandon Doan Richard Harrison James Kisner Thomas Beltran John McQuade Joseph...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Whitmore;Jeffrey, Hickey, Patrick; Doan, 7757 Brandon; Harrison, Richard, Kisner ...Heintz, Hickey, Hurtle, Kisner , and Smith, 2004). The dosing scheme used in the current study was similar to schemes recommended by Buguet, Moroz

  7. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A (United States)


    Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water: Part II Colloidal...Transport In "EPA Environmental Research Brief EPA/600/M-91/040", July 1991 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul ...1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTIIIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB 1.0 Scope and Application This standard

  8. Canal Creek Study Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Groundwater Monitoring Plan, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A (United States)


    023", December 1990 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in...Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1992, Metals in Ground Water: Sampling Artifacts and Reproducibility In "Hazardous Waste & Hazardous...Revision: 3 Page: 1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB * 1.0 Scope and Application

  9. High-resolution records of thermocline in the Okinawa Trough since about 10000 aBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jiliang; (


    [1]Ye, D. Z., Zeng, Q. C., Guo, Y. F. (eds.), Modern Climate (in Chinese), Beijing: Climate Press, 1991.[2]Chen, M. T., Prell, W. L., Faunal distribution patterns of planktonic foraminifera in surface sediments of the low-latitude Pacific, Paleo., Paleo., Paleo., 1995, 137: 55.[3]Ravelo, A. C., Fairbanks, R. G., Philander, G., Reconstructing tropical Atlantic hydrography using planktonic foraminifera and ocean model, Paleoceanography, 1990, 5(3): 409.[4]Ravelo, A. C., Fairbanks, R. G., Oxygen isotopic composition of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera: recorders of the modern photic zone temperature gradient, Paleoceanography, 1992, 7(6): 815.[5]Andreason, D. J., Ravelo, A. C., Tropical Pacific Ocean thermocline depth reconstructions for the last glacial maximum, Paleoceanography, 1997, 12(3): 395.[6]Schmit, H., Berger, W. H., Bickert, H. et al., Quaternary carbon isotope records of pelagic foraminifers: Site 806, Ontong Java Plateau, Proc. ODP, Sci. Result, 1993, 130: 397.[7]Chen, X. R., Wang, P. X., Approach to vertical structure variation of upper layer in the Okinawa Trough using nannofossils, Science in China, Series D, 1998, 41(3): 290.[8]Li, B., Zhao, Q., Wang, Y. et al., Paleoceanographic events of the southern Okinawa Trough during last 20000 years, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 1998, 17(4): 519.[9]Wang, J. L., The changes of thermocline depth in the northern Okinawa Trough during the Holocene, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 3: 281.[10]Jin, X. L. (ed.), Geology of the East China Sea (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1992.[11]First & Second Institutes of Oceanography, SOA Essays on the investigation of Kuroshio Current (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1987, 1?/FONT>345.[12]Department of Science and Technology, SOA, Essays on the investigation of Kuroshio Current, Series IV (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1992, 1?/FONT>332.

  10. Tarawa to Okinawa: The Evolution of Amphibious Operations in the Pacific during World War II (United States)


    craft developed by Andrew Jackson Higgins, and a tracked landing craft developed by Donald Roebling. Both of these craft would ultimately be...from Tarawa. Smith, Holland M. and Percy Finch. Coral and Brass. Washington: Zenger Publishing, 19 79. Personal memoirs of Major General Holland M...and Percy Finch, Coral and Brass (Washington: Zenger P ublishing, 1979), 120. 64 73 Smith, 120-121. 74 Smith, 133. 75 Shaw, 109. 76 Isley, 575


    Emissions of aromatic air toxics from aircraft ground equipment were measured with a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) system consisting of a pulsed solid state laser for photoionization and a TOFMS for mass discrimination. T...

  12. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  13. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Spaulding, J.D. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Neary, M. P. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Wasyl, M.S. [Packard Instrument Company, , ()


    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples.

  14. A study of the microbial mineralization in submarine black smoker chimneys from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun; LI Jianghai; CHU Fengyou


    Large amounts of microfossil records discovered in the seafloor black smoker chimney are reported from the Okinawa Trough.They are well preserved and can be divided into four types of filamentous microfossils.It suggests that the fossils may be derived from sulfur or iron oxidation chemolithotrophic prokaryotes and fungi.Based on the comparison studies of the microbial mineralization processes,two steps of biomineralization were hypothesized:(1)biology controlled mineralization;and(2)biology induced mineralization.At the early stage of the mineralization,the biology controlling mineralization is dominating;at the later stage,the biology inducing mineralization is the main mechanism.The composition of the fluids and the species of the microbes will determine the types of the minerals formed.

  15. Alternatives forms of political participation in Japan 1983-2003. The 1996 Okinawa Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Mendoza Martínez


    Full Text Available In this article it is depicted the evolution of the civil society, that gradually brings to the citizens an increasingly weight in the decision-making process in Japan, where the society traditionally has been regarded as highly hierarchical. Some of the most remarkable events headed for the decentralization and to a new decision-making schema more opened to the public opinion, are mentioned. It is emphasized the importance of the initiative taken by organized groups of civilians for the appropriate functioning of this schema. As an example, the interaction between the local resident interests and the national politics in the case of the United States’ military bases established in Okinawa is examined.

  16. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012. (United States)

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm


    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  17. Gas seepage on the sea floor of Okinawa Trough Miyako Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Xiwu; QIN Yunshan


    A marine geophysical survey was carried out, on the R/V Science 1 of the Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS), in 2000, at the Miyako Section of Okinawa Trough. Here we present seismic and acoustic evidence of a gas seep on the sea floor on the western part of the Okinawa Trough, near the lower slope of the East China Sea Slope and discuss the possibility of related formation of gas hydrate. A gas column reflection was observed in echo-sounder data above a section where the sea floor reflector was missing, on both the echo-sounder and the seismic data for line H14. The seismic data also show an acoustic curtain reflection and a turbidity reflection at this section. These anomalies are the evidence of the existence of a gas seep, which occupies an area 2.2 km in diameter. Based on the acoustic curtain on line H14, we believe that the amount of gas contained in the sediments below the gas seep is larger than 1% by volume of sediment. Tectonically, the gas seep developed in a small basin controlled by basement uplift in the north, south and east. The thickness of the sediment layer can be greater than 3.5 km. A mud diapir structure was found in layer D beneath the gas seep. Over-pressure may occur due to the large sediment thickness and also the tectonic basement uplift in the north, south, and east. The mud diapir could be the preferential pathway for methane-rich fluids. The acoustic curtain may indicate that free gas related to the gas seep can be formed on the sea floor. We also note that the layer above the acoustic curtain on profile H14 may contain gas hydrate.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition. (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S


    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks.

  19. Imaging-guided thoracoscopic resection of a ground-glass opacity lesion in a hybrid operating room equipped with a robotic C-arm CT system. (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Ping; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Fang, Hsin-Yueh; Chao, Yin-Kai


    The intraoperative identification of small pulmonary nodules through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery remains challenging. Although preoperative CT-guided nodule localization is commonly used to detect tumors during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), this approach carries inherent risks. We report the case of a patient with stage I lung cancer presenting as an area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper pulmonary lobe. He successfully underwent a single-stage, CT-guided localization and removal of the pulmonary nodule within a hybrid operating room (OR) equipped with a robotic C-arm.

  20. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal record of the paleoceanography in the southern Okinawa Trough over the last 20 000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 陈荣华; 李保华


    Quantitative analyses have been carried out on benthic foraminifera from 66 samples of Core 255 in the southern Okinawa Trough, in combination with the stable isotopic analyses of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and AMS 14C dating, in order to reconstruct the history of change under deep water conditions and surface paleoproduclivity over the last 20 000 years. The variations in the ratio of agglutinants in benthic foraminiferal fauna and the ratio of fragments in planktonic foraminifera] fauna indicate higher carbonate dissolution during the postglacial stage than during the glacial stage. The distribution of species and the results of Q-mode factor analysis show that there are three distinctly different benthic foraminiferal assemblages during the glacial, deglacial and postglacial stages in the Okinawa Trough over the last 20000 years: the glacial Bulimina aculeata assemblage (especially the dominant species Uvigerina pereyrina) is associated with high surface primary productivity and organic mat

  1. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan (United States)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi


    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  2. Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan. (United States)

    Tohyama, E


    The Okinawa Islands located in the southern-most part of Japan were under U.S. administration from 1945 to 1972. During that time, fluoride was added to the drinking water supplies in most regions. The relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and uterine cancer mortality rate was studied in 20 municipalities of Okinawa and the data were analyzed using correlation and multivariate statistics. The main findings were as follows. (1) A significant positive correlation was found between fluoride concentration in drinking water and uterine cancer mortality in 20 municipalities (r = 0.626, p divorce rate, this association was considerably significant. (3) Furthermore, the time trends in the uterine cancer mortality rate appear to be related to changes in water fluoridation practices.

  3. Information operator approach applied to the retrieval of the vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents from ground-based high-resolution FTIR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senten


    Full Text Available The analysis of high spectral resolution Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra is an important issue in remote sensing. If this is done carefully, one can obtain information, not only about the total column abundances, but also about the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work introduces the application of the information operator approach for extracting vertical profile information from ground-based FTIR measurements. The algorithm is implemented and tested within the well-known retrieval code SFIT2, adapting the optimal estimation method such as to take into account only the significant contributions to the solution. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method in an application to ground-based FTIR spectra taken in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC at Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E. A thorough comparison is made between the original optimal estimation method, Tikhonov regularization and this alternative retrieval algorithm, regarding information content, retrieval robustness and corresponding full error budget evaluation for the target species ozone (O3, nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO. It is shown that the information operator approach performs well and in most cases yields both a better accuracy and stability than the optimal estimation method. Additionally, the information operator approach has the advantage of being less sensitive to the choice of a priori information than the optimal estimation method and Tikhonov regularization. On the other hand, in general the Tikhonov regularization results seem to be slightly better than the optimal estimation method and information operator approach results when it comes to error budgets and column stability.

  4. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang


    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  5. To Serve the Nation: U.S. Special Operations Forces in an Era of Persistent Conflict (United States)


    Group at Kadena Air Base near okinawa , Japan. Also key to AFSoC is its Air Force Special operations Training Center at Hurlburt Field. marine Corps...very lean diet ,” said one.44 However, the National Mission Forces remain better equipped, have more exten- sive training opportunities, and are

  6. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Soliman


    Full Text Available The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S and nuclear histone H3 (H3 gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan.

  7. Magnetic properties of different grain-sized particles of sediments from the Okinawa Trough and their relationships to sedimentary environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LI Peiying; ZHANG Xiaolong; CAO Chengxiao; XU Xingyong; DU Jun; LIU Lejun


    Multiple magnetic parameters were measured for nine different grain-sized fractions separated from the sediment samples that are representatives of four different sedimentary environments of the Okinawa Trough. Based on the measured results, the contributions of different grain-sized particles to total magnetic susceptibility of bulk sediments, the magnetic mineral assemblage and magnetic domain state as well as their relationships to sedimentary environment were discussed. Our research shows that the magnetic mineral is dominated by magnetite with a small amount of hematite and is primarily in pseudo-single-domain state. That indicates that the different sedimentary environments in the Okinawa Trough have certain correlation in material provenance. The magnetic minerals enrich in different grain-sized particles in response to different sedimentary environments. The contribution of the grain sizes from coarse to fine to coarse and fine to the magnetic susceptibility from the west to the east is in accordance with terrigenous material transportation from continental shelf of the East China Sea to the Okinawa Trough. It also shows difference in magnetic properties as a result of some environmental factors.

  8. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan (United States)

    Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D.


    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan. PMID:27703841

  9. Occupational Health Screenings of the Virtual Warrior: Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Operators Compared with Non-Combatant Support Personnel (United States)


    exercise/training each week (e.g., 20-30 minutes of walking, moderate cycling, moderate speed sport or aerobic activity)? Response options were hours) and problematic health behaviors (e.g., poor sleep hygiene , excessive caffeine use). The findings of this study provide insight into the...intelligence operators have more restriction (such as reduced access to base facilities and physical training time built into work routines) for

  10. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Sea-Based X-Band Radar (SBX) Placement and Operation, Adak, Alaska (United States)


    can swim freely in the ocean and includes fish, squids, and marine mammals. Most species of nektonic animals live near the sea surface, where food in rural areas of Alaska are partially or wholly dependent on the harvesting of natural resources for food and other living necessities. To...emissions time of up to 5 hours per day. The main beam would be GMO SBX Placement and Operation at Adak, Alaska EA 4-11 constantly moving and would

  11. Special requisites for ground switch operation of parallel circuits of strongly connected transmission lines; Requisitos especiais de manobra para chaves de terra de circuitos paralelos de linhas de transmissao fortemente acoplados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amon Filho, J.; Kastrup Filho, O.; Franca, W.J. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This work aims to present results of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the problem concerning the ground switch turn off operation of transmission lines parallel circuits involving computer simulations and field tests, being such tests compared to standards and constant criteria of the technical specifications of such ground switches. The so far achieved conclusions indicate that the arc resistors installed in the ground switches have been satisfactory solving the problem of the interruption of induced currents by those ground switches. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov


    Full Text Available We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1 spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm; (2 tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths; and (3 areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations. These integrated datasets cover both temporally long (2008–2013 and short (April–May 2010 periods at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE, defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved areal-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE ≤ 0.015 and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between tower-based measurements of daily-averaged surface albedo for completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated.

  13. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原


    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  14. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.


    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  15. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.


    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  16. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.


    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  17. Hydrographic changes in the northern Okinawa Trough over the last 88 ka (United States)

    Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Wu, Yonghua


    The surface hydrographic conditions of the northern Okinawa Trough are influenced strongly by fluctuations of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Kuroshio. However, the high-resolution records of past surface hydrographic condition remain scarce in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) on orbital and millennial time scales. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS)) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern OT since the last 88 ka. The relative abundances of the warm-water planktonic foraminiferal species related to the Kuroshio are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold-water species related to East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subarctic water mass are high during MIS 2. Alkenone SST measured from core CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 ℃, with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and the Kuroshio, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of the Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of the subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that, during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3 and MIS 4, with a low sea level, stronger EAWM and a more southerly subarctic front played important roles in governing the hydrographic characteristics in the OT. The hydrographic records, such as SST, SSS and DOT, show regional responses corresponding mainly to the global sea level, the Kuroshio, EAWM and subarctic front, factors which are consistently invoked in the interpretations of other regional records from the OT. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056

  18. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw


    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  19. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken


    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  20. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  1. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in Air Traffic Management

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, C; Mantegna, Rosario N


    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system that aims at modeling the interactions between aircrafts and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts resolution between flight trajectories can arise during the en-route phase of each flight due to both not detailed flight trajectory planning or unforeseen events that perturb the planned flight plan. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our...

  2. Characterization and error analysis of an operational retrieval algorithm for estimating column ozone and aerosol properties from ground-based ultra-violet irradiance measurements (United States)

    Taylor, Thomas E.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Slusser, James; Stephens, Graeme; Krotkov, Nick; Davis, John; Goering, Christian


    Extensive sensitivity and error characteristics of a recently developed optimal estimation retrieval algorithm which simultaneously determines aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol single scatter albedo (SSA) and total ozone column (TOC) from ultra-violet irradiances are described. The algorithm inverts measured diffuse and direct irradiances at 7 channels in the UV spectral range obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) UV-B Monitoring and Research Program's (UVMRP) network of 33 ground-based UV-MFRSR instruments to produce aerosol optical properties and TOC at all seven wavelengths. Sensitivity studies of the Tropospheric Ultra-violet/Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model performed for various operating modes (Delta-Eddington versus n-stream Discrete Ordinate) over domains of AOD, SSA, TOC, asymmetry parameter and surface albedo show that the solutions are well constrained. Realistic input error budgets and diagnostic and error outputs from the retrieval are analyzed to demonstrate the atmospheric conditions under which the retrieval provides useful and significant results. After optimizing the algorithm for the USDA site in Panther Junction, Texas the retrieval algorithm was run on a cloud screened set of irradiance measurements for the month of May 2003. Comparisons to independently derived AOD's are favorable with root mean square (RMS) differences of about 3% to 7% at 300nm and less than 1% at 368nm, on May 12 and 22, 2003. This retrieval method will be used to build an aerosol climatology and provide ground-truthing of satellite measurements by running it operationally on the USDA UV network database.

  3. Hydrothermal circulation in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: Application to the Okinawa back arc basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie, Spatiale (France)); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. (Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France))


    The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale circulation. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of circulation might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.

  4. Two possible hydrothermal vents in the northern Oki-nawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in early spreading, modern submarine hydrothermal activity and minerallization have many characteristics which have aroused wide attention. Up to now, three well-known hy-drothermal venting areas are all located in the middle part of the trough. During two cruise investigations to map and sample the seafloor, numbers of Calyptogena sp. shells were dredged at two sites in the northern trough with compara-tively thicker crust and numerous submarine volcanoes. Based on the fact that Calyptogena sp. is only observed around the hydrothermal vents and lives on hydrothermal activities, it is predicted that there is the possibility of mod-ern hydrothermal activities in the northern part of the trough. In this note, the shell is carefully characterized and the sample locations with possible hydrothermal activity are given. It is pointed out that the research of biogenic fossils to trace hydrothermal activity changes in venting time, strength fluctuations, evolution in chemical compositions and so on should be stressed in the future in addition to the study of the ecological characteristics of hydrothermal organisms.

  5. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo


    Full Text Available Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri Cuvier, 1832 is a member of the Scombrid family, is a pelagic (open ocean species found worldwide in tropical and warm-temperate seas. It is fished throughout its range by artisanal, recreational, and commercial. Wahoo is one of the by-product species of the tuna long line fleets operate in Indian Ocean. This paper describes status of wahoo resource caught by tuna long line in Indian Ocean based at Benoa-Bali. Data obtained from onboard observer program on the tuna long liner based at Benoa-Bali during 2005-2010. Total of 85 trips of onboard observation were carried out with the total long line sets (one set per day were 2873 times. The data covered the horizontal and vertical position of tuna long line hooks caught the wahoo, hook rate and fish size distribution. Data of horizontal fishing positions (coordinates gained from the global positioning system availabled in the tuna long liners. The depth of the long line gear in the waters and teperature of waters were measured by mini-loggers TDR type SP2T-1200, brand: NKE Micrel. Hook rate of wahoo is calculated using the Klawe (1986 method. Result of research showed that the wahoos caught by tuna long lines based at Benoa spread horizontally between 1o31’-33o 40’S and 77o18’-117o53’E and spread vertically between the depth of 75.2- 285.7 m. From 85 tuna long line fishing trips, only about 50% of 85 tuna long line fishing trips caught wahoo with hook rate ranged 0.947-1.399 per 1000 hooks/setting. Size distribution of wahoo ranged 70-180cm with modus ranged 101-110cm.

  7. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003 (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose


    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  8. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  9. A cost effective and operational methodology for wall to wall Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and carbon stocks estimation and mapping: Nepal REDD+ (United States)

    Gilani, H., Sr.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Koju, U. A.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Nemani, R. R.; Manandhar, U.; Thapa, G. J.


    Nepal is a landlocked country with 39% forest cover of the total land area (147,181 km2). Under the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and implemented by the World Bank (WB), Nepal chosen as one of four countries best suitable for results-based payment system for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) scheme. At the national level Landsat based, from 1990 to 2000 the forest area has declined by 2%, i.e. by 1467 km2, whereas from 2000 to 2010 it has declined only by 0.12% i.e. 176 km2. A cost effective monitoring and evaluation system for REDD+ requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground measurements. This paper provides, for Nepal a cost effective and operational 30 m Above Ground Biomass (AGB) estimation and mapping methodology using freely available satellite data integrated with field inventory. Leaf Area Index (LAI) generated based on propose methodology by Ganguly et al. (2012) using Landsat-8 the OLI cloud free images. To generate tree canopy height map, a density scatter graph between the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) estimated maximum height and Landsat LAI nearest to the center coordinates of the GLAS shots show a moderate but significant exponential correlation (31.211*LAI0.4593, R2= 0.33, RMSE=13.25 m). From the field well distributed circular (750m2 and 500m2), 1124 field plots (0.001% representation of forest cover) measured which were used for estimation AGB (ton/ha) using Sharma et al. (1990) proposed equations for all tree species of Nepal. A satisfactory linear relationship (AGB = 8.7018*Hmax-101.24, R2=0.67, RMSE=7.2 ton/ha) achieved between maximum canopy height (Hmax) and AGB (ton/ha). This cost effective and operational methodology is replicable, over 5-10 years with minimum ground samples through integration of satellite images. Developed AGB used to produce optimum fuel wood scenarios using population and road

  10. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi


    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation. Dominant tree canopy layers were estimated using multi-scale filtering and local maxima detection. The LiDAR estimation results were then compared to the ground inventory data and a high resolution orthophoto image for accuracy assessment. Main results: A Wilcoxon matched pair test suggests that LiDAR data is highly capable of estimating tree height in a subtropical forest (z = 4.0, p = 0.345, but has limitation to detect small understory trees and a single tree delineation. The results show that there is a statistically significant different type of crown detection from LiDAR data over forest inventory (z = 0, p = 0.043. We also found that LiDAR computation results underestimated the stand density and overestimated the crown size. Research highlights: Most studies involving crown detection and tree height estimation have focused on the analysis of plantations, boreal forests and temperate forests, and less was conducted on tropical and/or subtropical forests. Our study tested the capability of LiDAR as an effective application for analyzing a highly dense forest

  11. The Evidence from Inclusions in Pumices for the Direct Degassing of Volatiles from the Magma to the Hydrothermal Fluids in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zenghui; ZHAI Shikui; ZHAO Guangtao


    This article presents the evidence in support of the direct magma degassing as the principal mechanism of volatilesreleasing into the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough, as contrasted to the argument for the hydrothermal strippingof volatiles from the volcanic rocks.Laser Raman microprobe and stepped-heating techniques are employed to determine the compositions and contents of thevolatiles in pumices in the middle Okinawa Trough. The results show that the volatiles are similar to the gases in the hy-drothermal fluids and hydrothermal minerals in composition, the mean percent content of each component and variationtrend. This indicates the direct influence of magma degassing on the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, the contents ofvolatiles in pumices are rather low and do not support the hydrothermal stripping as the main mechanism to enrich the fluidswith gases. The results are consistent with the idea that the direct magma degassing is more important than hydrothermalstripping in supplying gases to the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough.

  12. Study on the Optimizing Operation of Exhaust Air Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Combined Thermal Compensation System for Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang


    Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.

  13. [Operational availability of ground-based emergency medical services in Rheinland-Palatinate: state-wide web-based system for collation, display and analysis]. (United States)

    Luiz, T; van Lengen, R H; Wickenkamp, A; Kranz, T; Madler, C


    A growing number of reports have been published in Germany related to problems with the operational readiness of mobile emergency physician services, although no systematic analyses have yet been presented. However, such investigations form the prerequisite for the deployment of countermeasures. Rhineland-Palatinate (4,060,000 inhabitants, 7,753 mi(2)) is a typical territorial state in the southwest of Germany with extensive wooded areas covering 42% of the state and only few metropolitan areas. These basic conditions represent a challenge to the provision of state-wide emergency medical services (EMS). On behalf of the Ministry of the Interior a web-based platform for the collation, display and analysis of the operational readiness of all 68 ground-based physician-staffed emergency units within the state was developed. Of these units 61 are affiliated to hospitals and 7 units to medical practices and 89,000 emergency missions are carried out annually. Within the study period (April 2009-March 2010) 56 of the 68 units (82.4%) reported 1 or more periods of unavailability of operational readiness. In total 2,613 periods of temporary unavailability were documented with a mean duration of 8.9 h. The mean unavailability of operational readiness was 3.9% for the whole state, 6.2% for the northern and 1.6% for the southern EMS districts. In 7 of the units (10.3%) the degree of unavailability exceeded 5% and in 8 units (11.7%) it exceeded 10%. Two thirds of all suspended services were the result of shortages of emergency physicians, with considerably higher deficits at bases affiliated with hospitals of lower levels of care or in rural regions. This tool enables the large-scale collation and analysis of the operational readiness of physician-based ambulance services. Currently the state does not suffer from a general lack of emergency physicians. However, rural areas as well as bases affiliated with small hospitals show a considerable deficit in operational readiness

  14. On the prevalence of Asiatic cholera in Okinawa, 1879 and "Ryukyu-kiko" Written by Hironobu Tsuchiya. (United States)

    Fukase, Y


    The greatest prevalence of Asiatic cholera since the adoption of modern statistics was in 1879. Especially in Okinawa Prefecture, its morbidity rate was the largest in Japan in that year. Dr. Hironobu Tsuchiya, who was appointed as an official of the Department of Inner Affairs, wrote "Ryukyu-kiko" as a private memorandum. He wrote more about the situation of administrative confusion than he did about the condition of Asiatic cholera. This paper also mentions the brief sketch of Tsuchiya's life and the description of the manufacturing methods, effectiveness and use of chemical drugs which are contained in his "Sinyaku-shoko".

  15. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan. (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo


    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  16. Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  17. Bottom Simulating Reflector and Gas Seepage in Okinawa Trough: Evidence of Gas Hydrate in an Active Back-Arc Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luan Xiwu; Kelin Wang; Roy Hyndman; Eleanor Willoughby


    To look for gas hydrate, 22 multi-channel and 3 single-channel seismic lines on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf slope and at the bottom of the Okinawa Trough were examined. It was found that there was indeed bottom simulating reflector (BSR) occurrence, but it is very rare. Besides several BSRs, a gas seepage was also found. As shown by the data, both the BSR and gas seepage are all related with local geological structures, such as mud diapir, anticline, and fault-controlled graben-like structure. However, similar structural "anomalies" are quite common in the tectonically very active Okinawa Trough region, but very few of them have developed BSR or gas seepage. The article points out that the main reason is probably the low concentration of organic carbon of the sediment in this area. It was speculated that the rare occurrence of gas hydrates in this region is governed by structure-controlled fluid flow. Numerous faults and fractures form a network of high-permeability channels in the sediment and highly fractured igneous basement to allow fluid circulation and ventilation. Fluid flow in this tectonic environment is driven primarily by thermal buoyancy and takes place on a wide range of spatial scales. The fluid flow may play two roles to facilitate hydrate formation:to help gather enough methane into a small area and to modulate the thermal regime.

  18. Biomarker reconstruction of phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the middle Okinawa Trough during the last 15 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Lei; ZHAO MeiXun; ZHANG HaiLong; LIU YanGuang; SHI XueFa


    Biomarkers have been widely used to reconstruct phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes,and this method has been applied for the first time in the middle Okinawa Trough during the transition from the last deglaciation to the Holocene.The total content of all marine phytoplankton biomarkers,used as a total productivity indicator,reveals higher productivity during the deglaciation.The ratios of the biomarkers are used as community structure indicators which show that,compared with the Holocene,the contribution from haptophytes decreased while the contributions from diatoms and dinoflagellates increased during the deglaciation.The increased productivity during the deglacia-tion was likely caused by the stronger winter monsoon.Also increased nutrient supply from terrestrial sources contributes to the higher productivity due to lower sea-level,which is consistent with higher terrestrial biomarker (long-chain n-alkanols) content.These changes in the nutrient supply also con-tributed to the community structure changes in the Okinawa Trough.

  19. Effects of a remedial system and its operation on volatile organic compound-contaminated ground water, Operable Unit 1, Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1998-2004 (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.


    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, N.H., is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand and gravel layer, but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1 to contain and capture the dissolved VOC plume. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in most places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock. Remedial injection and extraction wells have been operating since the spring of 1999 and include a series of interior (inside the barrier wall) injection and extractions wells and exterior (outside the barrier wall) injection and extraction wells. A recharge gallery outside the barrier wall receives the bulk of the treated water and reinjects it into the shallow aquifer. From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. This decrease indicates (1) the barrier wall and interior extraction effectively contained high PCE concentrations inside the wall, (2) other sources of PCE did not appear to be outside of the wall, and (3) ambient ground

  20. Clinical Study of Intra-operative Computed Tomography Guided Localization with A Hook-wire System for Small Ground Glass Opacities in Minimally Invasive Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang CHU


    Full Text Available Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass small nodule is the technical difficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intraoperative computed tomography (CT-guided localization using a hook-wire system for small ground glass opacity (GGO in minimally invasive resection, as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of small GGOs (<10 mm through a minimally invasive approach. Methods The records of 32 patients with 41 small GGOs who underwent intraoperative CT-guided double-thorn hook wire localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection from October 2009 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS within 10 min after wire localization. The efficacy of intraoperative localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization. Results A total of 32 patients (15 males and 17 females underwent 41 VATS resections, with 2 simultaneous nodule resections performed in 3 patients, 3 lesion resections in 1 patient, and 5 lesions in a patient. Nodule diameters ranged from 2 mm-10 mm (mean: 5 mm. The distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-24 mm (mean: 12.5 mm. All resections of lesions guided by the inserted hook wires were successfully performed by VATS (100% success rate. The mean procedure time for the CT-guided hook wire localization was 8.4 min (range: 4 min-18 min. The mean procedure time for VATS was 32 min (range: 14 min-98 min. The median hospital time was 8 d (range: 5 d-14 d. Results of pathological examination revealed 28 primary lung cancers, 9 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and 4 nonspecific chronic inflammations. No major complication related to the intraoperative hook wire localization and VATS was noted. Conclusion Intraoperative CT-guided hook wire

  1. Aircraft Ground Operation, Servicing, Fluid Lines and Fittings, Mechanics Privileges and Limitations, and Maintenance Publications, Forms and Records (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 1 (Power and Frame): 9073.02. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline consists of five instructional blocks of several units each: (1) Aircraft Ground Operation and Servicing; (2) Fluid Lines and Fittings; (3) Mechanics Requirements, Privileges and Limitations; (4) Maintenance Publications; and, (5) Maintenance forms and Records. It is a basic course of knowledge and skills necessary to any…

  2. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.


    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  3. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere. (United States)

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L


    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  4. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li


    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. Copyright

  5. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan (United States)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.


    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  6. Bomb-produced radiocarbon in the western tropical Pacific Ocean: Guam coral reveals operation-specific signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds (United States)

    Andrews, Allen H.; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Camacho, Frank


    High-resolution radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from Guam, a western tropical Pacific island, revealed a series of early bomb-produced 14C spikes. The typical marine bomb 14C signal—phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric records—is present in the coral and is consistent with other regional coral records. However, 14C levels well above what can be attributed to air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly was observed in other Indo-Pacific coral records, but the Guam record is unmatched in magnitude and temporal resolution. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three spikes in 1954-1955, 1956-1957, and 1958-1959 that are superimposed on a normal 14C record. Relative to mean prebomb levels, the first peak rises an incredible ˜700‰ and remained elevated for ˜1.2 years. A follow up assay with finer resolution increased the peak by ˜300‰. Subsequent spikes were less intense with a rise of ˜35 and ˜70‰. Each can be linked to thermonuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in Operations Castle (1954), Redwing (1956), and Hardtack I (1958). These 14C signals can be explained by vaporization of coral reef material in the nuclear fireball, coupled with neutron activation of atmospheric nitrogen (14C production), and subsequent absorption of 14CO2 to form particulate carbonates of close-in fallout. The lag time in reaching Guam and other coral records abroad was tied to ocean surface currents and modeling provided validation of 14C arrival observations.

  7. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)


    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  8. Enxertia recíproca e AIB como fatores indutores do enraizamento de estacas lenhosas dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e umezeiro Reciprocal grafting and IBA factors induction on rooting of woody cutting: peach tree 'Okinawa' and japanese apricot tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecius Spuri de Miranda


    Full Text Available O potencial de enraizamento do porta-enxerto pode ser influenciado pelo enxerto e pelo transporte basípeto de auxinas e cofatores. Objetivou-se verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e da enxertia recíproca entre dois porta-enxertos de pessegueiro: o umezeiro (A e o pessegueiro 'Okinawa' (B, nas concentrações de 0 e 4000 mg.L-1, no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas dessas duas espécies. As estacas foram enxertadas nas seguintes combinações enxerto (enxerto com duas gemas e sem folhas/porta enxerto (20 cm de comprimento: A/B e B/A. Como testemunhas, foram utilizadas estacas não enxertadas e tratadas ou não com AIB. Posteriormente, as estacas foram colocadas em sacos de polietileno preto contendo areia lavada e de granulometria média e mantidas em casa-de-vegetação sob nebulização intermitente durante 80 dias. Observou-se que a utilização do AIB aumenta o percentual de enraizamento, o número e o comprimento médio de raízes primárias das estacas de pessegueiro 'Okinawa' e do umezeiro enxertadas ou não. A enxertia recíproca entre o pessegueiro 'Okinawa' (porta-enxerto/umezeiro (enxerto, quando tratadas com AIB, aumentou o percentual de enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro 'Okinawa'.Rootstock rooting potential may be influenced by the graft because auxin down movement and cofactors. The objective was to verify the reciprocal grafting effects between peach tree rootstock: Japanese apricot (A and 'Okinawa' (B, IBA at the 0 and 4.000 mg L-1 concentrations upon both woody cutting rooting. The following grafting combinations were used on the grafted cuttings (two gems graft without leaves in rootstock 20 cm long: A/B and B/A and woody cuttings not grafted an treated IBA as check. Later the cutting were kept in black polyethylene bags containing washed sand and maintained in greenhouse with intermittent mist during 80 days. IBA was efficient to improve the rooting, percentual, number and length primary roots of peach tree

  9. Analysis of Operating Characteristics of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Assisted with Chiller%冷机辅助复合式地源热泵运行特性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世玉; 崔文智


    Hybrid ground source heat pump system assisted with chiller is proposed in this paper, and also two kinds of operation scheme. System operation of 30 years is simulated using TRNSYS software. Compared with conventional ground source heat pump system, operating characteristics and the feasibility of the hybrid ground source heat pump system are analyzed from the ground temperature increase, system performance, energy consumption and also the technical and economic aspects.%提出了冷水机组和热泵机组分设的复合式地源热泵系统,并提出了两种运行方案。采用 TRNSYS软件模拟其30年的系统运行,并分别从地温增幅、系统性能、能耗及技术经济角度和常规地源热泵系统进行比较,分析了该复合式地源热泵系统的运行特性及其可行性。

  10. Space shuttle engineering and operations support: Study of the effects of multiple ground updates on the accuracy of the onboard state vector with IMU only navigation (United States)

    Killen, R.


    There are six cases considered: (1) no updates made during the flight, (2) one ground update in the vertical components only at the first practice separation minus 15 minutes, (3) one ground update in all components at the first practice separation minus 5 minutes, (4) updates 2 and 3 applied successively, (5) Case 4 plus an update in all components at the second separation attempt minus 3 minutes, and (6) one ground update at first separation attempt minus 5 minutes and a second update at second separation minus two minutes. The mission control simulation program, GROPER, was run using as radar input a tape containing radar derived state vectors for the trajectory.

  11. Contamination Control and Evaluation for Manufacturing, Ground Tests, Flight Operation and Post-Retrieval Analyses of the TANPOPO Exposed Panels and Capture Panels (United States)

    Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Uchihori, Yukio; Tabata, Makoto; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Imai, Eiichi

    The TANPOPO (“dandelion” in Japanese) is Japan’s first astrobiology space experiment to be exposed on and retrieved from the ISS-Kibo Exposed Facility from the 2014-5 timeframe. During its 1-3 years of continuous exposure operation in the low earth orbit (LEO) of the Earth, it aims to test key questions consisted of the “quasi-panspermia” hypothesis, a theory for exogenesis origin of life and their precursor transports among celestial bodies The TANPOPO experiment consists of following six sub-themes (ST): 1) the first intact capture of terrestrial microbial colonies in LEO, 2) survival test of terrestrial microbes long exposed in LEO, 3) alteration tests of artificially composed “astronomical organic analogs” long exposed in LEO, 4) intact capture of organic-bearing micrometeoroids with the lowest peak temperature ever in LEO, 5) space flight verification of the world’s lowest density aerogels for intact capture of microparticles, and 6) meteoroid and orbital debris flux assessment only capable to be measured in-situ in LEO. Each will utilize one or more Capture Panel(CP) and Exposure Panel (EP) samples from various pointing faces onboard the Kibo Exposed Facility, i.e., anti-Earth pointing face(Space), leading face (East) and anti-Pressurized Facility face (North), as the ISS is an Earth gravity gradient three-axis stabilized satellite. In order to both satisfy scientific values and planetary protection policy, contamination control and evaluation protocols are implemented for the whole process of manufacturing, ground tests, flight operation and post-retrieval initial analyses of both CPs and EPs. The CPs employ blocks of 0.01g/ccultra-low dense aerogels on its to intact capture impacting solid microparticles such as organic-bearing micrometeoroids, artificial orbital debris and possible terrestrial aerosols temporally reached to the LEO, for assessing the possibility of interplanetary transport of life and its precursors. By analyzing them

  12. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  13. Experiencias nikkeis de frontera cultural: inmigrantes argentinos y peruanos de ascendencia japonesa en Okinawa, Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Sayuri Matsuyana


    Full Text Available El texto describe y analiza las experiencias de frontera cultural y de construcciónde identidades de los inmigrantes argentinos y peruanos de ascendenciajaponesa que residen en Okinawa, denominados nikkeis, frente a laconstrucción hegemónica de la identidad nacional en el Estado japonés. Talesdescripción y análisis permiten exponer la manera en que los inmigrantesnikkeis cruzan complejas relaciones entre categorías excluyentes y/oyuxtapuestas, tales como "extranjero", "japonés", "okinawense", "latino" o"nikkei"; además, la descripción y el análisis evidencian el contexto sociale histórico de los discursos que alimentan tales categorías de identidad.

  14. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin. (United States)

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T


    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  15. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  16. Simulating the thermal operating conditions in the thermal wells of ground-source heat-pump heat supply systems. Part I: Porous moisture freezing processes in soil (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Peskov, N. V.; Lichman, V. A.; Gornov, V. F.; Kolesova, M. V.


    The mathematical models laid down in the new blocks of the INSOLAR.GSHP.12 software system simulating unsteady operating conditions of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) heat supply systems are presented. The new model blocks take into account the effect the freezing of porous moisture in soil has on the GSHP system performance efficiency. Illustration is given to the need of taking into account the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes in soil, and the results from investigations devoted to the opening possibilities of constructing adaptive GSHP systems with controlled intensity of heat transfer in the soil-thermal well system are presented. The development of software simulating the porous moisture phase state variation processes in soil was preceded by development of mathematical equations representing the thermal conditions of soil body involving porous moisture freezing/thawing processes. A description of these equations is also given in the article. In constructing the mathematical model, the notion "effective thermal conductivity" of soil was introduced for taking into account the latent heat of phase transition that releases during the freezing of moisture. The above-mentioned effective thermal conductivity of soil involves two components: the soil thermal conductivity coefficient itself and an additional term modifying the thermal conductivity value for taking into account the influence of phase transition. For quantitatively evaluating the soil effective thermal conductivity component that takes into account the influence of phase transition, the soil freezing zone radius around the thermal well was determined. The obtained analytic solutions have been implemented in the form of computer program blocks, after which a "numerical experiment" was carried out for estimating the effect the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes have on the soil thermal conditions. It was demonstrated during that experiment that the soil thermal conductivities determined

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue


    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m-2 s-1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  18. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu


    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001; the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrsosugsars are caused by a long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in north and northeast China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly. The monthly averaged levoglucosan/mannosan ratios were lower (2.1–4.8 in May–June and higher (13.3–13.9 in November–December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in north China, Korea and southwest Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agriculture waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC. The highest values to WSOC (0.37% and OC (0.25% were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  19. Episodes of volcanic activity and their environmental effects in the Okinawa Trough during the last 150 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A piston core Z14-6 was used in this study. The core, 896 cm long, was collected from eastern slope of the Okinawa Trough (27°07′N, 127°27′E, water depth 739m). The δ18O and δ13C values of the sediment bearing planktonic foraminifera G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei were determined; and the abundance of volcanic glass was analyzed. The volcanic glass content high occurred in early stage of polar ice-sheet growth period, or the beginning of cold climate periods corresponding to Milankovitch cycles (Peak Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅴ are corresponding to the beginnings of oxygen isotopic stages 2, 4 and 6, and Peak Ⅲ and Ⅳ are matching oxygen isotopic stage 5b-5d.). It might be possible that volcanic episodes and climate changes were responding to orbital forcing in the Okinawa Trough in late Quaternary. The δ18O difference between N. dutertrei and G. sacculifer shows no clear correlation to the volcanic glass content high, which suggests that the volcanic eruptions did not influence the structure of upper water column. However, the low δ13C difference between G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei is coeval with the volcanic glass high or sub-high content. This fact suggests that volcanic eruptions might influence the reduction in vertical nutritional gradient and carbon cycle process in upper water column. A possible mechanism is that huge quantity of ash and dust had weakened the light intensity, resulting in photosynthesis reduction, productivity decrease, and biological pumping.

  20. Element enrichment and U-series isotopic characteristics of the hydrothermal sulfides at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The geochemical and U-series isotopic characteristics of hydrothermal sulfide samples from the Jade site (127°04.5′E, 27°15′N, water depth 1300-1450 m) at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough were analyzed. In the hydrothermal sulfide samples bearing sulfate (samples HOK1 and HOK2), the LREEs are relatively enriched. All the hydrothermal sulfide samples except HOK1 belong to Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide. In comparison with Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfides from other fields, the contents of Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Au and Hg are higher, the contents of Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Te, Cs, Ti and U lower, and the 210Pb radioactivity ratios and 210Pb/Pb ratios very low. In the hydrothermal sulfide mainly composed of sphalerite, the correlations between rare elements Hf and U, and Hf and Mn as well as that between dispersive elements Ga and Zn, are strongly positive; also the contents of Au and Ag are related to Fe-sulfide, because the low temperature promotes enrichment of Au and Ag. Meanwhile, the positive correlations between Fe and Bi and between Zn and Cd are not affected by the change of mineral assemblage. Based on the 210Pb/Pb ratios of hydrothermal sulfide samples (3.99×10-5-5.42×10?5), their U isotopic composition (238U content 1.15-2.53 ppm, 238U activity 1.07-1.87 dpm/g, 234U activity 1.15-2.09 dpm/g and 234U/238U ratio 1.07-1.14) and their 232Th and 230Th contents are at base level, and the chronological age of hydrothermal sulfide at Jade site in the Okinawa Trough is between 200 and 2000 yr.

  1. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.


    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  2. Seismic observed structure of Natsushima 86-2 knoll in Iheya small-ridges of mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan (United States)

    Ikegami, Fumihiko; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Takai, Ken


    Iheya small ridges are the group of the ENE-WSW elongated rod-shaped knolls at the central axis of mid-Okinawa trough back-arc extensional basin. The basin has been actively stretching more than 1000 km long at 250 km west of the convergent boundary between Philippine oceanic lithosphere and Eurasian continental counterpart since ~2 Ma (Hsu et al., 2001). Natsushima 86-2 knoll is the westernmost one of the Iheya small ridges which height is 600 m from the 1600 m depth seafloor. Multiple hydrothermal sites have been reported for these 25 years in the mid-Okinawa Trough region while previously well-studied Calyptogena site (Tanaka et al., 1989; Gamo et al., 1991) is just at the northeastern extension of the knoll. Five profiles of single-channel seismic reflection survey were obtained in Natsushima 86-2 knoll during YK-12-16 cruise in order to find structure controlling hydrothermal activity. Every profile makes the cross-section of the knoll. The source of the reflection was 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds interval. As a result of the interpretation for seismic profiles, it is fair to conclude that the knoll has possible volcanic origin and relatively new structure. Natsushima 86-2 knoll is positioned on the normal faulted stratified deposits which are dipping from the both sides of the knoll. The surface of the knoll shows mostly low amplitude reflection which can be interpreted as pumices or other high porosity materials which is consistent with the past dredging retrieval by Kimura et al. (1987). Bend and fading of the stratified reflection approximately 100 m beneath the Calyptogena site indicates shallow intrusion of magmatic body has responsible with the formation of the hydrothermal site.

  3. Forest structure, productivity and soil properties in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; WANG Qin; Hideaki SHIBATA


    Structure,species composition,and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa,Japan,were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites.The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees.Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems·ha-1 (≧ 3.0 cm DBH); 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH.The total basal area was 54.4 m 2·ha-1,of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%.The forest showed high species diversity of trees.80 tree species (≧ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots.C.sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value.The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were,3.36 for Diversity index (H'),0.71 for Equitability index (J') and 4.72 for Species richness index (S'),all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant,C.sieboldii.Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility,extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity.Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH.There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+,Ca2+,and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values <0.001) and a negative relationship with N,C and P.The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa.

  4. Effects of soil types and fertilizers on growth, yield, and quality of edible Amaranthus tricolor lines in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Ohshiro


    Full Text Available Soil types and fertilizer regimes were evaluated on growth, yield, and quality of Amaranthus tricolor lines, IB (India Bengal, TW (Taiwan, BB (Bangladesh B, and BC (Bangladesh C in developing management practices in Okinawa. Growth and yield of all amaranth lines were higher in gray soil (pH 8.4 than in dark red soil (pH 6.6 and red soil (pH 5.4. The combined NPK fertilizer resulted in highest growth parameters and yield of amaranths in all soils. Nitrogen fertilizer alone did not affect growth parameters and yield of amaranths in dark red and red soils. Growth parameters and yield increased similarly with the 30, 40, and 50 g m−2 of NPK fertilizer in BB line, and with the 20, 30, 40, and 50 g m−2 in BC line. Agronomic efficiency of NPK fertilizer at 50 g m−2 was not prominent on the amaranths, compared to the fertilizer at 40 g m−2. Amaranth lines had higher Na in dark red and red soils, while K and Mg in gray soil, Ca in gray and red soils, and Fe in dark red soil. The NPK fertilizer resulted in higher Na, Ca, Mg, and P in BB line in glasshouse. These minerals in BB line were not clearly affected, but in BC line were lower with NPK fertilizer at 20–50 g m−2 in field. These studies indicate that gray soil is best for amaranth cultivation and combined NPK fertilizer at 20–40 g m−2 is effective in gray soil in Okinawa for higher yield and minerals of amaranth.

  5. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro


    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  6. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eYanagawa


    Full Text Available During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores. By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  7. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331). (United States)

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H; Moyer, Craig L; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J; Takai, Ken


    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  8. Ground failure in direct current systems of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant, Parana, Brazil. Impact in the operation; Falla a tierra en sistemas de corriente continua en la Central Hidroelectrica Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Impacto en la operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Santacruz, Heriberto [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The objective of this work is to share with other companies the operation experience obtained by researching the direct current systems ground failure, in the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant. During the research process electrical and/or electronic components can be damaged, and also human failures can occurred during the circuit connection and disconnection manoeuvres, necessary for the identification of the components causing the failures.

  9. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan (United States)

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis


    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  10. Grounded cognition. (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W


    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  11. Deriving Spatio-Temporal Development of Ground Subsidence Due to Subway Construction and Operation in Delta Regions with PS-InSAR Data: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang


    Full Text Available Subways have been an important method for relieving traffic pressures in urban areas, but ground subsidence, during construction and operation, can be a serious problem as it may affect the safety of its operation and that of the surrounding buildings. Thus, conducting long-term ground deformation monitoring and modeling for subway networks are essential. Compared with traditional geodetic methods, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR technique offers wider coverage and denser measurements along subway lines. In this study, we mapped the surface deformation of the Guangzhou subway network with Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR and Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data using the Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA technique. The results indicate that newly excavated tunnels have regional subsidence with an average rate of more than 8 mm/year, as found on Lines Two, Three, Six, and GuangFo (GF. Furthermore, we determined the spatio-temporal subsidence behavior of subways with PALSAR in delta areas using Peck’s formula and the logistic time model. We estimated the tunneling-related parameters in soft soil areas, which had not been previously explored. We examined a section of line GF, as an example, to estimate the ground settlement trough development. The results showed the maximum settlement increased from −5.2 mm to −23.6 mm and its ground loss ratio ranged from 1.5–8.7% between 13 July 2008 and 19 January 2011. In addition, we found that the tunnels in line GF will become stable after a period of about 2300 days in peak subsidence areas. The results show that the proposed approach can help explain the dynamic ground subsidence along a metro line. This study can provide references for urban subway projects in delta areas, and for the risk assessment of nearby buildings and underground pipelines along metro lines.

  12. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang


    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  13. Reconstructing sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmos- phere in the Okinawa Trough during the Holocene and their paleoclimatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The sediment core DGKS9603 collected from the Okinawa Trough was used as research target. By use of unsaturated index of long-chain alkenone, δ13C of POC and of planktonic foraminifera (G. Sacculifer), the evolutions of sea surface temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the Holocene were reconstructed in the Okinawa Trough. And in combination of δ18O of planktonic foraminifera, the relative difference of sea surface salinity during the Holocene was also reconstructed. Consequently, three cooling events (E1-E3) were identified, each of which occurred at 1.7-1.6, 5.1-4.8 and 8.1-7.4 kaBP (cal), respectively. Of the three events, E2 and E3 are globally comparable, their occurrence mechanism would be that the main stream of the Kuroshio Current shifted eastward due to the enhanced circulation of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which was driven in turn by amplified intensity of sunshine and subsequent enhancement of subtropical high pressure; E1 corresponds to the Small Ice-Age Event occurring between 1550 and 1850AD in China. In the Okinawa Trough, E1 might be also related to the eastward shift of main stream of the Kuroshio current driven by powerful Asia winter monsoon.

  14. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cv. Okinawa em diferentes diâmetros de ramos, substratos e recipientes Rooting of peach cv. Okinawa hardwood cuttings at different stem diameters, substrates, and pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal - Setor Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA da Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP, Campus de Botucatu (SP com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e tipos de recipientes no potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cultivar Okinawa com diferentes diâmetros. As estacas foram tratadas com 2,5g L-1 de ácido indol-butírico. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 50 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis substratos: areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita, areia + casca de arroz carbonizada, areia + vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada + vermiculita, com as misturas na proporção 1:1v/v, três tipos de recipientes: sacos plásticos, bandejas de poliestireno expandido e bandejas plásticas e dois grupos de estacas com diâmetros diferentes: 2 a 6mm e 6 a 10mm. O melhor resultado de enraizamento foi obtido em sacos plásticos com vermiculita independente do diâmetro das estacas.This work was carried out at the Department of Plant Production/Horticulture of the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP located in Botucatu (SP, Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of substrate and pot type on rooting of stem hardwood cuttings of peach cultivar Okinawa with different diameters. The cuttings were treated with 2.5g L-1 of IBA. The cuttings were maintained in greenhouse for 50 days. The treatments consisted of the combination of six substrate compositions: sand, carbonized rice husk, vermiculite, sand + carbonized rice husk, sand + vermiculite, and carbonized rice husk + vermiculite, mixture at proportion 1:1v/v and three types of pots: plastic bags, polystyrene trays, plastic trays and two groups of cutting diameter: 2 to 6mm and 6 to 10mm. The highest rooting frequency was obtained

  15. How to Ensure Long -term Stable Operation of Ground Source Heat Pump System for Heating Biogas Digester%如何保证地源热泵式沼气池加温系统长期稳定运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪; 石惠娴; 朱洪光; 雷勇; 王卓


    针对地源热泵式沼气池加温系统中出现的冬夏季取排热不平衡从而影响其长期稳定运行的问题,本文在采取控制运行方式、增加辅助热源和蓄热系统解决方法的分析基础上,从充分利用可再生能源和地源热泵设备的角度出发,提出热泵供热和制冷互补模式与太阳能-地源热泵多功能互补模式,并对其可行性进行分析.%To address the problem of heat imbalance of soil between winter and summer led by ground source heat pump system for heating biogas digester and to ensure the system running more stably, effectively in a long time , the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of controlling operation model and solar assisted ground source heat pump system with heat storage.What's more, the paper also proposes complementary models of heafing and cooling of heat pump and multifunctional system integrationg solar energy with ground source heat pump, and analyses the possibility of the above two solutions from the perspective of making full use of renewable energy and the equipment of ground soure heat pump.

  16. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense: Continue Testing, but Operational Fielding Must Take a Backseat to Theater Missile Defense and Homeland Security (United States)


    Single warhead 7,800 Operational SS-N-8 Mod 2 Sawfly, RSM-40, R-29, Vysota SLBM Single warhead 9,100 Operational SS-N-18 Mod 1 Stingray , RSM-50, R...29R, Volyna SLBM 3 MIRV warheads 6,500 Operational SS-N-18 Mod 2 Stingray , RSM-50, Volyna SLBM Single warhead 8,000 Unknown SS-N-18 Mod 3 Stingray

  17. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)


    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  18. Soil-Temperature Monitoring and Analysis of a Ground Source Heat Pump System During the Operating Period%地埋管地源热泵系统运行期地温监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小清; 王万忠


      以上海地区某工程为例,通过设置地温监测系统并对地温进行监测,根据监测结果和地源热泵系统运行情况,对地埋管地源系统运行期地温场的变化特征进行分析研究。结果表明:换热区地温变化与地源热泵系统的运行情况相关,呈现规律性的变化;经过一个运行年度,换热区的地温场能够基本恢复至原始状态;系统运行对换热区外围区域地温场的影响范围有限。研究成果可为浅层地温能的开发利用提供技术支持。%  This paper reports the results of a soil-temperature monitoring project in the Shanghai area. A soil-temperature monitoring system was installed to monitor fluctuations in soil temperature. Measurements of temperature and of the operating status of the ground source heat pump system indicate that the soil temperature field in the ground-coupled heat pump system varied during the operating period. The results show that the soil temperature distribution in the heat exchanger is associated with the operation of the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. After one year of operation, the soil temperature distribution in the heat exchanger returns essential y to the original condition. The running of a GSHP system cannot affect temperature changes outside the heat exchanger. The results should provide technical support for the development and utilization of shal ow geothermal resources.

  19. Pathogenic substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 in patients of Okinawa Islands with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome or Pendred syndrome. (United States)

    Ganaha, Akira; Kaname, Tadashi; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Tono, Tetsuya; Usami, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Mikio


    Pendred syndrome (PS) and nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are caused by SLC26A4 mutations. The Okinawa Islands are the southwestern-most islands of the Japanese archipelago. And ancestral differences have been reported between people from Okinawa Island and those from the main islands of Japan. To confirm the ethnic variation of the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations, we investigated the frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations and clinical manifestations of patients with EVA or PS living in the Okinawa Islands. We examined 22 patients with EVA or PS from 21 unrelated families in Okinawa Islands. The patient's clinical history, findings of physical and otoscopic examinations, hearing test, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones were recorded. To detect mutations, all 21 exons and the exon-intron junctions of SLC26A4 were sequenced for all subjects. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SLC26A4 and calculations using the comparative CT (2(-ΔΔCT)) method were used to determine the pathogenicity associated with gene substitutions. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 21 of the 22 patients. We found a compound heterozygous mutation for IVS15 + 5G > A/H723R in nine patients (41%), a homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in six patients (27%), and homozygous mutation for H723R in five patients (23%). The most prevalent types of SLC26A4 alleles were IVS15 + 5G > A and H723R, which both accounted for 15/22 (68%) of the patients. There were no significant correlations between the types of SLC26A4 mutation and clinical manifestations. Based on qRT-PCR results, expression of SLC26A4 was not identified in patients with the homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A. The substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 was the most common mutation in uniquely found in patients with PS and EVA in Okinawa Islands. This suggested that the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutation differed

  20. Ground State Spin Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D


    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  1. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan. (United States)

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru


    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  2. 地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统运行性能的影响因素%Influencing factors of operating performance of ground-source heat pump hot water supply systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成勇; 雷俊; 王雁生; 宋月贤


    建立了地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统实验平台,研究了环境温度、间歇/连续运行工况、管内循环液流速等对地埋管换热器换热能力的影响,并研究了地埋管换热器周围土壤温度场的变化.结果表明,地埋管地源热泵热水供应系统基本不受环境温度的影响;采用间歇运行,有利于提高地埋管换热器的换热能力;地埋管换热器平均单位井深换热量随管内循环液流速的增大而增大,但当流速增大到一定程度时,其增幅趋于平缓.%Establishes an experimental platform for ground-source heat pump system (GCHP) hot water supply system. Studies the influences of ambient temperature, intermittent or continuous operation mode and flow rate of circulating fluid on the heat exchange efficiency, and studies the variation of soil temperature field around ground heat exchangers. The results show that the GSHP hot water supply system is little influenced by the ambient temperature; intermittent operation mode is conducive to improving the heat exchange capacity of the ground heat exchanger; the heat flow of unit borehole depth of the ground heat exchanger increases along with the fluid flow rate until the fluid flow rate rises to a certain extent when the increasing trends became flat.

  3. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  4. Penciled into History: The U.S. Army’s Occupation of Korea and Lessons for the Operational Artist (United States)


    Army under command of General Joseph Stillwell. In late July 1945, the XXIV Corps had just completed the invasion of Okinawa, Operation ICEBERG . military governance personnel on the specifics of Korea. 64 This Korean/Japanese model for occupation from the SCAP staff and MacArthur...the U.S. and Soviets. Despite stated policy, the U.S. did not support true self-determination for Korea. It adopted the Japanese model in a country

  5. Submarine canyons on the north of Chiwei Island:influenced by recent extension of the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuexia; LIU Baohua; LI Xishuang; LIU Chenguang; WU Jinlong; WANG Kuiyang


    Based on new multibeam bathymetric data and about 300 km long single seismic profiles,three topographic units were identified:the canyons,fractural valley and submarine terrace on the north of Chiwei Island where is a structural transition zone between the southern trough and the middle trough.The Chiwei Canyon and the North Chiwei Canyon are two of the largest canyons in the East China Sea (ECS) slope.Topographic features and architectures of them are described.The study shows that both of them are originated along faults.The evolution and spatial distribution of topographic units in the study area are controlled mainly by three groups of faults which were formed and reactive in the recent extensional phase of Okinawa Trough.The Chiwei Canyon was initia-ted during the middle Pleistocene and guided by F4 that is a N-S trending fault on the slope and F1,a large NW-SE trending fault on the trough.The pathway migration from the remnant channel to the present one of Chiwei Canyon is the result of uplift of tilted fault block that is coupled to the recent extension movements of the southern trough.The submarine terrace is detached from the ECS slope by the NEE-trending fault.The North Chiwei Canyon,developing during the late Pleistocene,is guided by F5,a N-S trending fault,diverted and blocked by the submarine terrace.

  6. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan]. (United States)

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu


    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD).

  7. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.


    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  8. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach. (United States)

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto


    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers.

  9. REE and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics of hydrothermal chimney at Jade area in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanguang; MENG Xianwei; FU Yunxia


    Hydrothermal chimney is a product of hydrothermal activity on the seabed. Chimney samples dredged from Jade hydrothermal area in Izena depression of the Okinawa Trough, are characterized by relatively enriched light rare earth elements (LREE) and strongly positive Eu anomalies. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd of these samples are exactly between those of seawater and of acidic pumice, averaged at 0.708928 and 0.512292, respectively. These characteristics imply that the main source of hydrothermal sulfide at Jade area is possibly the undersurface acidic rocks. The mineralizing mechanism can be summarized as follows: Large amount of mineralized material would be leached out and LREEenriched hydrothermal solution would be subsequently produced as a result of thermo-chemical exchange reaction between acidic volcanic rocks and heated seawater that penetrated in advance from upper water mass. The spurting out from the seabed and quickly crystallizing in the seawater of hydrothermal solution are responsible for the formation of Cu-Zn sulfide and barite-amorphous SiO2 minerals that are characterized by enriched LREE and positively strong Eu anomalies.

  10. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi


    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases.

  11. Pb-210 fluxes and sedimentation rates on the lower continental slope between Taiwan and the South Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Chung, Y.; Chang, W. C.


    Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured on 11 cores taken from the continental slope between northern Taiwan and the western South Okinawa Trough. Ra-226 activities generally fall between 0.5 and 2 dpm g -1. Pb-210 activities are widely variable in these cores: negligible excess Pb-210 (or no Pb-210 flux) is observed on the upper and middle slope while large excess Pb-210 values (50-90 dpm g -1) are present on the lower slope. Sedimentation rates estimated from the excess Pb-210 profiles of the cores range from 0.09 to 0.52 cm y -1 (0.08 - 0.42 g cm -2 y -1) for the lower slope and decrease toward the deeper (eastern) slope. Excess Pb-210 inventories and the Pb-210 fluxes calculated from the lower slope are 320-840 dpm cm -2 and 10-26 dpm cm -2 y -1 , respectively, assuming a steady-state input at each site for the past 100 years. Atmospheric input of Pb-210 and local production from Ra-226 do not account for the observed fluxes. Two alternative explanations are proposed: (1) boundary scavenging coupled with the Kuroshio water flowing through the area; or (2) downslope transport of high Pb-210 activity fine-grained particles from the shelf and upper/middle slope to the lower slope where they are deposited.

  12. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li


    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  13. Fe-rich carbonate chimney in Okinawa Trough Implication for Fe-driven Microbial Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AMO) (United States)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.


    Marine sediments associated with cold seeps at continental margins discharge substantial amounts of methane. Microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AMO) is a key biogeochemical process in these environments, which can trigger the formation of carbonate chimneys within sediments. The exact biogeochemical mechanism of how AMO control the formation of carbonate chimneys and influence their mineralogy and chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here, we use nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry to characterize the petrology and geochemistry of methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed between 5-7 Ma in the Northern Okinawa Trough. We find abundant framboid pyrites formed in the authigenic carbonates in the chimneys, indicating a non-Fe limitation sedimentary system. The δ13C values of carbonate (-18.9‰ to -45.9‰, PDB) show their probable origin from a mixing source of biogenic and thermogenic methane. The δ34S values range from -3.9 ± 0.5‰ to 23.2 ± 0.5‰ (VCDT), indicative of a strong exhaustion of sulfates in a local sulfate pool. We proposed that Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed at the bottom of the sulfate-methane transition zone, beneath which Fe-driven AOM may happen and provide available ferrous for the extensive precipitation of pyrite in carbonate chimneys. The accumulation of reductive Fe in sediments via this process may widely occur in other analogous settings, with important application for Fe and S biogeochemical cycling within deep sediments at continental margins.

  14. Research on heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in continuous and intermittent operation condition%连续与间歇运行工况下地埋管换热器的换热特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳芳; 王磊; 曾召田; 金樾


    为了研究地埋管换热器在变负荷下连续运行与间歇运行的换热性能,基于有限长线热源渗流模型建立竖直地埋管钻孔外准三维非稳态传热模型,应用叠加原理计算钻孔群中钻孔壁温度场及地埋管内流体温度场.在存在地下水水平渗流的情况下,研究了变负荷连续运行模式下不同渗流速度、不同运行工况及不同钻孔位置对地埋管换热器的换热性能的影响.结果表明,在连续运行模式下,边缘位置的钻孔及较大的渗流速度能够增强地埋管换热器的换热性能;在间歇运行模式下,地埋管换热器的运行份额越小,其制冷效果越好,反之,制冷效果越差;在间歇运行工况下,土壤温度能在系统间歇期内得到一定程度的恢复,从而更好地提高地热能的利用率.%In order to investigate heat transfer performance of ground heat exchangers in continuous and intermittent operation mode under condition of dynamic load,a quasi-three-dimensional transient heat transfer model for borehole exterior of vertical ground exchanger is built based on finite line heat source groundwater advection model; The superposition principle is used to calculate borehole wall temperature field and temperature field of fluid in buried pipe among the boreholes.While groundwater is flowing in horizontal direction,the heat transfer performances of vertical ground heat exchangers are mainly studied at different seepage velocity,different operational states and different positions of borehole in continuous operation mode under dynamic load.The results show that the heat transfer performance,under the condition that boreholes are at the edge or the seepage velocity is high,may be enhanced in continuous running; and at low proportion of operation time of ground heat exchangers in the intermittent operation mode,cooling effect is better,whereas theirs cooling effect is worse.Temperature of the soil gets recovery in certain degree in the

  15. 太中银铁路沿线站区地源热泵运行与维护管理%On operation of ground source heat pump and maintenance management at stations along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在对地源热泵工作理论分析的基础上,结合太中银铁路太原局管段五站地埋管地源热泵实际使用中存在的管路断裂、换热量不足等问题,从系统运行与维护管理角度提出了一些改进建议,为地埋管地源热泵系统的推广应用提供了技术支持。%Based on the theoretic analysis of the ground source heat pump,the paper points out some improvement suggestions from the system op-eration and maintenance by combining with pipeline fracture,shortage of heat problems in the uses of the ground source heat pump at the five sta-tion of Taiyuan Bureau Segment along Taiyuan-Zhongwei-Yinchuan Railway,so as to provide some technical support for the application of the bur-ied ground source heat pump system.

  16. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros


    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  17. 渔场渔情分析预报业务化应用中的关键技术探讨%Key technologies of operational application in fishing ground analy-sis and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊伟; 崔雪森; 伍玉梅; 周为峰; 陈雪忠


    It is very useful for commercial fishing and fishery management of fishing ground analysis and fore-casting based on spatial surveillance information technology. According to the results of our research and the op-erational application of distant water fishery fishing information service system, we review the key technology of fishing ground analysis and forecasting, including the data precision of marine environment factors derived from satellite remote sensing, data fusion of fishing ground environment factors of different sources, real time data ac-quirement of fishing boats position, data analysis methods and forecasting models. As a summary, we put forward the prospect with regard to the application of fishing ground forecasting study in the future.%  利用空间信息技术开展渔场渔情分析及预报对渔船捕捞作业及渔业管理等具有重要意义。本文在开展有关研究和所开发的大洋渔场渔情信息服务系统业务化应用的基础上,对渔场渔情分析预报业务化应用中涉及到的渔场环境数据精度、渔场环境数据融合、实时渔场信息获取、渔场分析方法及渔场预报模型等关键技术问题进行了较全面的探讨分析与总结,并对将来的应用或技术发展进行了展望,以期为今后的相关技术开发提供借鉴。

  18. 寒冷地区某办公楼地源热泵空调系统运行分析%Operational analysis of ground-source heat pump air conditioning system for an office building in cold zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Combined with the project,presents the test results of ground-source heat pump under the shallow geothermal condition.The soil thermal balance analysis results show that the soil temperature increases by 0.3 ℃ after a period of cooling and heating season on condition that heat released from ground-source heat pump units to soil is 1.425 TJ.The analysis of operational data shows that temperature differences of entering and leaving water of condensers or evaporators on operation condition are commonly smaller than those on design condition for ground-source heat pump units,resulting in higher energy consumption of pumps.Suggests to apply the control mode of constant temperature difference and variable frequency of pump.%结合寒冷地区某办公楼地源热泵项目,介绍了浅层地热地质条件的测试结果。土壤热平衡分析结果表明,如果地源热泵机组全年向岩土体排热量为1.425 TJ,经过一个制冷季和一个供暖季后,岩土体温度升高幅度为0.30℃。运行数据分析结果表明,地源热泵冷凝器与蒸发器进出口温差在运行过程中通常小于设计温差,造成水泵能耗偏高,建议采用定温差、水泵变频调节的控制方式。

  19. Inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em porta-enxerto de pessegueiro cv Okinawa Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in peach rootstock cv Okinawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis da Silva Nunes


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA sobre o crescimento vegetativo, conteúdo de macronutrientes e de substâncias de reserva de plantas do porta-enxerto de pessegueiro cv Okinawa. O experimento foi realizado em telado, e o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 20 plantas por parcela e quatro repetições. Foram testadas três espécies de FMA (Acaulospora sp., Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum e um tratamento-testemunha, não-inoculado. A altura, o diâmetro, a área foliar, as biomassas fresca e seca, o conteúdo de macronutrientes e de substâncias de reserva foram avaliados aos 360 dias após a semeadura. Todas as plantas inoculadas com FMA apresentaram maior altura e diâmetro, quando comparadas à testemunha, sendo que Acaulospora sp. promoveu as melhores respostas. Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum induziram um crescimento intermediário às plantas. Os FMAs proporcionaram aumento na absorção de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, associados à maior altura, diâmetro do colo, área foliar, biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea e seca das raízes, quando comparadas à testemunha. Todas as plantas inoculadas com FMA tiveram altas taxas de colonização, acima de 90%, sendo que Acaulospora sp. colonizou mais intensamente o sistema radicular das plantas.The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the vegetative growth, macronutrients and carbohydrate contents in rootstock plants of peach 'Okinawa'. The experiment was realized at greenhouse conditions and a randomized block design was applied, with 20 plants per plot and four repetitions. Three AMF species (Acaulospora sp., Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum and non-inoculated treatment were tested. The stem height and diameter, foliage area, fresh and dry biomass, macronutrients and carbohydrate contents were evaluated

  20. Terrestrial flux in sediments from the Okinawa Trough estimated using geochemical compositional data and its response to climate changes over the past 35 000 a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianwei; LIU Yanguang; DU Dewen; SHI Xuefa


    Terrestrial supply to marginal seas is a function of interaction between land and ocean in response to climate changes. Terrestrial flux in sediments, therefore, is potential not only to reflect the paleoceanographic evolution of sedimentary basin, hut also to reveal the paleoclimatic changes in source regions. Sediments from the Okina-wa Trough were quantitatively partitioned into terrestrial, volcanic and biogenitie end members using constrained least-squares technique for geochemical compositional data. Combined with the density of bulk sediments and sedimentation rate, the terrestrial flux in sediments from the Okinawa Trough since the last 35 000 a was esti-mated. Based on surface seawater temperature (SST) and sea level changes over the past 35 000 a, the re-sponse of terrestrial flux to the climate changes was discussed. It is demonstrated that the terrestrial supply to the Okinawa Trough mainly derived from Chinese landmass via the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and controlled by sea level changes. During the post-glaciation, the terrestrial flux was the lowest in response to the highest sea level stand. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the terrestrial flux was not so high as previously expec-ted, indicating the arid climatic condition in source region was responsible for lowering the Changjiang River' s runoff during that time. During the deglaciation, the terrestrial flux increased in response to a quick rising of the sea level, probably implicating occurrence of down-slope transport. The four events characterized by slight in-crease in terrestrial flux exactly correspond to the LGM, Heinrich events (H1, H2, H3), respectively.

  1. Distributed Common Ground System - Army (DCGS-A) Increment 1 Release 2 Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation (FOT and E) Report (United States)


    questionnaires from the users, including the System Usability Scale (SUS). ATEC, however, did not reduce the collected data sufficiently to failure and failures in equipment external to DCGS-A. System Failure includes systems aborts and rapidly recoverable events that were system... aborts . TOC – Tactical Operations Center; TAC – Tactical Action Center Reliability Mean Time Between System Failures Table 4-2 shows the Mean

  2. Research of Aircraft Ground Deicing Operation Based on Non-cooperative Game Theory%飞机地面除冰运行的非合作博弈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志伟; 乔晓辉


    针对大型机场对优化除冰调度运行以减少航班延误的需求,以及各航空公司对有限除冰资源的无序竞争,结合非合作博弈理论,建立飞机除冰地面运行的非合作博弈模型,设计了除冰资源分配为浮动优先级算法,在MATLAB环境下,利用首都机场动态航班数据对算法进行了仿真验证.仿真结果表明,将设计的浮动优先级算法应用于飞机地面除冰运行中,机场离港航班的延误情况得到了明显缓解,且对现有的"先到先服务"除冰调度策略进行了优化,并保证了资源分配的公平性,为机场地面除冰运行提供了一种新的思路.%Aiming at the request of reducing aircraft delay by optimizing the deicing operation in hinge airports, and the disordered competition to the limited deicing resources among the airline companies, a non-cooperative game based aircraft ground deicing operation modeling was established. The floating-priority algorithm used for distributing deicing resources was provided. Based on the software MATLAB, the domestic departures data of Beijing Capital Airport was used for simulation experiments. Simulation results show that the delays of the leaving flights has been relieved clearly and the 'first come, first served' scheduling strategy has been optimized after using of the floating-priority algorithm in the aircraft ground deicing operation. The presented model and algorithm ensure the fairness of resource-allocation and provide a new way for aircraft ground deicing operation.

  3. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.


    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  4. Influences of ground source heat pump operation mode on energy consumption of northern residential heating%地源热泵运行模式对北方住宅供暖能耗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 句德胜; 李胜会; 郭朝辉


    在对一栋满足节能65%设计标准的住宅进行逐时能耗分析的基础上,得出间歇运行的最大热负荷约为连续运行时的3倍,但是连续运行和间歇运行的累计耗热量分别为39.4 kW·h/(m2·a)和33.6 kW·h/(m2·a),建议地源热泵尽量采用连续运行的方式。分析实际项目的装机容量和土壤温度逐年变化情况,所调研的住宅1第一年土壤计算温降为1.81℃,实际温降为1.9℃。提出为了避免土壤温度逐年降低,可采用具有分区补热功能的跨季节蓄热空气源-土壤源复合式系统。%Based on the hourly energy consumption analysis of one residential building which meets the 65% energy-saving design standards,it is concluded that the maximum heat load of the intermittent operation is about 3 times of the continuous operation.How-ever,the accumulated heat consumption of the continuous operation and intermittent oper-ation are 39.4 kW·h/(m2 ·a)and 33.6 kW·h/(m2 ·a),respectively.In view of the a-bove,it is suggested that ground source heat pump uses the mode of continuous operation as far as possible.The installed capacity of the actual proj ect and the change of the soil’s tempera-ture year by year are analyzed and the actual soil’s temperature drop is 1 .9 ℃ of residential building 1 which is researched when the calculation temperature drop is 1 .8 1 ℃.In order to avoid soil’s temperature decreasing year by year,seasonal storage hot air source and ground source hy-brid system which has the function of partition heat supplementary can be used.

  5. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency (United States)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  6. Improvements to the OMI O2-O2 operational cloud algorithm and comparisons with ground-based radar-lidar observations (United States)

    Pepijn Veefkind, J.; de Haan, Johan F.; Sneep, Maarten; Levelt, Pieternel F.


    The OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite) OMCLDO2 cloud product supports trace gas retrievals of for example ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The OMCLDO2 algorithm derives the effective cloud fraction and effective cloud pressure using a DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) fit of the O2-O2 absorption feature around 477 nm. A new version of the OMI OMCLDO2 cloud product is presented that contains several improvements, of which the introduction of a temperature correction on the O2-O2 slant columns and the updated look-up tables have the largest impact. Whereas the differences in the effective cloud fraction are on average limited to 0.01, the differences of the effective cloud pressure can be up to 200 hPa, especially at cloud fractions below 0.3. As expected, the temperature correction depends on latitude and season. The updated look-up tables have a systematic effect on the cloud pressure at low cloud fractions. The improvements at low cloud fractions are very important for the retrieval of trace gases in the lower troposphere, for example for nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde. The cloud pressure retrievals of the improved algorithm are compared with ground-based radar-lidar observations for three sites at mid-latitudes. For low clouds that have a limited vertical extent the comparison yields good agreement. For higher clouds, which are vertically extensive and often contain several layers, the satellite retrievals give a lower cloud height. For high clouds, mixed results are obtained.

  7. Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Uchida, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.


    Large amount of methane in anoxic marine sediments as well as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents is recycled through for an anoxic oxidation of methane processes. Now that combined results of field and laboratory studies revealed that microbiological activity associated with syntrophic consortium of archaea performing reversed methanogenesis and sulfate-reducing bacteria is significant roles in methane recycling, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this study, we examined the diversity of archaeal and bacterial assemblages of AOM using compound-specific stable carbon isotopic and phylogenetic analyses. "Iheya North" in Okinawa Trough is sediment-rich, back arc type hydrothermal system (27^o47'N, 126^o53'E). Sediment samples were collected from three sites where are "bubbling sites", yellow-colored microbial mats are formed with continuous bubbling from the seafloor bottom, vent mussel's colonies site together with slowly venting and simmering, and control site off 100 m distance from thermal vent. This subsea floor structure has important effect in the microbial ecosystem and interaction between their activity and geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitats. Culture-independent, molecular biological analysis clearly indicated the presence of thermophilic methanogens in deeper area having higher temperatures and potential activity of AMOs consortium in the shallower area. AMO is composed with sulfate-reducing bacterial components (Desulfosarcina spp.) and anoxic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-2). These results were consistent with the results of compound-specific carbon analysis of archaeal biomarkers. They showed extremely depleted 13C contents (-80 ppm ˜ -100 ppm), which also appeared to be capable of directly oxidizing methane.

  8. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study. (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M


    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.

  9. Rock magnetic property of gravity core CSH1 from the northern Okinawa Trough and the effect of early diagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Detailed rock magnetic investigations were undertaken at 2~4 cm interval for the gravity core CSH1 (with a length of 17.36 m) from the northern Okinawa Trough. Time-scale of the core was constructed by two characteristic tephras and foraminferal assemblages, indicating an age of 50 ka for the bottom of the core. Except for three tephras and abrupt decrease in surface, there are little changes in all kinds of rock magnetic parameters that can be correlated to the climate change for the last 50 ka. Different from the common sediments, most S-ratios (S equals the negative ratio of IRM-0.3T to SIRM, which is an indicator of low coercivity content)of the sediments are smaller than 0.9, which implies a substantial amount of magnetic minerals with high coercivity. The existence of iron sulphide (greigite or pyrrhotite) is revealed by representative susceptibility-temperature curves showing 200~350 ℃ Curie temperature in addition to 580 ℃ of magnetite, and also by awful smell during heating and dark heating products. Both the occurrence of authigenic iron sulphide and quick decrease of magnetic parameters near the surface clearly show that sediments from Core CSH1 have undergone early diagenesis. The featureless magnetic changes of the whole core except for three tephras mean that the post-depositonal alteration is so strong that most original signals have been destroyed. For the same reason, the organic matter in sediment and sulphate in pore water must have been consumed along with dissolution, precipitation of iron and manganese happening sequencially during the redox reaction series. Great caution must be taken when using these altered chemical parameters for the interpretation of climatic changes.

  10. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran


    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  11. Magnetic anomalies associated with abundant production of pyrrhotite in a sulfide deposit in the Okinawa Trough, Japan (United States)

    Honsho, Chie; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Ura, Tamaki; Okino, Kyoko; Morozumi, Haruhisa; Ueda, Satoshi


    We report here results from a deep-sea magnetic survey using an autonomous underwater vehicle over the Hakurei hydrothermal site, in the middle Okinawa Trough. Magnetic inversion revealed that the Hakurei site is associated with well-defined high-magnetization zones distributed within a broad low-magnetization zone. Results from rock magnetic measurements, performed on sulfide ore samples obtained by drilling, showed that some samples possessed extremely high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) (as much as 6.8-953.0 A/m), although most of the measured samples had much lower NRM. These high-NRM samples were characterized by high Königsberger ratios (101-103), indicating much larger NRM than induced magnetization, and contained pyrrhotite as the only magnetic mineral. This suggests that NRM carried by pyrrhotite is the source of the observed magnetic anomalies. The wide range of NRM intensity was considered to be due to a highly heterogeneous distribution of pyrrhotite, because pyrrhotite was commonly identified in both the high-NRM and low-NRM samples. Pyrrhotite production may have been occasionally drastically increased, with highly magnetic ores formed as a result. Rapid burial of active vents may result in the creation of an extensive reducing environment under the seafloor, which is favorable to pyrrhotite production, and may also prevent oxidation of pyrrhotite by isolating it from seawater. Because the magnetization intensity of sulfide ores was highly variable, it would not be straightforward to estimate the quantity of ore deposits from the magnetic anomalies. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the usefulness of magnetic surveys in detecting hydrothermal deposits.

  12. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  13. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael


    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  14. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.


    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  15. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.


    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  16. Designing and operating optimization of ground-source heat pump system in severe cold area%严寒地区地埋管地源热泵系统设计及运行优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逸; 李炳熙; 付忠斌; 方明洙


    Makes a heating condition optimizing experiment for a ground-source heat pump system, and the results show that heat pump and underground heat-exchanger reach steady-state after 6 hours and heat absorption of underground heat-exchanger per meter depth is 24. 5 W/m under the continuous operation condition! The ground temperature can restore in time! The OOP of the system is increased by 4.34% and the COP of the heat pump is increased by 3.23%; the COP of the system and heat pump are highest when two compressors operating, respectively are 12.2% and 11% higher than that of four compressors; the COP of the system is increased by 12.5% when two compressors operate and the circulating pumps adopt the inverter control and the COP of the heat pump is increased by 6.42% when three compressors operate and the circulating pumps adopt the inverter control under intermittent operation condition.%对某地埋管地源热泵系统冬季供热工况进行了优化实验.结果表明,系统连续运行时,6h后机组和地埋管换热器达到稳定状态,地埋管换热器单位埋深的取热量为24.5W/m;系统间歇运行时,土壤温度能及时恢复,系统的COP提高4.34%,机组的COP提高3.23%,2台压缩机工作时系统和机组的COP值最大,比4台压缩机工作时分别高12.2%和11%,2台压缩机运行、循环泵采用变频控制时,系统COP提高了12.5%;3台压缩机运行、循环泵采用变频控制时,系统COP提高了6.42%.

  17. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  18. Spatial and temporal behavior and acute ecotoxicological effects of Tributyltin (TBT) on coral reef and adjacent ecosystems around Okinawa Island, Japan. (United States)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Higuchi, T.; Imo, T. S.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.


    Spatial and temporal behavior of the tributyl tin (TBT) were investigated in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, Japan. A seasonal monitoring study was conducted between February and October 2006. The effects of TBT on the carbon metabolisms (net production and calcification) on the intact coral-alga association Galaxea fascicularis were also investigated. Mean concentration of TBT (2.45 ng/L) found in the Manko estuary waters have exceeded some international permissible targets of waters quality guideline for TBT (1ng/L). The sediments in Manko estuary sediments can be considered lightly contaminated (0-20 ng/g dw) and Okukubi estuary as uncontaminated (below 3ng/g dw) with TBT. The seasonal concentration pattern of TBT at the Manko estuary was autumn > spring > summer > winter. The acute ecotoxicological results show that the photosynthesis rate and calcification rate were significantly reduced by 78 % and 72 % relative to the control (ANOVA, p0.05) were observed when corals were exposed to 1000 ng/LTBT. The present study reports the occurrence and continuous input of TBT in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, even 16 years after legal restriction of TBT usage in coastal waters was implemented by the Japanese Environmental Authorities. However, the nominal sensitive concentration of TBT that causes alteration of carbon metabolisms of coral within 96 hrs exposure are much higher than those recently found in the coral reef waters and adjacent ecosystems.

  19. Validation of the IASI operational CH4 and N2O products using ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer: preliminary results at the Izaña Observatory (28ºN, 17ºW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira García


    Full Text Available Within the project VALIASI (VALidation of IASI level 2 products the validation of the IASI operational atmospheric trace gas products (total column amounts of H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, CO2 and CO as well H2O and O3 profiles will be carried out. Ground-based FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer trace gas measurements made in the framework of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change serve as the validation reference. In this work, we will present the validation methodology developed for this project and show the first intercomparison results obtained for the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory between 2008 and 2012. As example, we will focus on two of the most important greenhouse gases, CH4 and N2O.

  20. Operation strategy of solar-ground source heat pump systems%太阳能-地源热泵联合供能系统运行策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩宇; 贺芳; 齐承英


    根据天津地区的气候条件,建立了太阳能-地源热泵多热源供热系统模型.利用TRNSYS软件对该系统进行了模拟研究,分析了系统用能情况及运行过程中地温的变化,着重对运行策略进行了研究.基于系统的性能系数选定的控制策略为:集热器出口与水箱出口温差大于15℃时启动集热,当温差小于2℃时停止集热;水箱出口温度高于50℃时启动储热,土壤进出口水温差不足5℃时停止储热.%Establishes a solar-ground source heat pump system model according to the climatic conditions in Tianjin. Carries out a simulation study of the system based on TRNSYS program, analyses the energy consumption of the system and the ground temperature change, and studies the operation strategy with emphasis. Selects an appropriate operation strategy based on the coefficient of performance (COP) of system, i. e. to turn on the solar collection pump as the temperature difference between collector outlet and tank outlet is higher than 15 ℃, and to turn off the pump until it is less than 2 ℃ , and to turn on the solar storage pump when tank outlet temperature is higher than 50 ℃ , and to turn off it until the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of the borehole heat exchanger is less than 5 ℃.

  1. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  2. Enhance International Cooperation and Build Peace and Prosperity Together——Speech by Mr. Li Chengren, Executive Vice-President of CAFIU (Okinawa, Japan, November 15, 2003)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiChengren; YanMoufeng


    On the occasion of the opening of the “5th International Conference for Peace, Disarmament and Symbiosis in Asian-Pacific” in Okinawa, I would like to extend, on behalf of my colleagues, and in my own name, warm congratulations to the conference,

  3. Crew Transportation Operations Standards (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)


    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. Chinese Public Opinions on Okinawa Issue after the Victory of World War II%二战胜利后中国舆论对琉球问题的认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    二战胜利后,琉球问题引起舆论热议。舆论通过历史书写,表达现实诉求,试图建立中琉历史关系与现实法理依据之间的逻辑关系;民族自决对当时中国舆论如何看待琉球归属产生了直接影响;较之朝鲜、越南等原中国属国战后清晰的主权定位,当时中国舆论关注的焦点与其说是能否收回琉球,毋宁说是琉球归谁所有;琉球问题虽然受到官民各界的重视,但总体而言,官方政策与舆论态度之间并未形成互动。%Following the victory of World War II , heated discussion was raised over Okinawa issue in Chi -na.The public opinion expressed the realistic demands through writing history , and tried to establish the logi-cal relationship between the history and the reality .The idea of selfd-etermination exerted direct influence on Chinese public opinion about the ownership of Okinawa .Compared with the clear sovereignty of Korea and Vi-etnam,the focus of Chinese public opinion is on whom Okinawa belongs to rather than whether Chinese gov -ernment could regain Okinawa .Although the government and the society paid attention to Okinawa , overall the official policy and the attitude of public opinion did not interact with each other .

  5. Microbial Community in a Sediment-Hosted CO2 Lake of the Southern Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Inagaki, F.; Kuypers, M. M.; Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakamura, K.; Treude, T.; Ohkubo, S.; Nakaseama, M.; Gena, K.; Chiba, H.; Hirayama, H.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Horikoshi, K.; Boetius, A.


    One-carbon assimilating (micro-)organisms play an important role for global carbon cycling; however, the increasing level of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere has exceeded the capacity of natural biological feedback, hence as greenhouse gasses it is expected to cause climacteric change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, a variety of options have been discussed, including a disposal of CO2 into the deep ocean. However, the impact of CO2 disposal on deep-sea ecosystems as well as of the consequent microbiological feedback remains largely unknown. At the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough, we observed a natural liquid CO2 lake in sediments overlying elemental sulfur and CO2 hydrates at a water depth of 1380m. The liquid CO2 droplets were composed of 85% CO2 and 14% methane with hydrogen below the detection limit. We found high abundances (>109 cm-3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10&^{7} cm-3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. Molecular ecological study based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the key groups in these sediments were: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria, and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes (mcrA, cbbL) related to one- carbon assimilation as well as the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or methane dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. We propose that the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  6. The influence of a subduction component on magmatism in the Okinawa Trough: Evidence from thorium and related trace element ratios (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Qi, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yao


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc, initial continental marginal sea basin located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. Formation and evolution of the OT have been intimately related to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since the late Miocene; thus, the magma source of the trough has been affected by subduction components, as in the case of other active back-arc basins, including the Lau Basin (LB) and Mariana Trough (MT). We review all the available geochemical data relating to basaltic lavas from the OT and the middle Ryukyu Arc (RA) in this paper in order to determine the influence of the subduction components on the formation of arc and back-arc magmas within this subduction system. The results of this study reveal that the abundances of Th in OT basalts (OTBs) are higher than that in LB (LBBs) and MT basalts (MTBs) due to the mixing of subducted sediments and EMI-like enriched materials. The geochemical characteristics of Th and other trace element ratios indicate that the OTB originated from a more enriched mantle source (compared to N-mid-ocean ridge basalt, N-MORB) and was augmented by subducted sediments. Data show that the magma sources of the south OT (SOT) and middle Ryukyu Arc (MRA) basalts were principally influenced by subducted aqueous fluids and bulk sediments, which were potentially added into magma sources by accretion and underplating. At the same time, the magma sources of the middle OT (MOT) and Kobi-syo and Sekibi-Syo (KBS+SBS) basalts were impacted by subducted aqueous fluids from both altered oceanic crust (AOC) and sediment. The variable geochemical characteristics of these basalts are due to different Wadati-Benioff depths and tectonic environments of formation, while the addition of subducted bulk sediment to SOT and MRA basalts may be due to accretion and underplating, and subsequent to form mélange formation, which would occur partial melting after aqueous fluids are added. The addition of AOC and sediment aqueous fluid

  7. 接地开关电动操动机构的研发与结构设计研究%Grounding Switch Electric Operating Mechanism Research and Structure Design Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of the electric power industry, the high voltage switch equipment also got great development. Parts of the high voltage switch disconnected or grounding switch in the closing switch points, used for gear transmission structure or screw the two transmission ways. The two transmission ways to switch design put forward higher request, only the design more perfect switch electric operating mechanism, to provide support for the drive way. In addition, the modern distribution system and power system is becoming more and more high to the requirement of switchgear, so, must accelerate the earthing switch electric operation, promote the earthing switch in many aspects, such as monitoring, control and protection of intelligent, improve the accuracy of the grounding switch electric operating mechanism and reliability.%随着电力事业的发展,高压开关设备也得到了很大的发展。高压开关中的部分隔离开关或接地开关在进行开关分合闸时,使用了传动结构为齿轮或丝杆的两种传动方式。这两种传动方式对开关设计提出了更高的要求,只有设计出更完善的开关电动操动机构,才能为这种传动方式提供支撑。此外,现代配电系统和用电系统对开关设备的要求也越来越高,所以,必须要加速接地开关的电动操作,促进接地开关在监测、控制和保护等诸多方面的智能化,提高接地开关电动操作机构的准确性和可靠程度。

  8. A Research of Enterprises’Virtual Operation Motives Based on the Classical Grounded Theory%基于经典扎根理论的企业虚拟经营动因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭东; 衡量


    In the context of market changing fast,virtual operation (VO) is regarded as a new pattern which breaks the tra⁃ditional limit. VO advocates the idea of“borrowing chickens to lay eggs”and adds vibrancy to develop. As the boom of enter⁃prise’s practice appears, the reason why VO can offer the power to develop has became an important issue. The article, adopting two typical virtual enterprises as studying cases,employs the method of the classical grounded theory to completely explore the motives of virtual operation. The research indicates that some companies virtualize in entrepreneurship stage called virtualization in pioneering period and others virtualize in development stage called virtualization in developing period. Com⁃bining a number of first-hand and second-hand data we obtain the virtual operation motives model in different enterprise ’s de⁃velopment stages by applying coding technology of the classical grounded theory. Based on the integration of common virtual operation motives in two stages,we find that enterprises’fundamental motives of virtual operation are composed of three di⁃mensions:cost, efficiency, and core competence. These motives form the effective combination to promote enterprises’ long-term development,and present the progressive relationship from outside to core. To sum up,the results lay a solid em⁃pirical basis on further studying virtual operation.%在市场日益快速多变的背景下,作为一种新兴的经营模式,虚拟经营打破传统模式,以“借鸡下蛋”的思维为企业发展增添了新的活力。伴随着丰富的企业实践热潮,虚拟经营的原动力何在成为理论界热烈探讨的重要课题。文章运用经典扎根理论研究方法,以两家采取虚拟经营模式获得成功的典型企业为案例,试图完整揭示企业虚拟经营的动因。在研究中发现,有企业在创业期开始虚拟经营,也有企业在发展期开始虚拟经营,文章

  9. Operation Characteristics of Ground Source Heat Pump for Centralized Hot Water Supply in High-rise Buildings%地源热泵用于高层建筑集中供热水的运行特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 胡映宁; 林俊


    自主设计了地源热泵热水/空调冷热联供系统和单纯的地源热泵供热水系统,并将其应用于高层建筑中.运用单因素方法,研究循环介质流量等对热泵系统运行特性的影响,确定最佳流量,并通过测试计算系统的能耗.结果表明,在地源热泵热水/空调冷热联供系统中,采用地源制热水时的机组能效比和系统能效比分别为4.7和4.2,冷热联供时的机组综合能效比和系统综合能效比分别为8.63和6.39;系统全年制热水耗电量为6.35 kW·h/m3,与电锅炉加热方式和太阳能+电辅助加热方式相比,可分别节省82.2%和46.7%的电量.在单纯的地源热泵供热水系统中,机组能效比和系统能效比分别为4.8和4.3,全年制热水总耗电量为11.13 kW·h/m3,与电锅炉加热方式和太阳能+电辅助加热方式相比,可分别节省74.69%和24%的电量.由此说明,地源热泵集中供热水系统应用于高层建筑的节能效果显著.%A ground source heat pump hot-water/air-conditioning system and a stand-alone ground source heat pump hot-water system were designed and used in high-rise buildings. The influence of circulation medium flow on the operation characteristics of heat pump system was studied, the optimal flow was determined, and the energy consumption of the systems was calculated by testing. The results showed that for the ground source heap pump hot-water/air-conditioning system, the unit energy efficiency ratio and the system energy efficiency ratio were 4. 7 and 4. 2, respectively, when supplying hot water. The unit integrated energy efficiency ratio and the system integrated energy efficiency ratio were 8. 63 and 6. 39, respectively, when supplying hot water and cooling. The annual power consumption for supplying hot water was 6. 35 kW · h/m3, and the power savings were 82. 2% and 46. 7% compared with electric boiler heating and solar electric heating. For the ground source heat pump hot-water system, the

  10. iPhone in NASA Ground Operations (United States)

    Benedict, Ashley; Byrd, Keena; Ignacio, Lalaine; Lagu, Amit; Palmer, Ralph Curtis, III; Savoy, April; Surabattula, Deepti; Vaitkunas, Samantha


    A comprehensive review of the literature and historical background of NASA established a need for an easy-to-implement technological improvement to displaying procedures which is cost effective and risk reducing. Previous unsuccessful attempts have led this team to explore the practicality of using a mobile handheld device. The major products, inputs, resources, constraints, planning and effort required for consideration of this type of solution were outlined. After analyzing the physical, environmental, life-cycle, functional, and socio-technical requirements, a Functional Analysis was performed to describe the top-level, second-level, and third-level functions of the system requirements. In addition, the risk/value proposition of conversion to a new technology was considered and gave a blueprint for transitioning along with the tasks necessary to implement the device into the Vehicle Assembly Building's (VAB) current infrastructure. A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) described the elemental work items of the implementation. Once the viability of this system was confirmed, a device was selected through use of technical design comparison methods including the Pugh Matrix and House of Quality. Comparison and evaluation of the Apple iPhone, Motorola Q, Blackberry, PC Notebook, and PDA revealed that the iPhone is the most suitable device for this task. This paper outlines the device design/ architecture, as well as some of the required infrastructure.

  11. Isolation and purification of the major photosynthetic antenna, fucoxanthin-Chl a/c protein, from cultured discoid germilings of the brown Alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku). (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Kita, Mamiko; Iinuma, Yoshiro; Oka, Naohiro; Takaesu, Yuki; Taira, Tomonori; Iha, Masahiko; Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki


    A chlorophyll c binding membrane intrinsic light-harvesting complex, the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c protein (FCP), was isolated from cultured discoid germilings of an edible Japanese brown alga, Cladosiphon (C.) okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese). The discoid germiling is an ideal source of brown algal photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in terms of its size and easiness of cultivation on a large scale. Ion-exchange chromatography was crucial for the purification of FCP from solubilized thylakoid proteins. The molecular weight of the purified FCP assembly was estimated to be ~56 kDa using blue native-PAGE. Further subunit analyses using 2D-PAGE revealed that the FCP assembled as a trimer consisting of two distinguishable subunits having molecular weights of 18.2 (H) and 17.5 (L) kDa. Fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra confirmed that the purified FCP assembly was functionally intact.

  12. Two novel Lipomycetaceous yeast species, Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov., isolated from soil in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yanagiba, Mana; Naganuma, Takafumi


    Four novel Lipomyces strains were isolated from soil collected in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, along with sequence typing using the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including 5.8S rRNA, and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α), the four strains were shown to represent two novel species of the genus Lipomyces, described as Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. (type strain No.3-a(35)T=NBRC 110620T=CBS 14747T) and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain No.313T=NBRC 110621T=CBS 14748T).

  13. Millennial-Scale Planktic Foraminifer Faunal Variability in the East China Sea during the Past 40000 Years (IMAGES MD012404 from the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin Chang


    Full Text Available High resolution planktic foraminifer fauna assemblage data are used to reconstruct the millennial-scale sea surface temperature (SST variability of the past 40000 years at an IMAGES core site (MD012404 in the Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea (ECS. The fauna assemblages in core MD012404 are dominated by five species - Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globigerinita glutinata, which account for > 70% in relative abundance. Our Q-mode factor analysis decomposed the fauna abundance data into three factors, which indicate cold water mass, warm water mass, and possibly coastal water flow with low salinity in the ECS. The MD012404 fauna data show abrupt changes at ~16 kya, suggesting a return to a warmer climate or warm water intrusion of the Kuroshio into the Okinawa Trough since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. SST estimates based on the fauna assemblages of planktic foraminifers indicate a LGM cooling of 1 - 2°C. Amaximum cooling by 3 - 4°C is observed in episodic, millennial-scale events in the glacial stages of the record. The SST record displays variability that closely tracks the structure of oxygen isotopes of stalagmites from Hulu Cave and ice cores from GISP 2 Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events. Low salinity in the ECS is inferred based on MD012404 fauna SST and planktic foraminifer oxygen isotope records for the cold millennial-scale intervals, pointing to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and/or East Asian monsoon as important factors driving SST and salinity in the subtropical western Pacific, both on orbital and suborbital time scales.

  14. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems. (United States)


    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  15. Comparative study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, Southern Japan and Sapporo in Hokkaido, Northern Japan; with special reference to human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection. (United States)

    Tsuhako, K; Nakazato, I; Miyagi, J; Iwamasa, T; Arasaki, A; Hiratsuka, H; Sunakawa, H; Kohama, G; Abo, T


    In Okinawa, a subtropical island in Southern Japan, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma is 1.5 times higher than that in mainland Japan. Sixty cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma from 1993 to 1996 in Okinawa and 42 cases over the same period in Sapporo were examined histologically. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for HPV and EBV. In situ hybridisations of the viruses were also carried out. In the case of Epstein-Barr virus, in situ PCR was also performed. Thirty-five (58.3%) Okinawan tumours were well-differentiated in type, but in Sapporo, 18 (42%) were of such type. In Okinawa, tumours of the mouth floor (10 cases, 16.7%) and oropharynx (12 cases, 20%) were frequently observed, whereas in Sapporo only five cases (12%) of each were found. HPV was demonstrated in 78% of Okinawan cases and 26.2% of Sapporon cases by PCR or non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH). There were 76.6% (46 cases) of Okinawan and 38.1% (16 cases) of Sapporo cases positive for EBV by PCR. In only 12 Okinawan cases and 4 Sapporon cases, were positive signals demonstrated by in situ PCR on the cancer cells themselves. EBV was demonstrated in the large number of infiltrating lymphocytes, most of which were CD3+, and a few were CD19+. In Okinawa, HPV might be an important causative factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma and EBV a less important factor, whereas in Sapporo HPV and EBV might play only a small part in the aetiology of the tumour.

  16. Accuracy of the centenarian numbers in Okinawa and the role of the Okinawan diet on longevity: responses to Le Bourg about the article "Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity". (United States)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Arai, Yasumichi; Willcox, D Craig; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Yasuhiko


    This response letter addresses two points raised by le Bourg when discussing our previous paper entitled "Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity". First, the arguments explaining the accuracy of the numbers of centenarian in Okinawa are developed, and second the composition and healthfulness of the traditional Okinawan diet are described as well as the changes in dietary pattern and their impact on longevity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 制冷工况下水平埋管换热器运行试验研究%Experimental analysis on operation process of horizontal ground heat exchanger under cooling provision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾召田; 唐双慧; 赵艳林; 徐云山; 吕海波


    Experiment on ground source heat pump (GSHP)was conducted in summer to monitor the factors such as the heat exchange performance parameters of horizontal ground heat exchangers (GHEs ),the climatic conditions around the testing site and variations of soil temperatures and moistures during the operation process.The heat exchange performance of horizontal GHEs as well as the variation laws of temperature and moisture fields around their surrounding soils was explored.The results showed that the intermittent operation model of GSHP was beneficial to the recovery of soil temperature field.The heat exchange capacity of horizontal GHEs from their surrounding soils improved significantly with the increase of downtimes.The climatic conditions had an obvious influence on the distributions of soil temperature field around the horizontal GHE.The influence of climatic conditions on soil temperature was becoming obvious with the decrease in burial depth.The changing amplitude of soil temperature field decreased with the increase in distance from the horizontal GHE was found,resulting in a heat influence range of the GHE with a radius of about 1 .0 m.Finally,the impact of heat exchange of horizontal GHE to soil moisture field was in-apparent.However,the surface water infiltrating caused by rainfall was an obvious influence factor on the variation of soil moisture field.%通过夏季工况的地源热泵运行试验,对运行过程中水平埋管的换热性能参数、试验场地周围气象因素和换热过程中土体的温湿度变化等因素进行实时监测,探讨了地源热泵运行过程中水平埋管换热器热交换性能及其周围土壤的温、湿度场变化规律。研究结果表明,地源热泵间隙运行有利于土壤温度场的恢复,随着停机时间的增加,水平埋管与周围土壤的热交换能力明显提高;气候变化对水平埋管周围土壤的温度场分布具有显著影响,随着埋深的递减,土壤温度受气

  18. Multiple UAV Operation Strategy Attack-Defense Confrontation to Ground Based on Cooperative Alliance%基于合作联盟的多无人机对地攻防对抗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈侠; 赵明明; 徐光延


    针对多无人机合作博弈问题,对基于合作联盟的多无人机对地攻防对抗策略进行研究。通过考虑合作联盟的目标价值收益指标函数、损伤代价指标函数及航程代价指标函数,建立多无人机联盟合作博弈模型,构建出其博弈矩阵,给出合作联盟特征函数与混合策略纳什均衡的定义,采用粒子群算法(particle swarm algorithm,PSO)求解出混合策略的纳什均衡,并利用 Shapley 值方法,给出一种合作博弈的求解方法,最终得到多无人机对地攻防最优对抗策略。仿真结果说明该方法具有很好的可行性和有效性。%Aiming at the multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) cooperative game, research on multiple UAV operation strategy attack-defense confrontation to ground based on cooperative alliance. Through considering cooperative alliance’s target value income index function, damage cost index function and voyage cost index function, the multiple-UAV alliance cooperative game model is established, then its game matrix is structured. The definition of alliance characteristic function and mixed strategy Nash equilibrium are provided, the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium is obtained by using particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the cooperative game is solved by applying the Shapley method. At last, the feasibility and effectiveness of the method are presented by simulation results.

  19. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  20. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.


    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  1. Laser ranging ground station development (United States)

    Faller, J. E.


    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  2. Spacelab Ground Processing (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.


    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  3. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes (United States)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung


    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  4. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  5. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  6. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.


    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  7. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data (United States)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi


    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  8. Experimental hydrothermal alteration of andesite at 325 ˚C, 300 bar: Comparison with the hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll, southern Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Saitoh, Masafumi; Shibuya, Takazo; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Torimoto, Junji; Ueda, Hisahiro; Sato, Tomoki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko


    Formation processes and types of hydrothermal sulfide deposits are closely related to chemical compositions of subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. Subseafloor hydrothermal alteration of intermediate to felsic rocks is a major process that controls the fluid compositions in the arc/back-arc hydrothermal systems, although the chemical reaction process during water-rock interaction has not been examined in detail. We experimentally reacted a NaCl solution under high-pressure and -temperature conditions with fresh andesite collected from the Hatoma Knoll, southern Okinawa Trough. The concentrations of selected elements (e.g., K, Ca, and Si) in the fluid obtained by the experiment are inconsistent with those of the hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll. The present results suggest that the inputs of magmatic volatiles derived from andesitic magma to the hydrothermal fluids may not be significant whereas hydrothermal reactions with felsic rocks (e.g., dacite and rhyolite) and/or sediments may contribute substantially to the fluid compositions in the Hatoma Knoll.

  9. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.

  10. Helium,neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclu-sions in massive sulfides from the Jade hydrothermal field,the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; QIN Yunshan; ZHAI Shikui


    Helium, neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclusions have been measured in massive sulfide samples from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough. Huid-inclusion 3He/4He ratios are between 6.2 and 10.1 times the air value (Ra), and with a mean of 7.8Ra, which are consistent with the mid-ocean ridge basalt values [3He/4He≈(6Ra~11Ra)]. Values for 20Ne/22Ne are from 10.7 to 11.3, which are significantly higher than the atmospheric ratio (9.8).And the fluid-inclusion 40Ar/36Ar ratios range from 287 to 334, which are close to the atmosperic values (295.5). These results indicate that the noble gases of trapped hydrothermal fluids in massive sulfides are a mixture of mantle- and seawater-derived components, and the helium of fluid inclusions is mainly from mantle, the nelium and argon isotope compositions are mainly from seawater.

  11. Radiocarbon analysis of BC and OC in PM{sub 10} aerosols at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan, during long-range transport events from East Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Daishi [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); AMS Facility (NIES-TERRA), Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Nakajima, Hitomi [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Arakaki, Takemitsu, E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kumata, Hidetoshi [School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Shibata, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Masao [AMS Facility (NIES-TERRA), Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)


    We determined the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio and concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 mum (PM{sub 10}) collected in Okinawa, Japan, between March and June 2008. During Asian dust events in March and April, APM and OC concentrations in PM{sub 10} aerosols were approximately threefold and twofold higher than those during the non-Asian-dust period in June. 'Refractory' BC concentrations (i.e., because of refraction, <100% of BC was likely recovered) were also higher during Asian dust events than during the non-Asian-dust period. The percentages of modern carbon (pMC) in BC and OC were much smaller for PM{sub 10} aerosols collected during the Asian dust events (mean = 41.5% and 62.3%, respectively) than for those collected in the non-Asian-dust period (mean = 67.2% and 93.8%, respectively), indicating a strong influence of fossil-fuel-derived carbon during Asian dust events. One sample showed high OC concentration but relatively low BC concentration, suggesting formation during the long-range transport of biogenic organic compounds. The results suggest that not only fossil-fuel-derived air pollutants but also organic compounds derived from biomass in Asia should be considered to better characterize long-range transported aerosols.

  12. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS). (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun


    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO(2) lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system RID C-8303-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu


    Increasing levels Of CO(2) in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO(2) disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution Of CO(2) in seawa......Increasing levels Of CO(2) in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO(2) disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution Of CO(2......) in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural Co(2) reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO(2) in such environments, are of great interest to science...... and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO(2) lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (> 10(9) CM(-3)) of microbial cells in sediment...

  14. Particle-induced X-ray emission analysis of elements in plasma from wild and captive sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas, and Caretta caretta) in Okinawa, Japan. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Noda, Jun; Yanagisawa, Makio; Kawazu, Isao; Sera, Kouichiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of direct determination of trace and major element concentrations in plasma samples from wild (six hawksbill, nine green, and nine loggerhead) and captive sea turtles (25 howksbill, five green, and three loggerhead) in Okinawa, Japan. The particle induced X-ray emission method allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn). The wild sea turtles were found to have high concentrations of As and Pb in plasma compared with captive, but there were no significant changes in the Al and Hg concentrations. Loggerhead sea turtles were found to have significantly higher accumulation of As and Pb in plasma in comparison to other species. These findings may be useful when adjusting environmental and species-related factors in severely polluted marine ecosystems. Our results indicate that measuring the plasma As and Pb concentrations in wild sea turtles might be of help to assess the level of pollution in marine ecosystems, keeping in mind that loggerhead sea turtles had been shown to have higher levels of As and Pb in plasma.

  15. Sulfur isotopic composition of seafloor hydrothermal sediment from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志刚; 李军; 蒋富清; 翟世奎; 秦蕴珊; 侯增谦


    --Eighteen samples of hydrothermal sediments from the Jade hydrotherrnal field in the central Okinawa Trough have been analyzed. Sulfur isotopic values for 10 sulfide samples vary from 5.2 ×10-3to 7.2× 10-3, δ34S valUes for 7 sulfate samples vary from 16.3 × 10-3 to 22.3 × 10-3, and 1 native sulphur sample has a δ34S value of 8.2 × 10-3. The major sources of sulfur for hydrothermal sediment are intermediate to acid volcanic rocks and sea water sulfate, and it is possible that the partial sulfur of hydrothermal sediment is from the pelagic sediment by the interaction between hydrothermal fluid and sediment. The reasons of causing the distinct differences in sulfur isotopic values for sulfide samples from hydrothermal sediment ( compared with other hydrothermal fields), are the differences in the sources of sulfur, the magmatic activity and the tectonic evolution in different hydrothermal fields. The sulfur evolution is a long and complex process in the seafloor hydrothermal system, involving the ascending of heating sea water, the interaction between fluid and volcanic rocks, the mixing of sea water sulfate and sulfur from intermediate to acid volcanic rocks, and the fluid/pelagic-sediment interaction. And the interaction between sea water and intermediate to acid volcanic rocks is an important mechanism for the sulfur evolution in the Jade hydrothermal field.

  16. The Envisat-1 ground segment (United States)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin


    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  17. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents (United States)

    Grant, T. J.


    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  18. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong


    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  19. New evidence for Kuroshio inflow and deepwater circulation in the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea: Sedimentary mercury variations over the last 20 kyr (United States)

    Lim, Dhongil; Kim, Jihun; Xu, Zhaokai; Jeong, Kapsik; Jung, Hoisoo


    The evolution of the Kuroshio Current (KC) in the Okinawa Trough (OT) has long been of paleoceanographic interest and has been the focus of many investigations because of its large impacts on both the ocean environment and the climate in East Asia. Here we present a new high-resolution mercury (Hg) record from the OT sediments that provides robust evidence for the glacial-interglacial variabilities of KC inflow. The Hg levels are anomalously high in the Holocene deposits, which feature a large and abrupt Hg increase at 9.6 ka and a significant drop at 4.5-3.2 ka. Our observations show that most Hg was derived from seafloor hydrothermal plumes via active lateral transportation. Thus, the generally high Hg levels since 9.6 ka are associated with enhanced basin-wide deepwater circulation triggered by the KC inflow. This driving mechanism for the deposition and widespread of Hg is also evidenced by an abrupt drop in Hg levels during the late Holocene neoglacial cold period ( 5-3 ka) when the KC inflow was temporarily interrupted and deepwater circulation was consequently weak or even absent in the OT. The changes in sedimentary Hg appear to be synchronous with those in other geochemical proxies that suggest that bottom water conditions switched from anoxic to oxic due to increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the strengthening KC and reduced freshwater effect since 9.6 ka. This study shows that the hydrothermal Hg is a sensitive and independent tool for the reconstruction of paleodynamics of KC in the OT.

  20. Emergência de plântulas do pêssego porta-enxerto 'Okinawa': influência de períodos de estratificação e de ácido giberélico Effects of stratification period and gibberellic acid on emergence of 'Okinawa' peach seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa


    Full Text Available Testaram-se os efeitos dos períodos de estratificação a frio úmido por 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias, associados a aplicações do ácido giberélico (GA3 nas concentrações de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ppm, na quebra de dormência das sementes do pessegueiro porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. Os resultados mostraram que os períodos de estratificação de 0, 10 e 20 dias foram insuficientes para a completa quebra de dormência, mesmo quando em associação com o GA3. Apesar da boa emergência verificada, após 20 dias de frio, 20% das plantas desenvolveram-se com formação de rosetas. As melhores respostas foram obtidas aos 30 e 40 dias de estratificação, mesmo na ausência do GA3; a germinação aproximou-se de 100% e nenhuma plântula anômala foi detectada. O GA3 mostrou efeito na germinação das amêndoas, sobretudo nas concentrações maiores, porém insuficiente para eliminar os sintomas de falta de frio das plântulas.The main objective of the present work was to study the effects of stratification period and gibberellic acid (GA3, on emergence of 'Okinawa' peach rootstock seeds. The experiment was conducted with seeds freshly extracted from ripe fruits. The seeds were soaked for 24 hours in aqueous solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm GA3 and immediately stratified in a wet cotton substrate for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The results showed that for 0, 10 and 20 days, stratification associated with GA3 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm, presented no significant effect on the seed germination and seedling emergence. The best responses were achieved with 30 and 40 days of stratification, even in the absence of GA3. In these treatments, 100% germination and emergence were obtained and no anomalous seedling was detected.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文介绍民航华北局山西办公楼地源热泵空调系统设计,重点介绍:1.室内分散式热泵系统(水环热泵)及室外地埋管换热系统的设计思路;2.太原地区粉质粘土地质结构冬夏季土壤换热量;3.运行情况。%Presents ground-source heat pump air conditioning system design of shanxi office of civil aviation North Bureau. Highlights are as follows: 1. The design idea of indoor distributed water-loop heat pump system and outdoor ground heat exchanger system. 2. The winter and summer soil heat exchanger with geological structure of silty clay in Taiyuan.3.Operation situation.

  2. [Introduction to grounded theory]. (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy


    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  3. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  4. 冲绳海槽地区地震潜在海啸对中国东南沿海的影响研究%Impact of potential tsunami induced by Okinawa trough earthquakes on southeastern seaboard of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双庆; 朱元清; 梁明剑; 董非非


    采用球坐标系下非线性浅水波方程,研究日本本州M9.0大地震引发的海啸对中国东南沿海的影响,并计算了冲绳海槽构造带上3个不同段落可能发生潜在地震引发的海啸,分析这些海啸与日本大海啸的浪高和走时关系.结果表明,日本地震海啸模拟结果与日本当地报道及中国东南沿海7个验潮站的报道结果相符.冲绳海槽构造带中段可能发生的3次不同震级(M7.0,M7.5,M8.0)潜在地震引发的海啸到达中国东南沿海的时间比日本海啸提前约4个小时,从震源区传播3个多小时即可到达华东沿海部分验潮站.冲绳海槽M7.5潜在地震海啸在验潮站上计算的波高与日本海啸相当,中冲绳海槽M8.0潜在地震海啸在大陈站的波高将超过0.9m,在坎门站波高将超过1.8m.北冲绳海槽的潜在地震海啸威胁主要集中在江苏盐城、上海一带,南冲绳海啸主要对台湾东北部和浙江沿海产生威胁.本文对冲绳海槽构造带上潜在地震引发海啸的模拟结果,可为中国东南沿海地区的防震减灾、海啸预警提供有意义的参考.%Utilizing spherical nonlinear shallow water equation this paper studies the impact of the 11 March 2011 Japan M9. 0 earthquake tsunami on southeastern seaboard region of China, and calculates potential tsunamis induced by strong earthquakes in three different sections of Okinawa trough. Then the relation between wave heights and arrival times of the Japan tsunami and the simulated tsunamis is analyzed. The result indicates that the simulated Japan tsunami is consistent with local reports of Japan and the repots from 7 tide gauge stations on coastal line of southeastern China. The arrival times of the tsunamis induced by three different magnitude (M7. 0, Ml. 5, M8. 0) potential earthquakes in middle Okinawa trough would be 4 hours earlier than that of the Japan tsunami. The tsunami generated in middle Okinawa trough would take about 3 hours to reach

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  7. Communication, concepts and grounding. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  8. Stochastic ground motion simulation (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan


    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  9. Ground energy coupling (United States)

    Metz, P. D.

    The feasibility of ground coupling for various heat pump systems was investigated. Analytical heat flow models were developed to approximate design ground coupling devices for use in solar heat pump space conditioning systems. A digital computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) was written to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow in order to simulate the behavior of ground coupling experiments and to provide performance predictions which have been compared to experimental results. GROCS also has been integrated with TRNSYS. Soil thermal property and ground coupling device experiments are described. Buried tanks, serpentine earth coils in various configurations, lengths and depths, and sealed vertical wells are being investigated. An earth coil used to heat a house without use of resistance heating is described.

  10. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy


    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  11. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru


    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  12. Palaeoenvironmental changes from pollen record in deep sea core PC-1 from northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea during the past 24 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU HongYan; CHANG FengMing; LUO YunLi; SUN XiangJun


    A pollen record of core PC-1 from the northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provides in-formation on vegetation and climate changes since 24 cal. kaBP. A total of 103 samples were palyno-logically analyzed at 8 cm intervals with a time resolution of 230 a. Four pollen zones are recognized: zone I (812-715 cm, 24.2-21.1 cal. kaBP), zone II (715-451 cm, 21.1 -15.2 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅲ (451 -251 cm, 15.2-10.8 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅳ (251-0 cm, 10.8-0.3 cal. kaBP), corresponding to Late MIS 3, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene, respectively. The LGM is characterized by the dominance of herbs, mainly Artemisia, and high pollen influx, implying an open vegetation on the ex-posed continental shelf and e cool and dry climate. The deglaciation is a climate warming stage with Pinus percentage increased and Artemisia percentage decreased and a rapid sea-level rise. The Holo-cene is characterized by predominance of tree pollen with rapid increase in Castanea-Castanopsis in-dicating the development of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest and a warm, humid climate. Low pollen influx during the Holocene probably implies submergence of the continental shelf and retreat of the pollen source area. The vegetation indicated by pollen assemblage found in this up-per zone is consistent with the present vegetation found in Kyushu, Japan. Originating from the humid mountain area of North Luzon of the Philippines, Tasmania and New Zealand, Phyllocladus with spo-radic occurrence throughout PC-1 core probably suggests the influence of Palaeo-Kuroshio Current or intense summer monsoon. The observed changes in Pinus and Herbs percentage indicate fluctuations of the sea level, and high Pinus percentage corresponds to high sea level. Spectrum analysis of the pollen percentage record reveals many millennial-scale periodicities, such as periodicities of 6.8, 3.8, 2.2, 1.6 ka.

  13. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong


    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Pisarev


    Full Text Available Ventilation systems consume more and more energy because of the often complex treatment of the air supplied to closed spaces. Looking for sources of energy allow for significant savings costs, which often translate into renewable energy sources. One of the more popular solutions is to use energy from the ground by various methods. Known and relatively common solutions are based on ground heat exchanger and ground collector cooperating with a heat pump. The paper presents the possibility of cooperation ventilation system with ground air heat exchanger and heat pump both in summer and winter period. A number solutions of this type of system, supported by calculation examples and moist air transformation in the Moliere chart have been presented. Support ventilation system with renewable energy sources allows significant savings in operating as shown in the article.

  15. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation (United States)


    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  16. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.



    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel


    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  18. Multi-year objective analyses of warm season ground-level ozone and PM2.5 over North America using real-time observations and Canadian operational air quality models (United States)

    Robichaud, A.; Ménard, R.


    Multi-year objective analyses (OA) on a high spatiotemporal resolution for the warm season period (1 May to 31 October) for ground-level ozone and for fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5)) are presented. The OA used in this study combines model outputs from the Canadian air quality forecast suite with US and Canadian observations from various air quality surface monitoring networks. The analyses are based on an optimal interpolation (OI) with capabilities for adaptive error statistics for ozone and PM2.5 and an explicit bias correction scheme for the PM2.5 analyses. The estimation of error statistics has been computed using a modified version of the Hollingsworth-Lönnberg (H-L) method. The error statistics are "tuned" using a χ2 (chi-square) diagnostic, a semi-empirical procedure that provides significantly better verification than without tuning. Successful cross-validation experiments were performed with an OA setup using 90% of data observations to build the objective analyses and with the remainder left out as an independent set of data for verification purposes. Furthermore, comparisons with other external sources of information (global models and PM2.5 satellite surface-derived or ground-based measurements) show reasonable agreement. The multi-year analyses obtained provide relatively high precision with an absolute yearly averaged systematic error of less than 0.6 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 0.7 μg m-3 (micrograms per cubic meter) for ozone and PM2.5, respectively, and a random error generally less than 9 ppbv for ozone and under 12 μg m-3 for PM2.5. This paper focuses on two applications: (1) presenting long-term averages of OA and analysis increments as a form of summer climatology; and (2) analyzing long-term (decadal) trends and inter-annual fluctuations using OA outputs. The results show that high percentiles of ozone and PM2.5 were both following a general decreasing trend in North America, with the eastern

  19. Ground Enterprise Management System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  20. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.


    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  1. Tectonophysical Features of the Hydrothermal Fields in the Middle Okinawa Trough%冲绳海槽中部热液活动区构造地球物理特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾锡武; 翟世奎; 干晓群


    Hydrothermal activity is widely occurring along the active plate boundaries and intraplate volcanic centers which is exchanging heat and material between the lithosphere and the oceans.Okinawa Trough is an important part of Ryuky T-A-ba system which is in the collision and subduction zone between a oceanic block and continental block and is reported to be in the early stage of back-arc spreading with a rift structure and an embryonic marginal basin,its origin and evolution may be one of the most interseting problems in geophysics and geology to day.Hydrothermal activity as a window and clue of studying the origin and evolut ion of Okinawa Trough has been explored through out the Trough by scientists all over the worlds.Several hydrothermal fields have been found in the middle part of Okinawa Trough.Tectonophysical features of topography,heatflow distribution,s eismicity and magnetic anomaly of three hydrothermal fields including southwest Amami hydrothermal field、Iheya deep hydrothermal field and Izena caldron hydroth ermal field in the middle Okinawa Trough were studied.The results show that all the hydrothermal fields distribute in the central graben and locate at the slope of caldera or of central ridge with high and vary heatflow distribution,active seismic activities and fluctuating magnetic anomaly.It is found that the hydroth ermal fields have close relationship with tectonic zoon.In the area of Ryukyu T -A-Ba system,the upwelling of mantal materials beneath the trough due to the subduction of Pacific Plate provides heat energy for the hydrothermal activity.The faults formation in the process of trough expending provides space for the hydrothermal activity.%对冲绳海槽中部南奄西、伊平屋、伊士名三个现代海底热液活动区的地形、热流分布、地震、地磁场特征进行了初步研究。结果表明,海槽中部的热液活动区都集中于海槽的中央地堑中,或位于火山口的侧坡上,或位于地堑中山脊


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小慧; 王汝建; 翦知湣


    In the present study multi-approach has been employed to investigate the Holocene sedimentations of the river discharge and volcanic particles in the northern Okinawa Trough. During 11. 0~6. 0 kaBP,amounts of terrigenous particles and organic matter input to the northern Okinawa Trough as well as the particle grain sizes were found to have obviously decreased, which was a result from 50~60 m global sea level rise and a rapid retreat of coastline in the East China Sea. Thereby, the terrigenous input to the Okinawa Trough should be first orderly controlled by sea level changes in the early to middle Holocene. The volcanic glass shard concentration prominently increased during 8. 1~7. 8 kaBP, which was recognized as the K-Ah tephra derived from Kikai volcano in southern Japan. However, the K-Ah tephra age in the deep sea sediment sequence is much older than that of 7. 3 kaBP in a variety of terrigenous records. This inconsistence was probably induced by the uncertainty of marine ~(14)C age calibration. Reservoir age of the northern Okinawa Trough in the early Holocene was considered to be 300 ~ 500 years older than that of the present. A set of proxy records based on the distribution of terrigenous alkane show an increasing expansion of the C_4 plant in the East Asia continent during the Holocene, hinting the aridity was gradually enhanced in the inner part of China, which is consistent with the Holocene decrease in summer monsoon precipitation in this region.%运用多种方法,重建了全新世以来冲绳海槽北部地区陆源输入物以及火山碎屑物的沉积历史.在11.0~6.0 kaBP期间,北部冲绳海槽的陆源物质供应量主要受控于海平面变化.由于该时期海平面上涨了50~60 m,东海陆架上的海岸线快速后退,导致输入北部冲绳海槽的陆源碎屑物和有机质明显减少,沉积物粒度变细.在8.1~7.8 kaBP期间,沉积物中的火山玻璃数目显著增加,导致该时段沉积物粒度急剧增大.经对

  3. 46 CFR 169.676 - Grounded electrical systems. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounded electrical systems. 169.676 Section 169.676... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.676 Grounded electrical systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.954 - Grounding for protection of employees. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and... the new lines or equipment. (c) Communication conductors. Bare wire communication conductors on power... operation of protective devices. (i) Grounding to tower. Grounding to tower shall be made with a tower...

  5. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.


    The distance protection scheme without communication is often applied to the backup protection of EHV cable lines. For a reliable operation of a ground distance relay, the ground loop impedance of EHV cable lines needs to have a linear relationship to the distance from the relay location to the f...

  6. FGMOS Based Voltage-Controlled Grounded Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pandey


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor. In the proposed circuit FGMOS operating in the ohmic region is linearized by another conventional MOSFET operating in the saturation region. The major advantages of FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor (FGVCGR are simplicity, low total harmonic distortion (THD, and low power consumption. A simple application of this FGVCGR as a tunable high-pass filter is also suggested. The proposed circuits operate at the supply voltages of +/-0.75 V. The circuits are designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25-µm CMOS technology. The simulation results of FGVCGR demonstrate a THD of 0.28% for the input signal 0.32 Vpp at 45 kHz, and a maximum power consumption of 254 µW.

  7. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David


    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  8. Ground water in Oklahoma (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.


    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  9. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark


    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  10. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance (United States)

    Yager, T. J.


    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  11. Detection of ground ice using ground penetrating radar method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady M. Stoyanovich; Viktor V. Pupatenko; Yury A. Sukhobok


    The paper presents the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) application for the detection of ground ice. We com-bined a reflection traveltime curves analysis with a frequency spectrogram analysis. We found special anomalies at specific traces in the traveltime curves and ground boundaries analysis, and obtained a ground model for subsurface structure which allows the ground ice layer to be identified and delineated.

  12. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.;


    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  13. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  14. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  15. MIT January Operational Internship Experience (United States)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami


    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  16. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom...

  17. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD


    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  18. Grounding in Instant Messaging (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.


    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  19. Informed Grounded Theory (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert


    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway


    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  1. Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durao, Frederico


    Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

  2. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  3. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James


    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  4. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA) (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.


    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  5. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA) (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.


    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  6. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  7. Infrasonic induced ground motions (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  8. Design of a Smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Hazardous Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Saurav


    A smart Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is designed and developed for some application specific missions to operate predominantly in hazardous environments. In our work, we have developed a small and lightweight vehicle to operate in general cross-country terrains in or without daylight. The UGV can send visual feedbacks to the operator at a remote location. Onboard infrared sensors can detect the obstacles around the UGV and sends signals to the operator.

  9. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.


    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation.

  10. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tang


    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

  11. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette


    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  12. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens


    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  13. Ibis ground calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T. [Southampton Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica - IASF/CNR, Roma (Italy); Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [CEA Saclay - Sap, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Bologna - IASF/CNR (Italy); Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica- IASF/CNR, Palermo (Italy); Quadrini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica-Cosmica, EASF/CNR, Milano (Italy); Volkmer, R. [Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Tubingen (Germany)


    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system.

  14. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M


    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  15. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bottom....... Finally, overall hull failure is considered first applying a quasistatic analysis model and thereafter a full dynamic model....

  16. Research of remote sensing technology of atmospheric water vapor by using ground-based GPS and application system of meteorological operations%地基GPS水汽监测技术及气象业务化应用系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本研究建立了川渝地区地基GPS(global positioning system,全球定位系统)遥感水汽的本地化计算模型,开发出GPS遥感水汽的计算软件包,开展了局域地基GPS观测网遥感大气水汽的试验及业务应用,反演出30 min间隔的高时间分辨率GPS可降水量序列。评估了反演精度,研究了GPS水汽产品在气象业务应用的可行性。研发了可搭建在MICAPS(meteorological information comprehensive analysis and process system)平台上的地基G%This study established local computing model of remote sensing water vapor by using ground-based GPS(global positioning system) in the region of Sichuan-Chongqing,and developed computing software packages of GPS remote sensing water vapor.Then the experiment and operational application of remote sensing water vapor by using ground-based GPS in this local network was done,by which the high time resolution GPS precipitable water vapor(PWV) sequence of 30 min intervals was derived.This paper also gives the assessment of the retrieval accuracy,as well as the feasibility of meteorological operations application of GPS water vapor products.The major results of this study include developing the operations application system of remote sensing atmospheric water vapor by using ground-based GPS,which can be build on the MICAPS(meteorological information comprehensive analysis and process system) as an operational application system,and realizing the real-time transmission,data solution,deriving of PWV by a local ground-based GPS network and visualization of GPS water vapor products.This meteorological operations system played a unique role in the heavy rain,blizzard and other severe weather forecast in its trial-run.Systematical study of the temporal variation,horizontal distribution of GPS-PWV was done by our research group.Furthermore,the relationship between PWV derived by GPS among surface air temperature,pressure,specific humidity,solar radiation

  17. Outdoor ground impedance models. (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram


    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  18. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review


    Archna *; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti


    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  19. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements. (United States)


    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  20. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  1. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  2. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen;


    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  3. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.;


    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  4. Ground-Ground Data Communication-Assisted Planning and Coordination: Shorter Verbal Communications (United States)

    Kessell, Angela Mary; Lee, Paul U.; Smith, Nancy M.; Lee, Hwasoo Eric


    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to investigate the operational feasibility, technical requirements, and potential improvement in airspace efficiency of adding a Multi-Sector Planner position. A subset of the data from that simulation is analyzed here to determine the impact, if any, of ground-ground data communication (Data Comm) on verbal communication and coordination for multi-sector air traffic management. The results suggest that the use of Data Comm significantly decreases the duration of individual verbal communications. The results also suggest that the use of Data Comm, as instantiated in the current simulation, does not obviate the need for accompanying voice calls.

  5. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services (United States)

    Petersen, S.


    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  6. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.


    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  7. Grounding Symbolic Operations in Modality-Specific Processing (United States)


    Real sugar crystal comet harpsichord ear aluminum ranch brand helicopter hedge butterfly ambulance calculator cover skyscraper nutmeg fridge bracelet...widely as a function of the type of person distressed (e.g., mother , child, lawyer). Interestingly, locations are less likely to be affected by the head

  8. Reusable Space Vehicle Ground Operations Baseline Conceptual Model (United States)


    detailed manufacturing process knowledge (e.g., Hubble telescope mirror fabrication process) among geographically dispersed units. - Determine the impact...take place in several different facilities located relatively close to each other with the exception of hazardous functions being geographically ...segments are ready, they are transported to the VAB for stacking as previously described. Store Segments Inspect Segements Transport

  9. Soldier Cognitive Processes: Supporting Teleoperated Ground Vehicle Operations (United States)


    and to integrate new information with existing knowledge (Gyselinck, Ehrlich , Cornoldi, de Beni, & Dubois, 2000; Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Within...212, 212a,, doi:10.1167/1.3.212. Gyselinck, V., Ehrlich , M. F., Cornoldi, C., deBeni, R., & Dubois, V. (2000

  10. Innovative Ground Habitats for Lunar Operational Outpost (IGLOO) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics, Inc. is proposing an alternate architecture for inflatable lunar habitats that takes advantage of inflatable beam technologies currently being...

  11. Aircraft Armament for Air-To-Ground Operations (United States)


    bomba , Va was set -qual 500 ft./sec.; for guns, V. uas set equal to zero. Actual values of 17-9 as taken fron trajectory Table I are shown for comarison...general- yIly fouind in firing tests corrected for •’y. These values are approximately (6). 9 mile - Bomba 9 midls - Rockets 5 mils - Ouns Release

  12. Collaborative Autonomous Unmanned Aerial - Ground Vehicle Systems for Field Operations (United States)


    decentralized PID controllers , decentralized PID-like Fuzzy Logic controllers, and a centralized LQR controller. A comparison was made between the three...others who may not be experts in the design of MPC. The MPC controller was compared to the previously designed PID controllers for both an ascending

  13. Intelligent Agents for Improved Ground-Test Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal outlines a research program for developing a novel soft-computing technology composed of an Artificial Immune System and Bayesian Belief Networks for...

  14. The LOFT Ground Segment

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Argan, A; Barret, D; Binko, P; Brandt, S; Cavazzuti, E; Courvoisier, T; Herder, J W den; Feroci, M; Ferrigno, C; Giommi, P; Götz, D; Guy, L; Hernanz, M; Zand, J J M in't; Klochkov, D; Kuulkers, E; Motch, C; Lumb, D; Papitto, A; Pittori, C; Rohlfs, R; Santangelo, A; Schmid, C; Schwope, A D; Smith, P J; Webb, N A; Wilms, J; Zane, S


    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We...

  15. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri


    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  16. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.


    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  17. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas


    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  18. Distributed intelligence for ground/space systems (United States)

    Aarup, Mads; Munch, Klaus Heje; Fuchs, Joachim; Hartmann, Ralf; Baud, Tim


    DI is short for Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems and the DI Study is one in a series of ESA projects concerned with the development of new concepts and architectures for future autonomous spacecraft systems. The kick-off of DI was in January 1994 and the planned duration is three years. The background of DI is the desire to design future ground/space systems with a higher degree of autonomy than seen in today's missions. The aim of introducing autonomy in spacecraft systems is to: (1) lift the role of the spacecraft operators from routine work and basic troubleshooting to supervision; (2) ease access to and increase availability of spacecraft resources; (3) carry out basic mission planning for users; (4) enable missions which have not yet been feasible due to eg. propagation delays, insufficient ground station coverage etc.; and (5) possibly reduce mission cost. The study serves to identify the feasibility of using state-of-the-art technologies in the area of planning, scheduling, fault detection using model-based diagnosis and knowledge processing to obtain a higher level of autonomy in ground/space systems.

  19. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.


    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  20. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.


    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  1. Performance and Stability of a Winged Vehicle in Ground Effect

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola


    Present work deals with the dynamics of vehicles which intentionally operate in the ground proximity. The dynamics in ground effect is influenced by the vehicle orientation with respect to the ground, since the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, which in turn depend on height and angle of attack, also vary with the Euler angles. This feature, usually neglected in the applications, can be responsible for sizable variations of the aircraft performance and stability. A further effect, caused by the sink rate, determines unsteadiness that modifies the aerodynamic coefficients. In this work, an analytical formulation is proposed for the force and moment calculation in the presence of the ground and taking the aircraft attitude and sink rate into account. The aerodynamic coefficients are firstly calculated for a representative vehicle and its characteristics in ground effect are investigated. Performance and stability characteristics are then discussed with reference to significant equilibrium conditions, w...

  2. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals (United States)

    Gould, G. R.


    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  3. Ground Truth: The Implications of Joint Interdependence for Air and Ground Operations (United States)


    Quarterly, no 37, Spring 2005, 40-45. Clancy, Tom, and General Charles Horner (Ret.), Every Man a Tiger, New York, N. Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons...Force Magazine Online, vol. 87, no. 6 June 2004, pp. 1-11 26 Cristopher R. Paparone, COL, USA James A. Crupi, Ph.D. “What is Joint

  4. Effects of Sensing Capability on Ground Platform Survivability During Ground Forces Maneuver Operations (United States)


    Bradley M6 Linebacker and M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank, and the speed of UAV, were identified to be the three most significant factors affecting platform...Bradley M6 Linebacker and M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank, and the speed of UAV, were identified to be the three most significant factors affecting platform...9 1. M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank

  5. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell


    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  6. Designing as middle ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Binder, Thomas


    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors...... in a network of humans and non-humans, highlighting that design objects and the designer as an authority are constructed throughout this endeavour. The illustrative case example is drawn from product development in a rubber valve factory in Jutland in Denmark. The key contribution to a general core of design...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  7. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.


    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  8. Wind-induced ground motion (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard


    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  9. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald


    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  10. JERS-1 Workshop on the Ground Station for ASEAN (United States)

    Peanvijarnpong, Chanchai


    Presented in viewgraph format, the present status of the ground station and future plan for utilizing earth observation satellites in Thailand is outlined. Topics addressed include: data acquisition system; operation status of LANDSAT, SPOT, and MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1); remote sensors of satellites; data output form; data correction level; data system in Thailand; ground station for MOS-1 satellite in Thailand; and future plan.

  11. Grounding devices of electrical equipment's installation and check to maintain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At this stage in real life,the incidents of electricity are increasing,the main reason is that the subjective sense is weak,non-importance,especially the operation and maintenance is more neglected,and even there is no sense in this area.In this paper,based on electrical equipment grounding system for use in practice,simple introdusing grounding device of electrical equipment's installation and maintenance checks.

  12. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald


    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  13. Ground vibration test and flutter analysis of air sampling probe (United States)

    Ellison, J. F.


    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center conducted a ground vibration test and a flutter analysis of an air sampling probe that was to be mounted on a Convair 990 airplane. The probe was a steel, wing-shaped structure used to gather atmospheric data. The ground vibration test was conducted to update the finite-element model used in the flutter analysis. The analysis predicted flutter speeds well outside the operating flight envelope of the Convair 990 airplane.

  14. WSO-UV ground segment for observation optimisation (United States)

    Basargina, O.; Sachkov, M.; Kazakevich, Y.; Kanev, E.; Sichevskij, S.


    The World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a Russian-Spanish space mission born as a response to the growing up demand for UV facilities by the astronomical community. Main components of the WSO-UV Ground Segment, Mission Control Centre and Science Operation Centre, are being developed by international cooperation In this paper the fundamental components of WSO-UV ground segment are described. Also approaches to optimize observatory scheduling problem are discussed.

  15. Depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP for active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits: a case study from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan (United States)

    Komori, Shogo; Masaki, Yuka; Tanikawa, Wataru; Torimoto, Junji; Ohta, Yusuke; Makio, Masato; Maeda, Lena; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Tadai, Osamu; Kumagai, Hidenori


    Submarine hydrothermal deposits are one of the promising seafloor mineral resources, because they can store a large amount of metallic minerals as sulfides. The present study focuses on the electrical properties of active modern submarine hydrothermal deposits, in order to provide constraints on the interpretation of electrical structures obtained from marine electromagnetic surveys. Measurements of resistivity and spectral induced polarization (IP) were made using drillcore samples taken from the Iheya North Knoll and the Iheya Minor Ridge in Okinawa Trough, Japan. These hydrothermal sediments are dominantly composed of disseminated sulfides, with minor amounts of massive sulfide rocks. The depth profiles of resistivity and spectral IP properties were successfully revealed to correspond well to layer-by-layer lithological features. Comparison with other physical properties and occurrence of constituent minerals showed that resistivity is essentially sensitive to the connectivity of interstitial fluids, rather than by sulfide and clay content. This suggests that, in active modern submarine hydrothermal systems, not only typical massive sulfide rocks but also high-temperature hydrothermal fluids could be imaged as low-resistivity anomalies in seabed surveys. The spectral IP signature was shown to be sensitive to the presence or absence of sulfide minerals, and total chargeability is positively correlated with sulfide mineral abundance. In addition, the massive sulfide rock exhibits the distinctive IP feature that the phase steadily increases with a decrease of frequency. These results show the effective usage of IP for developing and improving marine IP exploration techniques.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap (United States)


    Squad Mission Support System SOC .............................. Special Operations Command SOFC ............................ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...technologies may be used to match a given Use Profile: Table 5. Power Use Profiles Energy Storage Energy Harvesting Fuel Cells Engines Lead Acid...significant amount of research and development in both Government and Industry have been devoted to the areas of energy storage, fuel cells , and small

  17. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal


    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  18. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar (United States)


    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  19. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.


    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  20. Structure and form of grounding lines of modern ice sheets (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Boghosian, A.; Porter, D. F.


    The form of the bed at the grounding line of a glacier and the character of the underlying rock can be critical to the stability of the glacier. Aerogravity measurements offer a unique insight in to the character of the grounding line environment. By combining depth measurements from further onshore radar and geological information from magnetic surveys, gravity-based models can reveal both the depth and slope of the bed at the grounding line. Where bed elevation is known at the grounding line, gravity models can show the density structure of the underlying rock. Operation IceBridge has flown coincident radar, lidar, photography, gravity and magnetic airborne surveys along fjords and over ice shelves in both Greenland and Antarctica. Aerogravity measurements have been used extensively to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the grounding line, and to identify the depth of the grounding line in areas where radar measurements have proven challenging. These models have also been used to reveal the range of conditions at present day grounding lines, as well as those experienced in the past and predicted for future grounding line positions. In some regions, we have identified low-density sediment accumulations, at both present day grounding lines and within fjords, that we interpret to be terminal moraines deposited by the glacier itself during hiatuses in retreat. In other regions, we find that the present day grounding line is stalled on a ridge of high-density rock. Ridges such as these remain in the same position through many cycles of advance and retreat of the glacier. Our synthesis of gravity data from a wide range of glacial environments can be used to identify likely drivers of change at the grounding line, whether this is the depth, the slope, or the geological character of the glacier bed.

  1. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded). (United States)


    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  2. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information:

  3. [Operative treatment of chronic pleuritis]. (United States)

    Duzhyĭ, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O; Elastal, R Z


    Basing on the literature data and own experience, grounded on results of follow-up on 2000 patients, suffering an acute pleuritis and performance of more than 200 operative interventions--pleurectomy, the clinic-radiological classification of chronic pleuritis, mostly answering the practical health care necessities, was proposed by the authors.

  4. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.


    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  5. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research. (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann


    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  6. PALSAR ground data processing (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.


    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  7. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David H.


    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  8. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K


    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  9. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner


    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  10. Schwartz operators (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.


    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  11. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith


    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  12. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)


    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  13. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications (United States)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor

  14. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco


    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  15. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger


    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chang

  16. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.


    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  17. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger


    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  18. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup


    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  19. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  20. 全麻查眼底患儿家属术前焦虑状态及护理需求的调查%Investigation on family members' pre-operative anxiety and nursing demands before eye-ground examination under general anesthesia in sick-children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫建辉; 李岩; 庞冬


    目的 了解全麻查眼底患儿家属的焦虑状况及对护理工作的需求,分析与焦虑有关的因素.方法 采用状态-特质焦虑量表和自行设计的调查问卷,对82例已诊或拟诊视网膜母细胞瘤的患儿家属在术前1d进行调查.结果 患儿家属状态焦虑、特质焦虑得分均高于常模(男性:t=7.826,P<0.01;女性:t=15.278,P<0.01),其状态焦虑主要与患儿家属的性别、手术时与患儿的暂时性分离、担心此次入院疗效不佳等因素有关(P<0.05);特质焦虑主要与患儿的化疗史、全麻查眼底手术史以及手术时与患儿的暂时性分离有关(P<0.05).家长对护理工作的需求中减轻患儿恐惧占72.0%、护理技术过硬占70.7%、态度和蔼占64.6%、普及疾病知识占48.8%等.结论 患者家属的焦虑情况与多种因素有关,应该针对患儿及其家属的特点进行护理,根据其对护理工作的需求为其及患儿提供相应的护理措施,降低患儿家属的焦虑程度,确保患儿在最佳状态下进行手术.%Objective To investigate family members' anxiety status and nursing demands and analyze the related factors.Methods Anxiety level and nursing demands of 82 family members were investigated by nurses with self-designed Strate-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the questionnaires one day before eye-ground examination for children with retinoblastoma.Results State anxiety and trait anxiety scores of family members were higher than those of general population model (Male:t=7.826,P<0.01; Female:t=15.278,P<0.01). The state anxiety was related to family member gender, temporal separation from RB children during the operation and worrying about this time's therapy outcome (P<0.05); while the trait anxiety was mainly related to chemotherapy history, temporal separation from RB children during the operation and history of eye-ground examination under general anesthesia (P<0.05). Nursing demands included RB children terror alleviation (72.0%), good

  1. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  2. The carbon footprint of Australian ambulance operations. (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Canyon, Deon V; Buettner, Petra G; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni


    To determine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy consumption of Australian ambulance operations, and to identify the predominant energy sources that contribute to those emissions. A two-phase study of operational and financial data from a convenience sample of Australian ambulance operations to inventory their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for 1 year. State- and territory-based ambulance systems serving 58% of Australia's population and performing 59% of Australia's ambulance responses provided data for the study. Emissions for the participating systems totalled 67 390 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. For ground ambulance operations, emissions averaged 22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per ambulance response, 30 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per patient transport and 3 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per capita. Vehicle fuels accounted for 58% of the emissions from ground ambulance operations, with the remainder primarily attributable to electricity consumption. Emissions from air ambulance transport were nearly 200 times those for ground ambulance transport. On a national level, emissions from Australian ambulance operations are estimated to be between 110 000 and 120 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents each year. Vehicle fuels are the primary source of emissions for ground ambulance operations. Emissions from air ambulance transport are substantially higher than those for ground ambulance transport. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Renaissance architecture for Ground Data Systems (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.


    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) has embarked on a new approach for developing and operating Ground Data Systems (GDS) for flight mission support. This approach is driven by the goals of minimizing cost and maximizing customer satisfaction. Achievement of these goals is realized through the use of a standard set of capabilities which can be modified to meet specific user needs. This approach, which is called the Renaissance architecture, stresses the engineering of integrated systems, based upon workstation/local area network (LAN)/fileserver technology and reusable hardware and software components called 'building blocks.' These building blocks are integrated with mission specific capabilities to build the GDS for each individual mission. The building block approach is key to the reduction of development costs and schedules. Also, the Renaissance approach allows the integration of GDS functions that were previously provided via separate multi-mission facilities. With the Renaissance architecture, the GDS can be developed by the MO&DSD or all, or part, of the GDS can be operated by the user at their facility. Flexibility in operation configuration allows both selection of a cost-effective operations approach and the capability for customizing operations to user needs. Thus the focus of the MO&DSD is shifted from operating systems that we have built to building systems and, optionally, operations as separate services. Renaissance is actually a continuous process. Both the building blocks and the system architecture will evolve as user needs and technology change. Providing GDS on a per user basis enables this continuous refinement of the development process and product and allows the MO&DSD to remain a customer-focused organization. This paper will present the activities and results of the MO&DSD initial efforts toward the establishment of the Renaissance approach for the development of GDS, with a particular focus on both the technical

  4. Fast ground filtering for TLS data via Scanline Density Analysis (United States)

    Che, Erzhuo; Olsen, Michael J.


    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) efficiently collects 3D information based on lidar (light detection and ranging) technology. TLS has been widely used in topographic mapping, engineering surveying, forestry, industrial facilities, cultural heritage, and so on. Ground filtering is a common procedure in lidar data processing, which separates the point cloud data into ground points and non-ground points. Effective ground filtering is helpful for subsequent procedures such as segmentation, classification, and modeling. Numerous ground filtering algorithms have been developed for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. However, many of these are error prone in application to TLS data because of its different angle of view and highly variable resolution. Further, many ground filtering techniques are limited in application within challenging topography and experience difficulty coping with some objects such as short vegetation, steep slopes, and so forth. Lastly, due to the large size of point cloud data, operations such as data traversing, multiple iterations, and neighbor searching significantly affect the computation efficiency. In order to overcome these challenges, we present an efficient ground filtering method for TLS data via a Scanline Density Analysis, which is very fast because it exploits the grid structure storing TLS data. The process first separates the ground candidates, density features, and unidentified points based on an analysis of point density within each scanline. Second, a region growth using the scan pattern is performed to cluster the ground candidates and further refine the ground points (clusters). In the experiment, the effectiveness, parameter robustness, and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with datasets collected from an urban scene and a natural scene, respectively.

  5. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin


    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration (United States)

    Wade, Gina


    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others


    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  8. Power quality considerations for nuclear spectroscopy applications: Grounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Hernández, J.M., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Ramírez-Jiménez, F.J., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Mondragón-Contreras, L.; López-Callejas, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Torres-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); and others


    Traditionally the electrical installations are designed for supplying power and to assure the personnel safety. In nuclear analysis laboratories, additional issues about grounding also must be considered for proper operation of high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems. This paper shows the traditional ways of grounding nuclear spectroscopy systems and through different scenarios, it shows the effects on the more sensitive parameter of these systems: the energy resolution, it also proposes the constant monitoring of a power quality parameter as a way to preserve or to improve the resolution of the systems, avoiding the influence of excessive extrinsic noise. -- Highlights: •We analyze the performance of nuclear spectroscopy systems with different configurations of the grounding system. •The neutral to ground voltage is an indicator of the ground conditions, a high value may contribute to the increase of the FWHM in nuclear spectroscopy systems. •The use of an isolated ground system is the best option to preserve the best FWHM value. •The application of power quality concepts can help to guaranty the best configuration of the grounding system.

  9. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331). (United States)

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken


    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments.

  10. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China]. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi


    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  11. Operation REDWING (United States)


    only 16mm cinemascope films would be available after 1 August 1956t Act- tion was taken to modify the screens of the Terrace and Starlite theaters...approximately 900, was in operation throughout the interim and operational period. The Starlite Theater, which seats approximately 600, opened in


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operation using conventional arms against Swapo Plan, while they were still massed in their .... stationed there was no real threat to our planned operation. the idea was to sow confusion in the minds ...... A four by four transport vehi- cle, based ...

  13. Operational Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal; Hustvedt, Kjersti


    by Bakhtinian theory, Brian Edmiston developed a solution to this in the 1990s: the principle of ‘dialogic sequencing’. Aiming to escape the conflict between relativism and absolutism, we present an alternative to Edmiston’s approach, based on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of ‘operational closure’: operational...

  14. Business & Operations (United States)

    Agron, Joe


    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  15. Operation crosscheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, F. C.


    This report consists of three sections covering the three major areas of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s participation in Operation Crosscheck. These areas are: Diagnostic Aircraft; Radiochemical Sampling; and Device Assembly and Handling, Barbers Point. The information contained in these sections has been extracted from Crosscheck post-operation reports.

  16. Operational Amplifiers. (United States)

    Foxcroft, G. E.


    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  17. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.


    The system which was optimized was a horizontal earth coil in a given house in the Pittsburgh area. The types of components used in the heat pump are essentially conventional. The method of this study is derived from one used to optimize an air-source heat pump for operation at standard steady state conditions. A computer model, created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is used to predict heat pump performance for specified configuration and operating conditions. A predetermined set of design parameters is automatically altered by a constrained minimization program (a Numerical Algorithms Group library routine hereafter referred to as the optimizer) to find the combination for which the highest COP is predicted by the heat pump model. In the present study, the set of parameters to be varied include some pertaining to the ground coil as well as some pertaining to the heat pump. The optimizer, in this case, pursues a minimum life cycle cost which is calculated using the heat pump model, a ground coil model (called FTECM for Fast Transient Earth Coil model), and a parameterized cost model. The flow chart shows how the optimizer interacts with these programs to minimize life cycle cost.

  18. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.


    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  19. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (United States)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  20. Ground Beef and Food Safety (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...