WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground moving targets

  1. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  2. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  3. SAR Imaging of Ground Moving Targets with Non-ideal Motion Error Compensation(in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ground moving target imaging algorithms mainly focus on the range cell migration correction and the motion parameter estimation of the moving target. However, in real Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data processing, non-ideal motion error compensation is also a critical process, which focuses and has serious impacts on the imaging quality of moving targets. Non-ideal motion error can not be compensated by either the stationary SAR motion error compensation algorithms or the autofocus techniques. In this paper, two sorts of non-ideal motion errors that affect the Doppler centroid of the moving target is analyzed, and a novel non-ideal motion error compensation algorithm is proposed based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS data and the range walk trajectory. Simulated and real data processing results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  5. Low-resolution Airborne Radar Air/ground Moving Target Classification and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-you

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radar Target Recognition (RTR is one of the most important needs of modern and future airborne surveillance radars, and it is still one of the key technologies of radar. The majority of present algorithms are based on wide-band radar signal, which not only needs high performance radar system and high target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, but also is sensitive to angle between radar and target. Low-Resolution Airborne Surveillance Radar (LRASR in downward-looking mode, slow flying aircraft and ground moving truck have similar Doppler velocity and Radar Cross Section (RCS, leading to the problem that LRASR air/ground moving targets can not be distinguished, which also disturbs detection, tracking, and classification of low altitude slow flying aircraft to solve these issues, an algorithm based on narrowband fractal feature and phase modulation feature is presented for LRASR air/ground moving targets classification. Real measured data is applied to verify the algorithm, the classification results validate the proposed method, helicopters and truck can be well classified, the average discrimination rate is more than 89% when SNR ≥ 15 dB.

  6. Detecting and Georegistering Moving Ground Targets in Airborne QuickSAR via Keystoning and Multiple-Phase Center Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Perry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SAR images experience significant range walk and, without some form of motion compensation, can be quite blurred. The MITRE-developed Keystone formatting simultaneously and automatically compensates for range walk due to the radial velocity component of each moving target, independent of the number of targets or the value of each target's radial velocity with respect to the ground. Target radial motion also causes moving targets in synthetic aperture radar images to appear at locations offset from their true instantaneous locations on the ground. In a multichannel radar, the interferometric phase values associated with all nonmoving points on the ground appear as a continuum of phase differences while the moving targets appear as interferometric phase discontinuities. By multiple threshold comparisons and grouping of pixels within the intensity and the phase images, we show that it is possible to reliably detect and accurately georegister moving targets within short-duration SAR (QuickSAR images.

  7. Performance limits for exo-clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-09-01

    The performance of a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to 'get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall GMTI radar system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the 'seek time'.

  8. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  9. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum

    2017-10-17

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  10. FrFT-CSWSF: Estimating cross-range velocities of ground moving targets using multistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenlei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cross-range velocity is a challenging task for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which is important for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Because the velocity of a target is very small compared with that of the satellite, it is difficult to correctly estimate it using a conventional monostatic platform algorithm. To overcome this problem, a novel method employing multistatic SAR is presented in this letter. The proposed hybrid method, which is based on an extended space-time model (ESTIM of the azimuth signal, has two steps: first, a set of finite impulse response (FIR filter banks based on a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT is used to separate multiple targets within a range gate; second, a cross-correlation spectrum weighted subspace fitting (CSWSF algorithm is applied to each of the separated signals in order to estimate their respective parameters. As verified through computer simulation with the constellations of Cartwheel, Pendulum and Helix, this proposed time-frequency-subspace method effectively improves the estimation precision of the cross-range velocities of multiple targets.

  11. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  12. Opportune acquisition and tracking time for the fast-moving targets in a ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Jianli; Chen, Tao

    2004-10-01

    Acquisition is defined as identification for a fixed target in the related field of sight (FOS), while tracking means the sway of the telescope's axis of sight (AOS). The automatic acquisition and tracking is a process in which the operating way of the telescope should be switched from guiding to automatic tracking. There are some kinds of method to improve the acquisition and tracking ability for fast moving targets: to extend the acquisition and tracking FOS with memory and storage information of the sensor system; the multimode control to improve the dynamic property of the servo system; to choose an opportune time for acquisition and tracking; to select the control regulator parameter in every working states. If the processor of the CCD sensor can temporarily remember and save the information of the target before it moves out of the FOS, correspondingly, the FOS may be extended. The data forecast technology is used to store the target information. The automatic interception experiments are carried out to verify the control strategy.

  13. Minefield overwatch using moving target indicator radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Anthony; Ewing, Robert; Kenneally, William J.; Santapietro, John J.

    1999-07-01

    Traditional antipersonnel land mines are an effective military tool, but they are unable to distinguish friend from foe, or civilian from military personnel. The concept described here uses an advanced moving target indicator (MTI) radar to scan the minefield in order to detect movement towards or within the minefield, coupled with visual identification by a human operator and a communication link for command and control. Selected mines in the minefield can then be activated by means of the command link. In order to demonstrate this concept, a 3D, interactive simulation has been developed. This simulation builds on previous work by integrating a detailed analytical model of an MTI radar. This model has been tailored to the specific application of detection of slowly moving dismounted entities immersed in ground clutter. The model incorporates the effects of internal scatterer motion and antenna scanning modulation in order to provide a realistic representation of the detection problem in this environment. The angle information on the MTI target detection is then passed to a virtual 3D sight which cues a human operator to the target location. In addition, radar propagation effects and an experimental design in which the radar itself is used as a command link are explored.

  14. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanna R; Cuthill, Innes C; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2013-05-07

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation-detection, identification and capture-in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, background-matching and disruptive patterns were found to be most successful. Experiment 2 showed that if stimuli move, an isolated moving object on a stationary background cannot avoid detection or capture regardless of the type of camouflage. Experiment 3 used an identification task and showed that while camouflage is unable to slow detection or capture, camouflaged targets are harder to identify than uncamouflaged targets when similar background objects are present. The specific details of the camouflage patterns have little impact on this effect. If one has to move, camouflage cannot impede detection; but if one is surrounded by similar targets (e.g. other animals in a herd, or moving background distractors), then camouflage can slow identification. Despite previous assumptions, motion does not entirely 'break' camouflage.

  15. Spatial Release from Masking with a Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torben Pastore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the visual domain, a stationary object that is difficult to detect usually becomes far more salient if it moves while the objects around it do not. This “pop out” effect is important for parsing the visual world into figure/ground relationships that allow creatures to detect food, threats, etc. We tested for an auditory correlate to this visual effect by asking listeners to identify a single word, spoken by a female, embedded with two or four masking words spoken by males. Percentage correct scores were analyzed and compared between conditions where target and maskers were presented from the same position vs. when the target was presented from one position while maskers were presented from different positions. In some trials, the target word was moved across the speaker array using amplitude panning, while in other trials that target was played from a single, static position. Results showed a spatial release from masking for all conditions where the target and maskers were not located at the same position, but there was no statistically significant difference between identification performance when the target was moving vs. when it was stationary. These results suggest that, at least for short stimulus durations (0.75 s for the stimuli in this experiment, there is unlikely to be a “pop out” effect for moving target stimuli in the auditory domain as there is in the visual domain.

  16. On the radar cross section (RCS) prediction of vehicles moving on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabihi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    As readers should be aware, Radar Cross Section depends on the factors such as: Wave frequency and polarization, Target dimension, angle of ray incidence, Target’s material and covering, Type of radar system as monostatic or bistatic, space in which contains target and propagating waves, and etc. Having moved or stationed in vehicles can be effective in RCS values. Here, we investigate effective factors in RCS of moving targets on the ground or sea. Image theory in electromagnetic applies to be taken into account RCS of a target over the ground or sea

  17. On the radar cross section (RCS) prediction of vehicles moving on the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabihi, Ahmad [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-10

    As readers should be aware, Radar Cross Section depends on the factors such as: Wave frequency and polarization, Target dimension, angle of ray incidence, Target’s material and covering, Type of radar system as monostatic or bistatic, space in which contains target and propagating waves, and etc. Having moved or stationed in vehicles can be effective in RCS values. Here, we investigate effective factors in RCS of moving targets on the ground or sea. Image theory in electromagnetic applies to be taken into account RCS of a target over the ground or sea.

  18. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  19. Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Justin; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui; Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Paganetti, Harald; Sharp, Gregory C; Shackleford, James A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery. Methods: The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion. Results: A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in

  20. Moving Target Photometry Using WISE and NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    WISE band 1 observations have a significant noise contribution from confusion. The image subtraction done on W0855-0714 by Wright et al. (2014) shows that this noise source can be eliminated for sources that move by much more than the beamsize. This paper describes an analysis that includes a pattern of celestially fixed flux plus a source moving with a known trajectory. This technique allows the confusion noise to be modeled with nuisance parameters and removed even for sources that have not moved by many beamwidths. However, the detector noise is magnified if the motion is too small. Examples of the method applied to fast moving Y dwarfs and slow moving planets will be shown.

  1. Evaluating Moving Target Defense with PLADD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hobbs, Jacob Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tauritz, Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulder, Samuel A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of moving target defense (MTD) techniques using a new game we have designed, called PLADD, inspired by the game FlipIt [28]. PLADD extends FlipIt by incorporating what we believe are key MTD concepts. We have analyzed PLADD and proven the existence of a defender strategy that pushes a rational attacker out of the game, demonstrated how limited the strategies available to an attacker are in PLADD, and derived analytic expressions for the expected utility of the game’s players in multiple game variants. We have created an algorithm for finding a defender’s optimal PLADD strategy. We show that in the special case of achieving deterrence in PLADD, MTD is not always cost effective and that its optimal deployment may shift abruptly from not using MTD at all to using it as aggressively as possible. We believe our effort provides basic, fundamental insights into the use of MTD, but conclude that a truly practical analysis requires model selection and calibration based on real scenarios and empirical data. We propose several avenues for further inquiry, including (1) agents with adaptive capabilities more reflective of real world adversaries, (2) the presence of multiple, heterogeneous adversaries, (3) computational game theory-based approaches such as coevolution to allow scaling to the real world beyond the limitations of analytical analysis and classical game theory, (4) mapping the game to real-world scenarios, (5) taking player risk into account when designing a strategy (in addition to expected payoff), (6) improving our understanding of the dynamic nature of MTD-inspired games by using a martingale representation, defensive forecasting, and techniques from signal processing, and (7) using adversarial games to develop inherently resilient cyber systems.

  2. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  3. Detection of Moving Targets Using Soliton Resonance Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor K.; Zak, Michail

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a fundamentally new method for detecting hidden moving targets within noisy and cluttered data-streams using a novel "soliton resonance" effect in nonlinear dynamical systems. The technique uses an inhomogeneous Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation containing moving-target information. Solution of the KdV equation will describe a soliton propagating with the same kinematic characteristics as the target. The approach uses the time-dependent data stream obtained with a sensor in form of the "forcing function," which is incorporated in an inhomogeneous KdV equation. When a hidden moving target (which in many ways resembles a soliton) encounters the natural "probe" soliton solution of the KdV equation, a strong resonance phenomenon results that makes the location and motion of the target apparent. Soliton resonance method will amplify the moving target signal, suppressing the noise. The method will be a very effective tool for locating and identifying diverse, highly dynamic targets with ill-defined characteristics in a noisy environment. The soliton resonance method for the detection of moving targets was developed in one and two dimensions. Computer simulations proved that the method could be used for detection of singe point-like targets moving with constant velocities and accelerations in 1D and along straight lines or curved trajectories in 2D. The method also allows estimation of the kinematic characteristics of moving targets, and reconstruction of target trajectories in 2D. The method could be very effective for target detection in the presence of clutter and for the case of target obscurations.

  4. Space moving target detection using time domain feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Jin-yong; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Jin-yu

    2018-01-01

    The traditional space target detection methods mainly use the spatial characteristics of the star map to detect the targets, which can not make full use of the time domain information. This paper presents a new space moving target detection method based on time domain features. We firstly construct the time spectral data of star map, then analyze the time domain features of the main objects (target, stars and the background) in star maps, finally detect the moving targets using single pulse feature of the time domain signal. The real star map target detection experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the trajectory of moving targets in the star map sequence, and the detection probability achieves 99% when the false alarm rate is about 8×10-5, which outperforms those of compared algorithms.

  5. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CA, USA, 2007. [11] B. Borden, Radar imaging of airborne targets: A primer for Applied mathematicians and Physicists . New York, NY: Taylor and... Project (0704–0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 21 September 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...CW Continuous Wave DAC Digital to Analog Convertor DFT Discrete Fourier Transform FBP Filtered Back Projection FFT Fast Fourier Transform GPS

  6. Moving targets. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.

    2000-01-01

    Most world electricity markets are now moving towards greater competition, driven in part by technology, low fuel prices, and experience that competitive markets are more self-sustaining. Electric power is being sold in a number of markets in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for around US $0.02 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). Can nuclear generation match such prices? If not, can it be made to do so? Electricity companies are now in the business of selling a commodity (kWh) and commercial services instead of a strategic good. Excess capacity, low demand growth and lower product prices in major industrialized countries have forced power generators and their suppliers to be more concerned with the costs of their operations and profitability of their investments. These companies increasingly need a commercial, profit-oriented approach if they are to survive and prosper. Even more, they will need to make substantial cost reductions over the next few years. The nuclear industry is no exception. How does nuclear power stack up in this environment? The IAEA Planning and Economic Studies Section is doing a series of studies on precisely these questions, divided into issues affecting the near, medium and long-term future of nuclear power. This corresponds roughly to matters affecting existing plants, upgrades and life extensions, or new plants. In general, the studies find that nuclear power has the potential to be competitive in all three markets. But realizing that potential will require significant changes on the part of the industry and its regulators. This article focuses on the prevailing market situation in many industrialized countries. Several lessons also are applicable to developing countries, particularly in cases where the financing of electric power projects is expected to come from international capital markets. The overall situation is distinctly different for developing countries. Typically the capacity there for

  7. Quality of clinical trials: A moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials. PMID:22145122

  8. Quality of clinical trials: A moving target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials.

  9. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  10. Moving Target Detection and Active Tracking with a Multicamera Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a systematic framework for Intelligence Video Surveillance System (IVSS with a multicamera network. The proposed framework consists of low-cost static and PTZ cameras, target detection and tracking algorithms, and a low-cost PTZ camera feedback control algorithm based on target information. The target detection and tracking is realized by fixed cameras using a moving target detection and tracking algorithm; the PTZ camera is manoeuvred to actively track the target from the tracking results of the static camera. The experiments are carried out using practical surveillance system data, and the experimental results show that the systematic framework and algorithms presented in this paper are efficient.

  11. Engaging a moving target: Adapting to rates of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegh, S.; Caldeira, K.; Moreno-Cruz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is affecting the planet and its human and natural systems at an increasing rate. As temperatures continue to rise, the international community has increasingly been considering adaptation measures to prepare for future climate change. However, most discussion around adaptation strategies has focused on preparedness for some expected amount of climate change impacts, e.g. 2 meters sea level rise. In this study, we discuss adaptation to rates of change as an alternative conceptual framework for thinking about adaptation. Adaptation is not only about adapting to amounts of change, but the rate at which these changes occur is also critically important. We ground our discussion with an example of optimal coastal investment in the face of ongoing sea level rise. Sea level rise threatens coastal assets. Finite resources could be devoted to building infrastructure further inland or to building coastal defense systems. A possible policy response could be to create a "no-build" coastal buffer zone that anticipates a future higher sea level. We present a quantitative model that illustrates the interplay among various important factors (rate of sea level rise, discount rate, capital depreciation rate, attractiveness of coastal land, etc). For some cases, strategies that combine periodic defensive investments (e.g. dikes) with planned retreat can maximize welfare when adapting to rates of climate change. In other cases, planned retreat may be optimal. It is important to prepare for ongoing increasing amounts of climate change. Preparing for a fixed amount of climate change can lead to a suboptimal solution. Climate is likely to continue changing throughout this century and beyond. To reduce adverse climate impacts, ecosystems and human systems will need to continuously adapt to a moving target.

  12. Moving Target Techniques: Cyber Resilience throught Randomization, Diversity, and Dynamism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    attacks. Simply put, these techniques turn systems into moving targets that will be hard for cyber attackers to compromise. MT techniques leverage...been diversified, they can attack it as if it was not diversified at all. Dynamic Data: Techniques in the dynamic data domain change the format

  13. Eye tracking a self-moved target with complex hand-target dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landelle, Caroline; Montagnini, Anna; Madelain, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the ability to track with the eye a moving target is substantially improved when the target is self-moved by the subject's hand compared with when being externally moved. Here, we explored a situation in which the mapping between hand movement and target motion was perturbed by simulating an elastic relationship between the hand and target. Our objective was to determine whether the predictive mechanisms driving eye-hand coordination could be updated to accommodate this complex hand-target dynamics. To fully appreciate the behavioral effects of this perturbation, we compared eye tracking performance when self-moving a target with a rigid mapping (simple) and a spring mapping as well as when the subject tracked target trajectories that he/she had previously generated when using the rigid or spring mapping. Concerning the rigid mapping, our results confirmed that smooth pursuit was more accurate when the target was self-moved than externally moved. In contrast, with the spring mapping, eye tracking had initially similar low spatial accuracy (though shorter temporal lag) in the self versus externally moved conditions. However, within ∼5 min of practice, smooth pursuit improved in the self-moved spring condition, up to a level similar to the self-moved rigid condition. Subsequently, when the mapping unexpectedly switched from spring to rigid, the eye initially followed the expected target trajectory and not the real one, thereby suggesting that subjects used an internal representation of the new hand-target dynamics. Overall, these results emphasize the stunning adaptability of smooth pursuit when self-maneuvering objects with complex dynamics. PMID:27466129

  14. Moving target tracking through distributed clustering in directional sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayet, Asma; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2014-12-18

    The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target's location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

  15. Moving Target Tracking through Distributed Clustering in Directional Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Enayet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target’s location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

  16. Research on moving target defense based on SDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingyong; Wu, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    An address mutation strategy was proposed. This strategy provided an unpredictable change in address, replacing the real address of the packet forwarding process and path mutation, thus hiding the real address of the host and path. a mobile object defense technology based on Spatio-temporal Mutation on this basis is proposed, Using the software Defined Network centralized control architecture advantage combines sFlow traffic monitoring technology and Moving Target Defense. A mutated time period which can be changed in real time according to the network traffic is changed, and the destination address is changed while the controller abruptly changes the address while the data packet is transferred between the switches to construct a moving target, confusing the host within the network, thereby protecting the host and network.

  17. Neuromorphic Modeling of Moving Target Detection in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-31

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39, 18 Grants FA9550-04-1-0283 and FA9550-04-1-0294 Neuromorphic Modeling of Moving Target Detection...natural for neuromorphic sensory processing. We developed visual motion detection circuitry, including photodetectors, early vision, and models for both...Lincoln Labs 3DM2 run, Tanner Research reserved and utilized space corresponding to two MOSIS ’tiny chips ’ (2mm square each), each with three interconnected

  18. Moving target feature phenomenology data collection at China Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, David C.; Hill, Jeff; Schmitz, James L.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes the DARPA Moving Target Feature Phenomenology (MTFP) data collection conducted at the China Lake Naval Weapons Center's Junction Ranch in July 2001. The collection featured both X-band and Ku-band radars positioned on top of Junction Ranch's Parrot Peak. The test included seven targets used in eleven configurations with vehicle motion consisting of circular, straight-line, and 90-degree turning motion. Data was collected at 10-degree and 17-degree depression angles. Key parameters in the collection were polarization, vehicle speed, and road roughness. The collection also included a canonical target positioned at Junction Ranch's tilt-deck turntable. The canonical target included rotating wheels (military truck tire and civilian pick-up truck tire) and a flat plate with variable positioned corner reflectors. The canonical target was also used to simulate a rotating antenna and a vibrating plate. The target vehicles were instrumented with ARDS pods for differential GPS and roll, pitch and yaw measurements. Target motion was also documented using a video camera slaved to the X-band radar antenna and by a video camera operated near the target site.

  19. CHAOS: An SDN-Based Moving Target Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target defense (MTD has provided a dynamic and proactive network defense to reduce or move the attack surface that is available for exploitation. However, traditional network is difficult to realize dynamic and active security defense effectively and comprehensively. Software-defined networking (SDN points out a brand-new path for building dynamic and proactive defense system. In this paper, we propose CHAOS, an SDN-based MTD system. Utilizing the programmability and flexibility of SDN, CHAOS obfuscates the attack surface including host mutation obfuscation, ports obfuscation, and obfuscation based on decoy servers, thereby enhancing the unpredictability of the networking environment. We propose the Chaos Tower Obfuscation (CTO method, which uses the Chaos Tower Structure (CTS to depict the hierarchy of all the hosts in an intranet and define expected connection and unexpected connection. Moreover, we develop fast CTO algorithms to achieve a different degree of obfuscation for the hosts in each layer. We design and implement CHAOS as an application of SDN controller. Our approach makes it very easy to realize moving target defense in networks. Our experimental results show that a network protected by CHAOS is capable of decreasing the percentage of information disclosure effectively to guarantee the normal flow of traffic.

  20. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.; Emmons, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control

  1. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  2. Moving finite element method for ICF target implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, J.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1985-03-01

    One dimensional hydrodynamic codes for the analysis of internal confinement fusion (ICF) target implosion which include various effects were developed, but most of them utilize the artificial viscosity (e.g., Von Neumann's viscosity) which cannot reveal accurately the shock waves. A gain of ICF target implosion is much due to the dissipation at the shock fronts, so it is necessary to express correctly the shock waves which are affected by the viscosity. The width of the shock waves is usually a few times as large as the length of mean free path, therefore the meshes for the shock waves must be set to about 10 to the 4th to 10 to the 5th power. It is a serious problem because of the computational memories or CPU time. In the moving finite element (MPE) method, both nodal amplitudes and nodal positions move continuously with time in such a way as to satisfy simultaneous ordinary differential equations (OPDs) which minimize partial differential equation (PDE) residuals.

  3. Pilots' Attention Distributions Between Chasing a Moving Target and a Stationary Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chin; Yu, Chung-San; Braithwaite, Graham; Greaves, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator. The scenarios of chasing a moving target (air-to-air) and a stationary target (air-to-surface) consist of three operational phases: searching, aiming, and lock-on to the targets. The findings demonstrated significant differences in pilots' percentage of fixation during the searching phase between air-to-air (M = 37.57, SD = 5.72) and air-to-surface (M = 33.54, SD = 4.68). Fixation duration can indicate pilots' sustained attention to the trajectory of a dynamic target during air combat maneuvers. Aiming at the stationary target resulted in larger pupil size (M = 27,105, SD = 6565), reflecting higher cognitive loading than aiming at the dynamic target (M = 23,864, SD = 8762). Pilots' visual behavior is not only closely related to attention distribution, but also significantly associated with task characteristics. Military pilots demonstrated various visual scan patterns for searching and aiming at different types of targets based on the research settings of a flight simulator. The findings will facilitate system designers' understanding of military pilots' cognitive processes during tactical operations. They will assist human-centered interface design to improve pilots' situational awareness. The application of an eye-tracking device integrated with a flight simulator is a feasible and cost-effective intervention to improve the efficiency and safety of tactical training.Li W-C, Yu C-S, Braithwaite G, Greaves M. Pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. Aerosp Med

  4. Knowledge-Base Application to Ground Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adve, R

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year in-house effort to apply knowledge-base control techniques and advanced Space-Time Adaptive Processing algorithms to improve detection performance and false alarm...

  5. Estimation of direction of arrival of a moving target using subspace based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of arrival of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional time delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean absolute error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.

  6. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  7. Ground target geolocation based on digital elevation model for airborne wide-area reconnaissance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chuan; Ding, Yalin; Xu, Yongsen; Xiu, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    To obtain the geographical position of the ground target accurately, a geolocation algorithm based on the digital elevation model (DEM) is developed for an airborne wide-area reconnaissance system. According to the platform position and attitude information measured by the airborne position and orientation system and the gimbal angles information from the encoder, the line-of-sight pointing vector in the Earth-centered Earth-fixed coordinate frame is solved by the homogeneous coordinate transformation. The target longitude and latitude can be solved with the elliptical Earth model and the global DEM. The influences of the systematic error and measurement error on ground target geolocation calculation accuracy are analyzed by the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that this algorithm can improve the geolocation accuracy of ground target in rough terrain area obviously. The geolocation accuracy of moving ground target can be improved by moving average filtering (MAF). The validity of the geolocation algorithm is verified by the flight test in which the plane flies at a geodetic height of 15,000 m and the outer gimbal angle is <47°. The geolocation root mean square error of the target trajectory is <45 and <7 m after MAF.

  8. The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleefe, G.E.; Peglow, S.; Hamrick, R.

    1997-01-01

    The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures

  9. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  10. A Review of Ground Target Detection and Classification Techniques in Forward Scattering Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. A. Kanona

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of target detection and classification in forward scattering radar (FSR which is a special state of bistatic radars, designed to detect and track moving targets in the narrow region along the transmitter-receiver base line. FSR has advantages and incredible features over other types of radar configurations. All previous studies proved that FSR can be used as an alternative system for ground target detection and classification. The radar and FSR fundamentals were addressed and classification algorithms and techniques were debated. On the other hand, the current and future applications and the limitations of FSR were discussed.

  11. Moving Target Detection With Compact Laser Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, G.; Breining, A.; Eisfeld, W.; Knopp, R.; Lill, E.; Wagner, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper describes an experimental integrated optronic system for detection and tracking of moving objects. The system is based on a CO2 waveguide laser Doppler ra-dar with homodyne receiver and galvanometer mirror beam scanner. A "hot spot" seeker consisting of a thermal imager with image processor transmits the coordinates of IR-emitting, i.e. potentially powered, objects to the laser radar scanner. The scanner addresses these "hot" locations operating in a large field-of-view (FOV) random ac-cess mode. Hot spots exhibiting a Doppler shifted laser signal are indicated in the thermal image by velocity-to-colour encoded markers. After switching to a small FOV scanning mode, the laser Doppler radar is used to track fast moving objects. Labora-tory and field experiments with moving objects including rotating discs, automobiles and missiles are described.

  12. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Pubm...edID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  13. Forward Models for Following a Moving Target with the Puma 560 Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a forward model could be applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish the task of following a moving target. The forward model has been implemented in the puma 560 robot manipulator in simulation after a babbling motor phase using ANFIS neural networks. The forward model delivers a rough estimation of the position in the operational space of a moving target. Using this information a Cartesian controller tracks the moving target. An implementation of the proposed architecture and the Piepmeir algorithm for the problem of following a moving target is also shown in the paper. The control architecture proposed in this paper was also tested with MLP and RBF neural networks. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed architecture for tracking a moving target.

  14. Moving target detection based on temporal-spatial information fusion for infrared image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toing, Wu-qin; Xiong, Jin-yu; Zeng, An-jun; Wu, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hao-peng

    2009-07-01

    Moving target detection and localization is one of the most fundamental tasks in visual surveillance. In this paper, through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional approaches about moving target detection, a novel approach based on temporal-spatial information fusion is proposed for moving target detection. The proposed method combines the spatial feature in single frame and the temporal properties within multiple frames of an image sequence of moving target. First, the method uses the spatial image segmentation for target separation from background and uses the local temporal variance for extracting targets and wiping off the trail artifact. Second, the logical "and" operator is used to fuse the temporal and spatial information. In the end, to the fusion image sequence, the morphological filtering and blob analysis are used to acquire exact moving target. The algorithm not only requires minimal computation and memory but also quickly adapts to the change of background and environment. Comparing with other methods, such as the KDE, the Mixture of K Gaussians, etc., the simulation results show the proposed method has better validity and higher adaptive for moving target detection, especially in infrared image sequences with complex illumination change, noise change, and so on.

  15. Postural control of elderly: moving to predictable and unpredictable targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, Vera; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Keeken, Helco; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Impaired postural control with muscle weakness is an important predictor of falls within the elderly population.Particular daily activities that require weight shifting in order to be able to reach a specific target (a cup on a table) require continuous adjustments to keep the body's center of mass

  16. c-Raf in KRas Mutant Cancers: A Moving Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Frank

    2018-02-12

    Therapies for KRas cancers remain a major clinical need. In the current issue of Cancer Cell, Sanclemente and coworkers in Mariano Barbacid's group validate c-Raf as a prime target for these cancers. c-Raf ablation caused regression of advanced KRas G12V /Trp53 tumors, without obvious systemic toxicity and without affecting MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Moving Target Techniques: Leveraging Uncertainty for Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    program’s source code and is not possible with proprietary, third - party software for which source code is not made available. Furthermore, ensuring...implemented in most modern operating systems including Linux, Windows, Mac OSX, Android , and iOS. By randomizing the addresses, ASLR makes exploit...applications, and software versions that are running on the target machine to develop an attack against it. During the third phase, the attacker

  18. Artificial ground motion compatible with specified peak ground displacement and target multi-damping response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yushan; Zhao Fengxin

    2010-01-01

    With respect to the design ground motion of nuclear power plant (NPP), the Regular Guide 1.60 of the US not only defined the standard multi-damping response spectra, i.e. the RG1.60 spectra, but also definitely prescribed the peak ground displacement (PGD) value corresponding to the standard spectra. However, in the engineering practice of generating multi-damping-spectra-compatible artificial ground motion for the seismic design of NPP, the PGD value had been neglected. Addressing this issue, this paper proposed a synthesizing method which generates the artificial ground motion compatible with not only the target multi-damping response spectra but also the specified PGD value. Firstly, by the transfer formula between the power spectrum and the response spectrum, an initial uniformly modulated acceleration time history is synthesized by multiplying the stationary Gaussian process with the prescribed intensity envelope to simulate the amplitude-non-stationarity of earthquake ground motion. And then by superimposing a series of narrow-band time histories in the time domain, the initial time history is modified in the iterative manner to match the target PGD as well as the target multi-damping spectra with the pre-specified matching precisions. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the matching precisions of the proposed method to the target values.

  19. Volume rendering in treatment planning for moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Alexander [GSI-Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States); Wolfgang, John A.; Chen, George T.Y. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Advances in computer technologies have facilitated the development of tools for 3-dimensional visualization of CT-data sets with volume rendering. The company Fovia has introduced a high definition volume rendering engine (HDVR trademark by Fovia Inc., Palo Alto, USA) that is capable of representing large CT data sets with high user interactivity even on standard PCs. Fovia provides a software development kit (SDK) that offers control of all the features of the rendering engine. We extended the SDK by functionalities specific to the task of treatment planning for moving tumors. This included navigation of the patient's anatomy in beam's eye view, fast point-and-click measurement of lung tumor trajectories as well as estimation of range perturbations due to motion by calculation of (differential) water equivalent path lengths for protons and carbon ions on 4D-CT data sets. We present patient examples to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of volume rendered images as compared to standard 2-dimensional axial plane images. Furthermore, we show an example of a range perturbation analysis. We conclude that volume rendering is a powerful technique for the representation and analysis of large time resolved data sets in treatment planning.

  20. Schema generation in recurrent neural nets for intercepting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Andreas G

    2010-06-01

    The grasping of a moving object requires the development of a motor strategy to anticipate the trajectory of the target and to compute an optimal course of interception. During the performance of perception-action cycles, a preprogrammed prototypical movement trajectory, a motor schema, may highly reduce the control load. Subjects were asked to hit a target that was moving along a circular path by means of a cursor. Randomized initial target positions and velocities were detected in the periphery of the eyes, resulting in a saccade toward the target. Even when the target disappeared, the eyes followed the target's anticipated course. The Gestalt of the trajectories was dependent on target velocity. The prediction capability of the motor schema was investigated by varying the visibility range of cursor and target. Motor schemata were determined to be of limited precision, and therefore visual feedback was continuously required to intercept the moving target. To intercept a target, the motor schema caused the hand to aim ahead and to adapt to the target trajectory. The control of cursor velocity determined the point of interception. From a modeling point of view, a neural network was developed that allowed the implementation of a motor schema interacting with feedback control in an iterative manner. The neural net of the Wilson type consists of an excitation-diffusion layer allowing the generation of a moving bubble. This activation bubble runs down an eye-centered motor schema and causes a planar arm model to move toward the target. A bubble provides local integration and straightening of the trajectory during repetitive moves. The schema adapts to task demands by learning and serves as forward controller. On the basis of these model considerations the principal problem of embedding motor schemata in generalized control strategies is discussed.

  1. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  2. Biomarkers for immunotherapy in bladder cancer: a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggen, David H; Drake, Charles G

    2017-11-21

    Treatment options for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) remained relative unchanged over the last 30 years with combination chemotherapy as the mainstay of treatment. Within the last year the landscape for mUC has seismically shifted following the approval of five therapies targeting the programmed cell death protein (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis. Notably, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab demonstrated improved OS relative to chemotherapy in a randomized phase III study for second line treatment of mUC; this level 1 evidence led to approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The PD-1 antibody nivolumab also demonstrated an overall survival benefit, in this case in comparison to historical controls. Similarly, antibodies targeting PD-L1 including atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab have now received accelerated approval from the FDA as second line treatments for mUC, with durable response lasting more than 1 year in some patients. Some of these agents are approved in the first line setting as well - based on single-arm phase II studies atezolizumab and pembrolizumab received accelerated approval for first-line treatment of cisplatin ineligible patients. Despite these multiple approvals, the development of clinically useful biomarkers to determine the optimal treatment for patients remains somewhat elusive. In this review, we examine key clinical trial results with anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies and discuss progress towards developing novel biomarkers beyond PD-L1 expression.

  3. The search for an alerted moving target; 2005BU2-OA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.J.; Brink, M. van den

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a two-sided, multi-stage search problem where a continuous search effort is made by one or more search units to detect a moving target in a continuous target space, under noisy detection conditions. A specific example of this problem is hunting for an enemy submarine by naval forces.

  4. Saccadic interception of a moving visual target after a spatiotemporal perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jérome; Goffart, Laurent

    2012-01-11

    Animals can make saccadic eye movements to intercept a moving object at the right place and time. Such interceptive saccades indicate that, despite variable sensorimotor delays, the brain is able to estimate the current spatiotemporal (hic et nunc) coordinates of a target at saccade end. The present work further tests the robustness of this estimate in the monkey when a change in eye position and a delay are experimentally added before the onset of the saccade and in the absence of visual feedback. These perturbations are induced by brief microstimulation in the deep superior colliculus (dSC). When the microstimulation moves the eyes in the direction opposite to the target motion, a correction saccade brings gaze back on the target path or very near. When it moves the eye in the same direction, the performance is more variable and depends on the stimulated sites. Saccades fall ahead of the target with an error that increases when the stimulation is applied more caudally in the dSC. The numerous cases of compensation indicate that the brain is able to maintain an accurate and robust estimate of the location of the moving target. The inaccuracies observed when stimulating the dSC that encodes the visual field traversed by the target indicate that dSC microstimulation can interfere with signals encoding the target motion path. The results are discussed within the framework of the dual-drive and the remapping hypotheses.

  5. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Distributed Cooperative Search Control Method of Multiple UAVs for Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the impact of uncertainties caused by unknown motion parameters on searching plan of moving targets and improve the efficiency of UAV’s searching, a novel distributed Multi-UAVs cooperative search control method for moving target is proposed in this paper. Based on detection results of onboard sensors, target probability map is updated using Bayesian theory. A Gaussian distribution of target transition probability density function is introduced to calculate prediction probability of moving target existence, and then target probability map can be further updated in real-time. A performance index function combining with target cost, environment cost, and cooperative cost is constructed, and the cooperative searching problem can be transformed into a central optimization problem. To improve computational efficiency, the distributed model predictive control method is presented, and thus the control command of each UAV can be obtained. The simulation results have verified that the proposed method can avoid the blindness of UAV searching better and improve overall efficiency of the team effectively.

  7. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%.

  8. Numerical simulation on range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wencheng; Sun Punan; Dai Wenjiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target, the range of electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV moving in common target material of accelerator was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. Comparison between the calculated result and the published data were performed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculation are in good agreement with the published data. Empirical formulas were obtained for the range of high-energy electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV in common target material by curve fitting, offering a series of referenced data for the design of targets in electron accelerator. (authors)

  9. An efficient method of fuel ice formation in moving free-standing ICF/IFE targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Bazdenkov, S. V.; Chtcherbakov, V. I.; Gromov, A. I.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, E. A.; Osipov, I. E.; Yaguzinskiy, L. S.

    2004-04-01

    Currently, research fields related to the elaboration of efficient layering methods for ICF/IFE applications are rapidly expanding. Significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST) which is referred to as the FST layering method. This paper presents our new results obtained in this area and describes technologically elegant solutions towards demonstrating a credible pathway for mass production of IFE cryogenic targets.

  10. An efficient method of fuel ice formation in moving free-standing ICF/IFE targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, I V; Bazdenkov, S V; Chtcherbakov, V I; Gromov, A I; Koresheva, E R; Koshelev, E A; Osipov, I E; Yaguzinskiy, L S

    2004-01-01

    Currently, research fields related to the elaboration of efficient layering methods for ICF/IFE applications are rapidly expanding. Significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST) which is referred to as the FST layering method. This paper presents our new results obtained in this area and describes technologically elegant solutions towards demonstrating a credible pathway for mass production of IFE cryogenic targets

  11. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-12-17

    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  12. IMRT delivery to a moving target by dynamic MLC tracking: delivery for targets moving in two dimensions in the beam's eye view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, D; Webb, S

    2006-01-01

    A new modification of the dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) delivery technique for intensity-modulated therapy (IMRT) is outlined. This technique enables the tracking of a target moving through rigid-body translations in a 2D trajectory in the beam's eye view. The accuracy of the delivery versus that of deliveries with no tracking and of 1D tracking techniques is quantified with clinically derived intensity-modulated beams (IMBs). Leaf trajectories calculated in the target-reference frame were iteratively synchronized assuming regular target motion. This allowed the leaves defined in the lab-reference frame to simultaneously follow the target motion and to deliver the required IMB without violation of the leaf maximum-velocity constraint. The leaves are synchronized until the gradient of the leaf position at every instant is less than a calculated maximum. The delivered fluence in the target-reference frame was calculated with a simple primary-fluence model. The new 2D tracking technique was compared with the delivered fluence produced by no-tracking deliveries and by 1D tracking deliveries for 33 clinical IMBs. For the clinical IMBs normalized to a maximum fluence of 200 MUs, the rms difference between the desired and the delivered IMB was 15.6 ± 3.3 MU for the case of a no-tracking delivery, 7.9 ± 1.6 MU for the case where only the primary component of motion was corrected and 5.1 ± 1.1 MU for the 2D tracking delivery. The residual error is due to interpolation and sampling effects. The 2D tracking delivery technique requires an increase in the delivery time evaluated as between 0 and 50% of the unsynchronized delivery time for each beam with a mean increase of 13% for the IMBs tested. The 2D tracking dMLC delivery technique allows an optimized IMB to be delivered to moving targets with increased accuracy and with acceptable increases in delivery time. When combined with real-time knowledge of the target motion at delivery time, this technique facilitates

  13. Saccadic foveation of a moving visual target in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jérome; Hugues, Sandrine; Perrinet, Laurent; Goffart, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    When generating a saccade toward a moving target, the target displacement that occurs during the period spanning from its detection to the saccade end must be taken into account to accurately foveate the target and to initiate its pursuit. Previous studies have shown that these saccades are characterized by a lower peak velocity and a prolonged deceleration phase. In some cases, a second peak eye velocity appears during the deceleration phase, presumably reflecting the late influence of a mechanism that compensates for the target displacement occurring before saccade end. The goal of this work was to further determine in the head restrained monkey the dynamics of this putative compensatory mechanism. A step-ramp paradigm, where the target motion was orthogonal to a target step occurring along the primary axes, was used to estimate from the generated saccades: a component induced by the target step and another one induced by the target motion. Resulting oblique saccades were compared with saccades to a static target with matched horizontal and vertical amplitudes. This study permitted to estimate the time taken for visual motion-related signals to update the programming and execution of saccades. The amplitude of the motion-related component was slightly hypometric with an undershoot that increased with target speed. Moreover, it matched with the eccentricity that the target had 40-60 ms before saccade end. The lack of significant difference in the delay between the onsets of the horizontal and vertical components between saccades directed toward a static target and those aimed at a moving target questions the late influence of the compensatory mechanism. The results are discussed within the framework of the "dual drive" and "remapping" hypotheses.

  14. Study on moving target detection to passive radar based on FM broadcast transmitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Target detection by a noncooperative illuminator is a topic of general interest in the electronic warfare field.First of all,direct-path interference(DPI)suppression which is the technique of bottleneck of moving target detection by a noncooperative frequency modulation(FM) broadcast transmitter is analyzed in this article;Secondly,a space-time-frequency domain synthetic solution to this problem is introduced:Adaptive nulling array processing is considered in the space domain,DPI cancellation based on adaptive fractional delay interpolation(AFDI)technique is used in planned time domain,and long-time coherent integration is utilized in the frequency domain;Finally,an experimental system is planned by considering FM broadcast transmitter as a noncooperative illuminator,Simulation results by real collected data show that the proposed method has a better performance of moving target detection.

  15. Numerical methods for analysis of structure and ground vibration from moving loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Nielsen, S.R.K.; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the main theoretical aspects of finite-element and boundary-element modelling of the response to moving loads is given. The moving loads represent sources of noise and vibration generated by moving vehicles, and the analysis describes the propagation of the disturbances generated i...

  16. Familiar trajectories facilitate the interpretation of physical forces when intercepting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, Antonija; La Scaleia, Barbara; Mercuri, Nicola; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

    2014-12-01

    Familiarity with the visual environment affects our expectations about the objects in a scene, aiding in recognition and interaction. Here we tested whether the familiarity with the specific trajectory followed by a moving target facilitates the interpretation of the effects of underlying physical forces. Participants intercepted a target sliding down either an inclined plane or a tautochrone. Gravity accelerated the target by the same amount in both cases, but the inclined plane represented a familiar trajectory whereas the tautochrone was unfamiliar to the participants. In separate sessions, the gravity field was consistent with either natural gravity or artificial reversed gravity. Target motion was occluded from view over the last segment. We found that the responses in the session with unnatural forces were systematically delayed relative to those with natural forces, but only for the inclined plane. The time shift is consistent with a bias for natural gravity, in so far as it reflects an a priori expectation that a target not affected by natural forces will arrive later than one accelerated downwards by gravity. Instead, we did not find any significant time shift with unnatural forces in the case of the tautochrone. We argue that interception of a moving target relies on the integration of the high-level cue of trajectory familiarity with low-level cues related to target kinematics.

  17. A moving target for accelerated charged particle induced X-ray measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.; Shima, K.; Ebihara, H.; Seki, R.; Mikumo, T.

    1980-01-01

    To attain good reproducibility as well as to enable an absolute determination in the measurement of X-ray fluorescences, resulting from bombardment of a heterogeneous sample by accelerated charged particles, a moving-target mechanism incorporating an electronic remote control system has been devised. The system is designed to scan the whole sample area with a chosen constant linear speed, by a fixed particle beam with a cross-sectional area a small fraction of that of the sample. Using 16 MeV protons and 40 MeV oxygen-ion beams, test runs of this system showed that the attempted objectives are attainable with good accuracies: reproducibility of the data for a given target is better than 3%, the linearity of the calibration curve is in good agreement, within the weighing errors of the standard elements and the uncertainty due to beam current fluctuation, with the expected values, and the results of absolute determinations using both metal foils and heterogeneous powder samples are in good agreement with accepted results using different methods. Detailed accounts of the moving-target system, and the test for reproducibility and linearity are presented. An absolute determination of the quantities related to accelerated charged-particle induced X-ray fluorescence (PIXE) using the moving target is presented for samples in different forms. (orig./HP)

  18. Ultrasound image based visual servoing for moving target ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Sugita, Naohiko

    2017-12-01

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising technology for tumor treatment, a moving abdominal target is still a challenge in current HIFU systems. In particular, respiratory-induced organ motion can reduce the treatment efficiency and negatively influence the treatment result. In this research, we present: (1) a methodology for integration of ultrasound (US) image based visual servoing in a HIFU system; and (2) the experimental results obtained using the developed system. In the visual servoing system, target motion is monitored by biplane US imaging and tracked in real time (40 Hz) by registration with a preoperative 3D model. The distance between the target and the current HIFU focal position is calculated in every US frame and a three-axis robot physically compensates for differences. Because simultaneous HIFU irradiation disturbs US target imaging, a sophisticated interlacing strategy was constructed. In the experiments, respiratory-induced organ motion was simulated in a water tank with a linear actuator and kidney-shaped phantom model. Motion compensation with HIFU irradiation was applied to the moving phantom model. Based on the experimental results, visual servoing exhibited a motion compensation accuracy of 1.7 mm (RMS) on average. Moreover, the integrated system could make a spherical HIFU-ablated lesion in the desired position of the respiratory-moving phantom model. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our US image based visual servoing technique in a HIFU system for moving target treatment. © 2016 The Authors The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Application of Fractional Fourier Transform to Moving Target Indication via Along-Track Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Shen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown yet powerful technique, the so-called fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, is applied to SAR along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI in order to estimate moving target parameters. By mapping a target's signal onto a fractional Fourier axis, the FrFT permits a constant-velocity target to be focused in the fractional Fourier domain thereby affording orders of magnitude improvement in SCR. Moving target velocity and position parameters are derived and expressed in terms of an optimum fractional angle and a measured fractional Fourier position , allowing a target to be accurately repositioned and its velocity components computed without actually forming an SAR image. The new estimation algorithm is compared with the matched filter bank approach, showing some of the advantages of the FrFT method. The proposed technique is applied to the data acquired by the two-aperture CV580 airborne radar system configured in its along-track mode. Results show that the method is effective in estimating target velocity and position parameters.

  20. Deployment Design of Wireless Sensor Network for Simple Multi-Point Surveillance of a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Ueda, Hirofumi; Tamura, Hitomi; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking a moving target in a wireless sensor network (WSN), in which the capability of each sensor is relatively limited, to construct large-scale WSNs at a reasonable cost. We first propose two simple multi-point surveillance schemes for a moving target in a WSN and demonstrate that one of the schemes can achieve high tracking probability with low power consumption. In addition, we examine the relationship between tracking probability and sensor density through simulations, and then derive an approximate expression representing the relationship. As the results, we present guidelines for sensor density, tracking probability, and the number of monitoring sensors that satisfy a variety of application demands. PMID:22412326

  1. DMLC motion tracking of moving targets for intensity modulated arc therapy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Jens; Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    (DMLC). The aim of this work was to evaluate the dose delivered to moving targets using the RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Inc.) technology with and without a DMLC tracking algorithm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Varian Clinac iX was equipped with a preclinical RapidArc and a 3D DMLC tracking application......) and state (1). CONCLUSIONS: DMLC tracking together with RapidArc make a feasible combination and is capable of improving the dose distribution delivered to a moving target. It seems to be of importance to minimize noise influencing the tracking, to gain the full benefit from the application........ A motion platform was placed on the couch, with the detectors on top: a PTW seven29 and a Scandidos Delta4. One lung plan and one prostate plan were delivered. Motion was monitored using a Real-time Position Management (RPM) system. Reference measurements were performed for both plans with both detectors...

  2. Detection of Fast Moving and Accelerating Targets Compensating Range and Doppler Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TR–2978 UNCLASSIFIED the chirp bandwidth is changed from pulse to pulse to realise the range migration com- pensation. Also, Dai et. al. [11] proposed...injected at different closing velocities and acceleration values . Figure 1(a) shows the range-Doppler map of a non-accelarating target moving at 100 knots...increase the noise floor. Hence, consideration must be given to establish a criteria for the combination processing to achieve a net SNR improvement for a

  3. Does the Brain Extrapolate the Position of a Transient Moving Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, Julie; Goffart, Laurent

    2015-08-26

    When an object moves in the visual field, its motion evokes a streak of activity on the retina and the incoming retinal signals lead to robust oculomotor commands because corrections are observed if the trajectory of the interceptive saccade is perturbed by a microstimulation in the superior colliculus. The present study complements a previous perturbation study by investigating, in the head-restrained monkey, the generation of saccades toward a transient moving target (100-200 ms). We tested whether the saccades land on the average of antecedent target positions or beyond the location where the target disappeared. Using target motions with different speed profiles, we also examined the sensitivity of the process that converts time-varying retinal signals into saccadic oculomotor commands. The results show that, for identical overall target displacements on the visual display, saccades toward a faster target land beyond the endpoint of saccades toward a target moving slower. The rate of change in speed matters in the visuomotor transformation. Indeed, in response to identical overall target displacements and durations, the saccades have smaller amplitude when they are made in response to an accelerating target than to a decelerating one. Moreover, the motion-related signals have different weights depending upon their timing relative to the target onset: early signals are more influential in the specification of saccade amplitude than later signals. We discuss the "predictive" properties of the visuo-saccadic system and the nature of this location where the saccades land, after providing some critical comments to the "hic-et-nunc" hypothesis (Fleuriet and Goffart, 2012). Complementing the work of Fleuriet and Goffart (2012), this study is a contribution to the more general scientific research aimed at understanding how ongoing action is dynamically and adaptively adjusted to the current spatiotemporal aspects of its goal. Using the saccadic eye movement as a probe

  4. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  5. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  6. Detection of Moving Targets Based on Doppler Spectrum Analysis Technique for Passive Coherent Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao-dong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of moving targets detection taking Doppler spectrum analysis technique for Passive Coherent Radar (PCR is provided. After dividing the receiving signals into segments as pulse series, it utilizes the technique of pulse compress and Doppler processing to detect and locate the targets. Based on the algorithm for Pulse-Doppler (PD radar, the equipollence between continuous and pulsed wave in match filtering is proved and details of this method are introduced. To compare it with the traditional method of Cross-Ambiguity Function (CAF calculation, the relationship and mathematical modes of them are analyzed, with some suggestions on parameters choosing. With little influence to the gain of targets, the method can greatly promote the processing efficiency. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by offline processing real collected data sets and simulation results.

  7. Management of the interplay effect when using dynamic MLC sequences to treat moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence E.; Wagar, Matthew; Ionascu, Dan; Berbeco, Ross; Chin, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Interplay between organ motion and leaf motion has been shown to generally have a small dosimetric impact for most clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. However, it has also been shown that for some MLC sequences there can be large daily variations in the delivered dose, depending on details of patient motion or the number of fractions. This study investigates guidelines for dynamic MLC sequences that will keep daily dose variations due to the interplay between organ motion and leaf motion within 10%. Dose distributions for a range of MLC separations (0.2-5.0 cm) and displacements between adjacent MLCs (0-1.5 cm) were exported from ECLIPSE to purpose-written software, which simulated the dose distribution delivered to a moving target. Target motion parallel and perpendicular to the MLC motion was investigated for a range of amplitudes (0.5-4.0 cm), periods (1.5-10 s), and MLC speeds (0.1-3.0 cm/s) with target motions modeled as sin 6 . Results were confirmed experimentally by measuring the dose delivered to an ion chamber array in a moving phantom for different MLC sequences. The simulation results were used to identify MLC sequences that kept dose variations within 10% compared to the dose delivered with no motion. The maximum allowable MLC speed, when target motion is parallel to the MLC motion, was found to be a simple function of target period and MLC separation. When the target motion is perpendicular to MLC motion, the maximum allowable MLC speed can be described as a function of MLC separation and the displacement of adjacent MLCs. These guidelines were successfully applied to two-dimensional motion, and a simple program was written to import MLC sequence files and evaluate whether the maximum daily dose discrepancy caused by the interplay effect will be larger than 10%. This software was experimentally evaluated, and found to conservatively predict whether a given MLC sequence could give large daily dose discrepancies

  8. Catching moving targets: cancer stem cell hierarchies, therapy-resistance & considerations for clinical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gasch, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. However, despite concerted efforts, CSC-targeting strategies have not been efficiently translated to the clinic. This is partly due to our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying CSC therapy-resistance. In particular, the relationship between therapy-resistance and the organisation of CSCs as Stem-Progenitor-Differentiated cell hierarchies has not been widely studied. In this review we argue that modern clinical strategies should appreciate that the CSC hierarchy is a dynamic target that contains sensitive and resistant components and expresses a collection of therapy-resisting mechanisms. We propose that the CSC hierarchy at primary presentation changes in response to clinical intervention, resulting in a recurrent malignancy that should be targeted differently. As such, addressing the hierarchical organisation of CSCs into our bench-side theory should expedite translation of CSC-targeting to bed-side practice. In conclusion, we discuss strategies through which we can catch these moving clinical targets to specifically compromise therapy-resistant disease.

  9. Slower resting alpha frequency is associated with superior localisation of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christina J; Arnold, Craig P A; Belmonte, Matthew K

    2017-10-01

    We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past. Measurement of event-related potentials showed a contralateral delay activity over occipital scalp, maximal in the right hemisphere. The peak power-spectral frequency of observers' eyes-closed resting occipital alpha oscillations reliably predicted performance, such that lower-frequency alpha was associated with superior spatial localisation. Slower resting alpha might be associated with a cognitive style that depends less on memory-related processing and instead emphasises attention to changing stimuli. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A semiotics of comedy: Moving figures and shifting grounds of Chapayeka ritual clown performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki

    2016-01-01

    This article develops an analytic approach to comedic performance by examining the performance of the Chapayeka ritual clowns as a series of semiotic shifts and reversals: the Chapayekas play with images and contexts, introducing unpredictable figures to effectively shift the grounding conditions...... to function as both symbolic figures in the ritual and self-contained contextual grounds, which enables them to produce further signs and manipulate figure-ground relations within and beyond the ritual. The analytic view developed here is informed by the complex and multilayered semiotics of comedic...

  11. Electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar responses to complex targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis

    2014-05-01

    defined through a constant real value, or else its frequency-dispersion properties can be taken into account by incorporating into the model Debye approximations. The electromagnetic source can be represented as a simple line of current (in the case of two-dimensional models), a Hertzian dipole, a bow tie antenna, or else, the realistic description of a commercial antenna can be included in the model [2]. Preliminary results for some of the proposed cells are presented, obtained by using GprMax [3], a freeware tool which solves Maxwell's equations by using a second order in space and time Finite-Difference Time-Domain algorithm. B-Scans and A-Scans are calculated at 1.5 GHz, for the total electric field and for the field back-scattered by targets embedded in the cells. A detailed description of the structures, together with the relevant numerical results obtained to date, are available for the scientific community on the website of COST Action TU1208, www.GPRadar.eu. Research groups working on the development of electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering techniques, as well as on imaging methods, might test and compare the accuracy and applicability of their approaches on the proposed set of scenarios. The aim of this initiative is not that of identifying the best methods, but more properly to indicate the range of reliability of each approach, highlighting its advantages and drawbacks. In the future, the realisation of the proposed concrete cells and the acquisition of GPR experimental data would allow a very effective benchmark for forward and inverse scattering methods. References [1] R. Yelf, A. Ward, "Nine steps to concrete wisdom." Proc. 13th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Lecce, Italy, 21-25 June 2010, pp. 1-8. [2] C. Warren, A. Giannopoulos, "Creating FDTD models of commercial GPR antennas using Taguchi's optimisation method." Geophysics (2011), 76, article ID G37. [3] A. Giannopoulos, "Modelling ground penetrating radar by GPRMAX

  12. Infrared dim moving target tracking via sparsity-based discriminative classifier and convolutional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhou, Huixin; Wang, Bingjian; Song, Shangzhen; Zhao, Dong

    2017-11-01

    Infrared dim and small target tracking is a great challenging task. The main challenge for target tracking is to account for appearance change of an object, which submerges in the cluttered background. An efficient appearance model that exploits both the global template and local representation over infrared image sequences is constructed for dim moving target tracking. A Sparsity-based Discriminative Classifier (SDC) and a Convolutional Network-based Generative Model (CNGM) are combined with a prior model. In the SDC model, a sparse representation-based algorithm is adopted to calculate the confidence value that assigns more weights to target templates than negative background templates. In the CNGM model, simple cell feature maps are obtained by calculating the convolution between target templates and fixed filters, which are extracted from the target region at the first frame. These maps measure similarities between each filter and local intensity patterns across the target template, therefore encoding its local structural information. Then, all the maps form a representation, preserving the inner geometric layout of a candidate template. Furthermore, the fixed target template set is processed via an efficient prior model. The same operation is applied to candidate templates in the CNGM model. The online update scheme not only accounts for appearance variations but also alleviates the migration problem. At last, collaborative confidence values of particles are utilized to generate particles' importance weights. Experiments on various infrared sequences have validated the tracking capability of the presented algorithm. Experimental results show that this algorithm runs in real-time and provides a higher accuracy than state of the art algorithms.

  13. Remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system and method for a moving target in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei LIU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of position and attitude parameters for the isolated target from a high-speed aircraft is a great challenge in the field of wind tunnel simulation technology. This paper proposes a remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of a target from an aircraft. The position and attitude parameters of a moving object are obtained by utilizing a single camera with a focal length and camera orientation that can be changed based on different measurement conditions. Using this proposed system and method, both the flexibility and efficiency of the pose measurement system can be enhanced in wind tunnel conditions to meet the measurement requirements of different objects and experiments, which is also useful for the development of an intelligent position and attitude measurement system. The position and the focal length of the camera also can be controlled remotely during measurements to enlarge both the vertical and horizontal measurement range of this system. Experiments are conducted in the laboratory to measure the position and attitude of moving objects with high flexibility and efficiency, and the measurement precision of the measurement system is also verified through experiments.

  14. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  15. Location detection and tracking of moving targets by a 2D IR-UWB radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-03-19

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  16. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  17. Taking aim at a moving target: designing drugs to inhibit drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafianos, Stefan G; Das, Kalyan; Hughes, Stephen H; Arnold, Eddy

    2004-12-01

    HIV undergoes rapid genetic variation; this variation is caused primarily by the enormous number of viruses produced daily in an infected individual. Because of this variation, HIV presents a moving target for drug and vaccine development. The variation within individuals has led to the generation of diverse HIV-1 subtypes, which further complicates the development of effective drugs and vaccines. In general, it is more difficult to hit a moving target than a stationary target. Two broad strategies for hitting a moving target (in this case, HIV replication) are to understand the movement and to aim at the portions that move the least. In the case of anti-HIV drug development, the first option can be addressed by understanding the mechanism(s) of drug resistance and developing drugs that effectively inhibit mutant viruses. The second can be addressed by designing drugs that interact with portions of the viral machinery that are evolutionarily conserved, such as enzyme active sites.

  18. Robust Detection of Moving Human Target in Foliage-Penetration Environment Based on Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention has been focused on the robust moving human target detection in foliage-penetration environment, which presents a formidable task in a radar system because foliage is a rich scattering environment with complex multipath propagation and time-varying clutter. Generally, multiple-bounce returns and clutter are additionally superposed to direct-scatter echoes. They obscure true target echo and lead to poor visual quality time-range image, making target detection particular difficult. Consequently, an innovative approach is proposed to suppress clutter and mitigate multipath effects. In particular, a clutter suppression technique based on range alignment is firstly applied to suppress the time-varying clutter and the instable antenna coupling. Then entropy weighted coherent integration (EWCI algorithm is adopted to mitigate the multipath effects. In consequence, the proposed method effectively reduces the clutter and ghosting artifacts considerably. Based on the high visual quality image, the target trajectory is detected robustly and the radial velocity is estimated accurately with the Hough transform (HT. Real data used in the experimental results are provided to verify the proposed method.

  19. Infrared Small Moving Target Detection via Saliency Histogram and Geometrical Invariability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Wan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect both bright and dark small moving targets effectively in infrared (IR video sequences, a saliency histogram and geometrical invariability based method is presented in this paper. First, a saliency map that roughly highlights the salient regions of the original image is obtained by tuning its amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Then, a saliency histogram is constructed by means of averaging the accumulated saliency value of each gray level in the map, through which bins corresponding to bright target and dark target are assigned with large values in the histogram. Next, single-frame detection of candidate targets is accomplished by a binarized segmentation using an adaptive threshold, and their centroid coordinates with sub-pixel accuracy are calculated through a connected components labeling method as well as a gray-weighted criterion. Finally, considering the motion characteristics in consecutive frames, an inter-frame false alarm suppression method based on geometrical invariability is developed to improve the precision rate further. Quantitative analyses demonstrate the detecting precision of this proposed approach can be up to 97% and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves further verify our method outperforms other state-of-the-arts methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate.

  20. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2017-06-16

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Modified linear predictive coding approach for moving target tracking by Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yipeng; Lin, Xiaoyi; Sun, Ke-Hui; Xu, Xue-Mei; Liu, Xi-Yao

    2016-07-01

    Doppler radar is a cost-effective tool for moving target tracking, which can support a large range of civilian and military applications. A modified linear predictive coding (LPC) approach is proposed to increase the target localization accuracy of the Doppler radar. Based on the time-frequency analysis of the received echo, the proposed approach first real-time estimates the noise statistical parameters and constructs an adaptive filter to intelligently suppress the noise interference. Then, a linear predictive model is applied to extend the available data, which can help improve the resolution of the target localization result. Compared with the traditional LPC method, which empirically decides the extension data length, the proposed approach develops an error array to evaluate the prediction accuracy and thus, adjust the optimum extension data length intelligently. Finally, the prediction error array is superimposed with the predictor output to correct the prediction error. A series of experiments are conducted to illustrate the validity and performance of the proposed techniques.

  2. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we consider a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. We propose a reduced complexity algorithm to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD) for moving target. We show that the calculation of parameter estimation can be expressed in terms of one-dimensional fast-Fourier-transforms which drastically reduces the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the two-dimension multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover, simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the Cramer-Rao lower bound. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Figure ground segregation modulates perceived direction of ambiguous moving gratings and plaids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, L; Vallortigara, G

    1999-02-01

    A translating oriented grating viewed through a circular aperture with an occluding area in the middle appeared to move alternately in an oblique or in a vertical direction depending on the foreground/background assignment on the central occluding area. The effect occurred even when the central area was simply removed from the display, thus giving rise to a 'subjective' occluder. Parametric studies revealed that the probability of seeing oblique or vertical motion was affected by the size of the central area but not by its contrast relationships with the grating. Similar phenomena of ambiguous motion direction were observed using changes in colour along a translating grating that produced neon colour spreading effects, or using oriented edge discontinuities that collapsed into subjective plaids composed of two one-dimensional gratings. These results are discussed with respect to the hypothesis that surface segmentation mechanisms play a crucial part in the interpretation of motion signals.

  5. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability.

  6. Tumor trailing strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Alexei; Vrancic, Christian; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Internal organ motion during the course of radiation therapy of cancer affects the distribution of the delivered dose and, generally, reduces its conformality to the targeted volume. Previously proposed approaches aimed at mitigating the effect of internal motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) included expansion of the target margins, motion-correlated delivery (e.g., respiratory gating, tumor tracking), and adaptive treatment plan optimization employing a probabilistic description of motion. We describe and test the tumor trailing strategy, which utilizes the synergy of motion-adaptive treatment planning and delivery methods. We regard the (rigid) target motion as a superposition of a relatively fast cyclic component (e.g., respiratory) and slow aperiodic trends (e.g., the drift of exhalation baseline). In the trailing approach, these two components of motion are decoupled and dealt with separately. Real-time motion monitoring is employed to identify the 'slow' shifts, which are then corrected by applying setup adjustments. The delivery does not track the target position exactly, but trails the systematic trend due to the delay between the time a shift occurs, is reliably detected, and, subsequently, corrected. The ''fast'' cyclic motion is accounted for with a robust motion-adaptive treatment planning, which allows for variability in motion parameters (e.g., mean and extrema of the tidal volume, variable period of respiration, and expiratory duration). Motion-surrogate data from gated IMRT treatments were used to provide probability distribution data for motion-adaptive planning and to test algorithms that identified systematic trends in the character of motion. Sample IMRT fields were delivered on a clinical linear accelerator to a programmable moving phantom. Dose measurements were performed with a commercial two-dimensional ion-chamber array. The results indicate that by reducing intrafractional motion variability, the trailing strategy

  7. Learning the trajectory of a moving visual target and evolution of its tracking in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrelly, Clara; Quinet, Julie; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    An object moving in the visual field triggers a saccade that brings its image onto the fovea. It is followed by a combination of slow eye movements and catch-up saccades that try to keep the target image on the fovea as long as possible. The accuracy of this ability to track the “here-and-now” location of a visual target contrasts with the spatiotemporally distributed nature of its encoding in the brain. We show in six experimentally naive monkeys how this performance is acquired and gradually evolves during successive daily sessions. During the early exposure, the tracking is mostly saltatory, made of relatively large saccades separated by low eye velocity episodes, demonstrating that accurate (here and now) pursuit is not spontaneous and that gaze direction lags behind its location most of the time. Over the sessions, while the pursuit velocity is enhanced, the gaze is more frequently directed toward the current target location as a consequence of a 25% reduction in the number of catch-up saccades and a 37% reduction in size (for the first saccade). This smoothing is observed at several scales: during the course of single trials, across the set of trials within a session, and over successive sessions. We explain the neurophysiological processes responsible for this combined evolution of saccades and pursuit in the absence of stringent training constraints. More generally, our study shows that the oculomotor system can be used to discover the neural mechanisms underlying the ability to synchronize a motor effector with a dynamic external event. PMID:27683886

  8. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  9. The registration of non-cooperative moving targets laser point cloud in different view point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Sun, Huayan; Guo, Huichao

    2018-01-01

    Non-cooperative moving target multi-view cloud registration is the key technology of 3D reconstruction of laser threedimension imaging. The main problem is that the density changes greatly and noise exists under different acquisition conditions of point cloud. In this paper, firstly, the feature descriptor is used to find the most similar point cloud, and then based on the registration algorithm of region segmentation, the geometric structure of the point is extracted by the geometric similarity between point and point, The point cloud is divided into regions based on spectral clustering, feature descriptors are created for each region, searching to find the most similar regions in the most similar point of view cloud, and then aligning the pair of point clouds by aligning their minimum bounding boxes. Repeat the above steps again until registration of all point clouds is completed. Experiments show that this method is insensitive to the density of point clouds and performs well on the noise of laser three-dimension imaging.

  10. An indirect adaptive neural control of a visual-based quadrotor robot for pursuing a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Masoud; Amirkhani, Abdollah; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mosavi, Mohammad R

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to use a visual-based control mechanism to control a quadrotor type aerial robot which is in pursuit of a moving target. The nonlinear nature of a quadrotor, on the one hand, and the difficulty of obtaining an exact model for it, on the other hand, constitute two serious challenges in designing a controller for this UAV. A potential solution for such problems is the use of intelligent control methods such as those that rely on artificial neural networks and other similar approaches. In addition to the two mentioned problems, another problem that emerges due to the moving nature of a target is the uncertainty that exists in the target image. By employing an artificial neural network with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) an indirect adaptive neural controller has been designed for a quadrotor robot in search of a moving target. The results of the simulation for different paths show that the quadrotor has efficiently tracked the moving target. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measure of Effectiveness for JSTARS Ground Moving Target Indicator: A Value Focused Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    while minimizing cost. Clearly, these objectives conflict with each other, but DA gives us tools to make trade -offs when dealing with multiple...provide 25 solutions to problems, instead it is an information source that provides insight about a situation, uncertainty, objectives, and trade -offs...index.htm Shoviak, M. J. (2001). Decision Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Intergrated Solid Waste Management Alternatives for a Remote Alaskan

  12. 3D range-gated super-resolution imaging based on stereo matching for moving platforms and targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2017-11-01

    3D range-gated superresolution imaging is a novel 3D reconstruction technique for target detection and recognition with good real-time performance. However, for moving targets or platforms such as airborne, shipborne, remote operated vehicle and autonomous vehicle, 3D reconstruction has a large error or failure. In order to overcome this drawback, we propose a method of stereo matching for 3D range-gated superresolution reconstruction algorithm. In experiment, the target is a doll of Mario with a height of 38cm at the location of 34m, and we obtain two successive frame images of the Mario. To confirm our method is effective, we transform the original images with translation, rotation, scale and perspective, respectively. The experimental result shows that our method has a good result of 3D reconstruction for moving targets or platforms.

  13. An Adaptive Moving Target Imaging Method for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Optimization NLCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-01-23

    Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. An Adaptive Moving Target Imaging Method for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Optimization NLCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I large and unknown range cell migration (RCM (including range walk and high-order RCM; (II the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. An optimisation algorithm for determination of treatment margins around moving and deformable targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Determining treatment margins for inter-fractional motion of moving and deformable clinical target volumes (CTVs) remains a major challenge. This paper describes and applies an optimisation algorithm designed to derive such margins. Material and methods: The algorithm works by expanding the CTV, as determined from a pre-treatment or planning scan, to enclose the CTV positions observed during treatment. CTV positions during treatment may be obtained using, for example, repeat CT scanning and/or repeat electronic portal imaging (EPI). The algorithm can be applied to both individual patients and to a set of patients. The margins derived will minimise the excess volume outside the envelope that encloses all observed CTV positions (the CTV envelope). Initially, margins are set such that the envelope is more than adequately covered when the planning CTV is expanded. The algorithm uses an iterative method where the margins are sampled randomly and are then either increased or decreased randomly. The algorithm is tested on a set of 19 bladder cancer patients that underwent weekly repeat CT scanning and EPI throughout their treatment course. Results: From repeated runs on individual patients, the algorithm produces margins within a range of ±2 mm that lie among the best results found with an exhaustive search approach, and that agree within 3 mm with margins determined by a manual approach on the same data. The algorithm could be used to determine margins to cover any specified geometrical uncertainty, and allows for the determination of reduced margins by relaxing the coverage criteria, for example disregarding extreme CTV positions, or an arbitrarily selected volume fraction of the CTV envelope, and/or patients with extreme geometrical uncertainties. Conclusion: An optimisation approach to margin determination is found to give reproducible results within the accuracy required. The major advantage with this algorithm is that it is completely empirical, and it is

  16. Margin estimation and disturbances of irradiation field in layer-stacking carbon-ion beams for respiratory moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Shinya; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Mizukami, Tomohiro; Tsukishima, Chihiro; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2017-11-01

    Carbon-ion therapy by layer-stacking irradiation for static targets has been practised in clinical treatments. In order to apply this technique to a moving target, disturbances of carbon-ion dose distributions due to respiratory motion have been studied based on the measurement using a respiratory motion phantom, and the margin estimation given by the square root of the summation Internal margin2+Setup margin2 has been assessed. We assessed the volume in which the variation in the ratio of the dose for a target moving due to respiration relative to the dose for a static target was within 5%. The margins were insufficient for use with layer-stacking irradiation of a moving target, and an additional margin was required. The lateral movement of a target converts to the range variation, as the thickness of the range compensator changes with the movement of the target. Although the additional margin changes according to the shape of the ridge filter, dose uniformity of 5% can be achieved for a spherical target 93 mm in diameter when the upward range variation is limited to 5 mm and the additional margin of 2.5 mm is applied in case of our ridge filter. Dose uniformity in a clinical target largely depends on the shape of the mini-peak as well as on the bolus shape. We have shown the relationship between range variation and dose uniformity. In actual therapy, the upper limit of target movement should be considered by assessing the bolus shape. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation

  18. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul

    2011-07-01

    In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a tgamma-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the gamma-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. The delivery efficiency of

  19. The importance of surrounding tissues and window settings for contouring of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, Kai Joachim [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Medical School, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Oechsner, Markus; Berndt, Johannes; Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Molls, Michael; Duma, Marciana Nona [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the importance of surrounding tissues for the delineation of moving targets in tissue-specific phantoms and to find optimal settings for lung, soft tissue, and liver tumors. Tumor movement was simulated by a water-filled table tennis ball (target volume, TV). Three phantoms were created: corkboards to simulate lung tissue (lung phantom, LunPh), animal fat as fatty soft tissue (fatty tissue phantom, FatPh), and water enhanced with contrast medium as the liver tissue (liver phantom, LivPh). Slow planning three-dimensional compute tomography images (3D-CTs) were acquired with and without phantom movements. One-dimensional tumor movement (1D), three-dimensional tumor movement (3D), as well as a real patient's tumor trajectories were simulated. The TV was contoured using two lung window settings, two soft-tissue window settings, and one liver window setting. The volumes were compared to mathematical calculated values. TVs were underestimated in all phantoms due to movement. The use of soft-tissue windows in the LivPh led to a significantunderestimation of the TV (70.8 % of calculated TV). When common window settings [LunPh + 200 HU/-1,000 HU (upper window/lower window threshold); FatPh: + 240 HU/-120 HU; LivPh: + 175 HU/+ 50 HU] were used, the contoured TVs were: LivPh, 84.0 %; LunPh, 93.2 %, and FatPh, 92.8 %. The lower window threshold had a significant impact on the size of the delineated TV, whereas changes of the upper threshold led only to small differences. The decisive factor for window settings is the lower window threshold (for adequate TV delineation in the lung and fatty-soft tissue it should be lower than density values of surrounding tissue). The use of a liver window should be considered. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss des umgebenden Gewebes auf die Konturierung bewegter Objekte zu untersuchen. Um die optimalen CT-Fensterungen fuer Lungen-, Weichteil- und Lebertumoren zu bestimmen

  20. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  1. Hic-Et-Nunc (Here-and-Now Encoding of a Moving Target for its Saccadic Foveation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Goffart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The neural representation of a moving target undergoes a spatiotemporal “diffusion” while the associated retinal activity propagates toward the motor centers and recruits the appropriate muscles for its interception in the external world. Indeed, the divergent projections within the visual system and the transmissions of signals through multiple relays, with diverse conduction velocities and integration times, lead to activities that are spatially and temporally distributed across several brain regions. In spite of this neural “blurring”, accurate saccadic eye movements can be made to bring the image of a moving target onto the fovea. Such a performance indicates that the brain is able to rapidly estimate the current spatiotemporal coordinates of the target, at least at the time of saccade landing. We tested in the monkey the robustness of this estimate when a change in eye position and a delay are experimentally added before the animal launches a saccade toward a moving target and in the absence of visual feedback. These spatiotemporal perturbations were induced by a brief microstimulation in the deep superior colliculus. The results show that the interceptive saccades can remain accurate and relatively independent of the time taken to react and to foveate the target. We propose that the brain builds an estimate of the expected and current spatiotemporal (hic-et-nunc coordinates of the target and that this signal feeds the same local feedback loop as the mechanism proposed for guiding saccades toward a stationary target (Fleuriet and Goffart, 2012 Journal of Neuroscience 32 452–461.

  2. VHF/UHF imagery and RCS measurements of ground targets in forested terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesman, Andrew J.; Beaudoin, Christopher J.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E.

    2002-08-01

    The monostatic VV and HH-polarized radar signatures of several targets and trees have been measured at foliage penetration frequencies (VHF/UHF) by using 1/35th scale models and an indoor radar range operating at X-band. An array of high-fidelity scale model ground vehicles and test objects as well as scaled ground terrain and trees have been fabricated for the study. Radar measurement accuracy has been confirmed by comparing the signature of a test object with a method of moments radar cross section prediction code. In addition to acquiring signatures of targets located on a smooth, dielectric ground plane, data have also been acquired with targets located in simulated wooded terrain that included scaled tree trunks and tree branches. In order to assure the correct backscattering behavior, all dielectric properties of live tree wood and moist soil were scaled properly to match the complex dielectric constant of the full-scale materials. The impact of the surrounding tree clutter on the VHF/UHF radar signatures of ground vehicles was accessed. Data were processed into high-resolution, polar-formatted ISAR imagery and signature comparisons are made between targets in open-field and forested scenarios.

  3. Study on the Detection of Moving Target in the Mining Method Based on Hybrid Algorithm for Sports Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving object detection and tracking is the computer vision and image processing is a hot research direction, based on the analysis of the moving target detection and tracking algorithm in common use, focus on the sports video target tracking non rigid body. In sports video, non rigid athletes often have physical deformation in the process of movement, and may be associated with the occurrence of moving target under cover. Media data is surging to fast search and query causes more difficulties in data. However, the majority of users want to be able to quickly from the multimedia data to extract the interested content and implicit knowledge (concepts, rules, rules, models and correlation, retrieval and query quickly to take advantage of them, but also can provide the decision support problem solving hierarchy. Based on the motion in sport video object as the object of study, conducts the system research from the theoretical level and technical framework and so on, from the layer by layer mining between low level motion features to high-level semantic motion video, not only provides support for users to find information quickly, but also can provide decision support for the user to solve the problem.

  4. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  5. Dynamical scene analysis with a moving camera: mobile targets detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennebert, Christine

    1996-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the detection of moving objects in monocular image sequences acquired with a mobile camera. We propose a method able to detect small moving objects in visible or infrared images of real outdoor scenes. In order to detect objects of very low apparent motion, we consider an analysis on a large temporal interval. We have chosen to compensate for the dominant motion due to the camera displacement for several consecutive images in order to form a sub-sequence of images for which the camera seems virtually static. We have also developed a new approach allowing to extract the different layers of a real scene in order to deal with cases where the 2D motion due to the camera displacement cannot be globally compensated for. To this end, we use a hierarchical model with two levels: the local merging step and the global merging one. Then, an appropriate temporal filtering is applied to registered image sub-sequence to enhance signals corresponding to moving objects. The detection issue is stated as a labeling problem within a statistical regularization based on Markov Random Fields. Our method has been validated on numerous real image sequences depicting complex outdoor scenes. Finally, the feasibility of an integrated circuit for mobile object detection has been proved. This circuit could lead to an ASIC creation. (author) [fr

  6. Moving-Target Position Estimation Using GPU-Based Particle Filter for IoT Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongseop Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A particle filter (PF has been introduced for effective position estimation of moving targets for non-Gaussian and nonlinear systems. The time difference of arrival (TDOA method using acoustic sensor array has normally been used to for estimation by concealing the location of a moving target, especially underwater. In this paper, we propose a GPU -based acceleration of target position estimation using a PF and propose an efficient system and software architecture. The proposed graphic processing unit (GPU-based algorithm has more advantages in applying PF signal processing to a target system, which consists of large-scale Internet of Things (IoT-driven sensors because of the parallelization which is scalable. For the TDOA measurement from the acoustic sensor array, we use the generalized cross correlation phase transform (GCC-PHAT method to obtain the correlation coefficient of the signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and we try to accelerate the calculations of GCC-PHAT based TDOA measurements using FFT with GPU compute unified device architecture (CUDA. The proposed approach utilizes a parallelization method in the target position estimation algorithm using GPU-based PF processing. In addition, it could efficiently estimate sudden movement change of the target using GPU-based parallel computing which also can be used for multiple target tracking. It also provides scalability in extending the detection algorithm according to the increase of the number of sensors. Therefore, the proposed architecture can be applied in IoT sensing applications with a large number of sensors. The target estimation algorithm was verified using MATLAB and implemented using GPU CUDA. We implemented the proposed signal processing acceleration system using target GPU to analyze in terms of execution time. The execution time of the algorithm is reduced by 55% from to the CPU standalone operation in target embedded board, NVIDIA Jetson TX1. Also, to apply large

  7. Efficient moving target analysis for inverse synthetic aperture radar images via joint speeded-up robust features and regular moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxin; Su, Fulin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a moving target analysis algorithm using speeded-up robust features (SURF) and regular moment in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image sequences. In our study, we first extract interest points from ISAR image sequences by SURF. Different from traditional feature point extraction methods, SURF-based feature points are invariant to scattering intensity, target rotation, and image size. Then, we employ a bilateral feature registering model to match these feature points. The feature registering scheme can not only search the isotropic feature points to link the image sequences but also reduce the error matching pairs. After that, the target centroid is detected by regular moment. Consequently, a cost function based on correlation coefficient is adopted to analyze the motion information. Experimental results based on simulated and real data validate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

  8. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  9. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  10. Systematic analysis of neutron yields from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions and protons with moving source model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Nakamura, Takashi E-mail: nakamura@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp

    2002-03-21

    A simple phenomenological analysis using the moving source model has been performed on the neutron energy spectra produced by bombarding thick targets with high energy heavy ions which have been systematically measured at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) facility (located in Chiba, Japan) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). For the bombardment of both heavy ions and protons in the energy region of 100-500 MeV per nucleon, the moving source model incorporating the knock-on process could be generally successful in reproducing the measured neutron spectra within a factor of two margin of accuracy. This phenomenological analytical equation is expressed having several parameters as functions of atomic number Z{sub p}, mass number A{sub p}, energy per nucleon E{sub p} for projectile, and atomic number Z{sub T}, mass number A{sub T} for target. By inputting these basic data for projectile and target into this equation we can easily estimate the secondary neutron energy spectra at an emission angle of 0-90 deg. for bombardment with heavy ions and protons in the aforementioned energy region. This method will be quite useful to estimate the neutron source term in the neutron shielding design of high energy proton and heavy ion accelerators.

  11. Conceptualising the management of packaging within new product development:a grounded investigation in the UK fast moving consumer goods industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simms, Chris; Trott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this study is to: (i) contribute to existing models of new product development (NPD), and provide new understanding of how a new product’s packaging is managed and integrated into the NPD process of fast moving consumer goods firms; and (ii) build on prior research suggesting that firms lack a pipeline of new packaging innovations by uncovering the factors that influence this pipeline issue. Design/methodology/approach- A grounded theory methodology was adopted. Resear...

  12. Search efficiency of biased migration towards stationary or moving targets in heterogeneously structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzade, Youness; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Efficient search acts as a strong selective force in biological systems ranging from cellular populations to predator-prey systems. The search processes commonly involve finding a stationary or mobile target within a heterogeneously structured environment where obstacles limit migration. An open generic question is whether random or directionally biased motions or a combination of both provide an optimal search efficiency and how that depends on the motility and density of targets and obstacles. To address this question, we develop a simple model that involves a random walker searching for its targets in a heterogeneous medium of bond percolation square lattice and used mean first passage time (〈T 〉 ) as an indication of average search time. Our analysis reveals a dual effect of directional bias on the minimum value of 〈T 〉 . For a homogeneous medium, directionality always decreases 〈T 〉 and a pure directional migration (a ballistic motion) serves as the optimized strategy, while for a heterogeneous environment, we find that the optimized strategy involves a combination of directed and random migrations. The relative contribution of these modes is determined by the density of obstacles and motility of targets. Existence of randomness and motility of targets add to the efficiency of search. Our study reveals generic and simple rules that govern search efficiency. Our findings might find application in a number of areas including immunology, cell biology, ecology, and robotics.

  13. 77 FR 13656 - Call for Papers: National Symposium on Moving Target Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... a dynamic attack surface to an adversary, increasing the work factor necessary to successfully attack and exploit a cyber target. Throughout the federal government, research related to MT has been... improvement in the defense of cyber systems (a game changer),'' including how to develop better measures of...

  14. Is perception of self-motion speed a necessary condition for intercepting a moving target while walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Antoine H P; Wallet, Grégory; Montagne, Gilles

    2014-04-30

    While it has been shown that the Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) is used in the control of self-motion speed, this study examined its relevance in the control of interceptive actions while walking. We asked participants to intercept approaching targets by adjusting their walking speed in a virtual environment, and predicted that the influence of the GOFR depended on their interception strategy. Indeed, unlike the Constant Bearing Angle (CBA), the Modified Required Velocity (MRV) strategy relies on the perception of self-displacement speed. On the other hand, the CBA strategy involves specific speed adjustments depending on the curvature of the target's trajectory, whereas the MRV does not. We hypothesized that one strategy is selected among the two depending on the informational content of the environment. We thus manipulated the curvature and display of the target's trajectory, and the relationship between physical walking speed and the GOFR (through eye height manipulations). Our results showed that when the target trajectory was not displayed, walking speed profiles were affected by curvature manipulations. Otherwise, walking speed profiles were less affected by curvature manipulations and were affected by the GOFR manipulations. Taken together, these results show that the use of the GOFR for intercepting a moving target while walking depends on the informational content of the environment. Finally we discuss the complementary roles of these two perceptual-motor strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Algorithm for covert convoy of a moving target using a group of autonomous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Igor; Shvets, Evgeny

    2018-04-01

    An important application of autonomous robot systems is to substitute human personnel in dangerous environments to reduce their involvement and subsequent risk on human lives. In this paper we solve the problem of covertly convoying a civilian in a dangerous area with a group of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) using social potential fields. The novelty of our work lies in the usage of UGVs as compared to the unmanned aerial vehicles typically employed for this task in the approaches described in literature. Additionally, in our paper we assume that the group of UGVs should simultaneously solve the problem of patrolling to detect intruders on the area. We develop a simulation system to test our algorithms, provide numerical results and give recommendations on how to tune the potentials governing robots' behaviour to prioritize between patrolling and convoying tasks.

  16. A Novel Method for Proximity Detection of Moving Targets Using a Large-Scale Planar Capacitive Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for proximity detection of moving targets (with high dielectric constants using a large-scale (the size of each sensor is 31 cm × 19 cm planar capacitive sensor system (PCSS is proposed. The capacitive variation with distance is derived, and a pair of electrodes in a planar capacitive sensor unit (PCSU with a spiral shape is found to have better performance on sensitivity distribution homogeneity and dynamic range than three other shapes (comb shape, rectangular shape, and circular shape. A driving excitation circuit with a Clapp oscillator is proposed, and a capacitance measuring circuit with sensitivity of 0.21 V p − p / pF is designed. The results of static experiments and dynamic experiments demonstrate that the voltage curves of static experiments are similar to those of dynamic experiments; therefore, the static data can be used to simulate the dynamic curves. The dynamic range of proximity detection for three projectiles is up to 60 cm, and the results of the following static experiments show that the PCSU with four neighboring units has the highest sensitivity (the sensitivities of other units are at least 4% lower; when the attack angle decreases, the intensity of sensor signal increases. This proposed method leads to the design of a feasible moving target detector with simple structure and low cost, which can be applied in the interception system.

  17. Fifty years of advances in sarcoma treatment: moving the needle from conventional chemotherapy to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreyaskumar R

    2014-01-01

    Much of the progress in systemic therapy for sarcomas was accomplished in the first half of the last 5 decades. Various chemotherapeutic agents were tested in the 70s through the 80s and became part of the standard of care for this patient population. During the decade of the 90s, dose intensification became feasible as a result of improved supportive care and the availability of growth factors, thus maximizing the therapeutic potential of this class of agents. However, response rates and survival plateaued and it became obvious that newer and mechanistically different agents were needed to improve the therapeutic index and gain further enhancement of outcomes. Since early 2000, primarily inspired by the experience with imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), several targeted therapies have been tested in sarcomas with modest success. The major limitations encountered include the lack of drivers and actionable targets for bone and soft tissue sarcomas with complex genomic profiles. Continued investigations and sequencing of larger numbers of these rare and heterogeneous malignancies could shed some light on a path toward improved outcomes.

  18. A neurocomputational model of figure-ground discrimination and target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, L; Guo, A

    1999-01-01

    A neurocomputational model is presented for figureground discrimination and target tracking. In the model, the elementary motion detectors of the correlation type, the computational modules of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement, an oscillatory neural-network motion perception module and a selective attention module are involved. It is shown that through the oscillatory amplitude and frequency encoding, and selective synchronization of phase oscillators, the figure and the ground can be successfully discriminated from each other. The receptive fields developed by hidden units of the networks were surprisingly similar to the actual receptive fields and columnar organization found in the primate visual cortex. It is suggested that equivalent mechanisms may exist in the primate visual cortex to discriminate figure-ground in both temporal and spatial domains.

  19. A signature correlation study of ground target VHF/UHF ISAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesman, Andrew J.; Beaudoin, Christopher J.; Giles, Robert H.; Kersey, William T.; Waldman, Jerry; Carter, Steve; Nixon, William E.

    2003-09-01

    VV and HH-polarized radar signatures of several ground targets were acquired in the VHF/UHF band (171-342 MHz) by using 1/35th scale models and an indoor radar range operating from 6 to 12 GHz. Data were processed into medianized radar cross sections as well as focused, ISAR imagery. Measurement validation was confirmed by comparing the radar cross section of a test object with a method of moments radar cross section prediction code. The signatures of several vehicles from three vehicle classes (tanks, trunks, and TELs) were measured and a signature cross-correlation study was performed. The VHF/UHF band is currently being exploited for its foliage penetration ability, however, the coarse image resolution which results from the relatively long radar wavelengths suggests a more challenging target recognition problem. One of the study's goals was to determine the amount of unique signature content in VHF/UHF ISAR imagery of military ground vehicles. Open-field signatures are compared with each other as well as with simplified shapes of similar size. Signatures were also acquired on one vehicle in a variety of configurations to determine the impact of monitor target variations on the signature content at these frequencies.

  20. Development and performance evaluation of a dynamic phantom for biological dosimetry of moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, A.; Bert, C.; Saito, N.; von Neubeck, C.; Iancu, G.; K-Weyrather, W.; Durante, M.; Rietzel, E.

    2010-06-01

    A dynamic phantom has been developed to allow for measurement of 3D cell survival distributions and the corresponding distributions of the RBE-weighted dose (RBED) in the presence of motion. The phantom consists of two 96-microwell plates holding Chinese hamster ovary cells inside a container filled with culture medium and is placed on a movable stage. Basic biological properties of the phantom were investigated without irradiation and after irradiation with a carbon ion beam, using both a stationary (reference) exposure and exposure during motion of the phantom perpendicular to the beam with beam tracking. There was no statistically significant difference between plating efficiency measured in the microwells with and without motion (0.75) and values reported in the literature. Mean differences between measured and calculated cell survival for these two irradiation modes were within ±5% of the target dose of 6 Gy (RBE).

  1. Development and performance evaluation of a dynamic phantom for biological dosimetry of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, A; Bert, C; Saito, N; Von Neubeck, C; Iancu, G; K-Weyrather, W; Durante, M; Rietzel, E, E-mail: alexander.ag.gemmel@siemens.co [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-06-07

    A dynamic phantom has been developed to allow for measurement of 3D cell survival distributions and the corresponding distributions of the RBE-weighted dose (RBED) in the presence of motion. The phantom consists of two 96-microwell plates holding Chinese hamster ovary cells inside a container filled with culture medium and is placed on a movable stage. Basic biological properties of the phantom were investigated without irradiation and after irradiation with a carbon ion beam, using both a stationary (reference) exposure and exposure during motion of the phantom perpendicular to the beam with beam tracking. There was no statistically significant difference between plating efficiency measured in the microwells with and without motion (0.75) and values reported in the literature. Mean differences between measured and calculated cell survival for these two irradiation modes were within {+-}5% of the target dose of 6 Gy (RBE).

  2. Experimental research on laser tracking system with galvanometer scanner for measuring spatial coordinates of moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hu, Zhaohui; Liu, Yongdong; Liang, Jinwen

    2000-10-01

    The spatial position of industrial object, such as robot end- effector, is an important geometric parameter whose accuracy determines whether robot can perform accurately. Therefore, we have established a laser tracking and coordinate measuring system with galvanometer scanner for high accuracy, large range, non- contact, and spatial dynamic measurement. In this paper, the laser tracking system and its setup are illuminated at first. Then, the formulae for calculating coordinates are deduced, and the calibration method of the initial distance from tracking mirror to target is presented. After that, two preliminary experiments in different distances are described. One is on CMM; the other is with grating ruler as reference. In the former, the maximum measurement error of coordinates is 70micrometers and the maximum error of length is 35micrometers in the 85x100x100mm3 measurement volume, and in the 1m initial distance. In the later, the maximum error of length is 140micrometers in the range of 480mm, and in the 5m initial distance. At the end of the paper, the error sources are analyzed and simulated.

  3. SAR image dataset of military ground targets with multiple poses for ATR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Carole; Balleri, Alessio; Aouf, Nabil; Merlet, Thomas; Le Caillec, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is the task of automatically detecting and classifying targets. Recognition using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is interesting because SAR images can be acquired at night and under any weather conditions, whereas optical sensors operating in the visible band do not have this capability. Existing SAR ATR algorithms have mostly been evaluated using the MSTAR dataset.1 The problem with the MSTAR is that some of the proposed ATR methods have shown good classification performance even when targets were hidden,2 suggesting the presence of a bias in the dataset. Evaluations of SAR ATR techniques are currently challenging due to the lack of publicly available data in the SAR domain. In this paper, we present a high resolution SAR dataset consisting of images of a set of ground military target models taken at various aspect angles, The dataset can be used for a fair evaluation and comparison of SAR ATR algorithms. We applied the Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) technique to echoes from targets rotating on a turntable and illuminated with a stepped frequency waveform. The targets in the database consist of four variants of two 1.7m-long models of T-64 and T-72 tanks. The gun, the turret position and the depression angle are varied to form 26 different sequences of images. The emitted signal spanned the frequency range from 13 GHz to 18 GHz to achieve a bandwidth of 5 GHz sampled with 4001 frequency points. The resolution obtained with respect to the size of the model targets is comparable to typical values obtained using SAR airborne systems. Single polarized images (Horizontal-Horizontal) are generated using the backprojection algorithm.3 A total of 1480 images are produced using a 20° integration angle. The images in the dataset are organized in a suggested training and testing set to facilitate a standard evaluation of SAR ATR algorithms.

  4. Study of intense pulse irradiation effects on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, O.

    1994-12-01

    This study aim was centered on morphological and structural alterations induced by laser irradiation on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors. First we recalled the main high light intensity effects on the condensed matter. Then we presented the experimental aspects. The experimental studies were achieved on two sample types: SiO 2 /Si and Si. Two topics were studied: the defect chronology according to wavelength and pulse length, and the crystalline quality as well as the structure defects of irradiated zones by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, irradiation of Si targets by intense pulsed beams may lead to material fusion. This phenomenon is particularly easy when the material is absorbent, when the pulse is short and when the material is superficially oxidized. (MML). 204 refs., 93 figs., 21 tabs., 1 appendix

  5. Novel Method of Unambiguous Moving Target Detection in Pulse-Doppler Radar with Random Pulse Repetition Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blind zones and ambiguities in range and velocity measurement are two important issues in traditional pulse-Doppler radar. By generating random deviations with respect to a mean Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI, this paper proposes a novel algorithm of Moving Target Detection (MTD based on the Compressed Sensing (CS theory, in which the random deviations of the PRIare converted to the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP of the observing matrix. The ambiguities of range and velocity are eliminated by designing the signal parameters. The simulation results demonstrate that this scheme has high performance of detection, and there is no ambiguity and blind zones as well. It can also shorten the coherent processing interval compared to traditional staggered PRI mode because only one pulse train is needed instead of several trains.

  6. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  7. Dosimetric evaluation of a moving tumor target in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kang, Min Kyu; Yea, Ji Woon; Oh, Se An

    2013-07-01

    Immobilization plays an important role in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The application of IMRT in lung cancer patients is very difficult due to the movement of the tumor target. Patient setup in radiation treatment demands high accuracy because IMRT employs a treatment size of a 1mm pixel unit. Hence, quality assurance of the dose delivered to patients must be at its highest. The radiation dose was evaluated for breathing rates of 9, 14, and 18 breaths per minute (bpm) for tumor targets moving up and down by 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm. The dose of the moving planned target volume (PTV) was measured by using a thermo-luminescent dosimeter (TLD) and Gafchromic™ EBT film. The measurement points were 1.0 cm away from the top, the bottom and the left and the right sides of the PTV center. The evaluated dose differences ranged from 94.2 to 103.8%, from 94.4 to 105.4%, and from 90.7 to 108.5% for 9, 14 and 18 bpm, respectively, for a tumor movement of 1.0 cm. The mean values of the doses were 101.4, 99.9, and 99.5% for 9, 14 and 18 bpm, respectively, for a tumor movement of 1.0 cm. Meanwhile, the evaluated dose differences ranged from 93.6 to 105.8%, from 95.9 to 111.5%, and from 96.2 to 111.7% for 9, 14 and 18 bpm, respectively, for a tumor movement of 1.5 cm. The mean values of the doses were 102.3, 103.4, and 103.1% for 9, 14 and 18 bpm, respectively, for a tumor movement of 1.5 cm. Therefore, we suggest that IMRT can be used in the treatment of lung cancer patients with vertical target movements within the range of 1.0 to 1.5 cm.

  8. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  9. Sensing across large-scale cognitive radio networks: Data processing, algorithms, and testbed for wireless tomography and moving target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonior, Jason David

    As the use of wireless devices has become more widespread so has the potential for utilizing wireless networks for remote sensing applications. Regular wireless communication devices are not typically designed for remote sensing. Remote sensing techniques must be carefully tailored to the capabilities of these networks before they can be applied. Experimental verification of these techniques and algorithms requires robust yet flexible testbeds. In this dissertation, two experimental testbeds for the advancement of research into sensing across large-scale cognitive radio networks are presented. System architectures, implementations, capabilities, experimental verification, and performance are discussed. One testbed is designed for the collection of scattering data to be used in RF and wireless tomography research. This system is used to collect full complex scattering data using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and amplitude-only data using non-synchronous software-defined radios (SDRs). Collected data is used to experimentally validate a technique for phase reconstruction using semidefinite relaxation and demonstrate the feasibility of wireless tomography. The second testbed is a SDR network for the collection of experimental data. The development of tools for network maintenance and data collection is presented and discussed. A novel recursive weighted centroid algorithm for device-free target localization using the variance of received signal strength for wireless links is proposed. The signal variance resulting from a moving target is modeled as having contours related to Cassini ovals. This model is used to formulate recursive weights which reduce the influence of wireless links that are farther from the target location estimate. The algorithm and its implementation on this testbed are presented and experimental results discussed.

  10. The Moving Group Targets of the SEEDS High-contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, T.D.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~105 at 1'' and ~106

  11. Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1±3.1% and -0.5±2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For

  12. Positron emission tomography for the dose monitoring of intra-fractionally moving targets in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    successful reduction of motion artefacts. The therapy control system provides information about the exact progress of the motion compensated dose delivery. Recommendations are given in this thesis to optimize the 4D IBT-PET workflow and to prevent the observer from a mis-interpretation of the dose monitoring data. In summary, the thesis contributes on a large scale to a potential future application of the IBT-PET monitoring for intra-fractionally moving target volumes by providing the required reconstruction and simulation algorithms. Systematic examinations with more realistic, multi-directional and irregular motion patterns are required for further improvements.

  13. A case study in adaptable and reusable infrastructure at the Keck Observatory Archive: VO interfaces, moving targets, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Cohen, Richard W.; Colson, Andrew; Gelino, Christopher R.; Good, John C.; Kong, Mihseh; Laity, Anastasia C.; Mader, Jeffrey A.; Swain, Melanie A.; Tran, Hien D.; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2016-08-01

    searches are spatial, much of the effort in developing the program interface involved processing the instrument and telescope parameters to understand how accurately we can derive the WCS information for each instrument. This knowledge is now being fed back into the KOA databases as part of a program to include complete metadata information for all imaging observations. The R-tree program was itself extended to support temporal (in addition to spatial) indexing, in response to requests from the planetary science community for a search engine to discover observations of Solar System objects. With this 3D-indexing scheme, the service performs very fast time and spatial matches between the target ephemerides, obtained from the JPL SPICE service. Our experiments indicate these matches can be more than 100 times faster than when separating temporal and spatial searches. Images of the tracks of the moving targets, overlaid with the image footprints, are computed with a new command-line visualization tool, mViewer, released with the Montage distribution. The service is currently in test and will be released in late summer 2016.

  14. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  15. Useful variational principle for the scattering length for the target ground-state wave function imprecisely known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1977-01-01

    A minimum principle for the calculation of the scattering length, applicable when the ground-state wave function of the target system is known precisely, has been available for some time. When, as is almost always the case, the target wave function is imprecisely known, a minimum principle is available but the simple minimum principle noted above is not applicable. Further, as recent calculations show, numerical instabilities usually arise which severely limit the utility of even an ordinary variational approach. The difficulty, which can be traced to the appearance of singularities in the variational construction, is here removed through the introduction of a minimum principle, not for the true scattering length, but for one associated with a closely connected problem. This guarantees that no instability difficulties can arise as the trial scattering wave function and the trial target wave function are improved. The calculations are little different from those required when the target ground-state wave function is known, and, in fact, the original version of the minimum principle is recovered as the trial target wave function becomes exact. A careful discussion is given of the types of problems to which the method can be applied. In particular, the effects of the Pauli principle, and the existence of a finite number of composite bound states, can be accounted for

  16. Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

  17. The Moving Group Targets of the Seeds High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Carson, J.; Matsuo, T.; Biller, B.; Bonnefoy, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of (is) approximately10(exp 5) at 1" and (is) approximately 10(exp 6) beyond 2" around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic MGs. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that five, beta Pictoris ((is) approximately 20 Myr), AB Doradus ((is) approximately 100 Myr), Columba ((is) approximately 30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium ((is) approximately 30 Myr), and TW Hydrae ((is) approximately 10 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these MGs. For all of our targets, we combine proposed MG membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca ii HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  18. (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    resolution SIFT grids in metric-topological SLAM ,” in Proc. of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009. [4] M. Bosse and R...single camera SLAM ,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1052–1067, 2007. [7] D. Nister, O. Naroditsky, and J. Bergen...segmentation with ground-based and airborne LIDAR range data,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on 3D Data Processing

  19. A study on repainting strategies for treating moderately moving targets with proton pencil beam scanning at the new Gantry 2 at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenklusen, S M; Pedroni, E; Meer, D

    2010-01-01

    Treating moving targets using a scanning gantry for proton therapy is a promising but very challenging, not yet clinically demonstrated treatment modality. The interference of organ motion with the sequence of the beam delivery produces uncontrolled dose inhomogeneities within the target. One promising approach to overcome this difficulty is to increase the speed of scanning in order to apply the dose repeatedly (so-called repainting). To obtain sufficiently high scanning speeds a new, technologically improved gantry-Gantry 2-has been designed and is currently under construction at PSI. As there are many possible repainting strategies, the way repainting will be implemented on Gantry 2 will depend on the result of a careful analysis of the various treatment delivery strategies available. To achieve this aim, and prior to the start of experimental work with Gantry 2, simulations of dose distribution errors due to organ motion under various beam delivery strategies were investigated. The effects of motion on the dose distribution were studied for moderate motion amplitudes (5 mm) for spherical target volumes in a homogeneous medium and with homogeneous dose. In total over 200 000 dose distributions have been simulated and analyzed and selected results are discussed. From the obtained results we are confident to be able to treat moderately moving targets on Gantry 2 using repainted pencil-beam spot scanning. Continuous line scanning seems to be the most elegant solution; it provides higher repainting rates and produces superior results but is probably more difficult to realize. For larger motion amplitudes, continuous line scanning still shows good results, but we plan anyways to use a gating system for these cases, not only to reduce the inhomogeneity within the target volume but also to reduce safety margins.

  20. Beam steering application for W-band data links with moving targets in 5G wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    to this problem, RoF (Radio-over-Fiber) architectures have been proposed as low-latency, cost-effective candidates. Two elements are introduced to extend the RoF approach. First, the carrier frequency is raised into the W-band (75–110 GHz) to increase the available capacity. Second, a mechanical beam......-steering solution based on a Stewart platform is adopted for the transmitter antenna to allow it to follow a moving receiver along a known path, thereby enhancing the coverage area. The performance of a system transmitting a 2.5 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal generated by photonic up-conversion over a wireless...

  1. Aerial surveillance based on hierarchical object classification for ground target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cervantes, Alberto; García-Huerta, Juan-Manuel; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Soto-Cajiga, J. A.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have turned important in surveillance application due to the flexibility and ability to inspect and displace in different regions of interest. The instrumentation and autonomy of these vehicles have been increased; i.e. the camera sensor is now integrated. Mounted cameras allow flexibility to monitor several regions of interest, displacing and changing the camera view. A well common task performed by this kind of vehicles correspond to object localization and tracking. This work presents a hierarchical novel algorithm to detect and locate objects. The algorithm is based on a detection-by-example approach; this is, the target evidence is provided at the beginning of the vehicle's route. Afterwards, the vehicle inspects the scenario, detecting all similar objects through UTM-GPS coordinate references. Detection process consists on a sampling information process of the target object. Sampling process encode in a hierarchical tree with different sampling's densities. Coding space correspond to a huge binary space dimension. Properties such as independence and associative operators are defined in this space to construct a relation between the target object and a set of selected features. Different densities of sampling are used to discriminate from general to particular features that correspond to the target. The hierarchy is used as a way to adapt the complexity of the algorithm due to optimized battery duty cycle of the aerial device. Finally, this approach is tested in several outdoors scenarios, proving that the hierarchical algorithm works efficiently under several conditions.

  2. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    Verbal Countdown and No- Countdown Conditions . . . ’ 5-50 S-27 The Effects on Target Recognitio Proficiency ofVarying ’ Scn’ Time and of Display Aids...Factors; training and selection, visual response capability and requirements, compatibility, and inter- facing , cognitive aspects. All these factors...performance. 4-17 i As this review has pointed out, we are faced with a difficult set of problems when It comeL to measuring and upecifying inmge qualicy in

  3. Feasibility study of multi-pass respiratory-gated helical tomotherapy of a moving target via binary MLC closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry

    2010-11-01

    Gated radiotherapy of lung lesions is particularly complex for helical tomotherapy, due to the simultaneous motions of its three subsystems (gantry, couch and collimator). We propose a new way to implement gating for helical tomotherapy, namely multi-pass respiratory gating. In this method, gating is achieved by delivering only the beam projections that occur within a respiratory gating window, while blocking the rest of the beam projections by fully closing all collimator leaves. Due to the continuous couch motion, the planned beam projections must be delivered over multiple passes of radiation deliveries. After each pass, the patient couch is reset to its starting position, and the treatment recommences at a different phase of tumour motion to 'fill in' the previously blocked beam projections. The gating process may be repeated until the plan dose is delivered (full gating), or halted after a certain number of passes, with the entire remaining dose delivered in a final pass without gating (partial gating). The feasibility of the full gating approach was first tested for sinusoidal target motion, through experimental measurements with film and computer simulation. The optimal gating parameters for full and partial gating methods were then determined for various fractionation schemes through computer simulation, using a patient respiratory waveform. For sinusoidal motion, the PTV dose deviations of -29 to 5% observed without gating were reduced to range from -1 to 3% for a single fraction, with a 4 pass full gating. For a patient waveform, partial gating required fewer passes than full gating for all fractionation schemes. For a single fraction, the maximum allowed residual motion was only 4 mm, requiring large numbers of passes for both full (12) and partial (7 + 1) gating methods. The number of required passes decreased significantly for 3 and 30 fractions, allowing residual motion up to 7 mm. Overall, the multi-pass gating technique was shown to be a promising

  4. Feasibility study of multi-pass respiratory-gated helical tomotherapy of a moving target via binary MLC closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bryan; Chen, Jeff; Battista, Jerry [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON (Canada); Kron, Tomas, E-mail: bryan.kim@lhsc.on.c [Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-21

    Gated radiotherapy of lung lesions is particularly complex for helical tomotherapy, due to the simultaneous motions of its three subsystems (gantry, couch and collimator). We propose a new way to implement gating for helical tomotherapy, namely multi-pass respiratory gating. In this method, gating is achieved by delivering only the beam projections that occur within a respiratory gating window, while blocking the rest of the beam projections by fully closing all collimator leaves. Due to the continuous couch motion, the planned beam projections must be delivered over multiple passes of radiation deliveries. After each pass, the patient couch is reset to its starting position, and the treatment recommences at a different phase of tumour motion to 'fill in' the previously blocked beam projections. The gating process may be repeated until the plan dose is delivered (full gating), or halted after a certain number of passes, with the entire remaining dose delivered in a final pass without gating (partial gating). The feasibility of the full gating approach was first tested for sinusoidal target motion, through experimental measurements with film and computer simulation. The optimal gating parameters for full and partial gating methods were then determined for various fractionation schemes through computer simulation, using a patient respiratory waveform. For sinusoidal motion, the PTV dose deviations of -29 to 5% observed without gating were reduced to range from -1 to 3% for a single fraction, with a 4 pass full gating. For a patient waveform, partial gating required fewer passes than full gating for all fractionation schemes. For a single fraction, the maximum allowed residual motion was only 4 mm, requiring large numbers of passes for both full (12) and partial (7 + 1) gating methods. The number of required passes decreased significantly for 3 and 30 fractions, allowing residual motion up to 7 mm. Overall, the multi-pass gating technique was shown to be a

  5. Contamination and UV ageing of diffuser targets used in satellite inflight and ground reference test site calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Greenwell, Claire; Hessey, Isabel; Tompkins, Jordan; Woolliams, Emma

    2018-02-01

    Diffuser reflectance targets are key components in in-orbit calibrations and for verifying ground reference test sites. In this work, Spectralon, Diffusil, and Heraeus diffusers were exposed to exhaust gases and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the ambient air conditions and their degradations were monitored by measuring changes in spectral reflectances. Spectralon is a state-of-the-art diffuser made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and Diffusil and Heraeus diffusers are made of fused silica with gas bubbles inside. Based on the contamination tests, Spectralon degrades faster than fused silica diffusers. For the samples exposed to contamination for 20 minutes, the 250 nm - 400 nm total diffuse spectral reflectance of Spectralon degraded 3-5 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission and 16-23 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission, compared with Diffusil. When the reflectance changes of Spectralon were compared with those of Heraeus, Spectralon degraded 3-4 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission for 20 minutes and 5-7 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission for 7.5 minutes. When the samples contaminated were exposed to UV radiation in the ambient air, their reflectance gradually restored back to the original level. In conclusion, fused silica diffusers are more resistant to hydrocarbon contaminants present in ground reference test sites, and thus more stable under UV radiation in the air.

  6. Using four-dimensional computed tomography images to optimize the internal target volume when using volume-modulated arc therapy to treat moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoumakis, Nikolaos; Winey, Brian; Killoran, Joseph; Mayo, Charles; Niedermayr, Thomas; Panayiotakis, George; Lingos, Tania; Court, Laurence

    2012-11-08

    In this work we used 4D dose calculations, which include the effects of shape deformations, to investigate an alternative approach to creating the ITV. We hypothesized that instead of needing images from all the breathing phases in the 4D CT dataset to create the outer envelope used for treatment planning, it is possible to exclude images from the phases closest to the inhale phase. We used 4D CT images from 10 patients with lung cancer. For each patient, we drew a gross tumor volume on the exhale-phase image and propagated this to the images from other phases in the 4D CT dataset using commercial image registration software. We created four different ITVs using the N phases closest to the exhale phase (where N = 10, 8, 7, 6). For each ITV contour, we created a volume-modulated arc therapy plan on the exhale-phase CT and normalized it so that the prescribed dose covered at least 95% of the ITV. Each plan was applied to CT images from each CT phase (phases 1-10), and the calculated doses were then mapped to the exhale phase using deformable registration. The effect of the motion was quantified using the dose to 95% of the target on the exhale phase (D95) and tumor control probability. For the three-dimensional and 4D dose calculations of the plan where N = 10, differences in the D95 value varied from 3% to 14%, with an average difference of 7%. For 9 of the 10 patients, the reduction in D95 was less than 5% if eight phases were used to create the ITV. For three of the 10 patients, the reduction in the D95 was less than 5% if seven phases were used to create the ITV. We were unsuccessful in creating a general rule that could be used to create the ITV. Some reduction (8/10 phases) was possible for most, but not all, of the patients, and the ITV reduction was small.

  7. Using four‐dimensional computed tomography images to optimize the internal target volume when using volume‐modulated arc therapy to treat moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoumakis, Nikolaos; Winey, Brian; Killoran, Joseph; Mayo, Charles; Niedermayr, Thomas; Panayiotakis, George; Lingos, Tania; Court, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    In this work we used 4D dose calculations, which include the effects of shape deformations, to investigate an alternative approach to creating the ITV. We hypothesized that instead of needing images from all the breathing phases in the 4D CT dataset to create the outer envelope used for treatment planning, it is possible to exclude images from the phases closest to the inhale phase. We used 4D CT images from 10 patients with lung cancer. For each patient, we drew a gross tumor volume on the exhale‐phase image and propagated this to the images from other phases in the 4D CT dataset using commercial image registration software. We created four different ITVs using the N phases closest to the exhale phase (where N=10, 8, 7, 6). For each ITV contour, we created a volume‐modulated arc therapy plan on the exhale‐phase CT and normalized it so that the prescribed dose covered at least 95% of the ITV. Each plan was applied to CT images from each CT phase (phases 1–10), and the calculated doses were then mapped to the exhale phase using deformable registration. The effect of the motion was quantified using the dose to 95% of the target on the exhale phase (D95) and tumor control probability. For the three‐dimensional and 4D dose calculations of the plan where N=10, differences in the D95 value varied from 3% to 14%, with an average difference of 7%. For 9 of the 10 patients, the reduction in D95 was less than 5% if eight phases were used to create the ITV. For three of the 10 patients, the reduction in the D95 was less than 5% if seven phases were used to create the ITV. We were unsuccessful in creating a general rule that could be used to create the ITV. Some reduction (8/10 phases) was possible for most, but not all, of the patients, and the ITV reduction was small. PACS number: 87.55.D‐ PMID:23149778

  8. Using Ground Targets to Validate S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and Moderate resolution bands (M bands) of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor Data Records produced by NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired from nearly nadir overpasses for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. A kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) correction model is used for both Libya 4 and Dome C sites to correct the surface BRDF influence. At both sites, the simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) DNB reflectances based on SCIAMACHY spectral data are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectances based on modulated Relative Spectral Response (RSR). In the Libya 4 site, the results indicate a decrease of 1.03% in Land PEATE TOA reflectance and a decrease of 1.01% in SCIAMACHY derived TOA reflectance over the period from April 2012 to January 2016. In the Dome C site, the decreases are 0.29% and 0.14%, respectively. The consistency between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE data trends is good. The small difference between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE derived TOA reflectances could be caused by changes in the surface targets, atmosphere status, and on-orbit calibration. The reflectances and radiances of Land PEATE DNB are also compared with matching M bands and the integral M bands based on M4, M5, and M7. The fitting trends of the DNB to integral M bands ratios indicate a 0.75% decrease at the Libya 4 site and a 1.89% decrease at the Dome C site. Part of the difference is due to an insufficient number of sampled bands available within the DNB wavelength range. The above results indicate that the Land PEATE VIIRS DNB product is accurate and stable. The methods used in this study can be used on other satellite instruments to provide quantitative assessments for calibration stability.

  9. Using Ground Targets to Validate S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB and Moderate resolution bands (M bands of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor Data Records produced by NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE are acquired from nearly nadir overpasses for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. A kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF correction model is used for both Libya 4 and Dome C sites to correct the surface BRDF influence. At both sites, the simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA DNB reflectances based on SCIAMACHY spectral data are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectances based on modulated Relative Spectral Response (RSR. In the Libya 4 site, the results indicate a decrease of 1.03% in Land PEATE TOA reflectance and a decrease of 1.01% in SCIAMACHY derived TOA reflectance over the period from April 2012 to January 2016. In the Dome C site, the decreases are 0.29% and 0.14%, respectively. The consistency between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE data trends is good. The small difference between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE derived TOA reflectances could be caused by changes in the surface targets, atmosphere status, and on-orbit calibration. The reflectances and radiances of Land PEATE DNB are also compared with matching M bands and the integral M bands based on M4, M5, and M7. The fitting trends of the DNB to integral M bands ratios indicate a 0.75% decrease at the Libya 4 site and a 1.89% decrease at the Dome C site. Part of the difference is due to an insufficient number of sampled bands available within the DNB wavelength range. The above results indicate that the Land PEATE VIIRS DNB product is accurate and stable. The methods used in this study can be used on other satellite instruments to provide quantitative assessments for calibration stability.

  10. Determination of the number density of excited and ground Zn atoms during rf magnetron sputtering of ZnO target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Stafford, L., E-mail: luc.stafford@umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    A combination of optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements was used to monitor the number density of Zn atoms in excited 4s4p ({sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable states as well as in ground 4s{sup 2} ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) state in a 5 mTorr Ar radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering plasma used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. OAS measurements revealed an increase by about one order of magnitude of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms by varying the self-bias voltage on the ZnO target from −115 to −300 V. Over the whole range of experimental conditions investigated, the triplet-to-singlet metastable density ratio was 5 ± 1, which matches the statistical weight ratio of these states in Boltzmann equilibrium. Construction of a Boltzmann plot using all Zn I emission lines in the 200–500 nm revealed a constant excitation temperature of 0.33 ± 0.04 eV. In combination with measured populations of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms, this temperature was used to extrapolate the absolute number density of ground state Zn atoms. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained previously by actinometry on Zn atoms using Ar as the actinometer gas [L. Maaloul and L. Stafford, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 31, 061306 (2013)]. This set of data was then correlated to spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of the deposition rate of Zn atoms on a Si substrate positioned at 12 cm away from the ZnO target. The deposition rate scaled linearly with the number density of Zn atoms. In sharp contrast with previous studies on RF magnetron sputtering of Cu targets, these findings indicate that metastable atoms play a negligible role on the plasma deposition dynamics of Zn-based coatings.

  11. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  12. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity of moving from a 2°C to a 1.5°C target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jeff; Molotoks, Amy; Warren, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    We applied a recently developed tool to examine the reduction in climate risk to biodiversity in moving from a 2°C to a 1.5°C target. We then reviewed the recent literature examining the impact of (a) land-based mitigation options and (b) land-based greenhouse gas removal options on biodiversity. We show that holding warming to 1.5°C versus 2°C can significantly reduce the number of species facing a potential loss of 50% of their climatic range. Further, there would be an increase of 5.5–14% of the globe that could potentially act as climatic refugia for plants and animals, an area equivalent to the current global protected area network. Efforts to meet the 1.5°C target through mitigation could largely be consistent with biodiversity protection/enhancement. For impacts of land-based greenhouse gas removal technologies on biodiversity, some (e.g. soil carbon sequestration) could be neutral or positive, others (e.g. bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) are likely to lead to conflicts, while still others (e.g. afforestation/reforestation) are context-specific, when applied at scales necessary for meaningful greenhouse gas removal. Additional effort to meet the 1.5°C target presents some risks, particularly if inappropriately managed, but it also presents opportunities. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. PMID:29610386

  13. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity of moving from a 2°C to a 1.5°C target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Price, Jeff; Molotoks, Amy; Warren, Rachel; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2018-05-01

    We applied a recently developed tool to examine the reduction in climate risk to biodiversity in moving from a 2°C to a 1.5°C target. We then reviewed the recent literature examining the impact of (a) land-based mitigation options and (b) land-based greenhouse gas removal options on biodiversity. We show that holding warming to 1.5°C versus 2°C can significantly reduce the number of species facing a potential loss of 50% of their climatic range. Further, there would be an increase of 5.5-14% of the globe that could potentially act as climatic refugia for plants and animals, an area equivalent to the current global protected area network. Efforts to meet the 1.5°C target through mitigation could largely be consistent with biodiversity protection/enhancement. For impacts of land-based greenhouse gas removal technologies on biodiversity, some (e.g. soil carbon sequestration) could be neutral or positive, others (e.g. bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) are likely to lead to conflicts, while still others (e.g. afforestation/reforestation) are context-specific, when applied at scales necessary for meaningful greenhouse gas removal. Additional effort to meet the 1.5°C target presents some risks, particularly if inappropriately managed, but it also presents opportunities. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  14. Information security : the moving target

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -product to an integral part of business operations (Conner and Coviello, 2004). This paper gives an overview of the following: � Where did information security come from? (the past) � How did it get to where it is today? (the present) � In what direction... operators were permitted to use these computers. Other users would submit their jobs to the operator through protected slots (batch processing). The key security issue during this era was ensuring that only the privileged computer operator (one user one...

  15. ERP – a moving target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning systems are central elements in longterm wide-ranging design and use networks. Present ERP research focuses on single-enterprise implementation and fails to address important features of the ERP networks such as multi-spatiality, the design of the generic and the dyna...

  16. A moving target--incorporating knowledge of the spatial ecology of fish into the assessment and management of freshwater fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Martins, Eduardo G; Struthers, Daniel P; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Power, Michael; Doka, Susan E; Dettmers, John M; Crook, David A; Lucas, Martyn C; Holbrook, Christopher M; Krueger, Charles C

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater fish move vertically and horizontally through the aquatic landscape for a variety of reasons, such as to find and exploit patchy resources or to locate essential habitats (e.g., for spawning). Inherent challenges exist with the assessment of fish populations because they are moving targets. We submit that quantifying and describing the spatial ecology of fish and their habitat is an important component of freshwater fishery assessment and management. With a growing number of tools available for studying the spatial ecology of fishes (e.g., telemetry, population genetics, hydroacoustics, otolith microchemistry, stable isotope analysis), new knowledge can now be generated and incorporated into biological assessment and fishery management. For example, knowing when, where, and how to deploy assessment gears is essential to inform, refine, or calibrate assessment protocols. Such information is also useful for quantifying or avoiding bycatch of imperiled species. Knowledge of habitat connectivity and usage can identify critically important migration corridors and habitats and can be used to improve our understanding of variables that influence spatial structuring of fish populations. Similarly, demographic processes are partly driven by the behavior of fish and mediated by environmental drivers. Information on these processes is critical to the development and application of realistic population dynamics models. Collectively, biological assessment, when informed by knowledge of spatial ecology, can provide managers with the ability to understand how and when fish and their habitats may be exposed to different threats. Naturally, this knowledge helps to better evaluate or develop strategies to protect the long-term viability of fishery production. Failure to understand the spatial ecology of fishes and to incorporate spatiotemporal data can bias population assessments and forecasts and potentially lead to ineffective or counterproductive management actions.

  17. Ground glass hepatocytes provide targets for therapy or prevention of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yi Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground glass hepatocyte (GGH represents a histologic hallmark of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and is characterized by the accumulation of pre-S mutant surface antigens in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the past decade, GGHs have been recognized as pre-neoplastic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The accumulation of pre-S mutant protein in ER may induce a misfolded protein response or ER stress signals with activation of VEGF/Akt/mTOR and COX-2/NF-κB signals, leading to oxidative DNA damage, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. Molecular studies revealed clonal HBV DNA integration in type II GGHs which continue to express and secrete surface antigens, representing the sustained surface antigens in the serum after NA antiviral treatment. The persistence of GGHs in the liver after anti-viral therapy not only constitute the challenge to eliminate HBV infection but also carry the high risk to develop HCC. DNA chip and ELISA kit are designing to detect the pre-S mutants in serum. Novel or second generation anti-HBV drugs are under phase II development and include the combination of anti-virals, immunomodulators, agents for host DNA damage, and siRNA to target at the transcription of HBsAg gene in cccDNA or integrated HBV DNA. In the past years, we explored the possibility to provide drugs or natural agents targeting at ER stress signals in GGHs to prevent HCC development. In a transgenic mice model of pre-S mutant and HBx, a combination of silymarin and resveratrol targeting at mTOR and NF-κB signals could reduce a 80% of HCC development. In a pilot clinical trial, liposomal curcumin (Meriva® combined with anti-virals and immumodulators P1101 have been designed and attempted to eliminate the serum surface antigen and hence the recurrence of HCC after surgical resection. Therefore, the detection of pre-S mutants in serum or GGHs in the liver should provide rational target design for therapy or prevention of HCC in these high

  18. Ground-based characterization of Hayabusa2 mission target asteroid 162173 Ryugu: constraining mineralogical composition in preparation for spacecraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Takir, Driss; Cloutis, Edward A.; Thirouin, Audrey; Becker, Kris J.; Li, Jian-Yang; Sugita, Seiji; Tatsumi, Eri

    2018-03-01

    Asteroids that are targets of spacecraft missions are interesting because they present us with an opportunity to validate ground-based spectral observations. One such object is near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (162173) Ryugu, which is the target of the Japanese Space Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa2 sample return mission. We observed Ryugu using the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, on 2016 July 13 to constrain the object's surface composition, meteorite analogues, and link to other asteroids in the main belt and NEA populations. We also modelled its photometric properties using archival data. Using the Lommel-Seeliger model we computed the predicted flux for Ryugu at a wide range of viewing geometries as well as albedo quantities such as geometric albedo, phase integral, and spherical Bond albedo. Our computed albedo quantities are consistent with results from Ishiguro et al. Our spectral analysis has found a near-perfect match between our spectrum of Ryugu and those of NEA (85275) 1994 LY and Mars-crossing asteroid (316720) 1998 BE7, suggesting that their surface regoliths have similar composition. We compared Ryugu's spectrum with that of main belt asteroid (302) Clarissa, the largest asteroid in the Clarissa asteroid family, suggested as a possible source of Ryugu by Campins et al. We found that the spectrum of Clarissa shows significant differences with our spectrum of Ryugu, but it is similar to the spectrum obtained by Moskovitz et al. The best possible meteorite analogues for our spectrum of Ryugu are two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites, Mighei and ALH83100.

  19. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  20. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  1. Predicting ground contact events for a continuum of gait types: An application of targeted machine learning using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2016-05-01

    An ongoing challenge in the application of gait analysis to clinical settings is the standardized detection of temporal events, with unobtrusive and cost-effective equipment, for a wide range of gait types. The purpose of the current study was to investigate a targeted machine learning approach for the prediction of timing for foot strike (or initial contact) and toe-off, using only kinematics for walking, forefoot running, and heel-toe running. Data were categorized by gait type and split into a training set (∼30%) and a validation set (∼70%). A principal component analysis was performed, and separate linear models were trained and validated for foot strike and toe-off, using ground reaction force data as a gold-standard for event timing. Results indicate the model predicted both foot strike and toe-off timing to within 20ms of the gold-standard for more than 95% of cases in walking and running gaits. The machine learning approach continues to provide robust timing predictions for clinical use, and may offer a flexible methodology to handle new events and gait types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Man Shrestha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform, has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method, which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  3. Moving target detection based on visual memory model and clustering%基于视觉记忆模型聚类的运动目标检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈容; 彭力

    2015-01-01

    In some gradient and repetitive motion modeling scenes, traditional Gaussian mixture background modeling has a good effect. But the algorithm needs a large amount of computation and storage space, and it can neither fit for complex background or background with sudden changes. To solve these problems, a new clustering background modeling based on human memory model is proposed. Combined with human memory model, the algorithm sets up a cluster model for each pixel, and each cluster can be adaptively created, updated and deleted according to background changes. The algorithm makes accurate judgments according to human ultra-short-term memory, short-term memory and long-term memory, and the moving target detection results can meet the judgment of the human sensory organs.%传统的混合高斯背景建模可对存在渐变及重复性运动的场景进行建模,但其运算过程需要足够的计算量和存储空间,不适应在复杂背景下的背景建模,也不能解决场景中存在的突变。针对这些问题,提出了一种基于记忆模型的聚类算法,算法为每个像素点设置一个聚类模型,每个聚类可根据背景的变化结合人类记忆模型自适应的创建、更新和删除。该算法通过人类瞬时记忆、短时记忆和长时记忆做出准确判断,运动目标检测结果更能符合人类感觉器官的判断。

  4. Move up,Move out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has already become the world's largest manufacturer of cement,copper and steel.Chinese producers have moved onto the world stage and dominated the global consumer market from textiles to electronics with amazing speed and efficiency.

  5. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  6. Midlatitude Ice-Rich Ground on Mars: An Important Target for Science and In Situ Resource Utilization on Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol; Heldmann, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The region of ROI is characterized by proven presence of near surface ground ice and numerous periglacial features. Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars, the impact that changes in insolation produced by variations in Mars’ orbital parameters has on the regions climate, and could provide human exploration with a reliable and plentiful in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. Heldmann et al. (2014) studied locations on Mars in the Amazonis Planitia region where near surface ground ice was exposed by new impact craters (Byrne et al. 2009). The study examined whether sites in this region were suitable for human exploration including reviewing the evidence for midlatitude ground ice, discussing the possible explanations for its occurrence, assessing its potential habitability for modern life, and evaluating the resource potential. They systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to identify a viable landing site. Five sites where ground ice was exposed were examined with HiRise imaging and were classified according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. A suitable landing site was found having ground ice at only 0.15m depth, and no landing site hazards within a 25 km landing ellipse. This paper presents results of that study and examines the relevance of this ROI to the workshop goals.

  7. TDHF study of the He+ collision on atomic He targets at the 8Be ground state energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J.; Shoppa, T.D.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    Experimentally the 8 Be ground state resonance has been studied in He + collisions on atomic He atoms. The nuclear resonance manifests itself by satellite resonance lines corresponding to different electron configurations of the Be ion. Experimentally a large probability for the emission of one electron has been deduced. We study the atomic He + +He collision within a model in which the evolution of the electron wavefunction is treated dynamically in the TDHF scheme, and the motion of the nuclei is treated classically. In agreement with experiment we find a large probability for one electron to be emitted into the continuum during the lifetime of the 8 Be ground state resonance. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    himself in controlling every detail of the shape of the concrete slaps. He pushed all the other participants of the meetings, asking for details, information, the change of drawings etc. He explained the technical issues he was pursuing, was prepared for problems at the meetings, was well informed, always......? The participant observer believed it was a matter of changing coordinates, but the engineers immediately saw it was an issue of pipes in the ground, could they be moved and still function as planned? To decide the possibility of this suggestion the engineer was given the task of investigating the consequences...... they saw him as a bit pushy. On the other hand they understood why he was so since his firm would be fined if the concrete slabs did not meet specifications. The case will be the basis for a discussion of double motivation of the engineer, his evident interest in his professional work, and the wish...

  9. Ground Target Modeling and Validation Conference (10th) Held in Houghton, Michigan, on 17-19 August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    photoreceptor cells respond to iight,@ Sc. Am., 256 (4): 40-47 (1987). 252 A Model to Evaluate the Decision-Making Process in a Target Acquisition Task Masha ...PO BOX 5 FILTON BRISTOL BS34 7QW UK GILMORE, MARILYN DERA ROOM G007, BUILDING A2 FARNBOROUGH HAMPSHIRE GU14 0LX UK MALTZ, MASHA BEN-GURION

  10. Close-up of primary and secondary asteroseismic CoRoT targets and the ground-based follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytterhoeven, K; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Mantegazza, L [INAF-Brera Astronomical Observatory, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (Italy); Zima, W; Aerts, C; Morel, T; Lefever, K [Institute of Astronomy, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Miglio, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Amado, P J; MartIn-Ruiz, S [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa (CSIC), Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Mathias, P; Valtier, J C [Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, GEMINI, CNRS, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Paparo, M; Benkoe, J M [Konkoly Observatory, PO Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: katrien.uytterhoeven@brera.inaf.it

    2008-10-15

    To optimise the science results of the asteroseismic part of the CoRoT satellite mission a complementary simultaneous ground-based observational campaign is organised for selected CoRoT targets. The observations include both high-resolution spectroscopic and multicolour photometric data. We present the preliminary results of the analysis of the ground-based observations of three targets. A line-profile analysis of 216 high-resolution FEROS spectra of the {delta} Sct star HD 50844 reveals more than ten pulsation frequencies in the frequency range 5-18 d{sup -1}, including possibly one radial fundamental mode (6.92 d{sup -1}). Based on more than 600 multi-colour photometric datapoints of the {beta} Cep star HD 180642, spanning about three years and obtained with different telescopes and different instruments, we confirm the presence of a dominant radial mode {nu}{sub 1} = 5.48695 d{sup -1}, and detect also its first two harmonics. We find evidence for a second mode {nu}{sub 2} = 0.3017 d{sup -1}, possibly a g-mode, and indications for two more frequencies in the 7-8 d{sup -1} domain. From Stromgren photometry we find evidence for the hybrid 5 Sct/{gamma} Dor character of the F0 star HD 44195, as frequencies near 3 d{sup -1} and 21 d{sup -1} are detected simultaneously in the different filters.

  11. Monitoring Ground Deformation of Subway Area during the Construction Based on the Method of Multi-Temporal Coherent Targets Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, J.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, M.

    2018-04-01

    Multi-temporal coherent targets analysis is a high-precision and high-spatial-resolution monitoring method for urban surface deformation based on Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), and has been successfully applied to measure land subsidence, landslide and strain accumulation caused by fault movement and so on. In this paper, the multi-temporal coherent targets analysis is used to study the settlement of subway area during the period of subway construction. The eastern extension of Shanghai Metro Line. 2 is taking as an example to study the subway settlement during the construction period. The eastern extension of Shanghai Metro Line. 2 starts from Longyang Road and ends at Pudong airport. Its length is 29.9 kilometers from east to west and it is a key transportation line to the Pudong Airport. 17 PalSAR images during 2007 and 2010 are applied to analyze and invert the settlement of the buildings nearby the subway based on the multi-temporal coherent targets analysis. But there are three significant deformation areas nearby the Line 2 between 2007 and 2010, with maximum subsidence rate up to 30 mm/y in LOS. The settlement near the Longyang Road station and Chuansha Town are both caused by newly construction and city expansion. The deformation of the coastal dikes suffer from heavy settlement and the rate is up to -30 mm/y. In general, the area close to the subway line is relatively stable during the construction period.

  12. A moving experience !

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  13. Hitting the Moving Target of Program Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Ken B.; Campbell, Edward M.; Fortune, Jon; Fortune, Barbara; Moore, Kay S.; Laird, Elva

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of what people with developmental disabilities in Wyoming and South Dakota wanted and received in programs in 1988 (N=2,927) and in 1996 (N=3,934) found that the percentage of people placed in their preferred setting rose substantially, from 51% to 84% in Wyoming and from 62% to 72% in South Dakota. (Author/DB)

  14. Moving Target Information Exploitation Electronic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Traditional - ISR WebTAS – eLearning ................................................................. 6 MTIX e- Learning Technical Requirements...than on a specific schedule, so learners can take the curriculum when needed and at their own pace . E- Learning is a form of instructional authoring...can save training expenses, because it can be used over and over again. E- Learning also allows the user to study at his or her own convenience

  15. Radar Imaging of Stationary and Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Sciences Research Institute. Member of Organizing Committee for introductory workshop at MSRI • June 14-18, 2010, arranged for AFRL (Matt Ferrara ) to...Schneible, Vincent Amuso, SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2010. 2. K. Voccola, B. Yazici, M. Ferrara , and M. Cheney, “On the relationship between the generalized...echo imaging using distributed apertures in multi-path,” IEEE Radar Conference, May, 2008, Rome, Italy . 14 10. “Wideband pulse-echo imaging using

  16. Realism and Effectiveness of Robotic Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    avoid small obstacles. This variation may make the RHTTs more difficult to hit, though it can be argued that this variation (and difficulty) is more...training time. 17% Appearance Variation in appearance (size, features, etc.)/more human-like. 9% Nothing Nothing was disliked about the...J., Witmer, B. G., Goldberg , S. L., Parsons, K. J., & Parsons, J. (1998). Virtual environments for dismounted Soldier training and performance

  17. Moving Targets: Constructing Canons, 2013–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, BD

    2015-01-01

    This review essay considers early modern dramatic authorship and canons in the context of two recent publications: an anthology of plays -- William Shakespeare and Others: Collaborative Plays (2013), edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen as a companion volume to the RSC Complete Works -- and a monograph study -- Jeremy Lopez's Constructing the Canon of Early Modern Drama (2014).

  18. Job Surfing: Move On to Move Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the process of switching jobs and changing careers. Discusses when to consider options and make the move as well as the need to be flexible and open minded. Provides a test for determining the chances of promotion and when to move on. (JOW)

  19. Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane; Harris, Leanna S.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered coaching is a highly-effective, evidence-based coaching model that shifts the focus from "fixing" teachers to collaborating with them to design instruction that targets student outcomes. But what does this look like in practice? "Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves" shows you the day-to-day coaching moves that…

  20. Combined Usage of TanDEM-X and CryoSat-2 for Generating a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model of Fast Moving Ice Stream and Its Application in Grounding Line Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Definite surface topography of ice provides fundamental information for most glaciologists to study climate change. However, the topography at the marginal region of ice sheets exhibits noticeable dynamical changes from fast flow velocity and large thinning rates; thus, it is difficult to determine instantaneous topography. In this study, the surface topography of the marginal region of Thwaites Glacier in the Amundsen Sector of West Antarctica, where ice melting and thinning are prevailing, is extracted using TanDEM-X interferometry in combination with data from the near-coincident CryoSat-2 radar altimeter. The absolute height offset, which has been a persistent problem in applying the interferometry technique for generating DEMs, is determined by linear least-squares fitting between the uncorrected TanDEM-X heights and reliable reference heights from CryoSat-2. The reliable heights are rigorously selected at locations of high normalized cross-correlation and low RMS heights between segments of data points. The generated digital elevation model with the resolved absolute height offset is assessed with airborne laser altimeter data from the Operation IceBridge that were acquired five months after TanDEM-X and show high correlation with biases of 3.19 m and −4.31 m at the grounding zone and over the ice sheet surface, respectively. For practical application of the generated DEM, grounding line estimation assuming hydrostatic equilibrium was carried out, and the feasibility was seen through comparison with the previous grounding line. Finally, it is expected that the combination of interferometry and altimetery with similar datasets can be applied at regions even with a lack of ground control points.

  1. Optical angular constancy is maintained as a navigational control strategy when pursuing robots moving along complex pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas G

    2015-03-24

    The optical navigational control strategy used to intercept moving targets was explored using a real-world object that travels along complex, evasive pathways. Fielders ran across a gymnasium attempting to catch a moving robot that varied in speed and direction, while ongoing position was measured using an infrared motion-capture system. Fielder running paths were compared with the predictions of three lateral control models, each based on maintaining a particular optical angle relative to the robotic target: (a) constant alignment angle (CAA), (b) constant eccentricity angle (CEA), and (c) linear optical trajectory (LOT). Findings reveal that running pathways were most consistent with maintenance of LOT and least consistent with CEA. This supports that fielders use the same optical control strategy of maintaining angular constancy using a LOT when navigating toward targets moving along complex pathways as when intercepting simple ballistic trajectories. In those cases in which a target dramatically deviates from its optical path, fielders appear to simply reset LOT parameters using a new constant angle value. Maintenance of such optical angular constancy has now been shown to work well with ballistic, complex, and evasive moving targets, confirming the LOT strategy as a robust, general-purpose optical control mechanism for navigating to intercept catchable targets, both airborne and ground based. © 2015 ARVO.

  2. A Ground-Based Doppler Radar and Micropulse Lidar Forward Simulator for GCM Evaluation of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Moving Forward Towards an Apples-to-apples Comparison of Hydrometeor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect of evaluating Artic cloud representation in a general circulation model (GCM) consists of using observational benchmarks which are as equivalent as possible to model output in order to avoid methodological bias and focus on correctly diagnosing model dynamical and microphysical misrepresentations. However, current cloud observing systems are known to suffer from biases such as limited sensitivity, and stronger response to large or small hydrometeors. Fortunately, while these observational biases cannot be corrected, they are often well understood and can be reproduced in forward simulations. Here a ground-based millimeter wavelength Doppler radar and micropulse lidar forward simulator able to interface with output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE GCM is presented. ModelE stratiform hydrometeor fraction, mixing ratio, mass-weighted fall speed and effective radius are forward simulated to vertically-resolved profiles of radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectrum width as well as lidar backscatter and depolarization ratio. These forward simulated fields are then compared to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ground-based observations to assess cloud vertical structure (CVS). Model evalution of Arctic mixed-phase cloud would also benefit from hydrometeor phase evaluation. While phase retrieval from synergetic observations often generates large uncertainties, the same retrieval algorithm can be applied to observed and forward-simulated radar-lidar fields, thereby producing retrieved hydrometeor properties with potentially the same uncertainties. Comparing hydrometeor properties retrieved in exactly the same way aims to produce the best apples-to-apples comparisons between GCM ouputs and observations. The use of a comprenhensive ground-based forward simulator coupled with a hydrometeor classification retrieval algorithm provides a new perspective for GCM evaluation of Arctic mixed

  3. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kissling, E

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011\\/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI \\/ acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011\\/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  4. Moving and Being Moved: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Uses philosophical writings, a novel about baseball, and a nonfiction work on rowing to analyze levels of meaning in physical activity, showing why three popular methods for enhancing meaning have not succeeded and may have moved some students away from deeper levels of meaning. The paper suggests that using hints taken from the three books could…

  5. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  6. People on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-3 day lesson is to introduce students in Grades 2-4 to the idea that people move around the world for a variety of reasons. In this activity, students explore why people move through class discussion, a guided reading, and interviews. The teacher elicits student ideas using the compelling question (Dimension 1 of the C3…

  7. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  8. Verification of target motion effects on SAR imagery using the Gotcha GMTI challenge dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Dan E.; Saville, Michael A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a ground moving target's kinematic state and its SAR image. While effects such as cross-range offset, defocus, and smearing appear well understood, their derivations in the literature typically employ simplifications of the radar/target geometry and assume point scattering targets. This study adopts a geometrical model for understanding target motion effects in SAR imagery, termed the target migration path, and focuses on experimental verification of predicted motion effects using both simulated and empirical datasets based on the Gotcha GMTI challenge dataset. Specifically, moving target imagery is generated from three data sources: first, simulated phase history for a moving point target; second, simulated phase history for a moving vehicle derived from a simulated Mazda MPV X-band signature; and third, empirical phase history from the Gotcha GMTI challenge dataset. Both simulated target trajectories match the truth GPS target position history from the Gotcha GMTI challenge dataset, allowing direct comparison between all three imagery sets and the predicted target migration path. This paper concludes with a discussion of the parallels between the target migration path and the measurement model within a Kalman filtering framework, followed by conclusions.

  9. Midlatitude ice-rich ground on mars as a target in the search for evidence of life and for in situ resource utilization on human missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J L; Schurmeier, L; McKay, C; Davila, A; Stoker, C; Marinova, M; Wilhelm, M B

    2014-02-01

    Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars and is relevant for human exploration as a possible in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. In the present study, we review the evidence for midlatitude ground ice on Mars, discuss the possible explanations for its occurrence, and assess its potential habitability. During the course of study, we systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to determine whether a viable landing site exists in the northern midlatitudes to enable a robotic mission that conducts in situ characterization and searches for evidence of life in the ice. We classified each site according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. We found that a suitable landing site exists within Amazonis Planitia near ground ice that was recently excavated by a meteorite impact.

  10. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  11. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  12. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  13. Study of intense pulse irradiation effects on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors; Etude des effets d`irradiations pulsees intenses sur des cibles de silicium considere en tant que materiau de base pour detecteurs optiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, O

    1994-12-01

    This study aim was centered on morphological and structural alterations induced by laser irradiation on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors. First we recalled the main high light intensity effects on the condensed matter. Then we presented the experimental aspects. The experimental studies were achieved on two sample types: SiO{sub 2}/Si and Si. Two topics were studied: the defect chronology according to wavelength and pulse length, and the crystalline quality as well as the structure defects of irradiated zones by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, irradiation of Si targets by intense pulsed beams may lead to material fusion. This phenomenon is particularly easy when the material is absorbent, when the pulse is short and when the material is superficially oxidized. (MML). 204 refs., 93 figs., 21 tabs., 1 appendix.

  14. Nonholonomic feedback control among moving obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen Gregory

    A feedback controller is developed for navigating a nonholonomic vehicle in an area with multiple stationary and possibly moving obstacles. Among other applications the developed algorithms can be used for automatic parking of a passenger car in a parking lot with complex configuration or a ground robot in cluttered environment. Several approaches are explored which combine nonholonomic systems control based on sliding modes and potential field methods.

  15. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  16. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  17. Moving to Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Maré; Jason Timmins

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether New Zealand residents move from low-growth to high-growth regions, using New Zealand census data from the past three inter-censal periods (covering 1986-2001). We focus on the relationship between employment growth and migration flows to gauge the strength of the relationship and the stability of the relationship over the business cycle. We find that people move to areas of high employment growth, but that the probability of leaving a region is less strongly relate...

  18. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  19. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  20. Libraries on the MOVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Jim; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents papers from Illinois State Library and Shawnee Library System's "Libraries on the MOVE" conference focusing on how libraries can impact economic/cultural climate of an area. Topics addressed included information services of rural libraries; marketing; rural library development; library law; information access; interagency…

  1. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Moving up in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Charlotte

    2016-01-23

    Charlotte Covell is commercial business manager at Virbac UK, a role that gives her responsibility for the company's sales to corporate practices, some buying groups and internet pharmacies. She began her career as a veterinary nurse, but moved into industry and now has a role in senior business management. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Optics of moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwnicki, P.; Leonhardt, U.

    2001-01-01

    Light experiences a moving medium as an effective gravitational field. In the limit of low medium velocities the medium flow plays the role of a magnetic vector potential. We review the background of our theory [U. Leonhardt and P. Piwnicki, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4301 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822 (2000)], including our proposal of making optical black holes.

  5. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  6. Making Images That Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  7. Aboard the "Moving School."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Hopkins, David

    1992-01-01

    In many countries, education legislation embodies contradictory pressures for centralization and decentralization. In the United Kingdom, there is growing government control over policy and direction of schools; schools are also being given more responsibility for resource management. "Moving" schools within Improving the Quality of…

  8. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas....... This circular movement can be explained by a combination of elements characterizing African Atlantic and black Atlantic history. Among them is a lack of attention to questions of periodisation and change. Likewise, it has proven difficult to conceptualize Africa and America at one and the same time...... as characterized by cultural diversity and variation. Moreover, the field has been haunted by a tendency of moving to easily from descriptive evidence to conclusions about African identity in the Americas. A promising way to overcome these problems, it is suggested, is to develop research that focuses on single...

  9. Electric moving shadow garden

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Electric Moving Shadow Garden is a multi-directional exploration of the links between artists and cinema, with multiple reference and contextual points. it accompanied the exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by Bracey and Dave Griffiths at Corernhouse, Manchester, who also edited the publication. Published to accompany the Cornerhouse exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by artists Andrew Bracey and Dave Griffiths. This illustrated catalogue explores how internat...

  10. TCR moves to MCR

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of CERN's technical infrastructure has moved from the Technical Control Room in building 212 to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR) in building 354 (see map) and from the TS/CSE group to AB/OP. The operation's team as well as the services provided remain the same as before and you can still reach the operator on shift by calling 72201. Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

  11. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  12. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  13. Moving Shadow Detection in Video Using Cepstrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Cogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving shadows constitute problems in various applications such as image segmentation and object tracking. The main cause of these problems is the misclassification of the shadow pixels as target pixels. Therefore, the use of an accurate and reliable shadow detection method is essential to realize intelligent video processing applications. In this paper, a cepstrum-based method for moving shadow detection is presented. The proposed method is tested on outdoor and indoor video sequences using well-known benchmark test sets. To show the improvements over previous approaches, quantitative metrics are introduced and comparisons based on these metrics are made.

  14. Songbirds on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche-Jørgensen, Mathilde

    the decline has been linked to environmental conditions e.g. rainfall patterns and the type of the wintering habitat as well as to problems in adapting arrival time to climate change, little is known about the true drivers of these declines or how to reverse them. In this thesis I investigated general......Every year more than 2.1 billion birds migrate between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering ground in sub-Saharan Africa, tracking resources between seasons. However, over the recent decades the populations of these migrant species are generally declining throughout Europe. Although...... migratory patterns related to the timing of migration in order to understand possible effects of climate change on the annual cycle of migratory birds. My aim was further to increase knowledge about migration routes, staging sites and winter ecology in order to enable informed decision making about where...

  15. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  16. Moving related to separation : who moves and to what distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Clara H.; Malmberg, Gunnar

    We address the issue of moving from the joint home on the occasion of separation. Our research question is: To what extent can the occurrence of moves related to separation, and the distance moved, be explained by ties to the location, resources, and other factors influencing the likelihood of

  17. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  18. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  19. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  20. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  1. "Our federalism" moves indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Theodore W

    2013-04-01

    A great deal of the US Supreme Court's federalism jurisprudence over the past two decades has focused on the outer limits of federal power, suggesting a mutually exclusive division of jurisdiction between the states and the federal government, where subjects are regulated by one sovereign or the other but not both. This is not an accurate picture of American governance as it has operated over the past half century - most important areas of American life are regulated concurrently by both the federal government and the states. The Supreme Court's June 2012 decision clearing the way for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to move forward thus should not be regarded as an affront to state sovereignty but as a realistic embrace of state power in its active, modern form. The PPACA is infused with multiple major roles for the states, and as the statute goes into operation over the next few years, states retain, and are already exercising, substantial policy discretion.

  2. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    propose two algorithms for computing safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the server-side computation as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space...... text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...... pruning. We present techniques that aim to compute the next safe zone efficiently, and we present two types of conservative safe zones that aim to reduce the communication cost. Empirical studies with real data suggest that the proposals are efficient. To understand the effectiveness of the proposed safe...

  3. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  4. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  5. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  6. Studying Teacher Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In July 2011, Bill Gates told the "Wall Street Journal," "I'm enough of a scientist to want to say, "What is it about a great teacher?"" As a "practitioner" of sorts, the author has wondered the same thing for 15 years. The K-12 school sector generates little empirical research of any sort. And of this small amount, most is targeted to…

  7. Moving In, Moving Through, and Moving Out: The Transitional Experiences of Foster Youth College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Sara I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the transitional experiences of foster youth college students. The study explored how foster youth experienced moving into, moving through, and moving out of the college environment and what resources and strategies they used to thrive during their college transitions. In addition, this study…

  8. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  9. Convexities move because they contain matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenholtz, Elan

    2010-09-22

    Figure-ground assignment to a contour is a fundamental stage in visual processing. The current paper introduces a novel, highly general dynamic cue to figure-ground assignment: "Convex Motion." Across six experiments, subjects showed a strong preference to assign figure and ground to a dynamically deforming contour such that the moving contour segment was convex rather than concave. Experiments 1 and 2 established the preference across two different kinds of deformational motion. Additional experiments determined that this preference was not due to fixation (Experiment 3) or attentional mechanisms (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 found a similar, but reduced bias for rigid-as opposed to deformational-motion, and Experiment 6 demonstrated that the phenomenon depends on the global motion of the effected contour. An explanation of this phenomenon is presented on the basis of typical natural deformational motion, which tends to involve convex contour projections that contain regions consisting of physical "matter," as opposed to concave contour indentations that contain empty space. These results highlight the fundamental relationship between figure and ground, perceived shape, and the inferred physical properties of an object.

  10. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  11. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  12. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Move and eat better

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  15. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  16. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  17. Verification system development a dosimetric tridimensional using Solution Fricke gel in the application for verification of radiation therapy in arc modulated volumetric (VMAT) in treatment with target moving for breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuraba, Roberto Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is one of the methods most commonly used in teletherapy to treat cancer. The various technological advances and the evolution of treatment techniques made the VMAT as one of the state of the art methods for the treatment of some cancers. Part of this improvement is credited to improvements in accuracy and prescription dose absorbed recommended to the patient over the years. This advance allows currently is possible to perform dosimetric calculations by means of the computerized planning system, considering the heterogeneity of patients, such as tissues and organs with different water compositions medium (reference radiation), and individual patient contour the movement of tumors breathing. Such advances require quality control of these tools, in order to ensure that the entire treatment process is satisfactory and accurate. Up to now, the community lacks an experimental system capable of evaluating, considering the uncertainty levels if the computerized planning systems are able to consider the movement of targets in the treatments with VMAT. In this paper, will be presented the results obtained with the phantom Fricke Xylenol Gel, capable of measuring the differences introduced by movement using the Magnetic Resonance Image - MRI and compared qualitatively and quantitatively. The main stages of the phantom development, their experimental results, conclusions and comparisons with other systems are discussed. (author)

  18. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  19. SmoothMoves : Smooth pursuits head movements for augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Augusto; Verweij, David; Suraiya, Liza; Islam, Rasel; Lee, Youryang; Oakley, Ian

    2017-01-01

    SmoothMoves is an interaction technique for augmented reality (AR) based on smooth pursuits head movements. It works by computing correlations between the movements of on-screen targets and the user's head while tracking those targets. The paper presents three studies. The first suggests that head

  20. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  1. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between ''true'' particle trajectory vector x(t) calculated or measured in

  2. Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

  3. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  4. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  5. Moving farther north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, R.

    2000-01-01

    According to predictions by the National Petroleum Council, North American demand for natural gas is likely to increase from 20 Tcf currently to 29 Tcf by the year 2010 and could increase to beyond 31 Tcf by 2015. In view of this and other similar predictions it is prudent to examine the potential sources of supply and to assess their capacity to meet this ever increasing demand. This paper provides an overview of North America's gas potential, proved reserves and current production. One of the sources much depended upon to meet future demand is the deepwater Gulf of Mexico which, however, would have to grow at the compounded rate of 21 per cent annually to meet expectations of 4.5 Tcf per year by 2010, a staggering rate of growth that would require 250 to 300 completions per year (current rate is about 100 per year) and two to three times the number of rigs currently working in the Gulf. If the deepwater Gulf of Mexico cannot meet this target, the incremental supply will most likely come from the North, namely the Fort Liard, Norman Wells, and the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea regions of Canada and Alaska's Cook Inlet, Copper River, North Slope and Susitna Basin. The economics of developing each of these regions is examined, using field size, reserves per well, exploration and development costs and cycle time as the bases for comparison. Obstacles to development such as access to pipelines, government regulations, and opposition by environmental groups are also discussed

  6. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... reveals how personalized political communication is profoundly influencing electoral outcomes and transforming American democracy. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen is research fellow at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford and assistant professor at Roskilde University...

  7. Small UAS Analysis of Laser Designation and Search and Target Acquisition Capabilities in an Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harclerode, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: -Small UAS has extreme difficulty lasing moving targets in high density urban environments -Lasing moving targets in medium density terrain is possible but not certain -Lasing of stationary targets...

  8. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  9. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed.

  10. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N.; Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared either on figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region’s color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments show that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as grounds are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  11. A Laboratory for Characterizing the Efficacy of Moving Target Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    control host or deploying large scale microservice -based applications in the cloud environment. The wide adoption of containers as an application...the application running in the container. We apply IPA to several most popular web server and data store application containers from Docker hub, and

  12. Reinventing agricultural research : Changing context and moving targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Future food security for the rapidly increasing human population is at stake because farmers need to produce more food on less land and with less water and energy. Natural resources will be less and less available for agriculture due to economic development, which diverts these resources to

  13. HYPERLEXIA AND DYSLEXIA IN AUTISM: HITTING A MOVING TARGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. WILLIAMS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic histories of autism, dyslexia, and hyperlexia are complex. Because these conditions share both convergent and diver­gent properties, it is important to under­stand these relationships, especially in the case of research and how we interpret bodi­es of work which span decades of fluc­tuating criteria. It is also important to syn­the­size what we already know about the morpho­logy of these con­di­tions and pinpoint what we still don’t. Autism and dyslexia, for instance, share antipodal cerebral morpho­logies, such as minicolumnar den­sity, neuropil width, cell size, corpus callo­sal volume, gyral complexity, gyral window size, and cerebral volume, while hyperlexia has not been studied in this fashion, although it sha­res much in common with autism. Mean­while, the fluctuation in criteria of dyslexia over the years, means that older studies, such as some of the most highly cited in post­mortem research, have potentially used more heterogeneous groups of subjects than dys­lexia research typically uses today. Con­sider­ably, these older studies are often the basis of current animal model and genetics research. In conclusion, in consideration of the continued flux in criteria, particularly the proposed change from “Reading Disorder” to the broa­der “Specific Learning Disorder” within the DSM-5, we strongly recommend a separation of the various reading disorders under their own headings to promote specificity of diag­nosis and treatment, and to support better research.

  14. Description and Performance Evaluation of the Moving Target Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-08

    Precipitation spectrum at azimuth of 330 . 170 1701 A-8 SGP doppler spectra of angels (probably solitary soaring 172 seagulls ). A-9 SGP doppler...spectra of angels (probably multiple soaring 173 seagulls ). A-10 Airliner approaching radar at traffic pattern speed. 174 A-lI Airliner approaching radar...frequented by soaring seagulls . The three periodograms in Figure A-8 each show a single rather narrow peak. These are believed to be returns from solitary

  15. Helicobacter Pylori – A Moving Target | Lambiotte | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pylori) continues to grow. Testing is also now advised for patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura, unexplained vitamin B12 or iron deficiency anemia. Despite the indications for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection widening, definitive ...

  16. Diffusion of Language Change: Accommodation to a Moving Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie; Jensen, Torben Juel; Kristiansen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on motivations for the spread of new features within a speech community, and on the trajectories the changes follow during diffusion. One set of data represents language use, and here focus is on two changes which have been going on in Danish over the past 40 years, one grammati......The paper focuses on motivations for the spread of new features within a speech community, and on the trajectories the changes follow during diffusion. One set of data represents language use, and here focus is on two changes which have been going on in Danish over the past 40 years, one...... grammatical and one phonetic. The other set of data are results from a nationwide speaker evaluation experiment which tests the subconscious attitudes to different types of speech among the youth in five different places covering Denmark from east to west. Results show that changes spread centrifugally from...... Copenhagen, even to the extent that reversal of changes spreads from Copenhagen. Furthermore, the attitudes reflected in the speaker evaluation experiment support the theory that language change is motivated by social psychological factors. Finally, it is argued that it is worthwhile considering...

  17. Information Systems curriculum: the moving target phenomenon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article determines the scope and nature of Information Systems training at Technikons in South Africa. Due to rapid changes in technology, knowledge regarding technology becomes obsolete rapidly. Therefore Information Systems learners should have the means and skills to keep abreast of advances in the ...

  18. Building a Flexible Nework Infrastructure for Moving Target Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-13

    testbed. We have published a paper in the CAN Workshop held in conjunction with the ACM CoNext 2016 conference [3]. ML implementations on OpenNetVM...Artificial Intelligence applications in the network Workshop held in conjunction with IEEE ICNP 2017 [4]. [1] Azeem Aqil, Karim Khalil, Ahmed Atya

  19. A Basic Fourier Transform Pair for Slant Range-Doppler Modeling of Moving Scatterers for SAR Applications: Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabry, R

    2007-01-01

    Considering the exploitation needs associated with the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications involving moving and non-stationary targets, a fundamental spectral domain model for moving point and distribution of scatterers is presented...

  20. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  1. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  2. Nordic Seniors on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”I believe that all people need to move about. Actually, some have difficulties in doing so. They stay in their home neighbourhoods where they’ve grown up and feel safe. I can understand that, but my wife and I, we didn’t want that. We are more open to new ideas.” This anthology is about seniors...... on the move. In seven chapters, Nordic researchers from various disciplines, by means of ethnographic methods, attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of Nordic seniors who move to leisure areas in their own or in other countries. The number of people involved in this kind of migratory movement has grown...... above gives voice to one of these seniors, stressing the necessity of moving. The anthology contributes to the international body of literature about later life migration, specifically representing experiences made by Nordic seniors. As shown here, mobility and migration in later life have implications...

  3. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  4. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  5. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  6. Infinite games with uncertain moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study infinite two-player games where one of the players is unsure about the set of moves available to the other player. In particular, the set of moves of the other player is a strict superset of what she assumes it to be. We explore what happens to sets in various levels of the Borel hierarchy under such a situation. We show that the sets at every alternate level of the hierarchy jump to the next higher level.

  7. Moving event and moving participant in aspectual conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Katsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study advances an analysis of the event conception of aspectual forms in four East Asian languages: Ainu, Japanese, Korean, and Ryukyuan. As earlier studies point out, event conceptions can be divided into two major types: the moving-event type and the moving-participant type, respectively. All aspectual forms in Ainu and Korean, and most forms in Japanese and Ryukyuan are based on that type of event conception. Moving-participant oriented Ainu and movingevent oriented Japanese occupy two extremes, between which Korean and Ryukyuan stand. Notwithstanding the geographical relationships among the four languages, Ryukyuan is closer to Ainu than to Korean, whereas Korean is closer to Ainu than to Japanese.

  8. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  9. Satisfaction in motion: Subsequent search misses are more likely in moving search displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothart, Cary; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2018-02-01

    People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical X-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence has suggested that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the identities and locations of found targets. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increase the chances of missing a subsequent one? To address this question, we had participants search for one or more targets hidden among distractors. Subsequent search misses were more likely when the targets and distractors moved throughout the display than when they remained stationary. However, when the found targets were highlighted in a unique color, subsequent search misses were no more likely in moving displays. Together, these results suggest that the effect of movement is likely due to the increased cognitive demands of tracking moving targets. Overall, our findings reveal that activities that involve searching for moving targets (e.g., driving) are more susceptible to subsequent search misses than are those that involve searching for stationary targets (e.g., baggage screening).

  10. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  11. Automatic Moving Object Segmentation for Freely Moving Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new moving object segmentation algorithm for freely moving cameras which is very common for the outdoor surveillance system, the car build-in surveillance system, and the robot navigation system. A two-layer based affine transformation model optimization method is proposed for camera compensation purpose, where the outer layer iteration is used to filter the non-background feature points, and the inner layer iteration is used to estimate a refined affine model based on the RANSAC method. Then the feature points are classified into foreground and background according to the detected motion information. A geodesic based graph cut algorithm is then employed to extract the moving foreground based on the classified features. Unlike the existing global optimization or the long term feature point tracking based method, our algorithm only performs on two successive frames to segment the moving foreground, which makes it suitable for the online video processing applications. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in both of the high accuracy and the fast speed.

  12. Random walk of passive tracers among randomly moving obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Matteo; Donato, Irene; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Pettini, Marco

    2016-04-14

    This study is mainly motivated by the need of understanding how the diffusion behavior of a biomolecule (or even of a larger object) is affected by other moving macromolecules, organelles, and so on, inside a living cell, whence the possibility of understanding whether or not a randomly walking biomolecule is also subject to a long-range force field driving it to its target. By means of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) technique the topic of random walk in random environment is here considered in the case of a passively diffusing particle among randomly moving and interacting obstacles. The relevant physical quantity which is worked out is the diffusion coefficient of the passive tracer which is computed as a function of the average inter-obstacles distance. The results reported here suggest that if a biomolecule, let us call it a test molecule, moves towards its target in the presence of other independently interacting molecules, its motion can be considerably slowed down.

  13. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  14. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal

  16. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located...

  17. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  19. Detection and identification of human targets in radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Sevgi Z.; Melvin, William L.; Williams, Douglas B.

    2007-04-01

    Radar offers unique advantages over other sensors, such as visual or seismic sensors, for human target detection. Many situations, especially military applications, prevent the placement of video cameras or implantment seismic sensors in the area being observed, because of security or other threats. However, radar can operate far away from potential targets, and functions during daytime as well as nighttime, in virtually all weather conditions. In this paper, we examine the problem of human target detection and identification using single-channel, airborne, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Human targets are differentiated from other detected slow-moving targets by analyzing the spectrogram of each potential target. Human spectrograms are unique, and can be used not just to identify targets as human, but also to determine features about the human target being observed, such as size, gender, action, and speed. A 12-point human model, together with kinematic equations of motion for each body part, is used to calculate the expected target return and spectrogram. A MATLAB simulation environment is developed including ground clutter, human and non-human targets for the testing of spectrogram-based detection and identification algorithms. Simulations show that spectrograms have some ability to detect and identify human targets in low noise. An example gender discrimination system correctly detected 83.97% of males and 91.11% of females. The problems and limitations of spectrogram-based methods in high clutter environments are discussed. The SNR loss inherent to spectrogram-based methods is quantified. An alternate detection and identification method that will be used as a basis for future work is proposed.

  20. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  1. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  2. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  3. Stand up and move forward

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Johan; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity or being inactive is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases worldwide. Globally between 6-10% of premature mortality, caused by non-communicable diseases, could be avoided if people adhered to general physical activity guidelines. Besides that, studies link sitting for prolonged periods of time with many serious health concerns. The solution seems simple: Stand up and move forward. However, human behavior is difficult to change – due to th...

  4. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  5. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, T. R.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  6. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  7. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  8. Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Range Profiling of Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedborg Julia

    2016-01-01

    TCSPC is a statistic method that requires an acquisition time and therefore the range profile of a non-stationary object (target may be corrupted. Here, we present results showing that it is possible to reconstruct the range profile of a moving target and calculate the velocity of the target.

  9. Competition-strength-dependent ground suppression in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagio, Elizabeth; Cacciamani, Laura; Peterson, Mary A

    2012-07-01

    Figure-ground segregation is modeled as inhibitory competition between objects that might be perceived on opposite sides of borders. The winner is the figure; the loser is suppressed, and its location is perceived as shapeless ground. Evidence of ground suppression would support inhibitory competition models and would contribute to explaining why grounds are shapeless near borders shared with figures, yet such evidence is scarce. We manipulated whether competition from potential objects on the ground side of figures was high (i.e., portions of familiar objects were potentially present there) or low (novel objects were potentially present). We predicted that greater competition would produce more ground suppression. The results of two experiments in which suppression was assessed via judgments of the orientation of target bars confirmed this prediction; a third experiment showed that ground suppression is short-lived. Our findings support inhibitory competition models of figure assignment, in particular, and models of visual perception entailing feedback, in general.

  10. Exoplanet Caught on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, astronomers have been able to directly follow the motion of an exoplanet as it moves from one side of its host star to the other. The planet has the smallest orbit so far of all directly imaged exoplanets, lying almost as close to its parent star as Saturn is to the Sun. Scientists believe that it may have formed in a similar way to the giant planets in the Solar System. Because the star is so young, this discovery proves that gas giant planets can form within discs in only a few million years, a short time in cosmic terms. Only 12 million years old, or less than three-thousandths of the age of the Sun, Beta Pictoris is 75% more massive than our parent star. It is located about 60 light-years away towards the constellation of Pictor (the Painter) and is one of the best-known examples of a star surrounded by a dusty debris disc [1]. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and comets falling onto the star. "Those were indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggested the presence of a massive planet, and our new observations now definitively prove this," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "Because the star is so young, our results prove that giant planets can form in discs in time-spans as short as a few million years." Recent observations have shown that discs around young stars disperse within a few million years, and that giant planet formation must occur faster than previously thought. Beta Pictoris is now clear proof that this is indeed possible. The team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [2]), mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris in 2003, 2008 and 2009. In 2003 a faint source inside the disc was seen (eso0842), but it was not possible to exclude the remote possibility that it was a background star. In new images taken in 2008 and spring 2009 the source had disappeared! The most recent

  11. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  12. A search for southern ultracool dwarfs in young moving groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deacon N.R.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an 800-strong red object catalogue by cross-referencing optical and infrared catalogues with an extensive proper motion catalogue compiled for red objects in the southern sky to obtain proper motions. We have applied astrometric and photometric constraints to the catalogue in order to select ultracool dwarf moving group candidates. 132 objects were found to be candidates of a moving group. From this candidate list we present initial results. Using spectroscopy we have obtained reliable spectral types and space motions, and by association with moving groups we can infer an age and composition. the further study of the remainder of our candidates will provide a large sample of young brown dwarfs and confirmed members will provide benchmark ultracool dwarfs. These will make suitable targets of AO planet searches.

  13. Moving walls and geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Garnero, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.garnero@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and MECENAS, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Samuel, Joseph [Raman Research Institute, 560080 Bangalore (India)

    2016-09-15

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  14. Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Pauline; Dredge, Dianne; Daniele, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future....... It considers the changes needed in research approaches, in our universities, our curricula, our learners, and ourselves as academics. These changes we hope will stimulate the dialog on how TSE can mobilize the energy, vision and social spirit of those who seek to change the world for the better through tourism....

  15. Dark matter. A light move

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Doebrich, Babette [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  16. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Dark matter. A light move

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Doebrich, Babette

    2013-11-01

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  18. Why the Greenwich Meridian Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ellipsoid from a point on its minor axis above the north pole. O = spheroid axis passing through the geocenter, Eq = ground level equipotential surface , Sph...which the geodetic coor- dinates, ϕ and λ, refer. The DoV components (ξ , η) also represent the slopes of the geoid surface with respect to the surface of...illustrated, the shift eastward at Greenwich represents only a lateral transfer of the trace of the geodetic longitude λ = 0 meridian across the surface

  19. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  20. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  1. Moving as an interspecies unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    In urban spaces, people are normatively expected to move, to be mobile. In such “evolving ecologies” (Haddington, Nevile and Mondada, 2013), pedestrians, cyclists, and car-drivers are constantly adjusting to one another's mobility. Stillness, conversely, is noticed and somehow disruptive (Hadding......In urban spaces, people are normatively expected to move, to be mobile. In such “evolving ecologies” (Haddington, Nevile and Mondada, 2013), pedestrians, cyclists, and car-drivers are constantly adjusting to one another's mobility. Stillness, conversely, is noticed and somehow disruptive...... (Haddington, 2012 ; Lan Hing Ting & al., 2013). Staying immobile, for instance just before crossing a street, is in that respect a non-dynamic action yet to account for. Will the projected next action of the still participant be to wait and stay for a while, or to cross the street? To put is in other words......, how can immobility be unproblematically bound to a waiting status? What are the embodied resources used to be ‘doing wainting’ (Ayass, 2015)? In this presentation we will look at a collection of street crossings accomplished by blind persons with their guide-dogs. In the absence of visual access...

  2. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  3. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  4. Reasons for Moving in Nonmetro Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Sandra Charvat; Edelman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study highlights the experiences of people who have recently moved to or from 19 selected nonmetropolitan counties of Iowa. This report highlights work, family, community, and housing reasons for moving. The purpose is to increase understanding about why people move so community leaders and citizens can develop actionable strategies for attracting and retaining population.

  5. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  6. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  7. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  8. Why Make the World Move?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Evan Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The next horizons of human-computer interaction promise a whirling world of digital bytes, physical bits, and their hybrids. Are human beings prepared to inhabit such cyber-physical, adaptive environments? Assuming an optimistic view, this chapter offers a reply, drawing from art and art history, environmental design, literature, psychology, and evolutionary anthropology, to identify wide-ranging motivations for the design of such “new places” of human-computer interaction. Moreover, the author makes a plea to researchers focused in the domain of adaptive environments to pause and take a longer, more comprehensive, more self-reflective view to see what we’re doing, to recognize where we are, and to possibly find ourselves and others within our designed artifacts and systems that make the world move.

  9. Moving Forest di Expo 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Moretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reading of the Expo 2015 landscape project through the essay "Moving Forest "by Franco Zagari and Benedetto Selleri; in which the authors trace the design process of the exposition site. It describes the design features of the green spaces that surround and mark the Exposition City. The green project is the connection between innovation, technology and rural landscape, like that surrounds the site. The Expo map represents one of the largest landscape projects in the last years in Europe, with its 300,000 square meters, organized in a sequence of different landscape that improve a gradual transition from the rural and natural landscape outside, to the urban landscape inside the exposition city.

  10. Mobility narratives that move me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Kronlid, David

    and fiction. By opposing the classic anthropocentric ontological split between human (discourse) and object, fiction and Reality, OOO opens up for a new understanding of the role of narratives as independent objects on the same scale as grains of sand, universities, axolotls and planets. In short...... of speed, acceleration, the rhythm of technogenic moving and mooring, which can be translated into an understanding of our own movements and moorings through life and how we engage with new things, such as mediating new information through a certain pace, rhythm, movement, acceleration, slowing down....... This fictive/Real example of a narrative object illustrates that regardless of the metaphysical status of what/who we encounter in education and throughout life, if this experience becomes meaningful to us, we are navigating around them, towards them, and enmesh with them in the same principle ways...

  11. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  12. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  13. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  14. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  15. Research on measurement method of optical camouflage effect of moving object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juntang; Xu, Weidong; Qu, Yang; Cui, Guangzhen

    2016-10-01

    Camouflage effectiveness measurement as an important part of the camouflage technology, which testing and measuring the camouflage effect of the target and the performance of the camouflage equipment according to the tactical and technical requirements. The camouflage effectiveness measurement of current optical band is mainly aimed at the static target which could not objectively reflect the dynamic camouflage effect of the moving target. This paper synthetical used technology of dynamic object detection and camouflage effect detection, the digital camouflage of the moving object as the research object, the adaptive background update algorithm of Surendra was improved, a method of optical camouflage effect detection using Lab-color space in the detection of moving-object was presented. The binary image of moving object is extracted by this measurement technology, in the sequence diagram, the characteristic parameters such as the degree of dispersion, eccentricity, complexity and moment invariants are constructed to construct the feature vector space. The Euclidean distance of moving target which through digital camouflage was calculated, the results show that the average Euclidean distance of 375 frames was 189.45, which indicated that the degree of dispersion, eccentricity, complexity and moment invariants of the digital camouflage graphics has a great difference with the moving target which not spray digital camouflage. The measurement results showed that the camouflage effect was good. Meanwhile with the performance evaluation module, the correlation coefficient of the dynamic target image range 0.1275 from 0.0035, and presented some ups and down. Under the dynamic condition, the adaptability of target and background was reflected. In view of the existing infrared camouflage technology, the next step, we want to carry out the camouflage effect measurement technology of the moving target based on infrared band.

  16. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  18. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  19. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  20. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  1. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  2. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  3. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado, E-mail: cargar08@ucm.es, E-mail: maroto@ucm.es, E-mail: pradomm@ucm.es [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by the effective bimetric fluid.

  4. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  5. Pipelines : moving biomass and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Moving biomass and energy through pipelines was presented. Field sourced biomass utilization for fuel was discussed in terms of competing cost factors; economies of scale; and differing fuel plant sizes. The cost versus scale in a bioenergy facility was illustrated in chart format. The transportation cost of biomass was presented as it is a major component of total biomass processing cost and is in the typical range of 25-45 per cent of total processing costs for truck transport of biomass. Issues in large scale biomass utilization, scale effects in transportation, and components of transport cost were identified. Other topics related to transportation issues included approaches to pipeline transport; cost of wood chips in pipeline transport; and distance variable cost of transporting wood chips by pipeline. Practical applications were also offered. In addition, the presentation provided and illustrated a model for an ethanol plant supplied by truck transport as well as a sample configuration for 19 truck based ethanol plants versus one large facility supplied by truck plus 18 pipelines. Last, pipeline transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of syngas was discussed. It was concluded that pipeline transport can help in reducing congestion issues in large scale biomass utilization and that it can offer a means to achieve large plant size. Some current research at the University of Alberta on pipeline transport of raw biomass, bio-oil and hydrogen production from biomass for oil sands and pipeline transport was also presented. tabs., figs.

  6. Leadership in moving human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Boos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group--on the basis of movement alone--a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement.

  7. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  8. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  9. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F; Zipser, Karl; Spekreijse, Henk

    2002-10-01

    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (figure-ground segregation can be recorded. Here, we recorded from awake macaque monkeys, engaged in a task where they had to detect figures from background in a pattern backward masking paradigm. We show that the V1 figure-ground signals are selectively and fully suppressed at target-mask intervals that psychophysically result in the target being invisible. Initial response transients, signalling the features that make up the scene, are not affected. As figure-ground modulations depend on feedback from extrastriate areas, these results suggest that masking selectively interrupts the recurrent interactions between V1 and higher visual areas.

  10. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  11. An autonomous robot inspired by insect neurophysiology pursues moving features in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra M.; Cazzolato, Benjamin S.; Grainger, Steven; O'Carroll, David C.; Wiederman, Steven D.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. Approach. We used our recent recordings from ‘small target motion detector’ neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm. This model exploits facilitation, a slow build-up of response to targets which move along long, continuous trajectories, as seen in our electrophysiological data. To test performance in real-world conditions, we implemented this model on a robotic platform that uses active pursuit strategies based on insect behaviour. Main results. Our robot performs robustly in closed-loop pursuit of targets, despite a range of challenging conditions used in our experiments; low contrast targets, heavily cluttered environments and the presence of distracters. We show that the facilitation stage boosts responses to targets moving along continuous trajectories, improving contrast sensitivity and detection of small moving targets against textured backgrounds. Moreover, the temporal properties of facilitation play a useful role in handling vibration of the robotic platform. We also show that the adoption of feed-forward models which predict the sensory consequences of self-movement can significantly improve target detection during saccadic movements. Significance. Our results provide insight into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie biological target detection and selection (from a moving platform), as well as highlight the effectiveness of our bio-inspired algorithm in an artificial visual system.

  12. Moving Stimuli Facilitate Synchronization But Not Temporal Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Castro, São Luís

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a moving visual stimulus (e.g., a bouncing ball) facilitates synchronization compared to a static stimulus (e.g., a flashing light), and that it can even be as effective as an auditory beep. We asked a group of participants to perform different tasks with four stimulus types: beeps, siren-like sounds, visual flashes (static) and bouncing balls. First, participants performed synchronization with isochronous sequences (stimulus-guided synchronization), followed by a continuation phase in which the stimulus was internally generated (imagery-guided synchronization). Then they performed a perception task, in which they judged whether the final part of a temporal sequence was compatible with the previous beat structure (stimulus-guided perception). Similar to synchronization, an imagery-guided variant was added, in which sequences contained a gap in between (imagery-guided perception). Balls outperformed flashes and matched beeps (powerful ball effect) in stimulus-guided synchronization but not in perception (stimulus- or imagery-guided). In imagery-guided synchronization, performance accuracy decreased for beeps and balls, but not for flashes and sirens. Our findings suggest that the advantages of moving visual stimuli over static ones are grounded in action rather than perception, and they support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor coupling mechanisms for auditory (beeps) and moving visual stimuli (bouncing balls) overlap.

  13. Can math beat gamers in Quantum Moves?

    OpenAIRE

    Sels, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In a recent work on quantum state preparation, Sørensen and co-workers [Nature (London) 532, 210 (2016)] explore the possibility of using video games to help design quantum control protocols. The authors present a game called Quantum Moves (https://www.scienceathome.org/games/quantum-moves/) in which gamers have to move an atom from A to B by means of optical tweezers. They report that, players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails. Moreover, by harnessing the player str...

  14. Trading Fees and Slow-Moving Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Adrian; Dumas, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    In some situations, investment capital seems to move slowly towards profitable trades. We develop a model of a financial market in which capital moves slowly simply because there is a proportional cost to moving capital. We incorporate trading fees in an infinite-horizon dynamic general-equilibrium model in which investors optimally and endogenously decide when and how much to trade. We determine the steady-state equilibrium no-trade zone, study the dynamics of equilibrium trades and prices a...

  15. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  16. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  18. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamuro, Takaji

    2012-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  19. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamuro, Takaji, E-mail: inamuro@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Advanced Research Institute of Fluid Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  20. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  1. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  3. Detection of range migrating targets in compound-Gaussian clutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, N.; le Chevalier, F.; Yarovyi, O.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of fast moving targets in a high range resolution mode. In particular, we are focusing on the spiky clutter modeled as a compound Gaussian process with rapidly varying power along range. Additionally, a fast moving target of interest has

  4. Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Seli, Paul; Cheng, Vivian O Y; Solman, Grayden J F; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image depicted a meaningful object, whereas the other half constituted a less meaningful shape. The colours of the meaningful regions of the targets and distractors were either the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). We found that incongruent targets took longer to locate than congruent targets (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and that this segmentation-congruency effect decreased when the number of search items was reduced (Experiment 2). Furthermore, an analysis of eye movements revealed that participants spent more time scrutinising the target before confirming its identity on incongruent trials than on congruent trials (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the distractor context influences target segmentation and detection during visual search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ALICE moves into warp drive.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems in order to spot reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fix...

  6. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  7. Adaptive Moving Object Tracking Integrating Neural Networks And Intelligent Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James S. J.; Nguyen, Dziem D.; Lin, C.

    1989-03-01

    A real-time adaptive scheme is introduced to detect and track moving objects under noisy, dynamic conditions including moving sensors. This approach integrates the adaptiveness and incremental learning characteristics of neural networks with intelligent reasoning and process control. Spatiotemporal filtering is used to detect and analyze motion, exploiting the speed and accuracy of multiresolution processing. A neural network algorithm constitutes the basic computational structure for classification. A recognition and learning controller guides the on-line training of the network, and invokes pattern recognition to determine processing parameters dynamically and to verify detection results. A tracking controller acts as the central control unit, so that tracking goals direct the over-all system. Performance is benchmarked against the Widrow-Hoff algorithm, for target detection scenarios presented in diverse FLIR image sequences. Efficient algorithm design ensures that this recognition and control scheme, implemented in software and commercially available image processing hardware, meets the real-time requirements of tracking applications.

  8. A Benchmark for Evaluating Moving Object Indexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    that targets techniques for the indexing of the current and near-future positions of moving objects. This benchmark enables the comparison of existing and future indexing techniques. It covers important aspects of such indexes that have not previously been covered by any benchmark. Notable aspects covered......Progress in science and engineering relies on the ability to measure, reliably and in detail, pertinent properties of artifacts under design. Progress in the area of database-index design thus relies on empirical studies based on prototype implementations of indexes. This paper proposes a benchmark...... include update efficiency, query efficiency, concurrency control, and storage requirements. Next, the paper applies the benchmark to half a dozen notable moving-object indexes, thus demonstrating the viability of the benchmark and offering new insight into the performance properties of the indexes....

  9. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  10. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  11. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  12. How to Move in a Jostling Crowd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For people living in big cities it is an ordeal to walk in a bus stand or a railway station. They get stuck helplessly in a crowd. They are simply pushed around and all their efforts to move forward appear futile. Only the most energetic can wade through the constantly moving sea of people. How about the weaker ones?

  13. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency or in...... reduce the operation cost....

  14. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  15. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  16. 76 FR 11297 - New Regional Ground Service for Parcels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... 3015.2.\\1\\ The proposed changes establish a new ``Regional Ground'' price category within the Parcel... Governors' Decision No. 11-2, February 17, 2011 (Notice). Regional Ground service targets higher-volume business-to-consumer Parcel Select packages delivered within the first three postal zones (300 miles) from...

  17. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  18. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  19. COLOR INFLUENCES IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOVING OBJECTS MORE THAN SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When people track moving objects, they concentrate on different characteristics.Recent results show that people more often concentrate on spatiotemporalthan featural properties of the objects. In other words, location and directionof motion seem to be more informative properties than the stable featuralcharacteristics. This finding contradicts some of our knowledge about cognitivesystem. Current research was done in attempt to specify the effect of featuralcharacteristics, especially color and shape. In Experiment 1, subjects were askedto track four mobile targets presented with another four moving objects. Afterthe motion has stopped, they had to mark the initial four targets. Our resultshave shown that participants pay more attention to the featural properties thanto spatiotemporal characteristics. Since our task was more difficult than thetasks typically reported in the literature, the results might be interpreted as if thesubjects relied mostly on attentional processes. The task in Experiment 2 wasmade even more difficult: the subjects were asked to direct attention on identityof every target. Consequently, the task demanded more complex cognitiveprocesses and emphasizing effects of featural properties. Results suggest thatcolor and shape does not have the same influences on multiple object tracking,but that color has more significant effect.

  20. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  1. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  2. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  3. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  4. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  5. Strategies used to walk through a moving aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Michael E; Patla, Aftab E; Allard, Fran

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine what strategy (pursuit or interception) individuals used to pass through an oscillating target and to determine if individuals walked towards where they were looking. Kinematic and gaze behaviour data was collected from seven healthy female participants as they started at one of five different starting positions and walked 7 m towards an oscillating target. The target was a two-dimensional 70 cm aperture made by two-76 cm wide doors and oscillated between two end posts that were 300 cm apart. In order to quantify the objectives, target-heading angles [Fajen BR, Warren WH. Behavioral dynamics of steering, obstacle avoidance, and route selection. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2003;29(2):343-62; Fajen BR, Warren WH. Visual guidance of intercepting a moving target on foot. Perception 2004;33:689-715] were calculated. Results showed that the participants used neither an interception nor a pursuit strategy to successfully pass through the moving aperture. The participants steered towards the middle of the pathway prior to passing through the middle of the aperture. A cross correlation between the horizontal gaze locations and the medial/lateral (M/L) location of the participants' center of mass (COM) was performed. The results from the cross correlation show that during the final 2s prior to crossing the aperture, the participants walked where they were looking. The findings from this study suggest that individuals simplify a task by decreasing the perceptual load until the final stages. In this way the final stages of this task were visually driven.

  6. Exploration of a Polarized Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Model Using the Ground-Based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Diner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of surface reflection is essential for retrieval of aerosols using downward-looking remote sensors. In this paper, observations from the Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI are used to evaluate a surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (PBRDF model. GroundMSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire pushbroom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a very accurate photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to acquire Stokes vector measurements in three of the instrument’s bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. A description of the instrument is presented, and observations of selected targets within a scene acquired on 6 January 2010 are analyzed. Data collected during the course of the day as the Sun moved across the sky provided a range of illumination geometries that facilitated evaluation of the surface model, which is comprised of a volumetric reflection term represented by the modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete function plus a specular reflection term generated by a randomly oriented array of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. While the model is fairly successful in predicting the polarized reflection from two grass targets in the scene, it does a poorer job for two manmade targets (a parking lot and a truck roof, possibly due to their greater degree of geometric organization. Several empirical adjustments to the model are explored and lead to improved fits to the data. For all targets, the data support the notion of spectral invariance in the angular shape of the unpolarized and polarized surface reflection. As noted by others, this behavior provides valuable constraints on the aerosol retrieval problem, and highlights the importance of multiangle observations.

  7. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  8. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  9. Random walk of passive tracers among randomly moving obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Matteo; Donato, Irene; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Pettini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is mainly motivated by the need of understanding how the diffusion behaviour of a biomolecule (or even of a larger object) is affected by other moving macromolecules, organelles, and so on, inside a living cell, whence the possibility of understanding whether or not a randomly walking biomolecule is also subject to a long-range force field driving it to its target. Method: By means of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) technique the topic of random walk in random en...

  10. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  11. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  12. Energy flux correlations and moving mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the quantum stress tensor correlation function for a massless scalar field in a flat two-dimensional spacetime containing a moving mirror. We construct the correlation functions for right-moving and left-moving fluxes for an arbitrary trajectory, and then specialize them to the case of a mirror trajectory for which the expectation value of the stress tensor describes a pair of delta-function pulses, one of negative energy and one of positive energy. The flux correlation function describes the fluctuations around this mean stress tensor, and reveals subtle changes in the correlations between regions where the mean flux vanishes

  13. Distributed Measurement Data Gathering about Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kholod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes approaches to gathering measurement data about moving objects in networks with low bandwidth. The first approach uses Fog computing conception and suggests moving assessing the quality of the measurement data into measuring points. The second approach uses prediction of telemetry quality by mining models. In addition, the paper presents implementation of these approaches based on actor model. As a result, it became possible not only to load balancing among edge and cloud nodes, but also to significantly reduce the network traffic, which in turn brings the possibility of decreasing the requirements for communication channels bandwidth and of using wireless networks for gathering measurement data about moving objects.

  14. Astronaut training ground

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    "While most NPS graduates are still assigned to sea missions, so many are venturing into the "Final Frontier" that NPS is among the top four schools in producing future astronauts. Since moving to Monterey from the Naval Academy in 1951, NPS has already graduated 35 astronauts, some of whom have flown Space Shuttle missions..."

  15. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM. Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding.

  16. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  17. Target-Searching on Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijie

    2005-01-01

    We study target-searching processes on a percolation, on which a hunter tracks a target by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to be inversely proportional to the distance it propagates. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a 2-dimensional bond-percolation above the threshold. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. For lager percolation connectivity p ∼> 0.90, it reveals a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent is dependent on the sensitivity of the hunter. For smaller p, the scaling law is broken and the probability of finding out the target significantly reduces. The hunter seems trapped in the cluster of the percolation and can hardly reach the goal.

  18. Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In multisimultaneity, as in the pilot-wave model, each particle emerging ... reference frames, each defining a time ordering, hence the name of multisimultaneity. In ... The setup we used to test entanglement of the photon pairs with moving ...

  19. MOVES2010a regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This document discusses the sensitivity of various input parameter effects on emission rates using the US Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) MOVES2010a model at the regional level. Pollutants included in the study are carbon monoxide (CO),...

  20. Preparing Your Child for a Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it. Kids can need some time and special attention during the transition. Try these tips to make the process less stressful for everyone. Making the Decision to Move Many kids thrive on familiarity and ...

  1. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  2. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  3. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  4. Operational overhead of moving to higher energies

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, M

    2011-01-01

    The operational overheads of moving above 3.5 TeV are examined. The costs of performing such a move at the start, or during, the 2011 run are evaluated. The impact of operation with beams above 3.5 TeV on machine protection systems is briefly reviewed, and any potential limitations are enumerated. Finally the possible benefits of increasing the beam energy on the luminosity are discussed.

  5. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and co...

  6. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  7. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  8. Defining Electric Potential Difference by Moving a Multimeter's Ground Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Marta R.

    2018-01-01

    The abstract nature of electric potential difference (voltage) can make it a difficult concept to grasp, but understanding the relative nature of voltage is central to developing a conceptual understanding of electric circuits. In laboratory situations, I see these conceptual difficulties manifest when students have difficulty placing voltmeter…

  9. World Population: U.N. on the Move but Grounds for Optimism Are Scant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1974-01-01

    Discusses current trends and problems relating to world population, and focuses on action being taken by the United Nations. This year (1974) has been designated World Population Year, and will be highlighted by a conference in Bucharest in which all 130 member governments will meet to confront the issue of population control. (JR)

  10. Seeding on Moving Ground: How Understanding Network Instability Can Improve Message Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchnik Lev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of the social structure of a network implicitly assume that the relationships in the network are relatively stable. We present evidence that this is not the case. The focal network of this study grew in bursts rather than monotonously over time, and the bursts were highly localized. Links were added and deleted in nearby localities and are not randomly dispersed throughout the network. Also changes in structure lead to simultaneous changes in self-stated interests of its members. For SNA marketing applications the findings suggest interesting improvements. Local bursts around a seed can change the structure of the network dramatically and therefore a marketer’s influence and his chances of success. Therefore, network measurements should be carried out more frequently and closer to the actual implementation of a seeding campaign. To detect these abrupt, dramatic local changes marketers also use a finer resolution. Further, recommendation algorithms that simultaneously account for changes in network structure and content should be applied.

  11. Moving to higher ground: Closing the high school science achievement gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Joyce Graham

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of West High School constituents (students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors) about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) science courses as a strategy for closing the achievement gap. This case study utilized individual interviews and questionnaires for data collection. The participants were selected biology students and their parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors at West High School. The results of the study indicated that just over half the students and teachers, most parents, and all guidance counselors thought African American students were prepared to take AP science courses. Only one of the three administrators thought the students were prepared to take AP science courses. Between one-half and two-thirds of the students, parents, teachers, and administrators thought students were interested in taking an AP science course. Only two of the guidance counselors thought there was interest among the African American students in taking AP science courses. The general consensus among the constituents about the readiness and interest of African American students at West High School to take IB science courses was that it is too early in the process to really make definitive statements. West is a prospective IB school and the program is new and not yet in place. Educators at the West High School community must find reasons to expect each student to succeed. Lower expectations often translate into lower academic demands and less rigor in courses. Lower academic demands and less rigor in courses translate into less than adequate performance by students. When teachers and administrators maintain high expectations, they encourage students to aim high rather than slide by with mediocre effort (Lumsden, 1997). As a result of the study, the following suggestions should be implemented at West High School: (1) Have high expectations for all students. (2) Encourage students to take advanced science courses and help them succeed in these advanced science courses. (3) Improve communications among students, parents, teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors regarding procedures, policies, programs, and goals at the school. (4) Assign guidance counselors per grade level rather than across grade levels. (5) Have procedures in place so information from guidance counselors is consistent. (6) Increase parental involvement in the school. Simply increasing the number of and variety of AP science and IB science courses will not result in closing the achievement gap. All constituents must be positive about both preparation and interest of African American students in completing advanced science courses if these courses are indeed to narrow the achievement gap.

  12. A comparison of moving object detection methods for real-time moving object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Aditya; Zhang, Yun

    2014-06-01

    Moving object detection has a wide variety of applications from traffic monitoring, site monitoring, automatic theft identification, face detection to military surveillance. Many methods have been developed across the globe for moving object detection, but it is very difficult to find one which can work globally in all situations and with different types of videos. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate existing moving object detection methods which can be implemented in software on a desktop or laptop, for real time object detection. There are several moving object detection methods noted in the literature, but few of them are suitable for real time moving object detection. Most of the methods which provide for real time movement are further limited by the number of objects and the scene complexity. This paper evaluates the four most commonly used moving object detection methods as background subtraction technique, Gaussian mixture model, wavelet based and optical flow based methods. The work is based on evaluation of these four moving object detection methods using two (2) different sets of cameras and two (2) different scenes. The moving object detection methods have been implemented using MatLab and results are compared based on completeness of detected objects, noise, light change sensitivity, processing time etc. After comparison, it is observed that optical flow based method took least processing time and successfully detected boundary of moving objects which also implies that it can be implemented for real-time moving object detection.

  13. Mechanisms in wing-in-ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marvin Alan

    An aircraft in low-level flight experiences a large increase in lift and a marked reduction in drag, compared with flight at altitude. This phenomenon is termed the 'wing-in-ground' effect. In these circumstances a region of high pressure is created beneath the aerofoil, and a pressure difference is set up between its upper and lower surfaces. A pressure difference is not permitted at the trailing edge and therefore a mechanism must exist which allows the pressures above and below to adjust themselves to produce a continuous pressure field in the wake. It is the study of this mechanism and its role in the aerodynamics of low-level flight that forms the basis of our investigation. We begin in Chapter 2 by considering the flow past a thin aero-foil moving at moderate distances from the ground, the typical ground clearance a being of order unity. The aforementioned mechanism is introduced and described in detail in the context of this inviscid problem. Chapter 3 considers the same flow for large and small ground clearances and in the later case shows that the flow solution beneath the aerofoil takes on a particularly simple form. In this case the lift is shown to increase as a-1. In Chapter 4 we focus on the flow past the trailing edge of an aerofoil moving even nearer the ground, with the ground just outside the boundary layer. We show that in this case our asymptotic theory for small a is consistent with a 'triple-deck' approach to the problem which incorporates ground effects via a new pressure-displacement law. The triple-deck ground-interference problem is stated and solved. In Chapter 5 we investigate the case where the aerofoil is so near the ground that the ground is inside the boundary layer. Here the moving ground interacts with the aerofoil in a fully viscous way and the non-linear boundary layer equations hold along the entire length of the aerofoil. Again a pressure difference at the trailing edge is not permitted and this produces upstream adjustment

  14. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  15. Ground Target Overflight and Orbital Maneuvering via Atmospheric Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Total deceleration m ∙ s−2 Gravitational acceleration m ∙ s−2 ℎ Altitude m Inclination angle rad Vehicle mass kg Geocentric ...total atmospheric inclination change approached the limit of approximately 36.2° as the number of atmospheric passes increased. This inclination...determine the longitude. By expanding and simplifying Eqs. (3.1) and (3.5) for a circular orbit, the position can be written in the Geocentric Equatorial

  16. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  17. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  18. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  19. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  1. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  2. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  3. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  4. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  5. Synthesis of High-Frequency Ground Motion Using Information Extracted from Low-Frequency Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.

    2012-12-01

    Broadband ground motion computations of scenario earthquakes are often based on hybrid methods that are the combinations of deterministic approach in lower frequency band and stochastic approach in higher frequency band. Typical computation methods for low-frequency and high-frequency (LF and HF, respectively) ground motions are the numerical simulations, such as finite-difference and finite-element methods based on three-dimensional velocity structure model, and the stochastic Green's function method, respectively. In such hybrid methods, LF and HF wave fields are generated through two different methods that are completely independent of each other, and are combined at the matching frequency. However, LF and HF wave fields are essentially not independent as long as they are from the same event. In this study, we focus on the relation among acceleration envelopes at different frequency bands, and attempt to synthesize HF ground motion using the information extracted from LF ground motion, aiming to propose a new method for broad-band strong motion prediction. Our study area is Kanto area, Japan. We use the K-NET and KiK-net surface acceleration data and compute RMS envelope at four frequency bands: 0.5-1.0 Hz, 1.0-2.0 Hz, 2.0-4.0 Hz, .0-8.0 Hz, and 8.0-16.0 Hz. Taking the ratio of the envelopes of adjacent bands, we find that the envelope ratios have stable shapes at each site. The empirical envelope-ratio characteristics are combined with low-frequency envelope of the target earthquake to synthesize HF ground motion. We have applied the method to M5-class earthquakes and a M7 target earthquake that occurred in the vicinity of Kanto area, and successfully reproduced the observed HF ground motion of the target earthquake. The method can be applied to a broad band ground motion simulation for a scenario earthquake by combining numerically-computed low-frequency (~1 Hz) ground motion with the empirical envelope ratio characteristics to generate broadband ground motion

  6. Planar Near-Field Measurements of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    Planar near-field measurements are formulated for a general ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. A total plane-wave scattering matrix is defined for the system consisting of the GPR antenna and the planar air-soil interface. The transmitting spectrum of the GPR antenna is expressed in terms...... of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical example in which the scan plane is finite validates the expressions for the spectrum of the GPR antenna....

  7. Temperature distribution in a uniformly moving medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Joseph D; Petrov, Nikola P

    2009-01-01

    We apply several physical ideas to determine the steady temperature distribution in a medium moving with uniform velocity between two infinite parallel plates. We compute it in the coordinate frame moving with the medium by integration over the 'past' to account for the influence of an infinite set of instantaneous point sources of heat in past moments as seen by an observer moving with the medium. The boundary heat flux is simulated by appropriately distributed point heat sources on the inner side of an adiabatically insulating boundary. We make an extensive use of the Green functions with an emphasis on their physical meaning. The methodology used in this paper is of great pedagogical value as it offers an opportunity for students to see the connection between powerful mathematical techniques and their physical interpretation in an intuitively clear physical problem. We suggest several problems and a challenging project that can be easily incorporated in undergraduate or graduate courses

  8. Tracking Target and Spiral Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming G.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for analyzing the evolution of patterns of spiral and target waves in large aspect ratio chemical systems is introduced. The algorithm does not depend on finding the spiral tip but locates the center of the pattern by a new concept, called the spiral focus, which is defined...... by the evolutes of the actual spiral or target wave. With the use of Gaussian smoothing, a robust method is developed that permits the identification of targets and spirals foci independently of the wave profile. Examples of an analysis of long image sequences from experiments with the Belousov......–Zhabotinsky reaction catalyzed by ruthenium-tris-bipyridyl are presented. Moving target and spiral foci are found, and the speed and direction of movement of single as well as double spiral foci are investigated. For the experiments analyzed in this paper it is found that the movement of a focus correlates with foci...

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  10. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  11. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ACCRA,. GHANA ... Given equal family income and other back- ground opportunities, children ... between housing environment experienced dur- ing childhood and .... pils by evaluating parent and student responses. ..... mental health and behaviour: Structural equation ...

  12. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  13. Energy flow around a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H; Kirchner, H O K

    2009-01-01

    A dislocation moving in a lattice emits lattice waves. We study the energy flow accompanying the lattice wave emission in a molecular dynamics situation. About two thirds of the static free energy are emitted as lattice waves from the moving dislocation. Work done by the region around the dislocation helps to initiate the motion from the unstable equilibrium state under a small applied stress, or to compensate the energy emitted as lattice waves when the dislocation makes a long distance motion under a larger stress.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  15. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  16. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  17. Clustering Moving Objects Using Segments Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E. El-Sharkawi; Hoda M. O. Mokhtar; Omnia Ossama

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of moving object trajectories, we show how to cluster them using k-meansclustering approach. Our proposed clustering algorithm is competitive with the k-means clusteringbecause it specifies the value of “k” based on the segment’s slope of the moving object trajectories. Theadvantage of this approach is that it overcomes the known drawbacks of the k-means algorithm, namely,the dependence on the number of clusters (k), and the dependence on the initial choice of the clusters’centroi...

  18. Robotic radiosurgery. Treating tumors that move with respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urschel, Harold C. Jr.; Kresl, John J.; Luketich, James D.; Papiez, Lech; Timmerman, Robert D.; Schulz, Raymond A.

    2007-01-01

    Addresses in detail all aspects of the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat tumors of the lung, liver, and pancreas Includes full consideration of tumor tracking techniques, dosimetry, radiobiology, and fiducial placement strategies Written by leading experts Includes many high quality illustrations Stereotactic radiosurgery continues to evolve in ways that allow this powerful technology to reach and treat more tumors in more patients. This volume in the Robotic Radiosurgery series is devoted to theory and practice in the emerging field of stereotactic radiosurgery (also called stereotactic body radiation therapy) for extracranial tumors, particularly those that move as patients breathe. The book is divided into six sections. The first three sections address tumor motion due to respiration and tumor tracking techniques; dosimetry, radiobiology, and imaging; and fiducial placement systems. The fourth and fifth sections then discuss in depth the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat lung and abdominal tumors, respectively, and a final section explains emerging concepts and techniques. Within this framework, detailed information is provided on the technology and methodology for delivery of high doses of radiation to moving targets, radiobiological and radiological principles, and the challenges faced by clinicians performing extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery. Furthermore, there are thorough reviews of the general clinical literature on stereotactic radiation treatment of tumors of the lungs, liver, and pancreas, and the latest clinical data from clinicians conducting clinical studies using the CyberKnife registered Robotic Radiosurgery System. Special attention is given to the frameless robotic radiosurgery device known as the CyberKnife, the only image-guided radiosurgery system that utilizes intelligent robotics to track, detect, and correct for changes in tumor position during treatments. Tumors that move with respiration are treated with the CyberKnife using a

  19. Robotic radiosurgery. Treating tumors that move with respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urschel, Harold C. Jr. [Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Chair of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgical Research, Education and Clinical Excellence; Kresl, John J. [Arizona Oncology Services at St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Luketich, James D. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center PUH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). The Heart, Lung and Esophageal Surgery Inst.; Papiez, Lech; Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schulz, Raymond A. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Addresses in detail all aspects of the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat tumors of the lung, liver, and pancreas Includes full consideration of tumor tracking techniques, dosimetry, radiobiology, and fiducial placement strategies Written by leading experts Includes many high quality illustrations Stereotactic radiosurgery continues to evolve in ways that allow this powerful technology to reach and treat more tumors in more patients. This volume in the Robotic Radiosurgery series is devoted to theory and practice in the emerging field of stereotactic radiosurgery (also called stereotactic body radiation therapy) for extracranial tumors, particularly those that move as patients breathe. The book is divided into six sections. The first three sections address tumor motion due to respiration and tumor tracking techniques; dosimetry, radiobiology, and imaging; and fiducial placement systems. The fourth and fifth sections then discuss in depth the use of robotic radiosurgery to treat lung and abdominal tumors, respectively, and a final section explains emerging concepts and techniques. Within this framework, detailed information is provided on the technology and methodology for delivery of high doses of radiation to moving targets, radiobiological and radiological principles, and the challenges faced by clinicians performing extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery. Furthermore, there are thorough reviews of the general clinical literature on stereotactic radiation treatment of tumors of the lungs, liver, and pancreas, and the latest clinical data from clinicians conducting clinical studies using the CyberKnife {sup registered} Robotic Radiosurgery System. Special attention is given to the frameless robotic radiosurgery device known as the CyberKnife, the only image-guided radiosurgery system that utilizes intelligent robotics to track, detect, and correct for changes in tumor position during treatments. Tumors that move with respiration are treated with the Cyber

  20. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library..., comment request. SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following... functions of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; Evaluate the...

  1. Detection of moving objects from a moving platform in urban scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. ter; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Dijk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Moving object detection in urban scenes is important for the guidance of autonomous vehicles, robot navigation, and monitoring. In this paper moving objects are automatically detected using three sequential frames and tracked over a longer period. To this extend we modify the plane+parallax,

  2. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  3. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  4. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  5. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  6. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  7. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  8. Large Cancer Drug Trial Helps Move Precision Medicine Toward the Mainstream | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landmark cancer drug trial is helping set the stage for moving precision medicine into the mainstream of clinical practice, according to a new study. The study, reported in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, validates a procedure used in the drug trial that identifies the unique genetic mutations in a patient’s tumor, which is then used as the basis for selecting targeted

  9. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  10. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  11. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  12. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  13. Cerenkov radiation simulation in the Auger water ground detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Vo Van Thuan; Dang Quang Thieu

    2003-01-01

    The simulation of response of the Auger water Cerenkov ground detector to atmospheric shower muons in practically needed for the experimental research of cosmic rays at extreme energies. We consider here a simulation model for the process of emission and diffusion of Cerenkov photons concerned with muons moving through the detector volume with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the water on purpose to define photons producing signal in the detector. (author)

  14. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  15. Spatiotemporal Compression Techniques for Moving Point Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; de By, R.A.; de By, R.A.; Bertino, E.

    Moving object data handling has received a fair share of attention over recent years in the spatial database community. This is understandable as positioning technology is rapidly making its way into the consumer market, not only through the already ubiquitous cell phone but soon also through small,

  16. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  17. Moving vortices in noncommutative gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.A.; Stichel, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Exact time-dependent solutions of nonrelativistic noncommutative Chern-Simons gauge theory are presented in closed analytic form. They are different from (indeed orthogonal to) those discussed recently by Hadasz, Lindstroem, Rocek and von Unge. Unlike theirs, our solutions can move with an arbitrary constant velocity, and can be obtained from the previously known static solutions by the recently found 'exotic' boost symmetry

  18. EPI moved in beam S3

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The housing of the External Particle Identifier (EPI) is being moved to S3 beam. Test measurements with EPI were performed in the S3 beam between 20 and 110 GeV/c, before installing it behind BEBC. 110 GeV/c before

  19. The Electromagnetic Force between Two Moving Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2018-01-01

    A simple model of parallel motion of two point charges and the subsequent analysis of the electromagnetic field transformation invariant quantity are considered. It is shown that ignoring the coupling of electric and magnetic fields, as is done in some introductory physics books, can lead to miscalculations of the force between moving charges.…

  20. Electromagnetic Sources in Moving Simple Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1970-01-01

    A retarded potential tensor (4-vector) is derived in an arbitrary system of inertia for an arbitrary electromagnetic source in a moving homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, lossless dielectric. The velocity is uniform, and the result is relativistic correct. ©1970 The American Institute...

  1. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  2. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  3. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns,

  4. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  5. Cooperative Scalable Moving Continuous Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Karras, Panagiotis; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    of the global view and handle the majority of the workload. Meanwhile, moving clients, having basic memory and computation resources, handle small portions of the workload. This model is further enhanced by dynamic region allocation and grid size adjustment mechanisms that reduce the communication...... and computation cost for both servers and clients. An experimental study demonstrates that our approaches offer better scalability than competitors...

  6. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  7. Slow-light pulses in moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Leonhardt, U.; Parentani, R.

    2002-01-01

    Slow light in moving media reaches a counterintuitive regime when the flow speed of the medium approaches the group velocity of light. Pulses can penetrate a region where a counterpropagating flow exceeds the group velocity. When the counterflow slows down, pulses are reflected

  8. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr...

  9. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, w...

  10. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  11. Finding Funds to Move Summer Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Summer learning loss creates a permanent drag on the US education system. With the generous support of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) developed "Moving Summer Learning Forward: A Strategic Roadmap for Funding in Tough Times" to provide out-of-school time programs, school districts,…

  12. Strategic Game Moves Mediate Implicit Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…

  13. Moving Feedback Forward: Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Paul; Maw, Stephen J.; Park, Julian R.; Gomez, Stephen; Crook, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial research interest in tutor feedback and students' perception and use of such feedback. This paper considers some of the major issues raised in relation to tutor feedback and student learning. We explore some of the current feedback drivers, most notably the need for feedback to move away from simply a monologue from a tutor to…

  14. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data o...

  15. Moving frames for heart fiber geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piuze, Emmanuel; Sporring, Jon; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    fibers is central to our understanding of normal heart function. Motivated by a recent abstraction by Savadjiev et al. of heart wall fibers into generalized helicoid minimal surfaces, this paper develops an extension based on differential forms. The key idea is to use Maurer-Cartan’s method of moving...

  16. Moving UA5 into the beam

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The streamer chamber of UA5, which had been operating at the ISR until Easter, was installed in its platform, in ECA4 alongside the UA2 detector and in September was moved into the beam (this photo). See Annual Report 1981 p. 128.

  17. Assessing the Cartographic Visualization of Moving Objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four representations are considered in this research: the single static map, multiple static maps, animation, and the space-time cube. The study is conducted by considering four movement characteristics (or aspects of moving objects): speed change, returns, stops, and path of movement. The ability of users to perceive and ...

  18. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning...

  19. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  20. Moving Facts in an Arctic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    , and an engagement with other disciplinary practices. The gain of our cross-disciplinary experiment was therefore not only to know more about the makings of a particular landscape in a multi-disciplinary perspective, but also to understand how anthropology makes sense of inherently moving facts....

  1. Figure/ground segregation from temporal delay is best at high spatial frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of spatial frequency in performance of a figure/ground segregation task based on temporal cues. Figure orientation was much easier to judge when figure and ground portions of the target were defined exclusively by random texture composed entirely of high spatial frequencies. When target components were defined by low spatial frequencies only, the task was nearly impossible except with long temporal delay between figure and ground. These results are incons...

  2. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  3. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  4. Identification of moving vehicle forces on bridge structures via moving average Tikhonov regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chu-Dong; Yu, Ling; Liu, Huan-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Traffic-induced moving force identification (MFI) is a typical inverse problem in the field of bridge structural health monitoring. Lots of regularization-based methods have been proposed for MFI. However, the MFI accuracy obtained from the existing methods is low when the moving forces enter into and exit a bridge deck due to low sensitivity of structural responses to the forces at these zones. To overcome this shortcoming, a novel moving average Tikhonov regularization method is proposed for MFI by combining with the moving average concepts. Firstly, the bridge-vehicle interaction moving force is assumed as a discrete finite signal with stable average value (DFS-SAV). Secondly, the reasonable signal feature of DFS-SAV is quantified and introduced for improving the penalty function (∣∣x∣∣2 2) defined in the classical Tikhonov regularization. Then, a feasible two-step strategy is proposed for selecting regularization parameter and balance coefficient defined in the improved penalty function. Finally, both numerical simulations on a simply-supported beam and laboratory experiments on a hollow tube beam are performed for assessing the accuracy and the feasibility of the proposed method. The illustrated results show that the moving forces can be accurately identified with a strong robustness. Some related issues, such as selection of moving window length, effect of different penalty functions, and effect of different car speeds, are discussed as well.

  5. Accurate location estimation of moving object In Wireless Sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar Semwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the central issues in wirless sensor networks is track the location, of moving object which have overhead of saving data, an accurate estimation of the target location of object with energy constraint .We do not have any mechanism which control and maintain data .The wireless communication bandwidth is also very limited. Some field which is using this technique are flood and typhoon detection, forest fire detection, temperature and humidity and ones we have these information use these information back to a central air conditioning and ventilation.In this research paper, we propose protocol based on the prediction and adaptive based algorithm which is using less sensor node reduced by an accurate estimation of the target location. We had shown that our tracking method performs well in terms of energy saving regardless of mobility pattern of the mobile target. We extends the life time of network with less sensor node. Once a new object is detected, a mobile agent will be initiated to track the roaming path of the object.

  6. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  7. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  8. Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)

  9. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  10. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  11. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  12. 30 CFR 56.14107 - Moving machine parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving machine parts. 56.14107 Section 56.14107... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14107 Moving machine parts. (a) Moving machine parts... takeup pulleys, flywheels, couplings, shafts, fan blades, and similar moving parts that can cause injury...

  13. A fiber Bragg grating acceleration sensor for ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaodong; Zhang, Faxiang; Lv, Jingsheng; Ni, Jiasheng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Ground surveillance system is a kind of intelligent monitoring equipment for detecting and tracking the ground target. This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) acceleration sensor for ground surveillance, which has the characteristics of no power supply, anti-electromagnetic interference, easy large-scale networking, and small size. Which make it able to achieve the advantage of the ground surveillance system while avoiding the shortcoming of the electric sensing. The sensor has a double cantilever beam structure with a sensitivity of 1000 pm/g. Field experiment has been carried out on a flood beach to examine the sensor performance. The result shows that the detection distance on the walking of personnel reaches 70m, and the detection distance on the ordinary motor vehicle reaches 200m. The performance of the FBG sensor can satisfy the actual needs of the ground surveillance system.

  14. Figure-Ground Processing: A Reassessment of Gelb and Granit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rolf; Hebda, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    In 1923, Adhemar Gelb and Ragnar Granit, two prominent researchers in early Gestalt perceptual theory, reported a lower threshold for detection of a target (a small colored dot) on the ground region of an image than on an adjacent figural region. Although their results had a wide influence on the understanding of figure-ground perception, they are at odds with more recent investigations in which figural regions appear to have a processing advantage over ground regions. The two present studies replicated Gelb and Granit's experiment using a similar figure-ground stimulus albeit with a two-alternative forced choice procedure rather than their original method of adjustment. Experiment 1 found that, contrary to Gelb and Granit's findings, a detection advantage was found for the figural over the ground region. Experiment 2 indicated that explicit contours might have played a role in detection.

  15. A search asymmetry reversed by figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, G W; Müller, H

    2000-05-01

    We report evidence demonstrating that a search asymmetry favoring concave over convex targets can be reversed by altering the figure-ground assignment of edges in shapes. Visual search for a concave target among convex distractors is faster than search for a convex target among concave distractors (a search asymmetry). By using shapes with ambiguous local figure-ground relations, we demonstrated that search can be efficient (with search slopes around 10 ms/item) or inefficient (with search slopes around 30-40 ms/item) with the same stimuli, depending on whether edges are assigned to concave or convex "figures." This assignment process can operate in a top-down manner, according to the task set. The results suggest that attention is allocated to spatial regions following the computation of figure-ground relations in parallel across the elements present. This computation can also be modulated by top-down processes.

  16. X-ray determination of charge states of ions moving in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortner, R.J.; Matthews, D.L.

    1974-02-01

    The first part of this work discusses previous measurements of x-ray spectra and thick-target yields for Ar ions moving in solid graphite targets. These data are strongly affected by ''solid target effects.'' There are some rather serious limitations in the above measurements. This proposal solicits funds to expand the program to eliminate the limitations. The second part of the proposal contains a more detailed presentation of three types of measurements. These involve the extension of work to other collision systems, the development of an Auger electron spectrometer, and the use of a 7-m grazing-incidence spectrograph for x-ray spectroscopy. These measurements will enable testing of current pictures describing ions moving in solids and shed light on the feasibility of producing a beam of ions which could give rise to amplified stimulated x-ray emission (x-ray laser). (11 figures) (U.S.)

  17. General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech

    2009-01-01

    We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

  18. General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

  19. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  20. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.