WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground meteorological instruments

  1. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  2. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  4. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  6. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  7. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  8. Instrumentation for high-frequency meteorological observations from research vessel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Khalap, S.; Mehra, P.

    Ship provides an attractive platform from which high-frequency meteorological observations (e.g., wind components, water vapor density, and air temperature) can be made accurately. However, accurate observations of meteorological variables depend...

  9. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  10. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory, Millersville University and The COMET Program are collaborating to produce a series of nine online modules on the the topic of meteorological instrumentation and measurements. These interactive, multimedia educational modules can be integrated into undergraduate and graduate meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. These freely available and open-source training tools are designed to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. Three of the modules are now available and address the theory and application of Instrument Performance Characteristics, Meteorological Temperature Instrumentation and Measurements, and Meteorological Pressure Instrumentation and Measurements. The content of these modules is of the highest caliber as it has been developed by scientists and engineers who are at the forefront of the field of observational science. Communicating the availability of these unique and influential educational resources with the community is of high priority. These modules will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience.

  11. Validation of the guidelines for portable meteorological instrument packages. Task IV. Development of an insolation handbook and instrumentation package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to show how the objective of developing guidelines for a solar energy related portable meteorology instrument package, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), was carried out and preliminarily demonstrated and validated. A project to develop guidelines for such packages was initiated at IEA's Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings Program Expert's Meeting held in Norrkoping, Sweden in February 1976. An international comparison of resultant devices was conducted on behalf of the IEA at a conference held in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1978. Results of the 1978 Hamburg comparison of two devices and the Swiss Mobile Solar Radiation System, using German meteorological standards, are discussed. The consensus of the IEA Task Group is that the objective of the subtask has been accomplished.

  12. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  13. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  14. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  15. On-site meteorological instrumentation requirements to characterize diffusion from point sources: workshop report. Final report Sep 79-Sep 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strimaitis, D.; Hoffnagle, G.; Bass, A.

    1981-04-01

    Results of a workshop entitled 'On-Site Meteorological Instrumentation Requirements to Characterize Diffusion from Point Sources' are summarized and reported. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Raleigh, North Carolina, on January 15-17, 1980. Its purpose was to provide EPA with a thorough examination of the meteorological instrumentation and data collection requirements needed to characterize airborne dispersion of air contaminants from point sources and to recommend, based on an expert consensus, specific measurement technique and accuracies. Secondary purposes of the workshop were to (1) make recommendations to the National Weather Service (NWS) about collecting and archiving meteorological data that would best support air quality dispersion modeling objectives and (2) make recommendations on standardization of meteorological data reporting and quality assurance programs

  16. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  17. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  18. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear power plants meteorological surveillance in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Calpini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological surveillance of the four nuclear power plants in Switzerland is of first importance in a densely populated area such as the Swiss Plateau. The project "Centrales Nucléaires et Météorologie" CN-MET aimed at providing a new security tool based on one hand on the development of a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The latter is providing essential nowcasting information in case of a radioactive release from a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. On the other hand, the model input over the Swiss Plateau is generated by a dedicated network of surface and upper air observations including remote sensing instruments (wind profilers and temperature/humidity passive microwave radiometers. This network is built upon three main sites ideally located for measuring the inflow/outflow and central conditions of the main wind field in the planetary boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau, as well as a number of surface automatic weather stations (AWS. The network data are assimilated in real-time into the fine grid NWP model using a rapid update cycle of eight runs per day (one forecast every three hours. This high resolution NWP model has replaced the former security tool based on in situ observations (in particular one meteorological mast at each of the power plants and a local dispersion model. It is used to forecast the dynamics of the atmosphere in the planetary boundary layer (typically the first 4 km above ground layer and over a time scale of 24 h. This tool provides at any time (e.g. starting at the initial time of a nuclear power plant release the best picture of the 24-h evolution of the air mass over the Swiss Plateau and furthermore generates the input data (in the form of simulated values substituting in situ observations required for the local dispersion model used at each of the nuclear power plants locations. This paper is presenting the concept and two validation studies as well as the results of an

  20. The VUV instrument SPICE for Solar Orbiter: performance ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Martin E.; Morris, Nigel; Griffin, Douglas K.; Eccleston, Paul; Anderson, Mark; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Bruzzi, Davide; Tustain, Samuel; Howe, Chris; Davenne, Jenny; Grundy, Timothy; Speight, Roisin; Sidher, Sunil D.; Giunta, Alessandra; Fludra, Andrzej; Philippon, Anne; Auchere, Frederic; Hassler, Don; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, William T.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Meining, Stefan; Walls, Buddy; Phelan, P.; Dunn, Greg; Klein, Roman M.; Reichel, Thomas; Gyo, Manfred; Munro, Grant J.; Holmes, William; Doyle, Peter

    2017-08-01

    SPICE is an imaging spectrometer operating at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission, which carries 10 science instruments in all, to make observations of the Sun's atmosphere and heliosphere, at close proximity to the Sun, i.e to 0.28 A.U. at perihelion. SPICE's role is to make VUV measurements of plasma in the solar atmosphere. SPICE is designed to achieve spectral imaging at spectral resolution >1500, spatial resolution of several arcsec, and two-dimensional FOV of 11 x16arcmins. The many strong constraints on the instrument design imposed by the mission requirements prevent the imaging performance from exceeding those of previous instruments, but by being closer to the sun there is a gain in spatial resolution. The price which is paid is the harsher environment, particularly thermal. This leads to some novel features in the design, which needed to be proven by ground test programs. These include a dichroic solar-transmitting primary mirror to dump the solar heat, a high in-flight temperature (60deg.C) and gradients in the optics box, and a bespoke variable-line-spacing grating to minimise the number of reflective components used. The tests culminate in the systemlevel test of VUV imaging performance and pointing stability. We will describe how our dedicated facility with heritage from previous solar instruments, is used to make these tests, and show the results, firstly on the Engineering Model of the optics unit, and more recently on the Flight Model. For the keywords, select up to 8 key terms for a search on your manuscript's subject.

  1. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  2. Correlation between meteorological conditions and the concentration of radionuclides in the ground layer of atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajny, E.; Osrodka, L.; Wojtylak, M.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to find correlation between the concentrations of radionuclides in outdoor air and the meteorological conditions like: atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and amount of precipitation. Because the sampling period of radionuclides concentrations in air was relatively long (7 days), the average levels of meteorological parameters have been calculated within the same time. Data of radionuclide concentrations and meteorological data have been analyzed in order to find statistical correlation. The regression analysis and one of AI methods, known as neural network, were applied. In general, analysis of the gathered data does not show any strong correlation between the meteorological conditions and the concentrations of the radionuclides in air. A slightly stronger correlation we found for radionuclides with relatively short half-lives. The only positive correlation has been found between the 7 Be concentration and air temperature (at the significance level α = 0.05). In our opinion, the lack of correlation was caused by a too long sampling time in measurements of radionuclides in outdoor air (a whole week). Results of analysis received by means of the artificial neuron network are better. We were able to find certain groups of meteorological conditions, related with the corresponding concentrations of particular radionuclides in air. Preliminary measurements of radon progeny concentration support the thesis that the link between changes of meteorological parameters and concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air must exist. (author)

  3. Semi-automatic handling of meteorological ground measurements using WeatherProg: prospects and practical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    WeatherProg is a computer program for the semi-automatic handling of data measured at ground stations within a climatic network. The program performs a set of tasks ranging from gathering raw point-based sensors measurements to the production of digital climatic maps. Originally the program was developed as the baseline asynchronous engine for the weather records management within the SOILCONSWEB Project (LIFE08 ENV/IT/000408), in which daily and hourly data where used to run water balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum or pest simulation models. WeatherProg can be configured to automatically perform the following main operations: 1) data retrieval; 2) data decoding and ingestion into a database (e.g. SQL based); 3) data checking to recognize missing and anomalous values (using a set of differently combined checks including logical, climatological, spatial, temporal and persistence checks); 4) infilling of data flagged as missing or anomalous (deterministic or statistical methods); 5) spatial interpolation based on alternative/comparative methods such as inverse distance weighting, iterative regression kriging, and a weighted least squares regression (based on physiography), using an approach similar to PRISM. 6) data ingestion into a geodatabase (e.g. PostgreSQL+PostGIS or rasdaman). There is an increasing demand for digital climatic maps both for research and development (there is a gap between the major of scientific modelling approaches that requires digital climate maps and the gauged measurements) and for practical applications (e.g. the need to improve the management of weather records which in turn raises the support provided to farmers). The demand is particularly burdensome considering the requirement to handle climatic data at the daily (e.g. in the soil hydrological modelling) or even at the hourly time step (e.g. risk modelling in phytopathology). The key advantage of WeatherProg is the ability to perform all the required operations and

  4. Integration of Ground, Buoys, Satellite and Model data to map the Changes in Meteorological Parameters Associated with Harvey Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A.; Sarkar, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal areas have dense onshore and marine observation network and are also routinely monitored by constellation of satellites. The monitoring of ocean, land and atmosphere through a range of meteorological parameters, provides information about the land and ocean surface. Satellite data also provide information at different pressure levels that help to access the development of tropical storms and formation of hurricanes at different categories. Integration of ground, buoys, satellite and model data showing the changes in meteorological parameters during the landfall stages of hurricane Harvey will be discussed. Hurricane Harvey was one of the deadliest hurricanes at the Gulf coast which caused intense flooding from the precipitation. The various observation networks helped city administrators to evacuate the coastal areas, that minimized the loss of lives compared to the Galveston hurricane of 1900 which took 10,000 lives. Comparison of meteorological parameters derived from buoys, ground stations and satellites associated with Harvey and 2005 Katrina hurricane present some of the interesting features of the two hurricanes.

  5. Giant-FOG: A new player in ground motion instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guattari, F.; de Toldi, E.; Bigueur, A.; Decitre, J. B.; Ponceau, D.; Sèbe, O.; Frenois, A.; Schindelé, F.; Moluçon, C.; Gaffet, S.; Ducloux, E.; Lefèvre, H.

    2017-12-01

    Based on recent experiences developing very low noise fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG), first performance results on very large fiber-optic coils of up to 1m diameter are presented. The goal for constructing large FOGs is to evaluate experimentally the physical limits of this kind of technology and to reach the lowest possible noise. While these experiments are probing the fundamental limits of the FOG technology, they also serves as a first step for a cost effective very low noise laboratory rotational seismometer, which could be a game changer in instrumentation of ground motion. Build a Giant-FOG has several difficulties: The first is winding of the coil, the second concerns the mechanical substrate, and third is related to the measurement. - To our knowledge, a winding machine, large enough to wind coil of a 1 meter diameter, does not exist, but thanks to the iXblue expertise in the manufacturing of winding machines and calibration tables, a hydride system has been designed, merging these two technology to fulfill the requirement of winding a large coil on an adequate rotational platform. The characterization of the wobbles of the system will be presented, since this is a critical parameter for the winding and ultimately the performance. - To achieve the highest attainable measurement sensitivity to the real ground rotation, the design of the mechanical substrate of the coil is critical to reduce as much as possible the sensor sensitivities to environmental noises. A preliminary assessment of the global noise performance of the 1m diameter FOG sensor will be presented. - To demonstrate the on-site performance, the low noise inter-disciplinary underground laboratory (LSBB, Rustrel, France), with a dense array of precisely oriented broad-band seismometers, provides the possibility to compare Large FOG rotation records with Array Derivated Rotation measurement method. Results of different prototypes during the development process will be presented to underline the

  6. Near real-time estimation of water vapour in the troposphere using ground GNSS and the meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bosy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time (NRT high resolution water vapour distribution models can be constructed based on GNSS observations delivered from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS and ground meteorological data. Since 2008 in the territory of Poland, a GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (Active Geodetic Network has been operating. This paper addresses the problems concerning construction of the NRT model of water vapour distribution in the troposphere near Poland. The first section presents all available GNSS and ground meteorological stations in the area of Poland and neighbouring countries. In this section, data feeding scheme is discussed, together with timeline and time resolution. The high consistency between measured and interpolated temperature value is shown, whereas some discrepancy in the pressure is observed. In the second section, the NRT GNSS data processing strategy of ASG-EUPOS network is discussed. Preliminary results show fine alignment of the obtained Zenith Troposphere Delays (ZTDs with reference data from European Permanent Network (EPN processing center. The validation of NRT troposphere products against daily solution shows 15 mm standard deviation of obtained ZTD differences. The last section presents the first results of 2-D water vapour distribution above the GNSS network and application of the tomographic model to 3-D distribution of water vapour in the atmosphere. The GNSS tomography model, working on the simulated data from numerical forecast model, shows high consistency with the reference data (by means of standard deviation 4 mm km−1 or 4 ppm, however, noise analysis shows high solution sensitivity to errors in observations. The discrepancy for real data preliminary solution (measured as a mean standard deviation between reference NWP data and tomography data was on the level of 9 mm km−1 (or 9 ppm in terms of wet refractivity.

  7. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  8. Developing Instrumentation for Ground and Balloon-Borne Observing Platforms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In my research I will focus on developing hardware and software technology for two instruments searching for polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)....

  9. Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations, RALMO – Part 1: Instrument description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinoev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman lidar for unattended, round-the-clock measurement of vertical water vapor profiles for operational use by the MeteoSwiss has been developed during the past years by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne. The lidar uses narrow field-of-view, narrowband configuration, a UV laser, and four 30 cm in diameter mirrors, fiber-coupled to a grating polychromator. The optical design allows water vapor retrieval from the incomplete overlap region without instrument-specific range-dependent corrections. The daytime vertical range covers the mid-troposphere, whereas the nighttime range extends to the tropopause. The near range coverage is extended down to 100 m AGL by the use of an additional fiber in one of the telescopes. This paper describes the system layout and technical realization. Day- and nighttime lidar profiles compared to Vaisala RS92 and Snow White® profiles and a six-day continuous observation are presented as an illustration of the lidar measurement capability.

  10. Planned Burn-Piedmont. A local operational numerical meteorological model for tracking smoke on the ground at night: Model development and sensitivity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2005-01-01

    Smoke from both prescribed fires and wildfires can, under certain meteorological conditions, become entrapped within shallow layers of air near the ground at night and get carried to unexpected destinations as a combination of weather systems push air through interlocking ridge-valley terrain typical of the Piedmont of the Soutthern United States. Entrapped smoke...

  11. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  12. SuperAGILE onboard electronics and ground test instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacciani, Luigi; Morelli, Ennio; Rubini, Alda; Mastropietro, Marcello; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Rapisarda, Massimo; Soffitta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the electronics of the SuperAGILE X-ray imager on-board AGILE satellite and the instrumentation developed to test and improve the Front-End and digital electronics of the flight model of the imager. Although the working principle of the instrument is very well established, and the conceptual scheme simple, the budget and mechanical constraints of the AGILE small mission made necessary the introduction of new elements in SuperAGILE, regarding both the mechanics and the electronics. In fact the instrument is contained in a ∼44x44x16cm 3 volume, but the required performance is quite ambitious, leading us to equip a sensitive area of ∼1350cm 2 with 6144 Silicon μstrips detectors with a pitch of 121μm and a total length of ∼18.2cm. The result is a very light and power-cheap imager with a good sensitivity (∼15mCrab in 1 day in 15-45keV), high angular resolution (6arcmin) and gross spectral resolution. The test-equipment is versatile, and can be easily modified to test FEE based on self-triggered, data-driven and sparse-readout ASICs such as XA family chips

  13. Comparison of cloud top heights derived from FY-2 meteorological satellites with heights derived from ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zhenhui; Cao, Xiaozhong; Tao, Fa

    2018-01-01

    Clouds are currently observed by both ground-based and satellite remote sensing techniques. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses depending on the observation method, instrument performance and the methods used for retrieval. It is important to study synergistic cloud measurements to improve the reliability of the observations and to verify the different techniques. The FY-2 geostationary orbiting meteorological satellites continuously observe the sky over China. Their cloud top temperature product can be processed to retrieve the cloud top height (CTH). The ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar can acquire information about the vertical structure of clouds-such as the cloud base height (CBH), CTH and the cloud thickness-and can continuously monitor changes in the vertical profiles of clouds. The CTHs were retrieved using both cloud top temperature data from the FY-2 satellites and the cloud radar reflectivity data for the same time period (June 2015 to May 2016) and the resulting datasets were compared in order to evaluate the accuracy of CTH retrievals using FY-2 satellites. The results show that the concordance rate of cloud detection between the two datasets was 78.1%. Higher consistencies were obtained for thicker clouds with larger echo intensity and for more continuous clouds. The average difference in the CTH between the two techniques was 1.46 km. The difference in CTH between low- and mid-level clouds was less than that for high-level clouds. An attenuation threshold of the cloud radar for rainfall was 0.2 mm/min; a rainfall intensity below this threshold had no effect on the CTH. The satellite CTH can be used to compensate for the attenuation error in the cloud radar data.

  14. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  15. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  16. Prediction of Hourly Particulate Matter Concentrations in Chiangmai, Thailand Using MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth and Ground-Based Meteorological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongchai Kanabkaew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various extreme events recorded over the world have been recognized as scientific-based evidence from possible climate change and variability. The incidence of increasing forest fires and intensive agricultural field burning in Chiangmai and Northern Thailand due to favor conditions may also due to a likely increase of droughts caused by the changing climate. Smog from biomass burning, particularly particulate matter (PM seriously affects health and the environment. Lack and sparse of ground monitors may cause unreliability for warning information. Satellite remote sensing is now a promising technology for air quality prediction at ground level. This study was to investigate the statistical model for predicting PM concentration using satellite data. Aerosol optical depth (AOD data were gathered from MODIS-Terra platform while hourly PM2.5 and PM10 data were collected from the Pollution Control Department. The relationship between AOD and hourly PM over Chiangmai was addressed by Model I-Simple linear regression and Model II-Multiple linear regression with ground-based meteorological data correction. The data used for the statistical analyses were from smog period in 2012 (January-April. Results revealed that AOD and hourly PM in Model I were positively correlated with the coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.22 and 0.21, respectively for PM2.5 and PM10. The relationship between AOD and hourly PM was improved significantly when correcting with relative humidity and temperature data. The model II gave R2 of 0.77 and 0.71, respectively for PM2.5 and PM10. To investigate the validity of model, the regression equation obtained from Model II was then applied with smog data over Chiangmai in March 2007. The model performed reasonably with R2 of 0.74. The model applications would provide supplementary data to other areas with similar conditions and without air quality monitoring stations, and reduce false warning the level of air pollution associated

  17. The Use of a Poisson Regression to Evaluate Antihistamines and Fatal Aircraft Mishaps in Instrument Meteorological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Hileman, Christy R; Rogers, Paul; Salazar, Guillermo J; Paskoff, Lawrence N

    2018-04-01

    Research indicates that first-generation antihistamine usage may impair pilot performance by increasing the likelihood of vestibular illusions, spatial disorientation, and/or cognitive impairment. Second- and third-generation antihistamines generally have fewer impairing side effects and are approved for pilot use. We hypothesized that toxicological findings positive for second- and third-generation antihistamines are less likely to be associated with pilots involved in fatal mishaps than first-generation antihistamines. The evaluated population consisted of 1475 U.S. civil pilots fatally injured between September 30, 2008, and October 1, 2014. Mishap factors evaluated included year, weather conditions, airman rating, recent airman flight time, quarter of year, and time of day. Due to the low prevalence of positive antihistamine findings, a count-based model was selected, which can account for rare outcomes. The means and variances were close for both regression models supporting the assumption that the data follow a Poisson distribution; first-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 582, M = 0.17, S2 = 0.17) with second- and third-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 116, M = 0.20, S2 = 0.18). The data indicate fewer airmen with second- and third-generation antihistamines than first-generation antihistamines in their system are fatally injured while flying in IMC conditions. Whether the lower incidence is a factor of greater usage of first-generation antihistamines versus second- and third-generation antihistamines by the pilot population or fewer deleterious side effects with second- and third-generation antihistamines is unclear. These results engender cautious optimism, but additional research is necessary to determine why these differences exist.Gildea KM, Hileman CR, Rogers P, Salazar GJ, Paskoff LN. The use of a Poisson regression to evaluate antihistamines and fatal aircraft mishaps in instrument meteorological conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform

  18. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather stations that collect reliable, sustained meteorological data sets are becoming more widely distributed because of advances in both instrumentation and data server technology. However, sites collecting soil moisture and soil temperature data remain sparse with even fewer locations where complete meteorological data are collected in conjunction with soil data. Thanks to the advent of sensors that collect continuous in-situ thermal properties data for soils, we have gone a step further and incorporated thermal properties measurements as part of hydrologic instrument arrays in central and northern Indiana. The coupled approach provides insights into the variability of soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity attributable to geologic and climatological controls for various hydrogeologic settings. These data are collected to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in the glaciated Midwest by establishing publicly available data that can be used to parameterize system design models. A network of six monitoring sites was developed in Indiana. Sensors that determine thermal conductivity and diffusivity using radial differential temperature measurements around a heating wire were installed at 1.2 meters below ground surface— a typical depth for horizontal GSHP systems. Each site also includes standard meteorological sensors for calculating reference evapotranspiration following the methods by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Vadose zone instrumentation includes time domain reflectometry soil-moisture and temperature sensors installed at 0.3-meter depth intervals down to a 1.8-meter depth, in addition to matric potential sensors at 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 meters. Cores collected at 0.3-meter intervals were analyzed in a laboratory for grain size distribution, bulk density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Our work includes developing methods for calibrating thermal properties sensors based on

  19. Comparison of instrumental and interpolated meteorological data-based summer temperature reconstructions on Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Bai, Hongying; Su, Kai; Liu, Rongjuan; Zhai, Danping; Wang, Jun; Li, Shuheng; Zhou, Qi; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Previous dendroclimatical studies have been based on the relationship between tree growth and instrumental climate data recorded at lower land meteorological stations, but the climate conditions somehow differ between sampling sites and distant population centers. Thus, in this study, we performed a comparison between the 152-year reconstruction of June to July mean air temperature on the basis of interpolated meteorological data and instrumental meteorological data. The reconstruction explained 38.7% of the variance in the interpolated temperature data (37.2% after the degrees of freedom were adjusted) and 39.6% of the variance in the instrumental temperature data (38.4% after adjustment for loss of degrees of freedom) during the period 1962-2013 AD. The first global warming (the 1920s) and recent warming (1990-2013) found from the reconstructed temperature series match reasonably well with two other reported summer temperature reconstructions from north-central China. Cold periods occurred three times during 1866-1885, 1901-1921, and 1981-2000, while hot periods occurred four times during 1886-1900, 1922-1933, 1953-1966, and 2001-2007. The extreme warm (cold) years are coherent with the documentary drought (flood) events. Significant 31-22-year, 22-18-year, and 12-8-year cycles indicate major fluctuations in regional temperatures may reflect large-scale climatic shifts.

  20. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  1. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  2. On-ground calibration of the BEPICOLOMBO/SIMBIO-SYS at instrument level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Poulet, F.; Eng, P.; Longval, Y.; Dassas, K.; Arondel, A.; Langevin, Y.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Palumbo, P.; Cremonese, G.; Dami, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Mercury Planetary Orbiter/BepiColombo carries an integrated suite of instruments, the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS). SIMBIO-SYS has 3 channels: a stereo imaging system (STC), a high-resolution imager (HRIC) and a visible-near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VIHI). SIMBIO-SYS will scan the surface of Mercury with these three channels and determine the physical, morphological and compositional properties of the entire planet. Before integration on the S/C, an on-ground calibration at the channels and at the instrument levels will be performed so as to describe the instrumental responses as a function of various parameters that might evolve while the instruments will be operating [1]. The Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) is responsible for the on-ground instrument calibration at the instrument level. During the 4 weeks of calibration campaign planned for June 2012, the instrument will be maintained in a mechanical and thermal environment simulating the space conditions. Four Optical stimuli (QTH lamp, Integrating Sphere, BlackBody with variable temperature from 50 to 1200°C and Monochromator), are placed over an optical bench to illuminate the four channels so as to make the radiometric calibration, straylight monitoring, as well as spectral proofing based on laboratory mineral samples. The instrument will be mounted on a hexapod placed inside a thermal vacuum chamber during the calibration campaign. The hexapod will move the channels within the well-characterized incoming beam. We will present the key activities of the preparation of this calibration: the derivation of the instrument radiometric model, the implementation of the optical, mechanical and software interfaces of the calibration assembly, the characterization of the optical bench and the definition of the calibration procedures.

  3. Meteorological and other data collected from CTD, XBT casts, and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean by NATSUSHIMA from 23 January 1993 to 11 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, temperature, and salinity data were collected using CTD, BT, XBT casts, and other instruments from the NATSUSHIMA in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  4. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  5. Ground-based observations of cloud properties, precipitation and meteorological conditions at Princess Elisabeth station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.; Boot, W.; Reijmer, C.H.; Mangold, A.; Kneifel, S.; Crewell, S.; Schween, J.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the current and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, a good knowledge of the surface mass balance is essential. Regional climate models have proven to be suitable tools for this purpose, but only if they realistically represent the meteorological conditions in the region of

  6. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  7. Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guerova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system, which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60–70 % of atmospheric warming. In Europe, the application of GNSS in meteorology started roughly two decades ago, and today it is a well-established field in both research and operation. This review covers the state of the art in GNSS meteorology in Europe. The advances in GNSS processing for derivation of tropospheric products, application of GNSS tropospheric products in operational weather prediction and application of GNSS tropospheric products for climate monitoring are discussed. The GNSS processing techniques and tropospheric products are reviewed. A summary of the use of the products for validation and impact studies with operational numerical weather prediction (NWP models as well as very short weather prediction (nowcasting case studies is given. Climate research with GNSSs is an emerging field of research, but the studies so far have been limited to comparison with climate models and derivation of trends. More than 15 years of GNSS meteorology in Europe has already achieved outstanding cooperation between the atmospheric and geodetic communities. It is now feasible to develop next-generation GNSS tropospheric products and applications that can enhance the quality of weather forecasts and climate monitoring. This work is carried out within COST Action ES1206 advanced global navigation satellite systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC, http://gnss4swec.knmi.nl.

  8. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO 2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO 2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO 2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  9. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT's Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE's Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT's ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release

  10. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  11. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  12. Multi-instrument observations of midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly from satellite and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Huixin; Lin, Charles

    "Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA)" is a phenomenon that the nighttime elec-tron densities exceed the daytime values on almost all days in summer over latitudes of 33-34N of more. We recently found the MSNA over the northeast Asian region from multi-instrument observations. The observations include the tomography analysis based on the chain of digital beacon receivers at Shionomisaki (33.45N, 135.8E), Shigaraki (34.85N, 136.1E), and Fukui (36.06N,136E), the ionosonde network over Japan (especially data from Wakkanai (45.4N, 141.7E)), ground-based GPS TEC observations using the GEONET. Also from satellites, CHAMP in situ electron density measurements, and Formosat3/COSMIC (F3/C) occultation measurements are useful to confirm the presence of MSNA over this region. In the presen-tation we show detailed features of the MSNA based on these multi-instrument, and discuss importance of the neutral atmosphere as a driver of the phenomenon.

  13. Application of satellite data to the studies of agricultural meteorology: Relationship between ground temperature from GMS IR data and AMeDAS air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, H.; Horiguchi, I.; Motoki, T.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate air temperature in areas where there is no meteorological observation site, using satellite thermal IR data. Surface temperature from GMS IR data derived by eq. (1) was compared with AMeDAS (meteorological observation site) air temperature. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The maximum correlation coefficients between AMeDAS air temperature and surface temperature from GMS IR data is 0.90, the minimum is 0.30 and the mean is 0.60±0.15. 2) The correlation coefficients are affected by the precipitable water and decrease with increasing precipitable Water as shown in Fig. 2. 3) The correlation coefficients for each GMS observed time are better at night and in the morning than during the day (Table 2). 4) Also, the small values of the regression coefficients appear during the day and the large values at night and in the morning (Table 2). 5) The standard deviations which indicated scattering around the regression line are large at 12:00 and 15:00, but small at 06:00 and 09:00 (Table 2). The reason that correlation coefficients, regression coefficients and standard deviations between AMeDAS air temperature and surface temperature from GMS IR data are less during the day than at night and in the morning, is caused by ground conditions because the effects of solar radiation on surface temperature depend on ground surface conditions: plant cover, incline of slope etc. The hourly mean deviation from the regression line for surface temperature was calculated to investigate the characteristic of ground surface conditions for each AMeDAS observation site. AMeDAS observation sites were classified into four types according to the patterns of the hourly mean deviation as shown in Fig. 5. Most of type I were distributed in the plain regions: Ishikari, Konsen and Tokachi. Type II appears in the basin regions and type III on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsuk. The remaining areas are type IV. The standard

  14. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  15. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  16. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    ) eahquakes. Results have revealed the presence of related variations of these parameters implying their connection with the earthquake process. The second phase (B) of this validation included 102 major earthquakes (M>5.9) in Taiwan and Japan. We have found anomalous behavior before all of these events with no false negatives. False alarm ratio for false positives is less then 10% and has been calculated for the same month of the earthquake occurrence for the entire period of analysis (2003-2009). The commonalities for detecting atmospheric/ionospheric anomalies are: i.) Regularly appearance over regions of maximum stress (i.e., along plate boundaries); ii.) Anomaly existence over land and sea; and iii) association with M>5.9 earthquakes not deeper than 100km. Due to their long duration over the same region these anomalies are not consistent with a meteorological origin. Our initial results from the ISTF validation of multi-instrument space-borne and ground observations show a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, one to seven (average) days prior to the largest earthquakes, and suggest that it could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters and the pre-earthquake preparation processes.

  17. Physical and meteorological data collected from current meters and other instruments from Swedish Lightships from 1860 to 1989 (NODC Accession 0113242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lightships were placed along the Swedish coast to lead the Mariners from 1844 to 1972. From 1860 routine measurements of meteorological and oceanographic...

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  19. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  4. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  6. Further development of the methodical instruments to calculate ground water movements at repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Clauser, C.; Fein, E.; Karpinski, P.; Storck, R.

    1990-06-01

    In addition to the subsequent requirements concerning the Konrad plan approval procedure, other ground water and propagation calculations were also made. All available programs were used. Simple one- and two-dimensional models were considered for which an analytical solution exists. In some cases such analytical solutions are only approximate under certain conditions. By calculating such simple problems, the programs used were tested and verified, and the use of those programs was reviewed and documented. In addition to the finite-difference program SWIFT and the finite-element program CFEST, two other ground water and propagation programs were applied: 1) Finite-difference program MOL, two-dimensional propagation program for ground water flow; 2) SUTRA, two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated finite-difference model for ground water flow and radionuclide migration. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  8. Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 1967-02-24 to 1970-11-13 (NCEI Accession 7100821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments. Data were collected from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in...

  9. Physical and other data from current meters, bottle casts, CTD casts, meteorological sensors, and other instruments from the GYRE as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX PART A) from 09 April 1992 to 02 October 1994 (NODC Accession 9500056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from current meters, bottle casts, CTD casts, meteorological sensors, and other instruments from the GYRE from 09 April 1992...

  10. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  11. The High Visible Resolution (HVR) instrument of the spot ground observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrio, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two identical high resolution cameras, capable of attaining a track width of 116 km in an almost vertical line of sight from the two 60 km images of each instrument, will be carried on the initial mission of the space observation of Earth satellite (SPOT). Specifications for the instrument, including the telescope and CCD devices are summarized. The present status of development is described including the optical characteristics, structure and thermal control, detector assembly, electronic equipment, and calibration. SPOT mission objectives include the developments relating to soil use, the exploration of EART Earth resources, the discrimination of plant species, and cartography.

  12. A sphere-scanning radiometer for rapid directional measurements of sky and ground radiance: The PARABOLA field instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.

    1984-11-01

    A unique field instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom, which is self contained and easily transportable to remote sites to enable the acquisition of radiance data for almost the complete (4 pi) sky and ground-looking hemispheres in only 11 seconds was designed. The PARABOLA samples in 15 deg instantaneous field of view sectors in three narrow bandpass spectral channels simultaneously. Field measurement on a variety of earth surface cover types using a truck boom, a specially designed pickup truck mounting system, and a hot air balloon were studied. The PARABOLA instrument has potential for climatological and other studies which require characterization of the distribution of diffuse solar radiation within the sky hemisphere.

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  14. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  15. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sour...

  16. Remote sensing of high-latitude ionization profiles by ground-based and spaceborne instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ionospheric specification and modeling are now largely based on data provided by active remote sensing with radiowave techniques (ionosondes, incoherent-scatter radars, and satellite beacons). More recently, passive remote sensing techniques have been developed that can be used to monitor quantitatively the spatial distribution of high-latitude E-region ionization. These passive methods depend on the measurement, or inference, of the energy distribution of precipitating kilovolt electrons, the principal source of the nighttime E-region at high latitudes. To validate these techniques, coordinated measurements of the auroral ionosphere have been made with the Chatanika incoherent-scatter radar and a variety of ground-based and spaceborne sensors

  17. A joint Cluster and ground-based instruments study of two magnetospheric substorm events on 1 September 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Draper

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a coordinated ground- and space-based multi-instrument study of two magnetospheric substorm events that occurred on 1 September 2002, during the interval from 18:00 UT to 24:00 UT. Data from the Cluster and Polar spacecraft are considered in combination with ground-based magnetometer and HF radar data. During the first substorm event the Cluster spacecraft, which were in the Northern Hemisphere lobe, are to the west of the main region affected by the expansion phase. Nevertheless, substorm signatures are seen by Cluster at 18:25 UT (just after the expansion phase onset as seen on the ground at 18:23 UT, despite the ~5 RE} distance of the spacecraft from the plasma sheet. The Cluster spacecraft then encounter an earthward-moving diamagnetic cavity at 19:10 UT, having just entered the plasma sheet boundary layer. The second substorm expansion phase is preceded by pseudobreakups at 22:40 and 22:56 UT, at which time thinning of the near-Earth, L=6.6, plasma sheet occurs. The expansion phase onset at 23:05 UT is seen simultaneously in the ground magnetic field, in the magnetotail and at Polar's near-Earth position. The response in the ionospheric flows occurs one minute later. The second substorm better fits the near-Earth neutral line model for substorm onset than the cross-field current instability model. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions; Magnetic reconnection; Auroral phenomenon

  18. GreenNet: A Global Ground-Based Network of Instruments Measuring Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; Grunberg, M.; Wilson, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is the most important crisis of our lifetime. For policy makers to take action to combat the effects of climate change, they will need definitive proof that it is occurring globally. We have developed a low-cost ground instrument - a portable miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) - capable of measuring concentrations of two of the most potent anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and methane, in columns in the atmosphere. They work by combining sunlight that has undergone absorption by gases with light from a laser. This combined light is detected by a photoreciever and a radio frequency beat signal is produced. From this beat signal, concentrations of these gases throughout the atmospheric column can be determined. A network of mini-LHR instruments in locations around the world will give us the data necessary to significantly reduce uncertainty in greenhouse gas sinks and sources contributing to climate change. Each instrument takes one reading per minute while the sun is up. With a goal to establish up to 500 instrument sites, the estimated total data per day will likely exceed 1GB. Every piece of data must be sorted as it comes in to determine whether it is a good or bad reading. The goal of the citizen science project is to collaborate with citizen scientists enrolled with Zooniverse.org to cycle through our data and help sort it, while also learning about the mini-LHR, greenhouse gases and climate change. This data will be used to construct an algorithm to automatically sort data that relies on statistical analyses of the previously sorted data.

  19. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  20. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  1. Prototype of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Ground-Based Instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Iodine Monoxide (IO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer: (1) IO participates in depletion episodes of O3 and in the removal of mercury in the Arctic polar spring by enhancing atomic Br mixing ratios. Recent observations and computer simulations suggest that mercury sequestration is closely tied to halogen photochemistry and that gaseous atomic Hg depletion can be enhanced significantly by the presence of small amounts of iodine-containing compounds. (2) IO and higher- order iodine oxides are involved in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments. Studies using smog chamber experiments simulating coastal atmospheric conditions have demonstrated that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapors and that their concentrations over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. (3) IO has also been shown to affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere by altering the partitioning of NO2/NO and HO2/HO and by activating chlorine and bromine in sea salt aerosols. In the stratosphere, these same processes can lead to enhanced ozone loss rates. Detailed photochemical models that include iodine photochemistry, however, are hampered by the lack of observational data. The distribution of IO in vertical, horizontal, and temporal coordinates is unknown, so the impact of IO on global photochemistry cannot be predicted. The resolution of these important scientific issues requires an in situ IO instrument. A fully functional nanosecond Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system and a prototype IO ground-based instrument have been built in our lab. With the current setup, the laser system was situated 10 m from the field station, and the laser light was coupled via an optical fiber. With the use of highly efficient fluorescence detection optics and photon counting techniques, sensitivities of better than 0.1 ppt in 1 s for IO was achieved in the

  2. Observations of the neutral atmosphere between 100 and 200 km using ARIA rocket-borne and ground-based instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, J.H.; Christensen, A.B.; Gutierrez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The atmospheric response in the aurora (ARIA) rocket was launched at 1406 UT on March 3, 1992, from Poker Flat, Alaska, into a pulsating diffuse aurora; rocket-borne instruments included an eight-channel photometer, a far ultraviolet spectrometer, a 130.4-nm atomic oxygen resonance lamp, and two particle spectrometers covering the energy range of 1-400 eV and 10 eV to 20 keV. The photometer channels were isolated using narrow-band interference filters and included measurements of the strong permitted auroral emissions N 2 (337.1 nm), N 2 + (391.4 nm), and O I (844.6 nm). A ground-based photometer measured the premitted N 2 + (427.8 nm), the forbidden O I (630.0 nm), and the premitted O I (844.6 nm) emissions. The ground-based instrument was pointed in the magnetic zenith. Also, the rocket payload was pointed in the magnetic zenith from 100 to 200 km on the upleg. The data were analyzed using the Strickland electron transport code, and the rocket and ground-based results were found to be in good agreement regarding the inferred characteristic energy of the precipitating auroral flux and the composition of the neutral atmosphere during the rocket flight. In particular, it was found that the O/N 2 density ratio in the neutral atmosphere diminished during the auroral substorm, which started about 2 hours before the ARIA rocket flight. The data showed that there was about a 10-min delay between the onset of the substorm and the decrease of the O/N 2 density ratio. At the time of the ARIA flight this ratio had nearly returned to its presubstorm value. However, the data also showed that the O/N 2 density ratio did not recover to its presubstorm value until nearly 30 min after the particle and joule heating had subsided. Both the photometer and oxygen densities in the region above 130 km. The observed auroral brightness ratio B 337.1 /B 391.4 equaled 0.29 and was in agreement with other recent measurements

  3. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  4. Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distributions at ground level and 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Han, Tingting; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Fu, Pingqing; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2017-06-01

    Despite extensive studies into the characterization of particle number size distributions at ground level, real-time measurements above the urban canopy in the megacity of Beijing have never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed overall similar temporal variations in number size distributions between ground level and 260 m, yet periods with significant differences were also observed. Particularly, accumulation-mode particles were highly correlated (r2 = 0. 85) at the two heights, while Aitken-mode particles presented more differences. Detailed analysis suggests that the vertical differences in number concentrations strongly depended on particle size, and particles with a mobility diameter between 100 and 200 nm generally showed higher concentrations at higher altitudes. Particle growth rates and condensation sinks were also calculated, which were 3.2 and 3.6 nm h-1, and 2.8 × 10-2 and 2.9 × 10-2 s-1, at ground level and 260 m, respectively. By linking particle growth with aerosol composition, we found that organics appeared to play an important role in the early stage of the growth (09:00-12:00 LT) while sulfate was also important during the later period. Positive matrix factorization of size-resolved number concentrations identified three common sources at ground level and 260 m, including a factor associated with new particle formation and growth events (NPEs), and two secondary factors that represent photochemical processing and regional transport. Cooking emission was found to have a large contribution to small particles and showed much higher concentration at ground level than 260 m in the evening. These results imply that investigation of NPEs at ground level in megacities needs to consider the influences of local cooking emissions. The impacts of regional emission controls on

  5. Meteorological Necessities for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtas, Franzeska

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is joint program with NASA and DLR (German Aerospace Center) of a highly modified Boeing 747-SP. The purpose of this modification is to include a 2.5 m infrared telescope in a rear bulkhead of the airplane, with a retractable door open to the atmosphere. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is responsible for verifying that the aerodynamics, acoustics, and flying qualities of the modified aircraft stay within safe limits. Flight testing includes determining meteorological limitations of the aircraft, which is done by setting strict temporary operating limits and verifying through data analysis, what conditions are acceptable. Line operations are calibration tests of various telescope instruments that are done on the ground prior to flights. The method in determining limitations for this type of operation is similar to that of flight testing, but the meteorological limitations are different. Of great concern are the particulates near the surface that could cause damage to the telescope, as well as condensation forming on the mirror. Another meteorological involvement for this program is the process of obtaining Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) Certification from the FAA. This heavily involves obtaining atmospheric data pertinent to the flight, analyzing data to actual conditions for validity, and computing necessary results for comparison to aircraft instrumentation.

  6. Investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths over mountainous terrain observed with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments during the MATERHORN field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.; De Wekker, S.; Emmitt, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present first results of the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric boundary layer depths obtained with a suite of ground-based and airborne instruments deployed during the first field phase of The Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program (http://www3.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn/index.php) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG, Utah, USA) in Fall 2012. We mainly use high-resolution data collected on selected intensive observation periods obtained by Doppler lidars, ceilometer, and in-situ measurements from an unmanned aerial vehicle for the measurements of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depths. In particular, a Navy Twin Otter aircraft flew 6 missions of about 5 hours each during the daytime, collecting remotely sensed (Doppler lidar, TODWL) wind data in addition to in-situ turbulence measurements which allowed a detailed investigation of the spatial heterogeneity of the convective boundary layer turbulence features over a steep isolated mountain of a horizontal and vertical scale of about 10 km and 1 km, respectively. Additionally, we use data collected by (1) radiosonde systems at two sites of Granite Mountain area in DPG (Playa and Sagebrush), (2) sonic anemometers (CSAT-3D) for high resolution turbulence flux measurements near ground, (3) Pyranometer for incoming solar radiation, and (4) standard meteorological measurements (PTU) obtained near the surface. In this contribution, we discuss and address (1) composites obtained with lidar, ceilometer, micro-meteorological measurements, and radiosonde observations to determine the quasi-continuous regime of ABL depths, growth rates, maximum convective boundary layer (CBL) depths, etc., (2) the temporal variability in the ABL depths during entire diurnal cycle and the spatial heterogeneity in the daytime ABL depths triggered by the underlying orography in the experimental area to investigate the most possible mechanisms (e.g. combined effect of diurnal cycle and orographic trigger

  7. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  8. Ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komu, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Harri, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of ESA ExoMars 2016/Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstration Module (EDM). DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to DREAMS payload by Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Same kind of device is part of REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3].

  9. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  10. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  11. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  12. Temperature Discontinuity Caused by Relocation of Meteorological Stations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With global warming upon us, it has be come increasingly important to identify the extent of this warming trend and in doing so be able to rank mean temperature changes in particular seasons and years. This requires a need for homogeneous climate data, which do not reflect individual anomalies in instruments, station locations or local environments (urbanization. Ac curate homogeneous long-term meteorological data helps show how temperature variations have truly occurred in the climate. Many possible factors contribute to artificial abrupt changes or sharp discontinuities in long time series data, such as the impact of station relocation, changes in observational schedules and instrumentation. Homogeneity adjustments of in situ climate data are very important processes for preparing observational data to be used in further analysis and research. Users require a well-documented history of stations to make appropriate homogeneity adjustments because precise historical back ground records of stations can provide researchers with knowledge of when artificial discontinuity has occurred and its causes. With out such de tailed historical data for each meteorological station, abrupt changes are difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, no homogeneity adjustments for temperature records have been con ducted previously in Tai wan, and present available sources of the history of Taiwan's meteorological stations exhibit in consistencies. In this study, information pertaining to station history, especially relocation records, is pro vided. This information is essential for anal y sis of continuous time series data for temperature and climate warming studies. Temperature data from several stations is given in this study to show how artificial discontinuity occurs due to station relocation. Al though there is no homogeneous adjusted climate data provided in this preliminary work, the summarizing of information regarding station relocations should be of assistance

  13. Design and Ground Calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI instrument is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The instrument is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The instrument consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI instrument and provides an overview of the pre-launch calibration efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the calibrations, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.

  14. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  15. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  16. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  17. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  18. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  19. Ground facility for information reception, processing, dissemination and scientific instruments management setup in the CORONAS-PHOTON space project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.

  20. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Buchhorn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI. The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS, and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  1. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L

    2005-04-22

    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  2. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Kyun Chung; Young-In Won; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim

    1998-01-01

    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both sola...

  3. Six years of mesospheric CO estimated from ground-based frequency-switched microwave radiometry at 57° N compared with satellite instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Forkman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mesospheric carbon monoxide, CO, provide important information about the dynamics in the mesosphere region since CO has a long lifetime at these altitudes. Ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO made at the Onsala Space Observatory, OSO, (57° N, 12° E are presented. The dataset covers the period 2002–2008 and is hence uniquely long for ground-based observations. The simple and stable 115 GHz frequency-switched radiometer, calibration method, retrieval procedure and error characterization are described. A comparison between our measurements and co-located CO measurements from the satellite sensors ACE-FTS on Scisat (v2.2, MLS on Aura (v3-3, MIPAS on Envisat (V3O_CO_12 + 13 and V4O_CO_200 and SMR on Odin (v225 and v021 is carried out. Our instrument, OSO, and the four satellite instruments show the same general variation of the vertical distribution of mesospheric CO in both the annual cycle and in shorter time period events, with high CO mixing ratios during winter and very low amounts during summer in the observed 55–100 km altitude range. During 2004–2008 the agreement of the OSO instrument and the satellite sensors ACE-FTS, MLS and MIPAS (200 is good in the altitude range 55–70 km. Above 70 km, OSO shows up to 25% higher CO column values compared to both ACE and MLS. For the time period 2002–2004, CO from MIPAS (12 + 13 is up to 50% lower than OSO between 55 and 70 km. Mesospheric CO from the two versions of SMR deviates up to ±65% when compared to OSO, but the analysis is based on only a few co-locations.

  4. Six years of mesospheric CO estimated from ground-based frequency-switched microwave radiometry at 57° N compared with satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkman, P.; Christensen, O. M.; Eriksson, P.; Urban, J.; Funke, B.

    2012-11-01

    Measurements of mesospheric carbon monoxide, CO, provide important information about the dynamics in the mesosphere region since CO has a long lifetime at these altitudes. Ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO made at the Onsala Space Observatory, OSO, (57° N, 12° E) are presented. The dataset covers the period 2002-2008 and is hence uniquely long for ground-based observations. The simple and stable 115 GHz frequency-switched radiometer, calibration method, retrieval procedure and error characterization are described. A comparison between our measurements and co-located CO measurements from the satellite sensors ACE-FTS on Scisat (v2.2), MLS on Aura (v3-3), MIPAS on Envisat (V3O_CO_12 + 13 and V4O_CO_200) and SMR on Odin (v225 and v021) is carried out. Our instrument, OSO, and the four satellite instruments show the same general variation of the vertical distribution of mesospheric CO in both the annual cycle and in shorter time period events, with high CO mixing ratios during winter and very low amounts during summer in the observed 55-100 km altitude range. During 2004-2008 the agreement of the OSO instrument and the satellite sensors ACE-FTS, MLS and MIPAS (200) is good in the altitude range 55-70 km. Above 70 km, OSO shows up to 25% higher CO column values compared to both ACE and MLS. For the time period 2002-2004, CO from MIPAS (12 + 13) is up to 50% lower than OSO between 55 and 70 km. Mesospheric CO from the two versions of SMR deviates up to ±65% when compared to OSO, but the analysis is based on only a few co-locations.

  5. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  6. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset consists of atmospheric parameters measured by the MMS instruments aboard NASA DC-8 aircraft. The MMS...

  7. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurlow, M. E., E-mail: thurlow@huarp.harvard.edu; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Co, D. T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); O' Brien, A. S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hanisco, T. F. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10{sup 12}. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ′} = 2) ← X{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (v{sup ″} = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  8. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hanisco, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10 12 . The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A 2 Π 3/2 (v ′ = 2) ← X 2 Π 3/2 (v ″ = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America

  9. The Development and Deployment of a Ground-Based, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for the In Situ Detection of Iodine Monoxide Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 1012. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A23/2 (v = 2) ? X23/2 (v = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  10. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  11. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  13. Climate and meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations

  14. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  15. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  17. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyun Chung

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E. It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, we analyzed the observed temperatures in relation to F10.7 and Kp indices to examine the effect of the solar and the geomagnetic activities on high-latitude neutral thermosphere. During the observing period, the solar activity was at its minimum. The measured temperatures are usually in the range between about 600~1000 K with some seasonal variation and are higher than those predicted by semi-empirical model, VSH (Vector Spherical Harmonics and empirical model, MSIS (Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter-86.

  18. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Won, Young-In; Lee, Bang Yong; Kim, Jhoon

    1998-06-01

    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, we analyzed the observed temperatures in relation to F10.7 and Kp indices to examine the effect of the solar and the geomagnetic activities on high-latitude neutral thermosphere. During the observing period, the solar activity was at its minimum. The measured temperatures are usually in the range between about 600~1000 K with some seasonal variation and are higher than those predicted by semi-empirical model, VSH (Vector Spherical Harmonics) and empirical model, MSIS (Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter)-86.

  19. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  20. CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO, a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006. We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above. These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km, than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km, and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.

  1. The influence of meteorological factors on solar ultraviolet radiation over Pretoria, South Africa for the year 2012

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgabutlane, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pretoria receives a fair amount of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground. The most dominant influencing meteorological factors are stratospheric ozone, cloud cover...

  2. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  3. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  5. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  6. Technical Note: Validation of Odin/SMR limb observations of ozone, comparisons with OSIRIS, POAM III, ground-based and balloon-borne instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Odin satellite carries two instruments capable of determining stratospheric ozone profiles by limb sounding: the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR and the UV-visible spectrograph of the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument. A large number of ozone profiles measurements were performed during six years from November 2001 to present. This ozone dataset is here used to make quantitative comparisons with satellite measurements in order to assess the quality of the Odin/SMR ozone measurements. In a first step, we compare Swedish SMR retrievals version 2.1, French SMR ozone retrievals version 222 (both from the 501.8 GHz band, and the OSIRIS retrievals version 3.0, with the operational version 4.0 ozone product from POAM III (Polar Ozone Atmospheric Measurement. In a second step, we refine the Odin/SMR validation by comparisons with ground-based instruments and balloon-borne observations. We use observations carried out within the framework of the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and balloon flight missions conducted by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA, the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l'{}Environnement (LPCE, Orléans, France, and the Service d'Aéronomie (SA, Paris, France. Coincidence criteria were 5° in latitude×10° in longitude, and 5 h in time in Odin/POAM III comparisons, 12 h in Odin/NDACC comparisons, and 72 h in Odin/balloons comparisons. An agreement is found with the POAM III experiment (10–60 km within −0.3±0.2 ppmv (bias±standard deviation for SMR (v222, v2.1 and within −0.5±0.2 ppmv for OSIRIS (v3.0. Odin ozone mixing ratio products are systematically slightly lower than the POAM III data and show an ozone maximum lower by 1–5 km in altitude. The comparisons with the NDACC data (10–34 km for ozonesonde, 10–50 km for lidar, 10–60 for microwave instruments yield a good agreement within −0.15±0.3 ppmv for the SMR data and −0.3±0.3 ppmv

  7. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in eastern China using aerosol optical depth determined from the GOCI satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.-W.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Z.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Che, H.; Lin, P.; Lin, N.

    2015-11-01

    We determine and interpret fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in eastern China for January to December 2013 at a horizontal resolution of 6 km from aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Korean geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) satellite instrument. We implement a set of filters to minimize cloud contamination in GOCI AOD. Evaluation of filtered GOCI AOD with AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates significant agreement with mean fractional bias (MFB) in Beijing of 6.7 % and northern Taiwan of -1.2 %. We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to relate the total column AOD to the near-surface PM2.5. The simulated PM2.5 / AOD ratio exhibits high consistency with ground-based measurements in Taiwan (MFB = -0.52 %) and Beijing (MFB = -8.0 %). We evaluate the satellite-derived PM2.5 versus the ground-level PM2.5 in 2013 measured by the China Environmental Monitoring Center. Significant agreement is found between GOCI-derived PM2.5 and in situ observations in both annual averages (r2 = 0.66, N = 494) and monthly averages (relative RMSE = 18.3 %), indicating GOCI provides valuable data for air quality studies in Northeast Asia. The GEOS-Chem simulated chemical composition of GOCI-derived PM2.5 reveals that secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) and organic matter are the most significant components. Biofuel emissions in northern China for heating increase the concentration of organic matter in winter. The population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg m-3, with 400 million residents in regions that exceed the Interim Target-1 of the World Health Organization.

  8. Review of crop growth and soil moisture monitoring from a ground-based instrument implementing the Interference Pattern GNSS-R Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, N.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Camps, A.; Aguasca, A.; Vall-Llossera, M.; Valencia, E.; Ramos-Perez, I.; Park, H.

    2011-12-01

    Reflectometry using Global Navigation Satellite Systems signals (GNSSR) has been the focus of many studies during the past few years for a number of applications over different scenarios as land, ocean or snow and ice surfaces. In the past decade, its potential has increased yearly, with improved receivers and signal processors, from generic GNSS receivers whose signals were recorded in magnetic tapes to instruments that measure full Delay Doppler Maps (the power distribution of the reflected GNSS signal over the 2-D space of delay offsets and Doppler shifts) in real time. At present, these techniques are considered to be promising tools to retrieve geophysical parameters such as soil moisture, vegetation height, topography, altimetry, sea state and ice and snow thickness, among others. This paper focuses on the land geophysical retrievals (topography, vegetation height and soil moisture) performed from a ground-based instrument using the Interference Pattern Technique (IPT). This technique consists of the measurement of the power fluctuations of the interference signal resulting from the simultaneous reception of the direct and the reflected GNSS signals. The latest experiment performed using this technique over a maize field is shown in this paper. After a review of the previous results, this paper presents the latest experiment performed using this technique over a maize field. This new study provides a deeper analysis on the soil moisture retrieval by observing three irrigation-drying cycles and comparing them to different depths soil moisture probes. Furthermore, the height of the maize, almost 300 cm, has allowed testing the capabilities of the technique over dense and packed vegetation layers, with high vegetation water content.

  9. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  10. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  11. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  12. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  13. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  14. Meteorological experiments for emergency preparedness. part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Nicolli, D.

    1993-12-01

    Since the preliminary studies for the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) siting, by an American consultant company, it was verified that the micro scale and mesoscale meteorological conditions in the region show a unique complex pattern, so that no similar nuclear installation site could be found for reference. Therefore, it was recommended to install onsite a correspondingly complex meteorological data acquisition system which comprises a 100-meter tower with instruments at three different levels and three 15-meter satellite towers on the hills around. In this report, are described the equipment and instruments sent by the IAEA to CNEN as well as the procedures and particular computer programming developed by the staff. It is also reported on the bureaucratic problems and meager budget allocation for the Project which delayed the installation of the two meteorological stations and hindered the implementation of the Project. The equipment for the atmospheric boundary layer sounding were used for the first time in September 1993, when CNEN provided some resource for the purchase of gas and batteries. The first atmospheric sounding campaign showed the occurrence of strong night winds and intense thermal inversion at the higher level of the boundary layer, until now unknown by the Brazilian meteorologists. By way of this report, the staff of meteorologists tries to show the status of Project BRA/09/031 and the know-how gained with it. (author)

  15. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in situ image cloud particles in a well-defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  17. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  18. Comparison of aerosol optical depths from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on Aura with results from airborne sunphotometry, other space and ground measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne sunphotometer measurements are used to evaluate retrievals of extinction aerosol optical depth (AOD from spatially coincident and temporally near-coincident measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the Aura satellite during the March 2006 Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (MILAGRO/INTEX-B. The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS flew on nine missions over the Gulf of Mexico and four in or near the Mexico City area. Retrievals of AOD from near-coincident AATS and OMI measurements are compared for three flights over the Gulf of Mexico for flight segments when the aircraft flew at altitudes 60–70 m above sea level, and for one flight over the Mexico City area where the aircraft was restricted to altitudes ~320–800 m above ground level over the rural area and ~550–750 m over the city. OMI-measured top of atmosphere (TOA reflectances are routinely inverted to yield aerosol products such as AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD using two different retrieval algorithms: a near-UV (OMAERUV and a multiwavelength (OMAERO technique. This study uses the archived Collection 3 data products from both algorithms. In particular, AATS and OMI AOD comparisons are presented for AATS data acquired in 20 OMAERUV retrieval pixels (15 over water and 19 OMAERO pixels (also 15 over water. At least four pixels for one of the over-water coincidences and all pixels for the over-land case were cloud-free. Coincident AOD retrievals from 17 pixels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard Aqua are available for two of the over-water flights and are shown to agree with AATS AODs to within root mean square (RMS differences of 0.00–0.06, depending on wavelength. Near-coincident ground-based AOD measurements from ground-based sun/sky radiometers operated as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET

  19. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  20. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  1. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  2. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  3. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  4. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  5. Autonomous Operation of Mars Meteorological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Vázquez, L.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.

    2012-09-01

    In the next years a series of small landing vehicles concentrating on Martian meteorology should be deployed to the surface of Mars. As commanding from Earth will not be possible most of the time, the station software has to be capable of adapting to any foreseeable conditions and optimize the science return as much as feasible. In this paper we outline the constraints and strategies implemented into the control system of the MetNet Landers. For details to the mission and its instruments see the mission home page [1].

  6. Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data from current meters, bottle casts, pressure gauges, meteorological sensors, current meters, and other instruments from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Experiment/Francais Ocean Et Climat Dans L'Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) project from 1964-01-01 to 1985-12-31 (NODC Accession 8700150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data were collected from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms...

  7. design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent

    gathering meteorological information through the use of radiosondes [3]. Earlier measurements of wind and air pressure were done by launching balloons which climb through the denser air close to the earth to the thinner air in the upper atmosphere and the instruments carried collect data about wind in the different layers ...

  8. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  9. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  10. Application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This report was prepared on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency by an international panel of experts who met at the Agency's headquarters from 10 to 14 April 1967. The application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants is discussed in connection with site selection, design and construction, operation, and emergency planning and action. The final chapter considers the training to be given to operators and health and safety personnel on meteorology problems. The appendix gives a simple method for computing air concentration values at ground level. An extensive bibliography is also included.

  11. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  12. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  13. A new LIF instrument for aircraft related and ground related masurements of OH and HO{sub 2} radicals in the troposphere; Ein neues LIF-Instrument fuer flugzeug- und bodengebundene Messungen von OH- und HO{sub 2}-Radikalen in der Troposphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broch, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration describes the development and characterization of an instrument for the measurement of OH and HO{sub 2} radicals by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). This instrument can be used from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere both on the ground and in aircraft applications. After describing the basics of the OH radical chemistry and the measurement principle of laser-induced fluorescence, a new instrument is presented. The LIF measuring cells needs long inlet pipes which lead to a modification of the verification of OH radicals. The effect of these modifications as well as the height dependence of the detection sensitivity for the OH radicals is examined. A model for the theoretical description of the altitude dependence of the detection sensitivity is described. The modification of the measuring cell influences the ozone-water interference in the LIF measurement system. Therefore, the author develops a model to describe the interference in the new system and evaluate this model by measurements. The applicability of this new instrument for ground and flight applications is analyzed in the range from 0 to 18 kilometers regarding sensitivity, detection limit and interference.

  14. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  15. Thunderstorm monitoring with VLF network and super dense meteorological observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsuteru

    2015-04-01

    It's not easy to understand the inside structure and developing process of thunderstorm only with existing meteorological instruments since its horizontal extent of the storm cell is sometimes smaller than an order of 10 km while one of the densest ground network in Japan, AMEDAS, consists of sites located every 17 km in average and the resolution of meteorological radar is 1-2 km in general. Even the X-band radar realizes the resolution of 250 m or larger. Here we suggest a thunderstorm monitoring system consisting of the network of VLF radio wave receivers and the super dense meteorological observation system with simple and low cost plate-type sensors that can be used for measurement both of raindrop and vertical electric field change caused by cloud-to-ground lightning discharge, adding to basic equipments for meteorological measurements. The plate-type sensor consists of two aluminum plates with a diameter of 10-20 cm. We carried out an observation campaign in summer of 2013 in the foothills of Mt. Yastugatake, Yamanashi and Nagano prefectures in Japan, installing 6 plate-type sensors at a distance of about 4 km. Horizontal location, height and charge amount of each lightning discharge are estimated successfully based on the information of electric field changes at several observing sites. Moreover, it was found that the thunderstorm has a very narrow structure smaller than 300 m that cannot be measured by any other ways, counting the positive and negative pulses caused by attachment of raindrop to the sensor plate, respectively. We plan to construct a new super dense observation network in the north Kanto region, Japan, where the lightning activity is most prominent in summer Japan and surrounded by our VLF systems developed for detecting sferics from lightning discharge, distributing more than several tens of sensors at every 4 km or shorter, such as an order of 100 m at minimum. This kind of new type network will reveal the unknown fine structures of

  16. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  17. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report `Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor` and {sup S}ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor{sup .} (Author).

  18. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  20. urf e meteorologi l instrument tion for fyfwi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    g uge on o rd the shipAF prom t les P nd Q we see th t y nd l rgeD the slow sensors sele ted for fyfwi re the s me s those used in the swi system ex ept the humidity sensorF sn the swi. systemD otroni s humidity sensor is used long with w oung r di tion shield where s in the fyfwi set upD w oung humidity sensor with w oung.

  1. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  2. Metrology of the Solar Spectral Irradiance at the Top Of Atmosphere in the Near Infrared using Ground Based Instruments. Final results of the PYR-ILIOS campaign (Mauna Loa Observatory, June-July 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessateur, G.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of reference spectra for the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) is important for the solar physics, the studies of planetary atmospheres and climatology. The near infrared (NIR) part of these spectra is of great interest for its main role for example, in the Earth's radiative budget. Until recently, some large and unsolved discrepancies (up to 10 %) were observed in the 1.6 μm region between space instruments, models and ground-based measurements. We designed a ground-based instrumentation for SSI measurements at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) through atmospheric NIR windows using the Bouguer-Langley technique. The main instrument is a double NIR spectroradiometer designed by Bentham (UK), radiometrically characterized at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. It was absolute calibrated against a high-temperature blackbody as primary standard for spectral irradiance at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany). The PYR-ILIOS campaign was carried out in June to July 2016 at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii, USA, 3396 m a.s.l.) follows the four-month IRESPERAD campaign which was carried out in the summer 2011 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Canary Islands, 2367 m a.s.l.). We present here the results of the 3'week PYR-ILIOS campaign and compare them with the ATLAS 3 spectrum as well as from recently reprocessed NIR solar spectra obtained with SOLAR/SOLSPEC on ISS and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT. The uncertainty budget of the PYR-ILIOS results will be discussed.

  3. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    that with the high performance components available, and modular software construction in a Higher Level Language, it is possible to design equipment specially tailored to ones needs, rapidly and cost effectively...

  4. Inconing solar radiation estimates at terrestrial surface using meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Almeida, F.C. de.

    1982-11-01

    By using the digital images of the visible channel of the GOES-5 meteorological satellite, and a simple radiative transfer model of the earth's atmosphere, the incoming solar radiation reaching ground is estimated. A model incorporating the effects of Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption, the latter parameterized using the surface dew point temperature value, is used. Comparisons with pyranometer observations, and parameterization versus radiosonde water vapor absorption calculation are presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  6. The meteorological measurement system of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, H.

    1976-08-01

    The system mainly serves to record the parameters which are important for the diffusion of offgas plume. The system includes 47 instruments in total which are used to measure the wind velocity, the wind direction, the wind vector, the temperature, the dew point, the solar and heat radiation, the precipitations and the atmospheric pressure, most of them mounted at the 200 m high meteorological tower. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Enhancing our Understanding of Snowfall Modes with Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, C.; Kulie, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Bliven, L. F.; Wood, N.

    2016-12-01

    Snowfall can be broadly categorized into deep and shallow events based on the vertical distribution of the precipitating ice. Remotely sensed data refine these precipitation categories and aid in discerning the underlying macro- and microphysical mechanisms. The unique patterns in the remotely sensed instruments observations can potentially connect distinct modes of snowfall to specific processes. Though satellites can observe and recognize these patterns in snowfall, these measurements are limited - particularly in cases of shallow and light precipitation, as the snow may be too close to the surface or below the detection limits of the instrumentation. By enhancing satellite measurements with ground-based instrumentation, whether with limited-term field campaigns or long-term strategic sites, we can further our understanding and assumptions about different snowfall modes and how they are measured from spaceborne instruments. Presented are three years of data from a ground-based instrument suite consisting of a MicroRain Radar (MRR; optimized for snow events) and a Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP). These instruments are located at the Marquette, Michigan National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office to: a) use coincident meteorological measurements and observations to enhance our understanding of the thermodynamic drivers and b) showcase these instruments in an operational setting to enhance forecasts of shallow snow events. Three winters of MRR and PIP measurements are partitioned, based on meteorological surface observations, into two-dimensional histograms of reflectivity and particle size distribution data. These statistics improve our interpretation of deep versus shallow precipitation. Additionally, these statistical techniques are applied to similar datasets from Global Precipitation Measurement field campaigns for further insight into cloud and precipitation macro- and microphysical processes.

  8. First Reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Profiles (1998-2016): 2. Comparisons With Satellites and Ground-Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Sterling, Chance; Jordan, Allen; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Vömel, Holger; Allaart, Marc; Piters, Ankie; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Posny, Françoise; Corrales, Ernesto; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Félix, Christian; Komala, Ninong; Lai, Nga; Ahn Nguyen, H. T.; Maata, Matakite; Mani, Francis; Zainal, Zamuna; Ogino, Shin-ya; Paredes, Francisco; Penha, Tercio Luiz Bezerra; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Sallons-Mitro, Sukarni; Selkirk, Henry B.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Stübi, Rene; Thiongo, Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesonde (SHADOZ) network was assembled to validate a new generation of ozone-monitoring satellites and to better characterize the vertical structure of tropical ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere. Beginning with nine stations in 1998, more than 7,000 ozone and P-T-U profiles are available from 14 SHADOZ sites that have operated continuously for at least a decade. We analyze ozone profiles from the recently reprocessed SHADOZ data set that is based on adjustments for inconsistencies caused by varying ozonesonde instruments and operating techniques. First, sonde-derived total ozone column amounts are compared to the overpasses from the Earth Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument, and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite satellites that cover 1998-2016. Second, characteristics of the stratospheric and tropospheric columns are examined along with ozone structure in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We find that (1) relative to our earlier evaluations of SHADOZ data, in 2003, 2007, and 2012, sonde-satellite total ozone column offsets at 12 stations are 2% or less, a significant improvement; (2) as in prior studies, the 10 tropical SHADOZ stations, defined as within ±19° latitude, display statistically uniform stratospheric column ozone, 229 ± 3.9 DU (Dobson units), and a tropospheric zonal wave-one pattern with a 14 DU mean amplitude; (3) the TTL ozone column, which is also zonally uniform, masks complex vertical structure, and this argues against using satellites for lower stratospheric ozone trends; and (4) reprocessing has led to more uniform stratospheric column amounts across sites and reduced bias in stratospheric profiles. As a consequence, the uncertainty in total column ozone now averages 5%.

  9. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology - A Pre-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Bange, Jens

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm...

  10. Meteorological radar services: a brief discussion and a solution in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, K. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Meteorology is the organization designated by the Civil Aviation Department and by the National Supervisory Authority of the Republic of Cyprus, as an air navigation service provider, based on the regulations of the Single European Sky. Department of Meteorology holds and maintains also an ISO: 9001/2008, Quality System, for the provision of meteorological and climatological services to aeronautic and maritime community, but also to the general public. In order to fulfill its obligations the Department of Meteorology customs the rather dense meteorological stations network, with long historical data series, installed and maintained by the Department, in parallel with modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), along with training and gaining of expertise. Among the available instruments in the community of meteorologists is the meteorological radar, a basic tool for the needs of very short/short range forecasting (nowcasting). The Department of Meteorology installed in the mid 90's a C-band radar over «Throni» location and expanded its horizons in nowcasting, aviation safety and warnings issuance. The radar has undergone several upgrades but today technology has over passed its rather old technology. At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure. Two networked X-band meteorological radar will be installed (the project now is in the phase of infrastructure establishment while the hardware is in the process of assemble), and maintained from Space Hellas (the contractor) for a 13 years' time period. The present article must be faced as a review article of the efforts of the Department of Meteorology to support its weather forecasters with data from meteorological radar.

  11. Variation in radon exhalation from the ground on the active fault in Kobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuoka, Y.; Shinogi, M. [Kobe Pharmaceutical Univ., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Since 27 January 1997, the measurements of radon (Rn-222) exhaled from the ground have been made continuously by the use of PICO-RAD detector (Packard instrument Co.) at monitoring stations on Ashiya active fault. The fault may have been slipped by the Kobe earthquake (magnitude 7.2, 17 January 1995). The variation of relative radon exhalation on the fault was large. We guessed the large variation of relative radon exhalation on the fault was caused by not only the influence of meteorology but also the influence of other factors. (author)

  12. Preliminary meteorological results on Mars from the Viking 1 lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, S.L.; Henry, R.M.; Leovy, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    The results from the meteorology instruments on the Viking 1 lander are presented for the first 4 sols of operation. The instruments are working satisfactorily. Temperatures fluctuated from a low of 188 0 K to an estimated maximum of 244 0 K. The mean pressure is 7.65 millibars with a diurnal variation of amplitude 0.1 millibar. Wind speeds averaged over several minutes have ranged from essentially calm to 9 meters per second. Wind directions have exhibited a remarkable regularity which may be associated with nocturnal downslope winds and gravitational oscillations, or to tidal effects of the diurnal pressure wave, or to both

  13. Meteorological support for aerosol radiometers: special aerosol sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-07-01

    A new method is described for transfer of the measure of unit volume activity of radioactive aerosols from the state special standard to the working instruments in the stage of regular operation. The differences from existing methods are examined. The principal distinction of the new method is the possibility of direct (rather than through the conversion factor) determination and subsequent testing of the fundamental meteorological characteristics of the instrument by means of special aerosol sources, which fosters a significant reduction in individual components of the indicated errors.

  14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  15. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A.B.; Rohde, C.A.; Ho, Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  16. Five-day planetary waves in the middle atmosphere from Odin satellite data and ground-based instruments in Northern Hemisphere summer 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that 5-day planetary waves modulate noctilucent clouds and the closely related Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE at the summer mesopause. Summer stratospheric winds should inhibit wave propagation through the stratosphere and, although some numerical models (Geisler and Dickinson, 1976 do show a possibility for upward wave propagation, it has also been suggested that the upward propagation may in practice be confined to the winter hemisphere with horizontal propagation of the wave from the winter to the summer hemisphere at mesosphere heights causing the effects observed at the summer mesopause. It has further been proposed (Garcia et al., 2005 that 5-day planetary waves observed in the summer mesosphere could be excited in-situ by baroclinic instability in the upper mesosphere. In this study, we first extract and analyze 5-day planetary wave characteristics on a global scale in the middle atmosphere (up to 54 km in temperature, and up to 68 km in ozone concentration using measurements by the Odin satellite for selected days during northern hemisphere summer from 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007. Second, we show that 5-day temperature fluctuations consistent with westward-traveling 5-day waves are present at the summer mesopause, using local ground-based meteor-radar observations. Finally we examine whether any of three possible sources of the detected temperature fluctuations at the summer mesopause can be excluded: upward propagation from the stratosphere in the summer-hemisphere, horizontal propagation from the winter-hemisphere or in-situ excitation as a result of the baroclinic instability. We find that in one case, far from solstice, the baroclinic instability is unlikely to be involved. In one further case, close to solstice, upward propagation in the same hemisphere seems to be ruled out. In all other cases, all or any of the three proposed mechanisms are consistent with the observations.

  17. Meteorological data fields 'in perspective'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Pierce, H.; Morris, K. R.; Dodge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perspective display techniques can be applied to meteorological data sets to aid in their interpretation. Examples of a perspective display procedure applied to satellite and aircraft visible and infrared image pairs and to stereo cloud-top height analyses are presented. The procedure uses a sophisticated shading algorithm that produces perspective images with greatly improved comprehensibility when compared with the wire-frame perspective displays that have been used in the past. By changing the 'eye-point' and 'view-point' inputs to the program in a systematic way, movie loops that give the impression of flying over or through the data field have been made. This paper gives examples that show how several kinds of meteorological data fields are more effectively illustrated using the perspective technique.

  18. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  19. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  20. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  1. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  2. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  3. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  4. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  5. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.

    Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  6. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  7. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction

  8. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  9. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  10. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  11. An oscillating microbalance for meteorological measurements of ice and volcanic ash accumulation from a weather balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    A new, low cost, instrument has been developed for meteorological measurements of the accumulation of ice and volcanic ash that can be readily deployed using commercial radiosondes and weather balloons. It is based on principles used by [1], an instrument originally developed to measure supercooled liquid water profiles in clouds. This new instrument introduces numerous improvements in terms of reduced complexity and cost. It uses the oscillating microbalance principle, whereby a wire vibrating at its natural frequency is subjected to increased loading of the property to be measured. The increase in mass modifies the wire properties such that its natural frequency of oscillation changes. By measuring this frequency, the increase in mass can be inferred and transmitted to a ground base station through the radiosonde's UHF antenna via the PANDORA interface [2], which has been previously developed to provide power and connection to the radiosonde telemetry. The device consists of a simple circuit board controlled by an ATMEGA microcontroller. For calibration, the controller is capable of driving the wire at specified frequencies via excitation by a piezo sounder upon which the wire is mounted. The same piezo sounder is also used during active operation to measure the frequency of the wire in its non-driven state in order to infer the mass change on the wire. A phase-locked loop implemented on the board identifies when resonance occurs and the measured frequency is stable, prompting the microcontroller to send the measurement through the data interface. The device may be used for any application that requires the measurement of incremental mass variation e.g. ice accumulation, frosting, or particle accumulation such as dust and volcanic ash. For the solid particle accumulation, a low temperature, high-tack, adhesive may be applied to the wire prior to deployment to collect the material. In addition, the same instrument may be used for ground-based applications, such as

  12. Territorial characterisation considering geo morphological properties of subsoil as well as climatic and meteorological conditions for the evaluation of the effects of radiological nature on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvicini, A.; Esposito, P.

    2002-01-01

    The composition and origin of the rocky substratum, the permeability of the ground, its degree of humidity and the particle size are the main factors that influence radon concentration in the subsoil and in the water stratums as well as its upward migration. The climatic and meteorological conditions, particularly the moisture, the barometric pressure and the temperature, can influence more or less directly the underground emanation and diffusion properties of radon and thoron giving rise to short-term modifications of radiological nature in the subsoil, closely related to the presence of these elements. The great concentration of some radioisotopes, in some particular areas, can also induce high dose rates caused by the radiation coming from emergent rocks, due for instance to activities related to building works, with consequent possible exposure of the personnel involved in underground excavations. In such situations it is possible to carry out systematical radiometric measurements, which provide instantaneous and time integrated data, using fixed or movable instrumentation. The stratigraphical structure of the subsoil and the related variations of lithological nature as well as the lack of homogeneity in the land, due also to the unevenness of the ground outline and to the presence of fault planes, increase considerably the complexity of analytical evaluations based upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the subsoil and upon the meteorological and climatic properties

  13. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  14. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  15. Sea-air boundary meteorological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric environment can significantly affect radio frequency and optical propagation. In the RF spectrum refraction and ducting can degrade or enhance communications and radar coverage. Platforms in or beneath refractive boundaries can exploit the benefits or suffer the effects of the atmospheric boundary layers. Evaporative ducts and surface-base ducts are of most concern for ocean surface platforms and evaporative ducts are almost always present along the sea-air interface. The atmospheric environment also degrades electro-optical systems resolution and visibility. The atmospheric environment has been proven not to be uniform and under heterogeneous conditions substantial propagation errors may be present for large distances from homogeneous models. An accurate and portable atmospheric sensor to profile the vertical index of refraction is needed for mission planning, post analysis, and in-situ performance assessment. The meteorological instrument used in conjunction with a radio frequency and electro-optical propagation prediction tactical decision aid tool would give military platforms, in real time, the ability to make assessments on communication systems propagation ranges, radar detection and vulnerability ranges, satellite communications vulnerability, laser range finder performance, and imaging system performance predictions. Raman lidar has been shown to be capable of measuring the required atmospheric parameters needed to profile the atmospheric environment. The atmospheric profile could then be used as input to a tactical decision aid tool to make propagation predictions.

  16. Statistical methods and regression analysis of stratospheric ozone and meteorological variables in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, S.; Hosseinibalam, F.; Omidvari, M.

    2008-04-01

    Data of seven meteorological variables (relative humidity, wet temperature, dry temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, ground temperature and sun radiation time) and ozone values have been used for statistical analysis. Meteorological variables and ozone values were analyzed using both multiple linear regression and principal component methods. Data for the period 1999-2004 are analyzed jointly using both methods. For all periods, temperature dependent variables were highly correlated, but were all negatively correlated with relative humidity. Multiple regression analysis was used to fit the meteorological variables using the meteorological variables as predictors. A variable selection method based on high loading of varimax rotated principal components was used to obtain subsets of the predictor variables to be included in the linear regression model of the meteorological variables. In 1999, 2001 and 2002 one of the meteorological variables was weakly influenced predominantly by the ozone concentrations. However, the model did not predict that the meteorological variables for the year 2000 were not influenced predominantly by the ozone concentrations that point to variation in sun radiation. This could be due to other factors that were not explicitly considered in this study.

  17. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  18. Applications of a shadow camera system for energy meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph; Garsche, Dominik; Schüler, David; Haase, Thomas; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis; Meyer, Angela; Blanc, Philippe; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras directly image shadows on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and can help to optimize plant operations. In this publication, two key applications of shadow cameras are briefly presented.

  19. Some directions in laser meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of lidar systems in studies of pollution meteorology are discussed. It is pointed out that lidar can contribute to the determination of characteristics of particulate pollutants and also the study of the dynamics of dispersion. Agricultural and energy related problems require both short and longer term forecasting. It is as yet not completely clear whether lidar will be significant in longer term forecasts, of benefit to agriculture and conservation, or whether its usefulness will be primarily in the study of basic atmospheric processes involving the effect of clouds and aerosols on radiation balance. However, recent studies indicate that lidar will be important, in the future, in global wind sensing from satellites. Lidar and radar systems for cloud observations are compared

  20. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  1. Climatic changes in the Urals over the past millennium – an analysis of geothermal and meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Demezhko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is based on a study of two paleoclimatic curves obtained in the Urals (51–59° N, 58–61° E: i a ground surface temperature history (GSTH reconstruction since 800 A.D. and ii meteorological data for the last 170 years. Temperature anomalies measured in 49 boreholes were used for the GSTH reconstruction. It is shown that a traditional averaging of the histories leads to the lowest estimates of amplitude of past temperature fluctuations. The interval estimates method, accounting separately for the rock's thermal diffusivity variations and the influence of a number of non-climatic causes, was used to obtain the average GSTH. Joint analysis of GSTH and meteorological data bring us to the following conclusions. First, ground surface temperatures in the Medieval maximum during 1100–1200 were 0.4 K higher than the 20th century mean temperature (1900–1960. The Little Ice Age cooling was culminated in 1720 when surface mean temperature was 1.6 K below the 20th century mean temperature. Secondly, contemporary warming began approximately one century prior to the first instrumental measurements in the Urals. The rate of warming was +0.25 K/100 years in the 18th century, +1.15 K/100 years in the 19th and +0.75 K/100 years in the first 80 years of the 20th century. Finally, the mean rate of warming increased in the final decades of 20th century. An analysis of linear regression coefficients in running intervals of 21 and 31 years, shows that there were periods of warming with almost the same rates in the past, including the 19th century.

  2. Synopsis of TC4 Missions and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, D.; Pfister, L.; Selkirk, H.; Nguyen, L.

    2007-12-01

    The TC4 (Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling) Experiment conducted 26 aircraft sorties on 13 flight days from July 17 to August 8, 2007 (23 days). Quality science observations were also obtained during the transit flights to/from from San Jose, Costa Rica, where the mission was based. On 9 days, coordinated aircraft missions were flown with the NASA ER-2 and DC-8, and with the NASA WB-57 on 3 occasions (and transit flights). The ER-2 served as an A-Train simulator (MODIS, CloudSat, CALIPSO, AIRS/TES, partial AMSR-E) while the WB-57 provided in-situ measurements of upper tropospheric cloud particles, aerosols and trace gases. The DC-8 provided both in-situ and remote sensing measurements, where the latter were focused on Aura validation, and also including a down-looking scanning precipitation radar (TRMM PR simulator). This paper will provide a synopsis of the science observations that were obtained, as regards the clouds and cloud systems sampled, from a meteorological perspective. A diversity of clouds were sampled and the meteorology proved more interesting than expected, at least to this author. Upper tropospheric cirrus outflows were sampled from a number of convective cloud systems including ITCZ-type systems as well as systems close to and affected by land. The low level inflows to these systems were also sampled in some cases (DC-8) and missions were flown to sample stratocumulus clouds over the Pacific Ocean exploiting the unique instrumentation on the DC-8 to add to the knowledge of these clouds which are so important to the Earth radiation budget. Measurements were made in the tropical Tropopause Transition Layer (TTL) by the WB-57. Upper tropospheric clouds and TTL properties and processes were central TC4 objectives. Excellent data were also obtained on the fate of the Saharan Air Layer and its aerosols over the Caribbean and Central America, as well as samples of plumes from volcanoes in Ecuador and Columbia and biogenic emissions over

  3. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  4. DESCARTES AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick BRISSEY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claimed that he thought he could deduce the assumptions of his Meteorology by the contents of the Discourse. He actually began the Meteorology with assumptions. The content of the Discourse, moreover, does not indicate how he deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. We seem to be left in a precarious position. We can examine the text as it was published, independent of Descartes’ claims, which suggests that he incorporated a presumptive or hypothetical method. On the other hand, we can take Descartes’ claims as our guide and search for the epistemic foundations of the Meteorology independent of the Discourse. In this paper, I will pursue the latter route. My aim is to explain why, and how, Descartes thought that he had deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. My interest, in this case, is solely Descartes’ physical foundation for the Meteorology, in the physics and physiology that resulted in Descartes’ explanation. With this aim, I provide an interpretation of Descartes’ World where many of its conclusions serve as evidence for the assumptions of the Meteorology. I provisionally conclude that Descartes thought that his World was the epistemic foundation for his Meteorology.

  5. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  6. A Method for Evaluation of Model-Generated Vertical Profiles of Meteorological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    evaluated WRF output for the boundary layer over Svalbard in the Arctic in terms of height above ground compared to tower and tethered balloon ...Valparaiso, Chile; 2011. Dutsch ML. Evaluation of the WRF model based on observations made by controlled meteorological balloons in the atmospheric

  7. Meteorological data summaries for the TFTR from March 1984 to February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolibal, J.; Ku, L.P.; Liew, S.L.; Pierce, C.

    1985-06-01

    This report reviews the first year of meteorological data gathered for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) from March 1, 1984 to February 28, 1985. The meteorological station at TFTR is located at D-Site, to the east of the motor generator building as shown in Fig. 1. The station consists of a 60 m tower which is instrumented at 10, 30, and 60 m along with the associated equipment for data acquisition and logging. Instrumentation for the tower consists of measuring the temperature, wind speed, wind direction, dew point, and the standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction. The purpose of the station is to gather site specific meteorological data to assess atmospheric transport and dispersion for TFTR

  8. Sentinel-5 instrument: status of design, performance, and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gühne, T.; Keim, C.; Bartsch, P.; Weiß, S.; Melf, M.; Seefelder, W.

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-5 instrument is currently under development by a consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space in the frame of the European Union Copernicus program. It is a customer furnished item to the MetOp Second Generation satellite platform, which will provide operational meteorological data for the coming decades. Mission objective of the Sentinel-5 is to monitor the composition of the Earth atmosphere for Copernicus Atmosphere Services by taking measurements of trace gases and aerosols impacting air quality and climate with high resolution and daily global coverage. Therefore the Sentinel-5 provides five dispersive spectrometers covering the UV-VIS (270…500 nm), NIR (685 …773 nm) and SWIR (1590…1675 and 2305…2385 nm) spectral bands with resolutions <=1nm. Spatially the Sentinel-5 provides a 108° field of view with a ground sampling of 7.5 x 7 km2 at Nadir. The development program is post PDR and the build-up of the industrial team is finalised. We report on the instrument architecture and design derived from the driving requirements, the predicted instrument performance, and the general status of the program.

  9. Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF are respectively the main chlorine and fluorine reservoirs in the Earth's stratosphere. Their buildup resulted from the intensive use of man-made halogenated source gases, in particular CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2, during the second half of the 20th century. It is important to continue monitoring the evolution of these source gases and reservoirs, in support of the Montreal Protocol and also indirectly of the Kyoto Protocol. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS is a space-based instrument that has been performing regular solar occultation measurements of over 30 atmospheric gases since early 2004. In this validation paper, the HCl, HF, CFC-11 and CFC-12 version 2.2 profile data products retrieved from ACE-FTS measurements are evaluated. Volume mixing ratio profiles have been compared to observations made from space by MLS and HALOE, and from stratospheric balloons by SPIRALE, FIRS-2 and Mark-IV. Partial columns derived from the ACE-FTS data were also compared to column measurements from ground-based Fourier transform instruments operated at 12 sites. ACE-FTS data recorded from March 2004 to August 2007 have been used for the comparisons. These data are representative of a variety of atmospheric and chemical situations, with sounded air masses extending from the winter vortex to summer sub-tropical conditions. Typically, the ACE-FTS products are available in the 10–50 km altitude range for HCl and HF, and in the 7–20 and 7–25 km ranges for CFC-11 and -12, respectively. For both reservoirs, comparison results indicate an agreement generally better than 5–10% above 20 km altitude, when accounting for the known offset affecting HALOE measurements of HCl and HF. Larger positive differences are however found for comparisons with single profiles from FIRS-2 and SPIRALE. For CFCs, the few coincident measurements available suggest that the differences

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory Meteorology Monitoring Program: 2016 Data Completeness/ Quality Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This report summarizes data completeness by tower and by instrument for 2016 and compares that data with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 2015 standards. This report is designed to make data users aware of data completeness and any data quality issues. LANL meteorology monitoring goals include 95% completeness for all measurements. The ANSI 2015 standard requires 90% completeness for all measurements. This report documents instrument/tower issues as they impact data completeness.

  11. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  12. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  13. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  14. Determination of User Distribution Image Size and Position of Each Observation Area of Meteorological Imager in COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Soo Seo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, requirements of Meteorological Administration about Meteorological Imager (MI of Communications, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS is analyzed for the design of COMS ground station and according to the analysis results, the distribution image size of each observation area suitable for satellite Field Of View (FOV stated at the requirements of meteorological administration is determined and the precise satellite FOV and the size of distribution image is calculated on the basis of the image size of the determined observation area. The results in this paper were applied to the detailed design for COMS ground station and also are expected to be used for the future observation scheduling and the scheduling of distribution of user data.

  15. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  16. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Hong, Suk Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-01

    Problem shooting in tower structure, sensor installation, earth, and cabling have been done with integrated field-test, establishment of data acquisition system, and instrument calibration since the completion of the main tower construction in this year. Procedure guide was also made for the effective management covering instrument operation, calibration and repair. Real measurement has been done during two months from this October after whole integration of equipments. Occurrence of nocturnal inversion layer, fogging, and frequent stable condition of atmospheric stability were shown as the analysis results of measured data which well represented seasonal and regional characteristics in the site. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS(data acquision system) where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. (Author).

  17. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  18. The geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) instrument on EUMETSAT's MSG satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C. W.; Allan, P. M.; Caldwell, M. E.; Delderfield, J.; Oliver, M. B.; Sawyer, E.; Harries, J. E.; Ashmall, J.; Brindley, H.; Kellock, S.; Mossavati, R.; Wrigley, R.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Blake, O.; Butcher, G.; Cole, R.; Nelms, N.; DeWitte, S.; Gloesener, P.; Fabbrizzi, F.

    2003-12-01

    Geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) is an Announcement of Opportunity Instrument for EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. GERB will make accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget from geostationary orbit, provide an absolute reference calibration for LEO Earth radiation budget instruments and allow studies of the energetics of atmospheric processes. By operating from geostationary orbit, measurements may be made many times a day, thereby providing essentially perfect diurnal sampling of the radiation balance between reflected and emitted radiance for that area of the globe within the field of view. GERB will thus complement other instruments which operate in low orbit and give complete global coverage, but with poor and biased time resolution. GERB measures infrared radiation in two wavelength bands: 0.32-4.0 and 0.32- 30 μm, with a pixel element size of 44 km at sub-satellite point. This paper gives an overview of the project and concentrates on the design and development of the instrument and ground testing and calibration, and lessons learnt from a short time scale low-budget project. The instrument was delivered for integration on the MSG platform in April 1999 ready for the proposed launch in October 2000, which has now been delayed probably to early 2002. The ground segment is being undertaken by RAL and RMIB and produces near real-time data for meteorological applications in conjunction with the main MSG imager—SEVERI. Climate research and other applications which are being developed under a EU Framework IV pilot project will be served by fully processed data. Because of the relevance of the observations to climate change, it is planned to maintain an operating instrument in orbit for at least 3.5 years. Two further GERB instruments are being built for subsequent launches of MSG.

  19. Wind measurements with SODAR during strong temperature inversions near the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Vogt, S.

    1989-08-01

    SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) equipment has been increasingly used to measure vertical wind profiles with little expenditure in terms of staff, continuously over time and with a good spatial resolution. These informations serve as input variables for atmospheric transport and dispersion models, environmental monitoring of industrial facilities and, generally, for investigating a broad spectrum of meteorological phenomena. The SODAR principle has proved its suitability since long provided that the data recorded with SODAR have served to establish wind statistics valid for extended periods of time. At industrial sites potentially releasing substances prejudicial to health, e.g., chemical plants, nuclear power plants, etc., a SODAR must, moreover, be capable of measuring reliable the wind conditions also during short periods of release. This would, e.g., be important during accidental releases. Especially interesting situations for pollutant dispersion are distinct temperature inversions. It will be examined in this paper whether a SODAR is capable of measuring reliably the wind conditions also during those inversions. The selection of the situations of inversion as well as the direct intercomparison of data supplied by SODAR and conventional wind measuring instruments (anemometer and wind vane) are possible at the 200 m meteorological tower erected at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The comparison between SODAR and the meteorological tower has shown that a SODAR is able to measure reliably the wind data also in situations characterized by strong ground-based and elevated inversions, respectively. (orig./KW) [de

  20. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  1. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  2. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  3. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  4. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  5. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  6. Analysis of Operation Plumbbob nuclear test: BOLTZMANN radiological and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, C.R. Jr.; Kennedy, N.C.; Quinn, V.E.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) analyses of the radiological and meteorological data collected for the BOLTZMANN nuclear test of Operation PLUMBBOB. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of converting aerial radiological data to equivalent ground-level values and of estimating fallout arrival times are presented. The meteorological situation on D-day is described. A comparison of the WSNSO fallout analyses with analyses in the late 1950's is presented. The appendices contain tabulated radiological data used in the fallout analyses, and contain discussions of the BOLTZMANN hot spot contention and of the enhanced activity at Portola, California

  7. Interim report on the meteorological database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives

  8. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  9. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  10. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  11. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  12. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  13. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  14. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  15. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  16. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  17. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  18. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  19. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI: design, execution, and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI. The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing, and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent

  20. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  1. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  2. Ten Years of Boundary-Layer and Wind-Power Meteorology at Høvsøre, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Sathe, Ameya

    2016-01-01

    Operational since 2004, the National Centre for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark has become a reference research site for wind-power meteorology. In this study, we review the site, its instrumentation, observations, and main research programs. The programs comprise activities on, inter alia......, remote sensing, where measurements from lidars have been compared extensively with those from traditional instrumentation on masts. In addition, with regard to wind-power meteorology, wind-resource methodologies for wind climate extrapolation have been evaluated and improved. Further, special attention...

  3. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  4. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  5. Meteorological aspects of the reactor safety study requiring further study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and approximate methods are used in a search for meteorological features that dominate estimates of reactor-accident consequences, and that require more accurate descriptions if consequence estimates are to be more realistic. By considering variations in the source term, it is seen that accidents involving containment-vessel failure dominate both the mean and variance of the distribution of consequences, although this conclusion is subject to uncertainties about plume rise. Research is recommended on the behavior of horizontal, sonic jets, with heat transfer to the ground, and especially during stable atmospheric conditions. Diffusion with fumigation and lofting require further study; use of K-theory and National Weather Service data should be vigorously pursued. Conditional upon an accident occurring, precipitation scavenging appears to dominate the variance of the consequences

  6. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  7. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  8. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  9. Air pollutants, meteorology and plant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukammal, E I; Brandt, C S; Neuwirth, R; Pack, D H; Swinbank, W C

    1968-01-01

    The study of the effect of air pollutants on plant growth inevitably involves meteorological factors, and the World Meteorological Organization has therefore been giving much attention to this matter for some time. Within the Organization, responsibility for this work naturally fell to the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM), and following the time-honored procedure in such cases, the Commission established in 1962 a small international group of acknowledged experts to study plant injury and reduction of yield by non-radioactive air pollutants, and charged it with the specific task of preparing a review of present knowledge of the subjects involved. After several years' work, the group fulfilled its appointed task and the resulting report is now published in this WMO Technical Note. 95 references.

  10. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  11. Peer-tutoring educational experiences about meteorological and climatological issues in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Sergio; Flapp, Federica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present some experiences of intergenerational education about meteorology and climatology issues carried out with school pupils from 6 to 19 years old, through peer-tutoring methodology. These experiences started in 2003 and each year the project involves about 500 students in Friuli Venezia Giulia region (about 8.000 km2) in northeastern Italy. A group of volunteers (older students from upper secondary school, 17-19 years old) play the role of "tutor": they receive supplementary training on meteorology and climatology, and then, during students' meetings and/or public events, they teach younger pupils how to use meteorological instruments (thermometer, hygrometer, barometer, anemometer, rain gages, etc.) and they carry out interactive experiences such as "game-experiments", to better understand some meteorological concepts, like density of fluids, and some climatological notions, like the effects of climate change with an exhibit that simulates the greenhouse effect. They also do some meteorological forecasting exercises, using meteorological maps, as if they were actual forecasters. All these activities are addressed to pupils from primary (age 6-11) and lower secondary schools (age 11-14), and both tutors and their younger "apprentices" are not only cognitively, but also emotionally involved in such learning experiences. As a second step of this educational process, after consolidating the above mentioned peer-tutoring activities, high school students hare being actively involved in developing visual tools - e.g. video-clips, interviews and cartoons - in order to communicate climate change issues in the most effective way to younger pupils. Keywords: meteorology, climatology, climate change, schools, education, communication.

  12. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang Won Tae

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author)

  13. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyung Seok; Hwang, Wan Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. The calm distributed 28.6% at 67m, 20.5% at 27m, 39.2% at 10m height. 9 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  14. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Tae, Hwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author).

  15. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  16. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions

  17. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  18. The Design and Implementation of a Remote Fault Reasoning Diagnosis System for Meteorological Satellites Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of the trouble shooting requirements of FENGYUN-3 (FY-3 meteorological satellites data acquisition in domestic and oversea ground stations, a remote fault reasoning diagnosis system is developed by Java 1.6 in eclipse 3.6 platform. The general framework is analyzed, the workflow is introduced. Based on the system, it can realize the remote and centralized monitoring of equipment running status in ground stations,triggering automatic fault diagnosis and rule based fault reasoning by parsing the equipment quality logs, generating trouble tickets and importing expert experience database, providing text and graphics query methods. Through the practical verification, the system can assist knowledge engineers in remote precise and rapid fault location with friendly graphical user interface, boost the fault diagnosis efficiency, enhance the remote monitoring ability of integrity operating control system. The system has a certain practical significance to improve reliability of FY-3 meteorological satellites data acquisition.

  19. Homogeneity study of fixed-point continuous marine environmental and meteorological data: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinkun; Yang, Yang; Miao, Qingsheng; Dong, Mingmei; Wan, Fangfang

    2018-02-01

    The principle of inhomogeneity and the classification of homogeneity test methods are briefly described, and several common inhomogeneity methods and relative merits are described in detail. Then based on the applications of the different homogeneity methods to the ground meteorological data and marine environment data, the present status and the progress are reviewed. At present, the homogeneity research of radiosonde and ground meteorological data is mature at home and abroad, and the research and application in the marine environmental data should also be given full attention. To carry out a variety of test and correction methods combined with the use of multi-mode test system, will make the results more reasonable and scientific, and also can be used to provide accurate first-hand information for the coastal climate change researches.

  20. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  1. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  2. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.

  3. Nonlinear bias analysis and correction of microwave temperature sounder observations for FY-3C meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taiyang; Lv, Rongchuan; Jin, Xu; Li, Hao; Chen, Wenxin

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear bias analysis and correction of receiving channels in Chinese FY-3C meteorological satellite Microwave Temperature Sounder (MWTS) is a key technology of data assimilation for satellite radiance data. The thermal-vacuum chamber calibration data acquired from the MWTS can be analyzed to evaluate the instrument performance, including radiometric temperature sensitivity, channel nonlinearity and calibration accuracy. Especially, the nonlinearity parameters due to imperfect square-law detectors will be calculated from calibration data and further used to correct the nonlinear bias contributions of microwave receiving channels. Based upon the operational principles and thermalvacuum chamber calibration procedures of MWTS, this paper mainly focuses on the nonlinear bias analysis and correction methods for improving the calibration accuracy of the important instrument onboard FY-3C meteorological satellite, from the perspective of theoretical and experimental studies. Furthermore, a series of original results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and significance of the methods.

  4. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  5. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  6. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Djellouli, A. Bouanani and K. Babahamed

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... en meteorological drought indices was found for 9-month time step ... Drought severity is expected to increase further in the next 50 years [20]. ... In the present study, our interest to examine the applicability of various drought ...

  7. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 .... adjoining Iran & Arabian Sea with temperature gradient of order 5 Kelvin on 28th February, 2015. (Fig. 4a). On 1st .... Indian Region on 00 UTC of 1st March and seen in two patches, one over north Pakistan & .... Accordingly, the precipitation belt also.

  8. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  9. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  11. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  12. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  13. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last century, Algeria experienced a rainfall deficit was recorded in 1944, then successive drought periods since 1975 to the present day in Northen and Eastern. The most recent has repercussions on water resources and on agriculture. In this paper, we focus on the meteorological and hydrological drought.

  14. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  15. NASA's aviation safety - meteorology research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The areas covering the meteorological hazards program are: severe storms and the hazards to flight generated by severe storms; clear air turbulence; icing; warm fog dissipation; and landing systems. Remote sensing of ozone by satellites, and the use of satellites as data relays is also discussed.

  16. Comparison of total column ozone obtained by the IASI-MetOp satellite with ground-based and OMI satellite observations in the southern tropics and subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Toihir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison results of the total column ozone (TCO data product over 13 southern tropical and subtropical sites recorded from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI onboard the EUMETSAT (European organization for the exploitation of METeorological SATellite MetOp (Meteorological Operational satellite program satellite. TCO monthly averages obtained from IASI between June 2008 and December 2012 are compared with collocated TCO measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on the OMI/Aura satellite and the Dobson and SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénithale ground-based instruments. The results show that IASI displays a positive bias with an average less than 2 % with respect to OMI and Dobson observations, but exhibits a negative bias compared to SAOZ over Bauru with a bias around 2.63 %. There is a good agreement between IASI and the other instruments, especially from 15° S southward where a correlation coefficient higher than 0.87 is found. IASI exhibits a seasonal dependence, with an upward trend in autumn and a downward trend during spring, especially before September 2010. After September 2010, the autumn seasonal bias is considerably reduced due to changes made to the retrieval algorithm of the IASI level 2 (L2 product. The L2 product released after August (L2 O3 version 5 (v5 matches TCO from the other instruments better compared to version 4 (v4, which was released between June 2008 and August 2010. IASI bias error recorded from September 2010 is estimated to be at 1.5 % with respect to OMI and less than ±1 % with respect to the other ground-based instruments. Thus, the improvement made by O3 L2 version 5 (v5 product compared with version 4 (v4, allows IASI TCO products to be used with confidence to study the distribution and interannual variability of total ozone in the southern tropics and subtropics.

  17. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  18. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  19. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  20. Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lainer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The important task to observe the global coverage of middle atmospheric trace gases like water vapor or ozone usually is accomplished by satellites. Climate and atmospheric studies rely upon the knowledge of trace gas distributions throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere. Many of these gases are currently measured from satellites, but it is not clear whether this capability will be maintained in the future. This could lead to a significant knowledge gap of the state of the atmosphere. We explore the possibilities of mapping middle atmospheric water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere by using Lagrangian trajectory calculations and water vapor profile data from a small network of five ground-based microwave radiometers. Four of them are operated within the frame of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Keeping in mind that the instruments are based on different hardware and calibration setups, a height-dependent bias of the retrieved water vapor profiles has to be expected among the microwave radiometers. In order to correct and harmonize the different data sets, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite is used to serve as a kind of traveling standard. A domain-averaging TM (trajectory mapping method is applied which simplifies the subsequent validation of the quality of the trajectory-mapped water vapor distribution towards direct satellite observations. Trajectories are calculated forwards and backwards in time for up to 10 days using 6 hourly meteorological wind analysis fields. Overall, a total of four case studies of trajectory mapping in different meteorological regimes are discussed. One of the case studies takes place during a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW accompanied by the polar vortex breakdown; a second takes place after the reformation of stable circulation system. TM cases close to the fall equinox and June solstice event from the year 2012 complete the study, showing the high

  1. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Oswald; H. Pietsch; D. J. Baumgartner; P. Weihs; H. E. Rieder

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spr...

  2. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and

  3. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  4. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  5. Technological considerations in emergency instrument preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Emergency preparedness has been emphasized during the development of the nuclear industry. Existing instrumentation technology has been effectively applied to minimizing the probability of accidents. Radiological instrumentation provided for the measurement of ambient radiation levels or routine releases of radioactive material is usually adequate to provide an early warning that an accident is occurring. In contrast, radiological instrumentation capable of providing a reasonable measure of the source term which could be involved in a severe accident has not received enough attention. In emergency planning the capability should be established for identifying as promptly as possible the need for evasive action out in the plant environs and for minimizing the consequences of an accident in terms of resultant human exposure. Therefore instrumentation is required to measure the source term no matter where the point of release might be, together with instrumentation for obtaining meteorological data sufficient to establish the path of the release in the environment

  6. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  7. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  8. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  9. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  10. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  19. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  2. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  3. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  6. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  7. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  10. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  17. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  8. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  9. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  10. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  12. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  14. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  16. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  17. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, P.T.; Ramirez S, R.; Gonzalez M, J.L.; Rojas N, P.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  2. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  3. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  4. Statistics of meteorological data at Tokai Research Establishment in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Haruo; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2003-12-01

    The meteorological observation data at Tokai site were analyzed statistically based on a 'Guideline of meteorological statistics for the safety analysis of nuclear power reactor' (Nuclear Safety Commission on January 28, 1982; revised on March 29, 2001). This report shows the meteorological analysis of wind direction, wind velocity and atmospheric stability etc. to assess the public dose around the Tokai site caused by the released gaseous radioactivity. The statistical period of meteorological data is every 5 years from 1981 to 1995. (author)

  5. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  6. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  7. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  8. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  9. Meteorological services annual data report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2015. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  10. Meteorological services annual data report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, S.

    2017-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2016. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  11. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  12. Meteorological services annual data report for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John

    2018-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2017. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  13. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    , UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tenthousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12MW class, with tip heights of over 200m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most...

  14. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes

  15. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  16. Uncertainty analysis of hydro-meteorological forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Grythe, Karl Kristian; Gao, Yukun

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi 2010 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Meteorological and hydrological forecasts are very important to human’s life which concerns agriculture, industry, transport, etc. The Nordic hydropower industry use and develop hydrological forecasting models to make predictions of rivers steam flow. The quantity of incoming stream flow is important to the electricity production because excessive water in reservoir will cause flood ...

  17. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  18. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  19. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  20. XOQDOQ, Meteorological Evaluation of Atmospheric Nuclear Power Plant Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.; Eyberger, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XOQDOQ was designed for meteorological evaluation of continuous and anticipated intermittent releases from commercial nuclear power reactors. It calculates annual relative effluent concentrations and average relative deposition values at locations specified by the user and at various standard radial distances and segments for downwind sectors. It also calculates these values at the specified locations for anticipated intermittent (e.g. containment or purge) releases, which occur during routine operation. The program computes an effective plume height that accounts for physical release height, aerodynamic down-wash, plume rise, and terrain features. The user may optionally select additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume depletion via dry deposition, and plume radioactive decay, or specify adjustments to represent non-straight line trajectories (recirculation or stagnation). 2 - Method of solution: XOQDOQ is based on the principle that diffusion of material released to the atmosphere can be described by a Gaussian distribution within the plume with transport described by a straight-line trajectory. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients are empirically determined, largely from observations at or near ground level. The program implements the assumptions outlined in Section C of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.111. Long-term average values of relative effluent concentration are calculated by assuming a long-term continuous release with effluent distributed evenly across a 22-1/2 degree sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 30 receptor locations/receptor type, 14 wind-speed classes, 10 distances of site-specific recirculation correction factors, 8 receptor types, 7 atmospheric stability categories, 5 separate release points. XOQDOQ cannot handle multiple emission sources or plume depletion via wet deposition, or evaluate the meteorological aspects of the consequences of

  1. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lewis, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  2. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  3. A globally calibrated scheme for generating daily meteorology from monthly statistics: Global-WGEN (GWGEN) v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-10-01

    While a wide range of Earth system processes occur at daily and even subdaily timescales, many global vegetation and other terrestrial dynamics models historically used monthly meteorological forcing both to reduce computational demand and because global datasets were lacking. Recently, dynamic land surface modeling has moved towards resolving daily and subdaily processes, and global datasets containing daily and subdaily meteorology have become available. These meteorological datasets, however, cover only the instrumental era of the last approximately 120 years at best, are subject to considerable uncertainty, and represent extremely large data files with associated computational costs of data input/output and file transfer. For periods before the recent past or in the future, global meteorological forcing can be provided by climate model output, but the quality of these data at high temporal resolution is low, particularly for daily precipitation frequency and amount. Here, we present GWGEN, a globally applicable statistical weather generator for the temporal downscaling of monthly climatology to daily meteorology. Our weather generator is parameterized using a global meteorological database and simulates daily values of five common variables: minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and wind speed. GWGEN is lightweight, modular, and requires a minimal set of monthly mean variables as input. The weather generator may be used in a range of applications, for example, in global vegetation, crop, soil erosion, or hydrological models. While GWGEN does not currently perform spatially autocorrelated multi-point downscaling of daily weather, this additional functionality could be implemented in future versions.

  4. Fifty years of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring by the German Meteorological Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    At a commemorative event at the Langen Training and Congress Center on 8 and 9 June 2005 it was brought to the attention of the audience that the German Meteorological Service has been charged with the sovereign task of monitoring atmospheric radioactivity since 8 August 1955. The purpose of this commission at the time was to measure traces of radioactivity in the atmosphere and precipitation and make forecasts on the movement of radioactive air masses. This was motivated by the above-ground nuclear tests carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union and the resulting measurable increase in atmospheric radioactivity levels. Equipped as it was with the necessary infrastructure the German Meteorological Service offered to take on this monitoring task. The importance of being able to assess the meteorological situation and provide data on radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and precipitation became apparent in 1986 after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl. When the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection was enacted in 1986 it was therefore only logical for the German Meteorological Service's commission to monitor atmospheric radioactivity levels to be renewed

  5. Investigations of the adequacy of the meteorological transport model developed for the reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring, J.L.; Brown, W.D.; Church, H.W.; McGrath, P.E.; Ritchie, L.T.; Russo, A.J.; Steck, G.P.; Wayland, J.R.; Blond, R.M.; Wall, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    A computer model (CRAC) was developed for the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) [1] to estimate the consequences of postulated accidents at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. One hundred reactors at 68 sites were included in the study. The 68 sites were divided into 6 classes according to their geographic location and meteorology. For each site class, a composite population distribution was constructed from the true population distributions at each of the sites comprising that class, and a reference site was chosen for which a full year of meteorological data (wind speed, atmospheric stability, occurrence of rain) was obtained. Given data about a postulated accident (probability, amounts of the released radionuclides, etc.) and the reference reactor site (meteorology, composite population, land usage), CRAC was used to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and ground deposition of the released radionuclides (Gaussian plume submodel) and the health effects (dosimetric and dose response submodels) and costs (land interdiction and decontamination submodel) resulting from their release. The Gaussian plume model used in CRAC either did not treat or treated simplistically a number of meteorological phenomena. Simplified models were used to treat plume rise, inversion layers, and rainstorms, while wind shear, wind direction, and correlations between wind fields and population distributions were not treated at all. Some of the effects of all of these phenomena on predictions of accident consequences as calculated using CRAC have been or are being investigated. The results of these studies are summarized

  6. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  7. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  8. Reliability analysis of meteorological data registered during nuclear power plant normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Ulke, A.; Marino, B.; Thomas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atmosphere is the environment in which gaseous radioactive discharges from nuclear power plants are transported. It is therefore essential to have reliable meteorological information to characterize the dispersion and feed evaluation models and radiological environmental impact during normal operation of the plant as well as accidental releases. In this way it is possible to determine the effects on the environment and in humans. The basic data needed to represent adequately the local weather include air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, humidity and pressure. On the other hand, specific data consistent with the used model is required to determine the turbulence, for instance, radiation, cloud cover and vertical temperature gradient. It is important that the recorded data are representative of the local meteorology. This requires, first, properly placed instruments, that should be kept in operation and undergoing maintenance on a regular basis. Second, but equally substantial, a thorough analysis of its reliability must be performed prior to storage and/or data processing. In this paper we present the main criteria to consider choosing the location of a meteorological tower in the area of a nuclear power plant and propose a methodology for assessing the reliability of recorded data. The methodology was developed from the analysis of meteorological data registered in nuclear power plants in Argentina. (authors) [es

  9. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S; Brisset, P; Mueller, M

    2008-01-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s -1 . With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes

  10. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allegaten 70, 5009 Bergen (Norway); Brisset, P [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), 7 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mueller, M [Orleansstrasse 26a, 31135 Hildesheim (Germany)], E-mail: joachim.reuder@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: pascal.brisset@enac.fr, E-mail: marius.jonassen@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: martin@pfump.org, E-mail: stephanie.mayer@gfi.uib.no

    2008-05-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes.

  11. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO. A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius; Mayer, Stephanie [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geophysical Inst.; Brisset, Pascal [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), Toulouse (France); Mueller, Martin [Martin Mueller Engineering, Hildesheim (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a cost-efficient measurement system with the aim to close the existing observational gap of atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes. The system is highly flexible and has the capability for in-situ ABL measurements with unique spatial and temporal resolution. SUMO is based on a light-weighted styrofoam model airplane, equipped with an autopilot system for autonomous flight missions and in its recent version with meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and a total lift-off weight of 580 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas with limited infrastructure. During several field campaigns in 2007 and 2008 the system has been successfully tested and operated. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground during the FLOHOF (FLOw over and around HOFsjoekull) field campaign in Central Iceland in July/August 2007. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m even at ground temperatures of -20 C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  12. Viking-2 Seismometer Measurements on Mars: PDS Data Archive and Meteorological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Nakamura, Yosio; Murphy, James R.

    2017-11-01

    A data product has been generated and archived on the NASA Planetary Data System (Geosciences Node), which presents the seismometer readings of Viking Lander 2 in an easy-to-access form, for both the raw ("high rate") waveform records and the compressed ("event mode") amplitude and frequency records. In addition to the records themselves, a separate summary file for each instrument mode lists key statistics of each record together with the meteorological measurements made closest in time to the seismic record. This juxtaposition facilitates correlation of the seismometer instrument response to different meteorological conditions, or the selection of seismic data during which wind disturbances can be expected to be small. We summarize data quality issues and also discuss lander-generated seismic signals, due to operation of the sampling arm or other systems, which may be of interest for prospective missions to other bodies. We review wind-seismic correlation, the "Martian solar day (sol) 80" candidate seismic event, and identify the seismic signature of a probable dust devil vortex on sol 482 : the seismometer data allow an estimate of the peak wind, occurring between coarsely spaced meteorology measurements. We present code to generate the plots in this paper to illustrate use of the data product.

  13. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  14. Synoptic meteorology manual of standard practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.E.

    1954-03-22

    This report, dated March 22, 1954 details work procedures for the 200- West Area at HAPO. Topics discussed include emergency procedures, safety and housekeeping practices, policies and procedures, instruments and equipment located at the 622 tower, instruments and equipment located offsite, observational procedures, form entries, and card punching, and weather forecasting.

  15. The role of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, A.L.; Valkama, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for the dispersion forecasts for the radiation control in Finland. In addition to the normal weather forecasts the duty forecaster has the work station based three dimensional trajectory model and the short range dispersion model YDINO at his disposal. For expert use, dispersion and dose model TRADOS is available. The TRADOS, developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, includes a meteorological data base that utilizes the numerical forecasts of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) weather prediction model. The transport is described by three-dimensional air-parcel trajectories. For each time step the integrated air concentrations as well as dry and wet deposition for selected groups of radionuclides are computed. In the operational emergency application only external dose rates are computed. In the statistical version also individual and population dose estimates via several external and internal pathways can be made. The TRADOS is currently run under two separate user interfaces. The trajectory and dispersion model interface includes ready-made lists of the nuclear power plants and other installations. The dose model has a set of release terms for several groups of radionuclides. There is also a graphical module that enables the computed results to be presented in grid or also isolines. A new graphical user interface and presentation lay-outs redesigned as visual and end-user friendly as possible and with the aim of possible and with the aim of possible adoption as a Nordic standard will be installed in the near future. (orig.)

  16. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  17. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  18. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Validation and Verification on National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Lockheed WP-3D Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, George; Daniels, Taumi S.; Zysko, Jan; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting project (TAMDAR) developed a low-cost sensor for aircraft flying in the lower troposphere. This activity was a joint effort with support from Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and industry. This paper reports the TAMDAR sensor performance validation and verification, as flown on board NOAA Lockheed WP-3D aircraft. These flight tests were conducted to assess the performance of the TAMDAR sensor for measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and wind parameters. The ultimate goal was to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological data, downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. The envisioned system will initially be used on regional and package carrier aircraft. The ultimate users of the data are National Centers for Environmental Prediction forecast modelers. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. NASA worked with an industry partner to develop the sensor. Prototype sensors were subjected to numerous tests in ground and flight facilities. As a result of these earlier tests, many design improvements were made to the sensor. The results of tests on a final version of the sensor are the subject of this report. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated air speed, true air speed, ice presence, wind speed and direction, and eddy dissipation rate. Summary results from the flight test are presented along with corroborative data from aircraft instruments.

  19. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    decision supports and evaluations. The main focus of the instrument is operational drought management and evaluating adaptive measures for different climate scenario's. It has also been used though as a basis to evaluate water quality of WFD-water bodies and measures, nutrient-leaching and describing WFD groundwater bodies. There is a toolkit to translate the hydrological NHI results to values for different water users. For instance with the NHI results agricultural yields can be calculated, effects on ground water dependant ecosystems, subsidence, shipping, drinking water supply. This makes NHI a valuable decision support system in Dutch water management.

  20. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  1. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  2. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  3. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  4. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  5. Satellite and Ground Based Monitoring of Aerosol Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Martin; Dorling, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Plumes of atmospheric aerosol have been studied using a range of satellite and ground-based techniques. The Sea-viewing WideField-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has been used to observe plumes of sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust around the coast of the United Kingdom. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) was retrieved from SeaWiFS for two events; a plume of Saharan dust transported over the United Kingdom from Western Africa and a period of elevated sulphate experienced over the Easternregion of the UK. Patterns of AOT are discussed and related to the synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions. Further observation of the sulphate aerosol event was undertaken using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument(AVHRR). Atmospheric back trajectories and weather conditions were studied in order to identify the meteorological conditions which led to this event. Co-located ground-based measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were obtained for 4sites within the UK and PM 2.5/10 ratios were calculated in order to identify any unusually high or low ratios(indicating the dominant size fraction within the plume)during either of these events. Calculated percentiles ofPM 2.5/10 ratios during the 2 events examined show that these events were notable within the record, but were in noway unique or unusual in the context of a 3 yr monitoring record. Visibility measurements for both episodes have been examined and show that visibility degradation occurred during both the sulphate aerosol and Saharan dust episodes

  6. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  7. Strategy of thunderstorm measurement with super dense ground-based observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    It's not easy to understand the inside structure and developing process of thunderstorm only with existing meteorological instruments since its horizontal extent of the storm cell is sometimes smaller than an order of 10 km while one of the densest ground network in Japan, AMEDAS, consists of sites located every 17 km in average and the resolution of meteorological radar is 1-2 km in general. Even the X-band radar realizes the resolution of 250 m or larger. Here we suggest a new super dense observation network with simple and low cost sensors that can be used for measurement both of raindrop and vertical electric field change caused by cloud-to-ground lightning discharge. This sensor consists of two aluminum plates with a diameter of 10-20 cm. We carried out an observation campaign in summer of 2013 in the foothills of Mt. Yastugatake, Yamanashi and Nagano prefectures in Japan, installing 6 plate-type sensors at a distance of about 4 km. Horizontal location, height and charge amount of each lightning discharge are estimated successfully based on the information of electric field changes at several observing sites. Moreover, it was found that the thunderstorm has a very narrow structure well smaller than 300 m that cannot be measured by any other ways, counting the positive and negative pulses caused by attachment of raindrop to the sensor plate, respectively. We plan to construct a new super dense observation network in the north Kanto region, Japan, where the lightning activity is most prominent in summer Japan, distributing more than several tens of sensors at every 4 km or shorter, such as an order of 100 m at minimum. This kind of new type network will reveal the unknown fine structures of thunderstorms and open the door for constructing real time alert system of torrential rainfall and lightning stroke especially in the city area.

  8. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  9. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  10. Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosy, Caroline; Krampf, Karina; Zeeman, Matthias; Wolf, Benjamin; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-08-01

    The state and composition of the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), i.e., the atmospheric surface layer (SL), reflects the interactions of external forcing, land surface, vegetation, human influence and the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of atmospheric variables in the SL at high spatial (meters) and temporal (1 Hz and better) resolution increase our understanding of these interactions but are still challenging to measure appropriately. Traditional ground-based observations include towers that often cover only a few measurement heights at a fixed location. At the same time, most remote sensing techniques and aircraft measurements have limitations to achieve sufficient detail close to the ground (up to 50 m). Vertical and horizontal transects of the PBL can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Our aim in this case study is to assess the use of a multicopter-type UAV for the spatial sampling of air and simultaneously the sensing of meteorological variables for the study of the surface exchange processes. To this end, a UAV was equipped with onboard air temperature and humidity sensors, while wind conditions were determined from the UAV's flight control sensors. Further, the UAV was used to systematically change the location of a sample inlet connected to a sample tube, allowing the observation of methane abundance using a ground-based analyzer. Vertical methane gradients of about 0.3 ppm were found during stable atmospheric conditions. Our results showed that both methane and meteorological conditions were in agreement with other observations at the site during the ScaleX-2015 campaign. The multicopter-type UAV was capable of simultaneous in situ sensing of meteorological state variables and sampling of air up to 50 m above the surface, which extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of 5.

  11. Evaluation of an atmospheric model with surface and ABL meteorological data for energy applications in structured areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, A. G.; Kalogiros, J.; Krestou, A.; Leivaditou, E.; Zoumakis, N.; Bouris, D.; Garas, S.; Konstantinidis, E.; Wang, Q.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides the performance evaluation of the meteorological component of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a nestable prognostic model, in predicting meteorological variables in urban areas, for both its surface layer and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence parameterizations. The model was modified by incorporating four urban land surface types, replacing the existing single urban surface. Control runs were carried out over the wider area of Kozani, an urban area in NW Greece. The model was evaluated for both surface and ABL meteorological variables by using measurements of near-surface and vertical profiles of wind and temperature. The data were collected by using monitoring surface stations in selected sites as well as an acoustic sounder (SOnic Detection And Ranging (SODAR), up to 300 m above ground) and a radiometer profiler (up to 600 m above ground). The results showed the model demonstrated good performance in predicting the near-surface meteorology in the Kozani region for both a winter and a summer month. In the ABL, the comparison showed that the model's forecasts generally performed well with respect to the thermal structure (temperature profiles and ABL height) but overestimated wind speed at the heights of comparison (mostly below 200 m) up to 3-4 ms-1.

  12. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sorensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure' (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Oresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4 km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  13. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  14. Nowcasting Surface Meteorological Parameters Using Successive Correction Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henmi, Teizi

    2002-01-01

    The successive correction method was examined and evaluated statistically as a nowcasting method for surface meteorological parameters including temperature, dew point temperature, and horizontal wind vector components...

  15. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  16. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  17. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  18. Meteorología y clima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta; Casas Castillo, M. del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Este libro constituye una introducción al estudio de la atmósfera en los campos de la meteorología y la climatología. Se ha concebido especialmente como herramienta de apoyo para los estudiantes de ciencias y tecnología que inician los estudios de estos temas. El libro incorpora un programa informático de simulación del cambio climático. En él se exponen las características generales de la atmósfera, su estructura física y la composición química y también se hace una introducción al proble...

  19. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  20. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  1. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  2. Long path optical extinction and meteorology in the San Francisco bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porch, W M; Galloway, T R; Green, T J; Ellsaesser, H W

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of night-time long path extinction (25 km) across San Francisco Bay and local meteorological measurements at Oakland Airport revealed a dominant role of boundary layer mixing on visibility. Inversion depth and inversion depth multiplied by wind speed were both strongly inversely correlated with night-time atmospheric extinction. Oakland Airport wind speed and humidity showed little correlation with the extinction measurements. Stellar extinction was also found to be sensitive to mixing depth. This is important as visibility and turbidity trend studies rarely include mixing depth measurements. These results indicate the importance of developing instruments to use the same light source for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents, wind and humidity.

  3. The airborne radioactivity and electrical properties of ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Matul, M.; Mikolajewski, S.; Trzaskowska, H.; Kubicki, M.

    2001-01-01

    The data presented in this work are the result of systematic measurements of radionuclide concentrations in air and density of vertical current. The airborne 7 Be concentration changes similar to the electrical conductivity of air, collected with an ASS-500 high volume air sampler of the ground atr monitoring network supervised by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. Sampling has been done since March 1991. Simultaneously, the routine complex meteorological observations were performed. In particular, the electrical properties of ground level atmospheric air were studied with measurements of electrical field intensity, positive and negative conductivity of the air,while other isotopes, anthropogenic or originating from the ground are correlated with dust and other meteorological factors like watering and wind. (author)

  4. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  5. Weather scenarios for dose calculations with incomplete meteorological data. V.IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lam, L.H.; Moran, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a study to substantiate or modify the weather scenarios proposed by the Atomic Energy Control Board Staff Position Paper on meteorological acceptance criteria for estimating the potential radiological consequences of postulated accidents (AECB, 1982) for short-, prolonged-, and long-term releases from ground level and elevated sources. The study examined available meteorological data in Canada to determine whether the AECB-proposed scenarios are sufficiently general that they are appropriate and conservative for any potential nuclear power plant in Canada, but also realistic, i.e., not so conservative that the results of dose calculations using these scenarios would be wholly unrepresentative leading to incorrect design decisions. Three different sets of scenarios were derived using three site-specific data sets from weather stations that are representative of existing nuclear power plants in Canada. When compared, the scenarios for the three sites are not significantly different from each other, especially in terms of trends, considering that they have been based on data from widely differing meteorological regions in Canada. Conservative envelopes of the scenarios for the three sites were taken to give the recommended general weather scenario set. The recommended set was then compared with the AECB proposed scenarios. The recommended scenarios are, in general, conservative

  6. Weather scenarios for dose calculations with incomplete meteorological data. V.I.(rev.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lam, L.H.; Moran, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a study to substantiate or modify the weather scenarios proposed by the Atomic Energy Control Board Staff Position Paper on meteorological acceptance criteria for estimating the potential radiological consequences of postulated accidents (AECB, 1982) for short-, prolonged-, and long-term releases from ground level and elevated sources. The study examined available meteorological data in Canada to determine whether the AECB-proposed scenarios are sufficiently general that they are appropriate and conservative for any potential nuclear power plant in Canada, but also realistic, i.e., not so conservative that the results of dose calculations using these scenarios would be wholly unrepresentative leading to incorrect design decisions. Three different sets of scenarios were derived using three site-specific data sets from weather stations that are representative of existing nuclear power plants in Canada. When compared, the scenarios for the three sites are not significantly different from each other, especially in terms of trends, considering that they have been based on data from widely differing meteorological regions in Canada. Conservative envelopes of the scenarios for the three sites were taken to give the recommended general weather scenario set. The recommended set was then compared with the AECB proposed scenarios. The recommended scenarios are, in general, conservative

  7. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  8. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  9. Comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year using meteorological data from a tropical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Deeyai, P. [Laboratory of Tropical Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents the comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year (TMY) data set using a 10-year period of meteorological data from four stations in a tropical environment of Thailand. These methods are the Sadia National Laboratory method, the Danish method and the Festa and Ratto method. In investigating their performance, these methods were employed to generate TMYs for each station. For all parameters of the TMYs and the stations, statistical test indicates that there is no significant difference between the 10-year average values of these parameters and the corresponding average values from TMY generated from each method. The TMY obtained from each method was also used as input data to simulate two solar water heating systems and two photovoltaic systems with different sizes at the four stations by using the TRNSYS simulation program. Solar fractions and electrical output calculated using TMYs are in good agreement with those computed employing the 10-year period hourly meteorological data. It is concluded that the performance of the three methods has no significant difference for all stations under this investigation. Due to its simplicity, the method of Sandia National Laboratories is recommended for the generation of TMY for this tropical environment. The TMYs developed in this work can be used for solar energy and energy conservation applications at the four locations in Thailand. (author)

  10. BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.

    2005-01-01

    ground truth, as well as on urban turbulence and profiling (sodar, RASS, tethered balloon) were performed. Also tracer experiments with near-roof-level release and sampling were performed. In parallel to the experimental activities within BUBBLE, a meso-scale numerical atmospheric model, which contains...

  11. Climatology and time series of surface meteorology in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maturilli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consistent meteorological dataset of the Arctic site Ny-Ålesund (11.9° E, 78.9° N spanning the 18 yr-period 1 August 1993 to 31 July 2011 is presented. Instrumentation and data handling of temperature, humidity, wind and pressure measurements are described in detail. Monthly mean values are shown for all years to illustrate the interannual variability of the different parameters. Climatological mean values are given for temperature, humidity and pressure. From the climatological dataset, we also present the time series of annual mean temperature and humidity, revealing a temperature increase of +1.35 K per decade and an increase in water vapor mixing ratio of +0.22 g kg−1 per decade for the given time period, respectively. With the continuation of the presented measurements, the Ny-Ålesund high resolution time series will provide a reliable source to monitor Arctic change and retrieve trends in the future. The relevant data are provided in high temporal resolution as averages over 5 (1 min before (after 14 July 1998, respectively, placed on the PANGAEA repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.793046. While 6 hourly synoptic observations in Ny-Ålesund by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute reach back to 1974 (Førland et al., 2011, the meteorological data presented here cover a shorter time period, but their high temporal resolution will be of value for atmospheric process studies on shorter time scales.

  12. Annual report of the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on climate simulation; data assimilation and forecasting; nonlinear dynamics and atmospheric turbulence; wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere; African and tropical meteorology and climatology; spectroscopy and modeling of atmospheric radiation; satellite meteorology and climatology; and active lidar remote sensing is presented [fr

  13. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  14. Meteorological aspects of site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemova, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors are considered that characterize the NPP safe layout in a specified region and the physicogeographical conditions determining the meteorological dilution coefficient of NPP radioactive wastes in the atmosphere. A three-point scale system is proposed for estimating physicogeographical factors in three ''fitness'' classes. The data required for calculating meteorological dilution coefficient are given

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  16. Meteorological Observations Available for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Weather Service’s Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) contains a large number of station networks of surface and upper air meteorological observations for the state of Utah. In addition to MADIS, observations from individual station networks may also be available. It has been confirmed that LLNL has access to the data sources listed below.

  17. Satellite Power System (SPS) laser studies. Volume 2: Meteorological effects on laser beam propagation and direct solar pumped lasers for the SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this research activity was to investigate the effect of the environment on laser power transmission/reception from space to ground. Potential mitigation techniques to minimize the environment effect by a judicious choice of laser operating parameters was investigated. Using these techniques, the availability of power at selected sites was determined using statistical meteorological data for each site.

  18. Benchmarking of Typical Meteorological Year datasets dedicated to Concentrated-PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe, Ana Maria; Vernay, Christophe; Pitaval, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien; Lenoir, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Accurate analysis of meteorological and pyranometric data for long-term analysis is the basis of decision-making for banks and investors, regarding solar energy conversion systems. This has led to the development of methodologies for the generation of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) datasets. The most used method for solar energy conversion systems was proposed in 1978 by the Sandia Laboratory (Hall et al., 1978) considering a specific weighted combination of different meteorological variables with notably global, diffuse horizontal and direct normal irradiances, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity. In 2012, a new approach was proposed in the framework of the European project FP7 ENDORSE. It introduced the concept of "driver" that is defined by the user as an explicit function of the pyranometric and meteorological relevant variables to improve the representativeness of the TMY datasets with respect the specific solar energy conversion system of interest. The present study aims at comparing and benchmarking different TMY datasets considering a specific Concentrated-PV (CPV) system as the solar energy conversion system of interest. Using long-term (15+ years) time-series of high quality meteorological and pyranometric ground measurements, three types of TMY datasets generated by the following methods: the Sandia method, a simplified driver with DNI as the only representative variable and a more sophisticated driver. The latter takes into account the sensitivities of the CPV system with respect to the spectral distribution of the solar irradiance and wind speed. Different TMY datasets from the three methods have been generated considering different numbers of years in the historical dataset, ranging from 5 to 15 years. The comparisons and benchmarking of these TMY datasets are conducted considering the long-term time series of simulated CPV electric production as a reference. The results of this benchmarking clearly show that the Sandia method is not

  19. PROMET - The Journal of Meteorological Education issued by DWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.

    2009-09-01

    Promet is published by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) since 1971 to improve meteorologists and weather forecasters skills. The journal comprises mainly contributions to topics like biometeorology, the NAO, or meteorology and insurance business. The science-based articles should illustrate the special issue in an understandable and transparent way. In addition, the journal contains portraits of other national meteorological services and university departments, book reviews, list of university degrees, and other individual papers. Promet is published only in German language, but included English titles and abstracts. The journal is peer-reviewed by renowned external scientists. It is distributed free of charge by DWD to the own meteorological staff. On the other hand, DMG (the German Meteorological Society) hand it out to all members of the society. The current issues deal with "Modern procedures of weather forecasting in DWD” and "E-Learning in Meteorology”.

  20. Machine learning modeling of plant phenology based on coupling satellite and gridded meteorological dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Nowosad, Jakub; Jabłońska, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the timing of plant phenological phases are important proxies in contemporary climate research. However, most of the commonly used traditional phenological observations do not give any coherent spatial information. While consistent spatial data can be obtained from airborne sensors and preprocessed gridded meteorological data, not many studies robustly benefit from these data sources. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing, predicting, and improving quality of phenological phases monitoring with the use of satellite and meteorological products. A quality-controlled dataset of the 13 BBCH plant phenophases in Poland was collected for the period 2007-2014. For each phenophase, statistical models were built using the most commonly applied regression-based machine learning techniques, such as multiple linear regression, lasso, principal component regression, generalized boosted models, and random forest. The quality of the models was estimated using a k-fold cross-validation. The obtained results showed varying potential for coupling meteorological derived indices with remote sensing products in terms of phenological modeling; however, application of both data sources improves models' accuracy from 0.6 to 4.6 day in terms of obtained RMSE. It is shown that a robust prediction of early phenological phases is mostly related to meteorological indices, whereas for autumn phenophases, there is a stronger information signal provided by satellite-derived vegetation metrics. Choosing a specific set of predictors and applying a robust preprocessing procedures is more important for final results than the selection of a particular statistical model. The average RMSE for the best models of all phenophases is 6.3, while the individual RMSE vary seasonally from 3.5 to 10 days. Models give reliable proxy for ground observations with RMSE below 5 days for early spring and late spring phenophases. For

  1. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and Other Meteorological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The lightning jump algorithm has a robust history in correlating upward trends in lightning to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The algorithm uses the correlation between the physical principles that govern an updraft's ability to produce microphysical and kinematic conditions conducive for electrification and its role in the development of severe weather conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that the lightning jump algorithm concept holds significant promise in the operational realm, aiding in the identification of thunderstorms that have potential to produce severe or hazardous weather. However, a large amount of work still needs to be completed in spite of these positive results. The total lightning jump algorithm is not a stand-alone concept that can be used independent of other meteorological measurements, parameters, and techniques. For example, the algorithm is highly dependent upon thunderstorm tracking to build lightning histories on convective cells. Current tracking methods show that thunderstorm cell tracking is most reliable and cell histories are most accurate when radar information is incorporated with lightning data. In the absence of radar data, the cell tracking is a bit less reliable but the value added by the lightning information is much greater. For optimal application, the algorithm should be integrated with other measurements that assess storm scale properties (e.g., satellite, radar). Therefore, the recent focus of this research effort has been assessing the lightning jump's relation to thunderstorm tracking, meteorological parameters, and its potential uses in operational meteorology. Furthermore, the algorithm must be tailored for the optically-based GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), as what has been observed using Very High Frequency Lightning Mapping Array (VHF LMA) measurements will not exactly translate to what will be observed by GLM due to resolution and other instrument differences. Herein, we present some of

  2. Meteorological factors influencing on the radon concentrations in indoor and outdoor airs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Factors influencing radon concentrations in indoor and outdoor airs are discussed. A balance between source and loss is required in determining the radon concentration. Source refers to as the outdoor and indoor exhalation rate from the ground and the building materials. Loss is caused by turbulent diffusion outdoors and ventilation indoors. A significant factor influencing the exhalation rate of indoor and outdoor radon may be the change in atmospheric pressure. A drop of pressure feeds the high concentration air under the ground or building materials into the open air, and contributes to the increased exhalation rate. The exhalation rate of radon closely depends on the moisture content of the ground or building materials. Up to a certain level of moisture, the radon exhalation increases with increasing moisture content because the emanation power increases by a recoil effect of a fluid present in the internal pores of the materials. Beyond a certain level of moisture, the exhalation decreases rapidly because the pores are filled with water. Radon exhalated from the ground is spread out by turbulent diffusion. The turbulent diffusion may be related to wind velocity and the lapse rate of temperature. There is a remakable difference between indoor and outdoor radon concentrations. The ventilation rate of the house exerted a great effect upon the indoor radon concentration. The ventilation rate is influenced by meteorological factors together with human activities. Of such factors, wind velocity and temperature gradient between indoor and outdoor airs may be the most significant. The correlation coefficients between RaA or radon and some meteorological factors were calculated on the data from the long term measurements on radon and its decay products in and out of a house under normal living conditions. The changes in atmospheric pressure and wind velocity are found to be a significant factor in the variation of concentration of these nuclides. (N.K.)

  3. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  4. Influence of meteorological variables on diversity of plant species in Yellandu coal belt region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prameela, K.; Singaracharya, M.A. [Kakatiya University, Warangal (India). Dept. of Botany

    2002-07-01

    Meteorological studies of the coal mining area of Yellandu in Andhra Pradesh, India during 1991-94 showed climatic fluctuations. Constant increase in temperature levels due to release of high amounts of greenhouse gases was noticed. The vigorous growth of weeds were observed during June-November and afterwards, the disappearance of these plants explained the role of rain fall in the floristic observation. Relative humidity of this area varied from 38% in May to 98% in August. Wind (1.4 km/hr min. 8.7 km/hr max) played a vital role in dispersing different coal particles in the atmosphere. The depth of water level ranged from 0.6 mt to 4.0 mt below ground level in the monsoon season and 3.0 to 14.35 mt at below ground level in summer. This meteorological data showed its influence on species diversity, biochemical processes and metabolic functioning of organisms present in ecosystem of Yellandu coal fields. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Autonomous aerial sensors for wind power meteorology - A pre-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Bange, J.; la Cour-Harbo, A.; Reuder, J.; Mayer, S.; van der Kroonenberg, A.; Moelgaard, J.

    2012-01-15

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm, partly with nano-synchronised sensors (time stamped with about 100 ns global accuracy). Between bankruptcy of a partner, denied overflight rights at the main test location, denied Civil Aviation Authorities permits at the alternative location, stolen planes, and crashed UAS we managed to collect data at a wind farm in Lolland and on an atmospheric campaign in France. Planning of an offshore campaign using the developed techniques is underway. (Author)

  6. Prospects of application of survey satellite image for meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapochkina, A. B.; Kapochkin, B. B.; Kucherenko, N. V.

    The maximal interest is represented with the information from geostationary satellites. These satellites repeat shootings the chosen territories, allowing to study dynamics of images. Most interesting shootings in IR a range. Studying of survey image is applied to studying linear elements of clouds (LEC). It is established, that "LEC " arise only above breaks of an earth's crust. In research results of the complex analysis of the satellite data, hydrometeorological supervision, seismicity, supervision over deformations of a surface of the Earth are used. It is established that before formation "LEC " in a ground layer arise anomalies of temperature and humidity. The situation above Europe 16 May, 2001 is considered. "LEC " in Europe block carry of air weights from the west to the east. Synoptic conditions above the Great Britain July, 7-10, 2000 is considered. Moving "LEC" trace distribution of deformation waves to an earth's crust. Satellite shootings Europe before earthquake in Greece 14.08.2003 are considered. These days ground supervision were conducted and the data of the geostationary satellite were analyzed. During moving "LEC " occur failures (destruction houses & of gas mains), earthquake. The situation above Iberian peninsula 12-16.11.2001 is considered. "LEC" arose before flooding in Europe. The situation before flooding in Germany June, 6-8, 2002 and flooding on the river Kuban June, 16-23, 2002 is considered. In case of occurrence of tectonic compression of an earth's crust there are "LEC ", tracer intensive movements of air upwards and downwards above negative and positive anomalies of the form of a terrestrial surface, accordingly. Such meteorological situations are dangerous to flights of aircraft, the fast gravitational anomalies influencing into orbits of movement of satellites trace. The situation above equatorial Atlantic 26.03.2003 years is considered. At tectonic compression of continental scale overcast covers the whole continents for more

  7. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  8. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  9. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  10. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  11. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  12. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  13. A comparative study of satellite estimation for solar insolation in Albania with ground measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrushi, Driada; Berberi, Pëllumb; Muda, Valbona; Buzra, Urim; Bërdufi, Irma; Topçiu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to compare data provided by Database of NASA with available ground data for regions covered by national meteorological net NASA estimates that their measurements of average daily solar radiation have a root-mean-square deviation RMSD error of 35 W/m"2 (roughly 20% inaccuracy). Unfortunately valid data from meteorological stations for regions of interest are quite rare in Albania. In these cases, use of Solar Radiation Database of NASA would be a satisfactory solution for different case studies. Using a statistical method allows to determine most probable margins between to sources of data. Comparison of mean insulation data provided by NASA with ground data of mean insulation provided by meteorological stations show that ground data for mean insolation results, in all cases, to be underestimated compared with data provided by Database of NASA. Converting factor is 1.149.

  14. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  15. Evolutionary Forecast Engines for Solar Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed comparison of non-stationary regression and stochastic learning methods based on k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches is carried out in order to develop high-fidelity solar forecast engines for several time horizons of interest. A hybrid GA/ANN method emerges as the most robust stochastic learning candidate. The GA/ANN approach In general the following decisions need to be made when creating an ANN-based solar forecast model: the ANN architecture: number of layers, numbers of neurons per layer; the preprocessing scheme; the fraction and distribution between training and testing data, and the meteorological and radiometric inputs. ANNs are very well suited to handle multivariate forecasting models due to their overall flexibility and nonlinear pattern recognition abilities. However, the forecasting skill of ANNs depends on a new set of parameters to be optimized within the context of the forecast model, which is the selection of input variables that most directly impact the fidelity of the forecasts. In a data rich scenario where irradiation, meteorological, and cloud cover data are available, it is not always evident which variables to include in the model a priori. New variables can also arise from data preprocessing such as smoothing or spectral decomposition. One way to avoid time-consuming trial-and-error approaches that have limited chance to result in optimal ANN topology and input selection is to couple the ANN with some optimization algorithm that scans the solution space and "evolves" the ANN structure. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are well suited for this task. Results and Discussion The models built upon the historical data of 2009 and 2010 are applied to the 2011 data without modifications or retraining. We consider 3 solar variability seasons or periods, which are subsets of the total error evaluation data set. The 3 periods are defined based on the solar variability study as: - a high

  16. Site evaluation using measured meteorology data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. E.; Rusche, B. C. [Savannah River Lab., E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A key factor in reactor site evaluation is the frequency of occurrence of various dispersion conditions and this relationship to potential off-site doses following a reactor accident. Detailed measurements of the wind speed, wind direction, and temperature at heights up to 1200 ft at the Savannah River Plant form the basis for a comprehensive analysis of the frequency of occurrence of potential off-site doses. A complete set of data was taken about every five minutes, and 107,000 sets (about one year of data) were analyzed. The meteorology data were converted to ordinary dispersion parameters through correlating equations developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results were expressed on curves in dose per unit release of activity vs distance from the reactor with probability of occurrence as a parameter. Separate sets of curves were calculated for releases of noble gas and of halogens and at release heights of 200 ft (a nominal stack height) and of 850 ft (about the height of the tallest power plant stacks). Additional curves were developed to show dose as a function of direction and probability of occurrence. In addition to the dose frequency distribution analyses performed as a function of height of release, direction, and distance; more conventional frequency distributions of wind speed, wind direction, and thermal stability were developed as a function of height. All the analyses were carried out on the IBM 360/65. These results represent the first known analysis utilizing data up to 1200 ft and taken often enough to develop reliable frequency distributions for a short term release. (author)

  17. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The San Joaquin Valley (SJV in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1 concentration was 31.0 µg m−3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %, followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %. High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.09 associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.19 associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.60 most likely

  18. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  19. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  20. IASI instrument: technical description and measured performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Ph.; Blumstein, D.; Buil, C.; Carlier, T.; Chalon, G.; Astruc, P.; Clauss, A.; Siméoni, D.; Tournier, B.

    2017-11-01

    IASI is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The IASI system includes 3 instruments that will be mounted on the Metop satellite series, a data processing software integrated in the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) ground segment and a technical expertise centre implemented in CNES Toulouse. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The optical configuration is based on a Michelson interferometer and the interferograms are processed by an on-board digital processing subsystem, which performs the inverse Fourier transforms and the radiometric calibration. The infrared imager co-registers the IASI soundings with AVHRR imager (AVHRR is another instrument on the Metop satellite). The presentation will focus on the architectures of the instrument, the description of the implemented technologies and the measured performance of the first flight model. CNES is leading the IASI program in association with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE.

  1. In search of colonial El Niño events and a brief history of meteorology in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Terneus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows a brief overview of the development of meteorology in Ecuador from historical documentation of climatic events in the Colonial era through to modern data collection. In the colonial era (16th century-1824, historical documents of rogation ceremonies and municipal proceedings, from the Quito area, provide a rich source of climate information, including El Niño events. Our preliminary findings show that very few of the historically documented catastrophes and other marked environmental events in Quito match known El Niño episodes. Independently, the first meteorological data was collected in Ecuador (beginning with La Condamine in 1738, followed by the earliest attempts to build a national meteorological network in the 1860's, linked closely to President Gabriel García Moreno and the Jesuits. The 1925 El Niño phenomenon was the first important meteorological episode recorded with scientific instrumentation in Ecuador, with newspapers providing complementary archives about the extreme impact of this event.

  2. In search of colonial El Niño events and a brief history of meteorology in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terneus, A.; Gioda, A.

    2006-02-01

    This study shows a brief overview of the development of meteorology in Ecuador from historical documentation of climatic events in the Colonial era through to modern data collection. In the colonial era (16th century-1824), historical documents of rogation ceremonies and municipal proceedings, from the Quito area, provide a rich source of climate information, including El Niño events. Our preliminary findings show that very few of the historically documented catastrophes and other marked environmental events in Quito match known El Niño episodes. Independently, the first meteorological data was collected in Ecuador (beginning with La Condamine in 1738), followed by the earliest attempts to build a national meteorological network in the 1860's, linked closely to President Gabriel García Moreno and the Jesuits. The 1925 El Niño phenomenon was the first important meteorological episode recorded with scientific instrumentation in Ecuador, with newspapers providing complementary archives about the extreme impact of this event.

  3. Trends and variability of meteorological drought over the districts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4

    Keywords: Meteorological drought, standardized precipitation index, monsoon, sea ... Drought is one of the most serious problem for human societies and ecosystems. ... They found that SPI satisfactorily explains the development of conditions.

  4. Hyperion technology enables unified meteorological and radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigic, A.; Saponjic, D.; Arandjelovic, V.; Zunic, Z. . E-mail address of corresponding author: alex@vin.bg.ac.yu; Zigic, A.)

    2005-01-01

    The present state of meteorological and radiological measurement and monitoring are quite localized to smaller areas which implies the difficulties in knowing the measurement results in the wider region instantly. The need for establishing a distributed, flexible, modular and centralized measurement system for both meteorological and radiological parameters of environment is arising. The measurement and monitoring of radiological parameters of environment are not sufficient since there is a strong correlation between radiological and meteorological parameters which implies a unified distributed automatic monitoring system. The unified monitoring system makes it possible to transfer, process and store measured data in local and central databases. Central database gives a possibility of easy access to all measured data for authorized personnel and institutions. Stored measured data in central database gives a new opportunity to create a base for meteorological and radiological modelling and studies. (author)

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  6. Meteorology observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological data was collected in the Athabasca oil sands area of Alberta in support of Syncrude' application for approval to develop and operate the Aurora Mine. Meteorology controls the transport and dispersion of gaseous and particulate emissions which are vented into the atmosphere. Several meteorological monitoring stations have been set up in the Fort McMurray and Fort McKay area. The study was part of Suncor's commitment to Alberta Environmental Protection to substantially reduce SO 2 emissions by July 1996. Also, as a condition of approval of the proposed Aurora Mine, the company was required to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. Background reports were prepared for: (1) source characterization, (2) ambient air quality observations, (3) meteorology observations, and (4) air quality monitoring. The following factors were incorporated into dispersion modelling: terrain, wind, turbulence, temperature, net radiation and mixing height, relative humidity and precipitation. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  7. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations...

  8. Assessment of Meteorological Drought Hazard Area using GIS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The purpose of this study was to make a model of the meteorological drought hazard area using GIS. ... overlaying different hazard indicator maps in the GIS, deploying the new model. The final ..... Northeast Thailand Project Bangkok. Min. of.

  9. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the surface, and...

  10. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the...

  11. Analysis of some meteorological parameters using artificial neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of some meteorological parameters using artificial neural network method for ... The mean daily data for sunshine hours, maximum temperature, cloud cover and ... The study used artificial neural networks (ANN) for the estimation.

  12. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with respect to the aircraft,...

  13. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was collected by the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  15. In-situ Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar in-situ calibration performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Østerild, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by mea...

  16. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  17. Improvement of Meteorological Inputs for TexAQS-II Air Quality Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, F.; Byun, D.; Kim, H.; Cheng, F.; Kim, S.; Lee, D.

    2008-12-01

    An air quality forecasting system (UH-AQF) for Eastern Texas, which is in operation by the Institute for Multidimensional Air Quality Studies (IMAQS) at the University of Houston, uses the Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model MM5 model as the meteorological driver for modeling air quality with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. While the forecasting system was successfully used for the planning and implementation of various measurement activities, evaluations of the forecasting results revealed a few systematic problems in the numerical simulations. From comparison with observations, we observe some times over-prediction of northerly winds caused by inaccurate synoptic inputs and other times too strong southerly winds caused by local sea breeze development. Discrepancies in maximum and minimum temperature are also seen for certain days. Precipitation events, as well as clouds, are simulated at the incorrect locations and times occasionally. Model simulatednrealistic thunderstorms are simulated, causing sometimes cause unrealistically strong outflows. To understand physical and chemical processes influencing air quality measures, a proper description of real world meteorological conditions is essential. The objective of this study is to generate better meteorological inputs than the AQF results to support the chemistry modeling. We utilized existing objective analysis and nudging tools in the MM5 system to develop the MUltiscale Nest-down Data Assimilation System (MUNDAS), which incorporates extensive meteorological observations available in the simulated domain for the retrospective simulation of the TexAQS-II period. With the re-simulated meteorological input, we are able to better predict ozone events during TexAQS-II period. In addition, base datasets in MM5 such as land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, soil type and sea surface temperature are updated by satellite data to represent the surface features more accurately. They are key

  18. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  19. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  20. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  1. Astronomijos ir meteorologijos jungtys Arato Reiškiniuose. The Connections Between Astronomy and Meteorology in Aratus’ Phaenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglis Kardelis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article focuses on the connections between astronomy and meteorology in the Phaenome­na of Aratus of Soli (fl. 276 BC. Firstly, the attention is drawn to such connections that are apparent in the structure of the poem which has two structural parts, the astronomical and the meteorological. It is shown that the astronomical part does not end abruptly, but merges gradually into the meteorological one. Such effect is achieved by way of methodical downward transition from the North pole and the upper sky, via the lower sky, to the atmosphere and then to the very surface of earth. Therefore, Aratus first of all describes the celestial phenomena as such, simply as marvels of the sky, without any reference to their prognostic (that is, meteorological function. Then he speaks of them in relation to their prognostic function. After that the poet descends from the level of celestial phenomena to the level of earth’s atmosphere, that is, from astronomical to meteorological level, and focuses on meteorologi­cal phenomena proper, such as the rain, the storm, the wind, the snow, the rainbow, and so on, drawing attention to their prognostic function. Then the poet descends even lower, from the level of atmosphere to the level of earth’s surface, and describes various earthly phenomena, such as prognostically relevant physical and chemical properties of various common substances and strange behaviour of animals which also has significant prognostic value. In the process of the overall gradual descent from the North pole to the ground level, the poet, when it serves his artistic purpose, sometimes quickly and unexpectedly changes the scale from large to small (and vice versa, or alti­tude from high to low (and vice versa, or even speaks of various phenomena that simultaneously appear on different scale, large and small, and on different levels, astronomical and meteorological.Secondly, the author of the article analyses the connections

  2. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  3. Development of regional meteorological and atmospheric diffusion simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Iwashige, Kengo; Kasano, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Regional atmospheric diffusion online network (RADON) with atmospheric diffusion analysis code (ADAC) : a simulation program of diffusion of radioactive materials, volcanic ash, pollen, NOx and SOx was developed. This system can be executed in personal computer (PC) and note PC on Windows. Emission data consists of online, offline and default data. It uses the meteorology data sources such as meteorological forecasting mesh data, automated meteorological data acquisition system (AMeDAS) data, meteorological observation data in site and municipality observation data. The meteorological forecasting mesh data shows forecasting value of temperature, wind speed, wind direction and humidity in about two days. The nuclear environmental monitoring center retains the online data (meteorological data, emission source data, monitoring station data) in its PC server and can run forecasting or repeating calculation using these data and store and print out the calculation results. About 30 emission materials can be calculated simultaneously. This system can simulate a series of weather from the past and real time to the future. (S.Y.)

  4. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  5. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  6. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  7. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  8. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional...

  9. Simulation of submillimetre atmospheric spectra for characterising potential ground-based remote sensing observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Turner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The submillimetre is an understudied region of the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic spectrum. Prior technological gaps and relatively high opacity due to the prevalence of rotational water vapour lines at these wavelengths have slowed progress from a ground-based remote sensing perspective; however, emerging superconducting detector technologies in the fields of astronomy offer the potential to address key atmospheric science challenges with new instrumental methods. A site study, with a focus on the polar regions, is performed to assess theoretical feasibility by simulating the downwelling (zenith angle = 0° clear-sky submillimetre spectrum from 30 mm (10 GHz to 150 µm (2000 GHz at six locations under annual mean, summer, winter, daytime, night-time and low-humidity conditions. Vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and 28 atmospheric gases are constructed by combining radiosonde, meteorological reanalysis and atmospheric chemistry model data. The sensitivity of the simulated spectra to the choice of water vapour continuum model and spectroscopic line database is explored. For the atmospheric trace species hypobromous acid (HOBr, hydrogen bromide (HBr, perhydroxyl radical (HO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O the emission lines producing the largest change in brightness temperature are identified. Signal strengths, centre frequencies, bandwidths, estimated minimum integration times and maximum receiver noise temperatures are determined for all cases. HOBr, HBr and HO2 produce brightness temperature peaks in the mK to µK range, whereas the N2O peaks are in the K range. The optimal submillimetre remote sensing lines for the four species are shown to vary significantly between location and scenario, strengthening the case for future hyperspectral instruments that measure over a broad wavelength range. The techniques presented here provide a framework that can be applied to additional species of interest and taken forward to simulate

  10. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature) and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefali Abedini; Nahideh Mohammadi; Koorosh Kamali; Mohsen Ahadnejad; Mehdi Azari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever) is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind) and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and win...

  11. Time variation of meteorological elements as controlled by the quasi-biennial periodicity in the solar phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Michiharu; Sakurai, Kunitomo

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the quasi-biennial oscillation observed on some meteorological elements as the ozone content at middle latitudes, both north and south, the zonal wind velocity at the equator and the ground-level temperature at middle latitudes, is produced by the variation of the ultraviolet flux emitted from the sun, which is varying with the solar activity with the period of about 26 months. The ozone content is varying in phase with the ultraviolet flux and the solar activity, whereas the other two elements mentioned above are changing out of phase with these phenomena. There is a possibility that both these meteorological elements and the solar activity are varying quasi-biennially while being modulated by the 26 month periodicity in the efficiency of thermonuclear fusions at the central core of the sun. (author)

  12. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  13. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rivers

    Full Text Available Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas. Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection and negative (avoidance effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development. Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize

  14. On the influence of meteorological input on photochemical modelling of a severe episode over a coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovano, G.; Coll, I.; Bedogni, M.; Alessandrini, S.; Costa, M. P.; Gabusi, V.; Lasry, F.; Menut, L.; Vautard, R.

    The modelling reconstruction of the processes determining the transport and mixing of ozone and its precursors in complex terrain areas is a challenging task, particularly when local-scale circulations, such as sea breeze, take place. Within this frame, the ESCOMPTE European campaign took place in the vicinity of Marseille (south-east of France) in summer 2001. The main objectives of the field campaign were to document several photochemical episodes, as well as to constitute a detailed database for chemistry transport models intercomparison. CAMx model has been applied on the largest intense observation periods (IOP) (June 21-26, 2001) in order to evaluate the impacts of two state-of-the-art meteorological models, RAMS and MM5, on chemical model outputs. The meteorological models have been used as best as possible in analysis mode, thus allowing to identify the spread arising in pollutant concentrations as an indication of the intrinsic uncertainty associated to the meteorological input. Simulations have been deeply investigated and compared with a considerable subset of observations both at ground level and along vertical profiles. The analysis has shown that both models were able to reproduce the main circulation features of the IOP. The strongest discrepancies are confined to the Planetary Boundary Layer, consisting of a clear tendency to underestimate or overestimate wind speed over the whole domain. The photochemical simulations showed that variability in circulation intensity was crucial mainly for the representation of the ozone peaks and of the shape of ozone plumes at the ground that have been affected in the same way over the whole domain and all along the simulated period. As a consequence, such differences can be thought of as a possible indicator for the uncertainty related to the definition of meteorological fields in a complex terrain area.

  15. Aerosol and Cloud Properties during the Cloud Cheju ABC Plume -Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) 2008: Linking between Ground-based and UAV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Venkata Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Park, S.; Kim, M.

    2009-12-01

    Cheju Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Plume-Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX), comprehsensive ground-based measurements and a series of data-gathering flights by specially equipped autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for aerosol and cloud, had conducted at Jeju (formerly, Cheju), South Korea during August-September 2008, to improve our understanding of how the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in China (so-called “great shutdown” ) during and after the Summer Beijing Olympic Games 2008 effcts on the air quliaty and radiation budgets and how atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) influences solar radiation budget off Asian continent. Large numbers of in-situ and remote sensing instruments at the Gosan ABC observatory and miniaturized instruments on the aircraft measure a range of properties such as the quantity of soot, size-segregated aerosol particle numbers, total particle numbers, size-segregated cloud droplet numbers (only AUAV), aerosol scattering properties (only ground), aerosol vertical distribution, column-integrated aerosol properties, and meteorological variables. By integrating ground-level and high-elevation AUAV measurements with NASA-satellite observations (e.g., MODIS, CALIPSO), we investigate the long range transport of aerosols, the impact of ABCs on clouds, and the role of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In this talk, we will present the results from CAPMEX focusing on: (1) the characteristics of aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties at Gosan observatory, (2) aerosol solar heating calculated from the ground-based micro-pulse lidar and AERONET sun/sky radiometer synergy, and comparison with direct measurements from UAV, and (3) aerosol-cloud interactions in conjunction with measurements by satellites and Gosan observatory.

  16. Gap-filling meteorological variables with Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Gap-filling or modelling surface-atmosphere fluxes critically depends on an, ideally continuous, availability of their meteorological driver variables, such as e.g. air temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and precipitation. Unlike for eddy-covariance-based fluxes, data gaps are not unavoidable for these measurements. Nevertheless, missing or erroneous data can occur in practice due to instrument or power failures, disturbance, and temporary sensor or station dismounting for e.g. agricultural management or maintenance. If stations with similar measurements are available nearby, using their data for imputation (i.e. estimating missing data) either directly, after an elevation correction or via linear regression, is usually preferred over linear interpolation or monthly mean diurnal cycles. The popular implementation of regional networks of (partly low-cost) stations increases both, the need and the potential, for such neighbour-based imputation methods. For repeated satellite imagery, Beckers and Rixen (2003) suggested an imputation method based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). While exploiting the same linear relations between time series at different observation points as regression, it is able to use information from all observation points to simultaneously estimate missing data at all observation points, provided that never all observations are missing at the same time. Briefly, the method uses the ability of the first few EOFs of a data matrix to reconstruct a noise-reduced version of this matrix; iterating missing data points from an initial guess (the column-wise averages) to an optimal version determined by cross-validation. The poster presents and discusses lessons learned from adapting and applying this methodology to station data. Several years of 10-minute averages of air temperature, pressure and humidity, incoming shortwave, longwave and photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed and precipitation, measured by a regional (70 km by

  17. Regional-to-Urban Enviro-HIRLAM Downscaling for Meteorological and Chemical Patterns over Chinese Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Baklanov, Alexander; Yang, Xiaohua; Nielsen, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    Due to strong economic growth in the past decades, air pollution became a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. So, information on air quality in these urbanized areas is important for population. In particular, the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Beijing, and Pearl River Delta are well known as main regions with serious air pollution issues. One of the aims of the EU FP7 MarcoPolo project is to improve existing regional-meso-urban/city scale air quality forecasts using improved emission inventories and to validate modelling results using satellite and ground-based measurements. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) adapted for the Shanghai region of China is applied for forecasting. The model is urbanized using the Building Effects Parameterization module, which describes different types of urban districts such as industrial commercial, city center, high density and residential with its own characteristics. For sensitivity studies, the model was run in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales at subsequent horizontal resolutions of 15-5-2.5 km for selected dates with elevated pollution levels and unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these dates, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and chemical transformations. The evaluation of formation and development of meteorological and chemical/aerosol patterns due to influence of the urban areas is performed. The impact of selected (in a model domain) megacities of China is estimated on regional-to-urban scales, as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are studied.

  18. Influence of Meteorological Regimes on Cloud Microphysics Over Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, C.; Wang, S. H.; Scott, R. C.; Bromwich, D. H.; Lubin, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic provides a sharp contrast in cloud microphysics from the high Arctic, due to orographic lifting and resulting strong vertical motions induced by mountain ranges and other varying terrain on several spatial scales. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) deployed advanced cloud remote sensing equipment to Ross Island, Antarctica, from December 2015 until January 2016. This equipment included scanning and zenith radars operating in the Ka and X bands, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), and a polarized micropulse lidar (MPL). A major AWARE objective is to provide state-of-the-art data for improving cloud microphysical parameterizations in climate models. To further this objective we have organized and classified the local Ross Island meteorology into distinct regimes using k-means clustering on ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We identify synoptic categories producing unique regimes of cloud cover and cloud microphysical properties over Ross Island. Each day of observations can then be associated with a specific meteorological regime, thus assisting modelers with identifying case studies. High-resolution (1 km) weather forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) are sorted into these categories. AMPS-simulated anomalies of cloud fraction, near-surface air temperature, and vertical velocity at 500-mb are composited and compared with ground-based radar and lidar-derived cloud properties to identify mesoscale meteorological processes driving Antarctic cloud formation. Synoptic lows over the Ross and Amundsen Seas drive anomalously warm conditions at Ross Island by injecting marine air masses inland over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). This results in ice and mixed-phase orographic cloud systems arriving at Ross Island from the south to southeast along the Transantarctic Mountains. In contrast, blocking over the Amundsen Sea region brings classical liquid-dominated mixed-phase and

  19. Forecasting skills of the ensemble hydro-meteorological system for the Po river floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Montani, Andrea; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Pecora, Silvano; Tonelli, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The Po basin is the largest and most economically important river-basin in Italy. Extreme hydrological events, including floods, flash floods and droughts, are expected to become more severe in the next future due to climate change, and related ground effects are linked both with environmental and social resilience. A Warning Operational Center (WOC) for hydrological event management was created in Emilia Romagna region. In the last years, the WOC faced challenges in legislation, organization, technology and economics, achieving improvements in forecasting skill and information dissemination. Since 2005, an operational forecasting and modelling system for flood modelling and forecasting has been implemented, aimed at supporting and coordinating flood control and emergency management on the whole Po basin. This system, referred to as FEWSPo, has also taken care of environmental aspects of flood forecast. The FEWSPo system has reached a very high level of complexity, due to the combination of three different hydrological-hydraulic chains (HEC-HMS/RAS - MIKE11 NAM/HD, Topkapi/Sobek), with several meteorological inputs (forecasted - COSMOI2, COSMOI7, COSMO-LEPS among others - and observed). In this hydrological and meteorological ensemble the management of the relative predictive uncertainties, which have to be established and communicated to decision makers, is a debated scientific and social challenge. Real time activities face professional, modelling and technological aspects but are also strongly interrelated with organization and human aspects. The authors will report a case study using the operational flood forecast hydro-meteorological ensemble, provided by the MIKE11 chain fed by COSMO_LEPS EQPF. The basic aim of the proposed approach is to analyse limits and opportunities of the long term forecast (with a lead time ranging from 3 to 5 days), for the implementation of low cost actions, also looking for a well informed decision making and the improvement of

  20. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  1. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  2. Development and testing of a system for meteorological and radiological data centralizing on Magurele zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaus, M.; Niculescu, D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of European collaboration co-ordinated by F.Z. Karlsruhe, the adapting, installing and developing of a decision support system for nuclear emergency management is now in progress in NIPNE. The decision support system RODOS will be available to the Romanian competent authorities - as well as to many western and eastern countries - in case of nuclear accidents. One main task in implementing the decision support system is to provide as input, among others, on-line real-time radiological and meteorological data, measured in national territory. For that purpose the regional and national measuring networks had to be connected to the central RODOS station in NIPNE. As the first step the sources of data existing on the Magurele zone were coupled to the RODOS system. The main sources of data are different meteorological sensors and flowmeters installed at three levels on the meteorological tower and a remote gamma-ray area monitor with several measuring locations in Magurele zone, connected by radio links to the central unit in Nuclear Instruments and Methods Department. For transmission of collected data to the central RODOS station, a local area network was implemented to connect all the computers. The Ethernet - based network uses optical fiber between buildings, coaxial and twisted cable inside buildings and suitable Hewlett-Packard hubs and transceivers. Several communication software packages based on TCP/IP protocols were installed on the computers and tested. The real-time data transfer between collecting computers and the central station will be carried out by automatic triggering of FTP programs at regular time intervals. The local network provides also a link to Internet, so that the indispensable exchange of data with similar RODOS centers in other countries, especially with the coordinating institute in Karlsruhe, as well as with other organizations is ensured. (authors)

  3. Meteorological monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that wall be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model

  4. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  5. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  6. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  7. Evaluation of Savannah River Plant emergency response models using standard and nonstandard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two computer codes have been developed for operational use in performing real time evaluations of atmospheric releases from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. These codes, based on mathematical models, are part of the SRP WIND (Weather Information and Display) automated emergency response system. Accuracy of ground level concentrations from a Gaussian puff-plume model and a two-dimensional sequential puff model are being evaluated with data from a series of short range diffusion experiments using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer. The models use meteorological data collected from 7 towers on SRP and at the 300 m WJBF-TV tower about 15 km northwest of SRP. The winds and the stability, which is based on turbulence measurements, are measured at the 60 m stack heights. These results are compared to downwind concentrations using only standard meteorological data, i.e., adjusted 10 m winds and stability determined by the Pasquill-Turner stability classification method. Scattergrams and simple statistics were used for model evaluations. Results indicate predictions within accepted limits for the puff-plume code and a bias in the sequential puff model predictions using the meteorologist-adjusted nonstandard data. 5 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  8. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-08-15

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  9. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere.

  10. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  11. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  12. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  13. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  14. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  15. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zong-xue; Zuo, De-peng; Wang, Xu-ming

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method...

  16. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  17. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  18. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2009 by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhei Sugaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of meteorological observations carried out by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 at Syowa Station from February 2009 to January 2010. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by JARE-50 were similar to those used by JARE-49.  The most notable results are as follows.  1 Class-A blizzards, the heaviest storm class, were recorded 13 times. This frequency is the same as in 1978, which was the highest on record. A total of 29 blizzards (of various classes occurred in 2009, which is close to normal.  2 The maximum sustained wind speed of 47.4 m/s was recorded on 21 February 2009.  3 Tropospheric temperatures for May-July over Syowa Station were higher than normal, but temperatures in the lower stratosphere for August-October were lower than normal.  4 Total ozone over Syowa Station was less than 220 m atm-cm between the middle of August and the end of October. The minimum value in 2009 was 135 m atm-cm. Total ozone increased rapidly in November 2009 when the ozone-hole area decreased around Syowa Station.

  19. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2008 by the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideshi Yoshimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the result of meteorological observations at Syowa Station by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-49 during the period 1 February 2008 to 27 January 2009. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by the JARE-49 team are nearly the same as those used by the JARE-48 observation team. Remarkable weather phenomena observed during the period of JARE-49 are as follows. 1 On 1 September 2008, the record minimum temperature for September was observed in the upper atmosphere (pressure greater than 175 hPa. 2 The monthly mean temperature at Syowa Station during October 2008 was -17.5°C; this is the lowest monthly mean October temperature recorded at Syowa Station. 3 The total ozone over Syowa Station was less than or equal to 220 m atm-cm during the period from late August to late November, and was close to minimum levels during the period from mid-September to mid-October. The lowest total ozone in 2008, recorded on 16 October 2008, was 140 m atm-cm.

  20. Excerpts from the report: "BeyondTMY - Meteorological data sets for CSP/STE performance simulations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Vignola, Frank; Ramírez, Lourdes; Blanc, Philippe; Meyer, Richard; Blanco, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    In order to facilitate comprehensive economic modeling of CSP/STE power plants realistic long-term meteorological datasets with temporal resolution down to 1 minute is a main premise. Currently available standard datasets do not fulfil this premise. The datasets also need to combine the high quality of well-maintained ground-based irradiance measurements and the global coverage of satellite-derived data. Even with the best available data it is necessary to account for the uncertainty in this and the sampling uncertainty from finite time-series to enable the optimal statistical characterization. It is a general challenge that satellite-derived data lack the required temporal resolution, and also often does not cover periods with major volcanic eruptions. Here we see prospects in synthetically generated realistic datasets, although research and development work is required on how to optimally produce and quality assure these.