WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground level tsp

  1. Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Kallos, G.; Kakaliagou, O.

    The analysis of PM10 and TSP levels recorded in rural areas from Southern and Eastern Spain (1996-1999) shows that most of the PM10 and TSP peak events are simultaneously recorded at monitoring stations up to 1000 km apart. The study of the atmospheric dynamics by back-trajectory analysis and simulations with the SKIRON Forecast System show that these high PM10 and TSP events occur when high-dust Saharan air masses are transported over the Iberian Peninsula. In the January-June period, this dust transport is mainly caused by cyclonic activity over the West or South of Portugal, whereas in the summer period this is induced by anticyclonic activity over the East or Southeast Iberian Peninsula. Most of the Saharan intrusions which exert a major influence on the particulate levels occur from May to September (63%) and in January and October. In rural areas in Northeast Spain, where the PM10 annual mean is around 18 μg PM10 m -3, the Saharan dust accounts for 4-7 annual daily exceedances of the forthcoming PM10-EU limit value (50 μg PM10 m -3 daily mean). Higher PM10 background levels are recorded in Southern Spain (30 μg PM10 m -3 as annual mean for rural areas) and very similar values are recorded in industrial and urban areas. In rural areas in Southern Spain, the Saharan dust events accounts for 10-23 annual daily exceedances of the PM10 limit value, a high number when compared with the forthcoming EU standard, which states that the limit value cannot be exceeded more than 7 days per year. The proportion of Sahara-induced exceedances with respect to the total annual exceedances is discussed for rural, urban and industrial sites in Southern Spain.

  2. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  3. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  4. Serum levels of TSP-1, NF-κB and TGF-β1 in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients in northern China suggest PCOS is associated with chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meimei; Gao, Jiayin; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Peiling; Wang, Hongli; Ren, Xiaopang; Li, Changmin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappaβ (NF-κβ) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without insulin resistance and after treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Prospective. Patients with PCOS and healthy women were recruited. Patients were subdivided into obese and nonobese based on body mass index. Patients with PCOS were also grouped according to homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2·69 or PCOS phenotype. Patients with PCOS-IR were treated with a 6-month course of cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Inflammatory markers were examined at baseline, and after 6 months of treatment. A total of 445 women with PCOS (mean age 25·9 ± 2·7 years; 298 obese, 147 nonobese) and 213 normal controls (mean age 24·9 ± 3·0 years) were included. Regardless of obesity status, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, HOMA-IR, TSP-1 and NF-κB in the PCOS groups were significantly higher than in the control group, whereas TSP-1 was lower in the PCOS groups (all, P PCOS without IR had lower TSP-1 levels than control patients (P Treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with addition of metformin reduced the level of NF-κB, TGF-β1 and HOMA-IR and increased the level of TSP-1. These results support the association between PCOS and chronic inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  6. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  7. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  8. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  9. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  10. Ground-level Ozone (Smog) Information | New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Ground-level ozone presents a serious air quality problem in New England. In 2008, EPA revised the ozone standard to a level of 0.075 parts per million, 8-hour average. Over the last 5 years (2006 through 2010), there have been an average of 31 days per summer when New England's air exceeded this standard.

  11. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  12. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  13. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  14. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  16. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  17. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  18. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  19. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  20. The airborne radioactivity and electrical properties of ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Matul, M.; Mikolajewski, S.; Trzaskowska, H.; Kubicki, M.

    2001-01-01

    The data presented in this work are the result of systematic measurements of radionuclide concentrations in air and density of vertical current. The airborne 7 Be concentration changes similar to the electrical conductivity of air, collected with an ASS-500 high volume air sampler of the ground atr monitoring network supervised by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. Sampling has been done since March 1991. Simultaneously, the routine complex meteorological observations were performed. In particular, the electrical properties of ground level atmospheric air were studied with measurements of electrical field intensity, positive and negative conductivity of the air,while other isotopes, anthropogenic or originating from the ground are correlated with dust and other meteorological factors like watering and wind. (author)

  1. Radiation dose from solar flares at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K.

    1979-01-01

    Wdowczyk and Wolfendale (Nature, 268, 510, 1977) concluded that a very large solar flare producing exposure of 10 4 rad at ground level (lethal to almost any organism) has a possible frequency of once per 10 5 -10 8 yr. In the work reported similar results were obtained using a more elaborate model. Flares occuring from February 1956 to August 1972 were analyzed. The flare size distribution above the earth's atmosphere, and neutron flux, dose and dose equivalent at ground level at the latitude of Deep River, Canada, were calculated. The probable frequency of flares delivering various doses are given. Doses larger than 100 rad which have significant somatic effects on man and other animals may be delivered once in 10 6 years. The probability of 10 4 rad was found to be 10 -8 /yr. These calculations apply only to high geomagnetic latitudes. Field reversals during which the geomagnetic field is much weaker than current values total about 10% of the past 4 million years. This suggests that a very large flare delivering a large dose worldwide at ground level cannot be ruled out. (author)

  2. On One Approach to TSP Structural Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Ivanko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study an inverse approach to the traveling salesman reoptimization problem. Namely, we consider the case of the addition of a new vertex to the initial TSP data and fix the simple “adaptation” algorithm: the new vertex is inserted into an edge of the optimal tour. In the paper we consider the conditions describing the vertexes that can be inserted by this algorithm without loss of optimality, study the properties of stability areas, and address several model applications.

  3. The matricellular protein TSP1 promotes human and mouse endothelial cell senescence through CD47 and Nox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijles, Daniel N; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Amaral, Jefferson H; Bienes-Martinez, Raquel; Knupp, Heather E; Attaran, Shireen; Sembrat, John C; Nouraie, Seyed M; Rojas, Mauricio M; Novelli, Enrico M; Gladwin, Mark T; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Cifuentes-Pagano, Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2017-10-17

    Senescent cells withdraw from the cell cycle and do not proliferate. The prevalence of senescent compared to normally functioning parenchymal cells increases with age, impairing tissue and organ homeostasis. A contentious principle governing this process has been the redox theory of aging. We linked matricellular protein thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) and its receptor CD47 to the activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), but not of the other closely related Nox isoforms, and associated oxidative stress, and to senescence in human cells and aged tissue. In human endothelial cells, TSP1 promoted senescence and attenuated cell cycle progression and proliferation. At the molecular level, TSP1 increased Nox1-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the increased abundance of the transcription factor p53. p53 mediated a DNA damage response that led to senescence through Rb and p21 cip , both of which inhibit cell cycle progression. Nox1 inhibition blocked the ability of TSP1 to increase p53 nuclear localization and p21 cip abundance and its ability to promote senescence. Mice lacking TSP1 showed decreases in ROS production, p21 cip expression, p53 activity, and aging-induced senescence. Conversely, lung tissue from aging humans displayed increases in the abundance of vascular TSP1, Nox1, p53, and p21 cip Finally, genetic ablation or pharmacological blockade of Nox1 in human endothelial cells attenuated TSP1-mediated ROS generation, restored cell cycle progression, and protected against senescence. Together, our results provide insights into the functional interplay between TSP1 and Nox1 in the regulation of endothelial senescence and suggest potential targets for controlling the aging process at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the

  6. Deterministic algorithms for multi-criteria Max-TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    We present deterministic approximation algorithms for the multi-criteria maximum traveling salesman problem (Max-TSP). Our algorithms are faster and simpler than the existing randomized algorithms. We devise algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric multi-criteria Max-TSP that achieve ratios of

  7. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  8. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  9. TETRAHEURÍSTICA SISTÉMICA (THS PARA EL TSP SYSTEMIC TETRAHEURISTIC FOR THE TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un novedoso método, basado en elementos del pensamiento sistémico, para solucionar instancias del problema del vendedor viajero (TSP, el cual es comparado en términos de eficacia y eficiencia con "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-wwy exchange improvement" y "branch and bound". El primer apartado introduce la optimización combinatoria, el segundo ofrece un marco de referencia, el tercero presenta la metodología empleada, el cuarto apartado presenta el desarrollo de la tetraheurística sistémica, seguido del análisis de varianza y de rangos de Duncan para los factores: método y cantidad de ciudades; este apartado finaliza con el análisis del comportamiento de la proporción de "fracasos" del algoritmo propuesto a medida que aumenta la complejidad del TSP. Como resultado se obtiene un método para resolver instancias del TSP, conformado por tres heurísticas misionales: 1."vecino más cercano", 2. "sacrificio cortoplacista" y 3. "traslado LIFO", y una de apoyo llamada "búsqueda derecha 4P4". El diseño de la heurística denominada "sacrificio cortoplacista" es inspirado en el análisis sistémico del "vecino más cercano", al cual se le identifica el arquetipo de "soluciones rápidas que fallan", con aplicación a decisiones cotidianas. La tetraheurística sistémica se destaca, respecto a las demás, en solución arrojada y en tiempo computacional consumido, especialmente cuando incrementa la complejidad del TSP.This paper presents a novel method to solve instances of the TSP. This method is comparable in effectiveness and efficiency with "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-way exchange improvement" and "branch and bound". The first section provides a literature review of the combinatorial optimization, the second provides a reference frame, the third the methodology used and the fourth contains, inter alia, system thinking, AxB factorial design and management tool CAP-DO. The fourth

  10. Wideband noise observed at ground level in the auroral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Desch, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A sideband noise event was detected at ground level from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed on four commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905, and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200-kHz to 3.5-MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local noise levels. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high-latitude wideband noise events. 20 refs

  11. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  12. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  13. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  14. The motor evoked potential in AIDS and HAM/TSP: state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Elfakhani, Mohamed; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for 'HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP' were selected and analysed. Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.

  15. Examining a link between SPEs and ground level radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have previously found a correlation between solar proton events (SPEs) and congenital malformations (CMs). A similar correlation has also been found between long term solar variability and CMs. We examine the ionizing radiation dose from these events as well as the largest events on record to determine whether these events are capable of producing these effects. We show that the total ionizing radiation dose (consisting of neutrons and muons) at ground level is insufficient for production of the observed increases in CM rate under the current paradigm regarding ionizing radiation from muons and neutrons. Current research on the subject shows that our assumptions regarding muonic ionizing radiation may be underestimating their biologic effect. We recommend further experimentation regarding the radiation dose due to muons, as this may prove to be a more substantial contribution to our radiation environment than previously assumed.

  16. Ground level enhancement (GLE) energy spectrum parameters model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    We study the ground level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23 with the four energy spectra parameters, the normalization parameter C, low-energy power-law slope γ 1, high-energy power-law slope γ 2, and break energy E0, obtained by Mewaldt et al. 2012 who fit the observations to the double power-law equation. we divide the GLEs into two groups, one with strong acceleration by interplanetary (IP) shocks and another one without strong acceleration according to the condition of solar eruptions. We next fit the four parameters with solar event conditions to get models of the parameters for the two groups of GLEs separately. So that we would establish a model of energy spectrum for GLEs for the future space weather prediction.

  17. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  18. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs

  19. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) (Ik-TSP) method was presented in this study for the classification and prediction of human cancers based on gene-expression data. We compared Ik-TSP classifiers with 5 different machine learning methods and the k-TSP method based on 3 different feature selection ...

  20. 5 CFR 1601.12 - Investing future deposits in the TSP Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investing future deposits in the TSP... PARTICIPANTS' CHOICES OF TSP FUNDS Investing Future Deposits § 1601.12 Investing future deposits in the TSP.... All participants may elect to invest all or any portion of their deposits in any of the TSP Funds. [70...

  1. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  2. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  3. Characterization, source identification and apportionment of selected metals in TSP in an urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M

    2006-03-01

    To understand the metal distribution characteristics in the atmosphere of urban Islamabad, total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected on daily 12 h basis, at Quaid-i-Azam University campus, using high volume sampler. The TSP samples were treated with HNO(3)/HClO(4) based wet digestion method for the quantification of eight selected metals; Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni and Cd by FAAS method. The monitoring period ran from June 2001 to January 2002, with a total of 194 samples collected on cellulose filters. Effects of different meteorological conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction on selected metal levels were interpreted by means of multivariate statistical approach. Enhanced metal levels for Fe (930 ng/m(3)), Zn (542 ng/m(3)) and Pb (210 ng/m(3)) were found on the mean scale while Mn, Cr, Co and Ni emerged as minor contributors. Statistical correlation study was also conducted and a strong correlation was observed between Pb-Cr (r=0.611). The relative humidity showed some significant influence on atmospheric metal distribution while other meteorological parameters showed weak relationship with TSP metal levels. Regarding the origin of sources of heavy metals in TSP, the statistical procedure identified three source profiles; automobile emissions, industrial/metallurgical units, and natural soil dust. The metal levels were also compared with those reported for other parts of the world which showed that the metal levels in urban atmosphere of Islamabad are in exceedence than those of European industrial and urban sites while comparable with some Asian sites.

  4. The Mice Drawer System Tissue Sharing Program (MDS-TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara

    obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.

  5. Ground-level ozone: Our new environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, H.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental problem of ground level ozone is discussed, and the Canadian strategy for dealing with it is explained. Ozone in the troposphere can cause serious health problems in susceptible persons, and is estimated to cause up to $70 million in crop damage per year. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Plan calls for less than 82 ppB by volume of ozone in any one-hour period in all areas of Canada by 2005. Three areas of Canada regularly exceed this value: the Lower Frazer valley in British Columbia, Saint John in New Brunswick, and the Windsor-Quebec corridor along the lower Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Ozone is formed by a photochemical reaction of ammonia gases, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide. Historically, ozone control has concentrated on controlling hydrocarbon emissions, but to little effect. In most locations close to large cities, ozone production is nitrogen oxide-limited, and the most recent models predict that the best strategy for ozone reduction requires the simultaneous reduction of both hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. The CCME Management Plan suggests that the 82 ppB ozone target will require a reduction of 40-50% in nitrogen oxide emissions. The Windsor end of the Windsor-Quebec corridor is dominated by transport of ozone and precursors from the USA, particularly Detroit and Cleveland, so Canadian controls alone are unlikely to solve the problem. For the rest of the corridor, nitrogen oxide control is likely to be most effective in urban areas. 1 fig

  6. Cytotoxicity of TSP in 3D Agarose Gel Cultured Cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Chun

    Full Text Available A reference reagent, 3-(trimethylsilyl propionic-2, 2, 3, 3-d4 acid sodium (TSP, has been used frequently in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS as an internal reference to identify cell and tissue metabolites, and determine chemical and protein structures. This reference material has been exploited for the quantitative and dynamic analyses of metabolite spectra acquired from cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of TSP on three-dimensionally, agarose gel, cultured cells.A human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63 was selected, and cells were three dimensionally cultured for two weeks in an agarose gel. The culture system contained a mixture of conventional culture medium and various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20 30 mM of TSP. A DNA quantification assay was conducted to assess cell proliferation using Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA reagent and kit, and cell viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. Both examinations were performed simultaneously at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days from cell seeding.In this study, the cytotoxicity of TSP in the 3D culture of MG-63 cells was evaluated by quantifying DNA (cell proliferation and cell viability. High concentrations of TSP (from 10 to 30 mM reduced both cell proliferation and viability (to 30% of the control after one week of exposure, but no such effects were found using low concentrations of TSP (0-10 mM.This study shows that low concentrations of TSP in 3D cell culture medium can be used for quantitative NMR or MRS examinations for up to two weeks post exposure.

  7. [The recent advances of HAM/TSP research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osame, M

    1999-12-01

    The ninth international conference on HTLVs and related disorders was held on April 5-9, 1999 at Kagoshima, Japan under the conference chairperson, Dr. Mitsuhiro Osame. In this meeting, world-wide epidemiological data on HTLV-I carriers, ATL patients, and HAM/TSP patients were summarized as shown in the table. The total number of them was supposed to be more than 2.2 millions, 1,200, and 3,000, respectively. To elucidate the localization of HTLV-I proviral DNA directly, double staining using immunohistochemistry and PCR in situ hybridization in the spinal cords of HAM/TSP patients were performed. HTLV-I proviral DNA was localized only to OPD 4-positive cells (Matsuoka et al, 1998). The localization of HTLV-I messenger RNA was the same (Moritoyo et al, 1996). A novel technique to detect HTLV-I tax protein was also developed. In HAM/TSP patients, 0.04-1.16% of the CSF cells and 0.02-0.54% of PBMCs were positive for HTLV-I tax protein (Moritoyo et al, 1999). It was also hypothesized that HLA alleles control HTLV-I proviral load and thus influence susceptibility to HAM/TSP. Two hundred and thirty-two cases of HAM/TSP were compared with 201 randomly selected HTLV-I seropositive asymptomatic blood donors. It was shown that, after infection with HTLV-I, the class I allele HLA-A*02 halves the odds of HAM/TSP (p doubled the odds of HAM/TSP in the absence of the protective effect of HLA-A*02 (Jeffery and Usuku et al, 1999).

  8. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm 2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8 + T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory

  9. EDF steam generators fleet: In-operation monitoring of TSP blockage and tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, P.; Gay, N.; Crinon, R. [Electricite De France (France)

    2012-07-01

    EDF operates 58 Pressurized Water Reactors in France. In the mid 2000‟s some of them have been affected by Steam Generators (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSP) blockage and U-tubes external surface fouling with iron oxides deposits due to corrosion of secondary-side components. These issues have been tackled by a global maintenance strategy of chemical cleanings and a method for in-operation monitoring of fouling and TSP blockage has been developed and is implemented since mid 2009. This monitoring is aimed at giving information for SG maintenance planning as regards non destructive examinations and chemical cleaning. This paper will first remind of the physical reasons of fouling and TSP blockage and identify the resulting stakes regarding safety and availability along with the action levers available to control both phenomena. Then details will be given on how in-operation monitoring of fouling and TSP blockage is carried out, using measurements of Wide Range water Level (WRL) and SG steam pressure during thermally stabilized periods. Information will also be given on how those data are analyzed and shared as well at a local as at a corporate level to participate in the planning of SG inspection and maintenance operations. Finally, possible refinements will be discussed, notably regarding the issue of WRL measurements reliability and the possibility to use the analysis of SG dynamic behavior during power transients to assess the TSP blockage ratio. In terms of „issues requiring discussion‟, the following are operational issues currently being investigated by EDF: 1. SG pressure can have quite large variations during one operating cycle (notably after a plant trip) and from one cycle to the other and generally pressure tends to decrease on a long-term basis. How can such variations be explained? What are the solutions to moderate/stop the pressure loss? 2. On some of the SG-models operated by EDF, hard curative Chemical Cleaning of the U-tubes didn't bring

  10. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  11. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  12. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baratella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL, and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  13. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Hodgins, Michelle Jurkouich, Delwyn Kel- logg, Juan Lopez, Andy Oughton, Rafael Salazar, and Jim Van Buren. vi | CMU/SEI-2009-SR-009 1...listed below in bold font ) are areas that should be of particular interest for potential SEI-Certified TSP Coaches and Mentor Coaches, as these are

  14. Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfary, A.F.; Al-Merey, R.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17μg P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ≅94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (≤68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (≤48%) and all other fractions were ≤9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ≅ 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

  15. A Bibliography of the Personal Software Process (PSP) and the Team Software Process (TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    tspsymposium/ Padula , Alan. ―TSP-Agile Showdown: The Gun Smoke Clears.‖ Proceedings of the TSP Sympo- sium (September 2009). http://www.sei.cmu.edu...www.sei.cmu.edu/tspsymposium/ Padula , Alan. ―TSP—Agile Showdown.‖ Proceedings of the TSP Symposium (September 2008). http://www.sei.cmu.edu

  16. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 2: Ground Processing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Alternate ground processing options are summarized, including installation and test requirements for payloads, space processing, combined astronomy, and life sciences. The level 4 integration resource requirements are also reviewed for: personnel, temporary relocation, transportation, ground support equipment, and Spacelab flight hardware.

  17. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  20. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  1. Measurement of activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, 2{sup 32T}h and {sup 238}U in TSP aerosols and the associated inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public in Gosan site, Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chung Hun; Park, Youn Hyun; Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Gamma radiation emitted from naturally occurring radioisotopes, such as 40K and the radionuclides from the {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U series and their decay products, which exist at trace levels in all ground formations, represents the main external source of irradiation to the human body. The objective of the current study is to determine the activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in airborne TSP and the associated internal radiation dose to the public due to inhalation in Gosan site, Jeju Island, Korea. The atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) aerosols were collected at Gosan site of Jeju Island, which is one of the background sites of Korea, during January to April 2013. This study analyzed using ICP-DRC-MS the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium, and evaluated the annual effective dose by breathing from the results. The correlations between the studied natural isotopes is a good positive correlation between {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, supporting the conclusion that they originated from the same source, mostly the crust. The backward trajectory analysis has confirmed that the 40K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th are delivered as the air masses have moved from the China continent. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose (default mode F) to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne TSP was in the range 16.195 - 77.051 nSv/y, depending on the age group. Jeju Island with less pollution source and low population density is also one of the best places as a background area in Asia.

  2. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Garcin, Manuel; Lavigne, Franck; Wöppelmann, Guy; Gravelle, Médéric; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992–2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year −1 . Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions. (letter)

  3. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This document serves a supplement to the already existing ''Low-Level Burial Ground Dangerous Waste Permit Application Design Documents.'' This paper contains information regarding drawings, construction specifications, and liner/leachate compatibility test plans

  4. Recent Advances in Observations of Ground-level Auroral Kilometric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, J. W.; Ritter, J.; Pasternak, S.; Anderson, R. R.; Kojima, H.; Frey, H. U.

    2011-12-01

    Recently LaBelle and Anderson [2011] reported the first definitive observations of AKR at ground level, confirmed through simultaneous measurements on the Geotail spacecraft and at South Pole Station, Antarctica. The initial observations consisted of three examples recorded in 2004. An Antarctic observing site is critical for observing ground level AKR which is obscured by man-made broadcast signals at northern hemisphere locations. Examination of 2008 austral winter radio data from Antarctic Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) of the Polar Experiment Network for Geospace Upper-atmosphere Investigations (PENGUIn) network and South Pole Station reveals 37 ground level AKR events on 23 different days, 30 of which are confirmed by correlation with AKR observed with the Geotail spacecraft. The location of the Geotail spacecraft appears to be a significant factor enabling coincident measurements. Six of the AKR events are detected at two or three ground-level observatories separated by approximately 500 km, suggesting that the events illuminate an area comparable to a 500-km diameter. For 14 events on ten nights, photometer and all-sky imager data from South Pole and AGOs were examined; in ten cases, locations of auroral arcs could be determined at the times of the events. In eight of those cases, the AKR was detected at observatories poleward of the auroral arcs, and in the other two cases the aurora was approximately overhead at the observatory where AKR was detected. These observations suggest that the AKR signals may be ducted to ground level along magnetic field lines rather than propagating directly from the AKR source region of approximately 5000 km altitude. Correlations between structures in the AKR and intensifications of auroral arcs are occasionally observed but are rare. The ground-level AKR events have a local time distribution similar to that of AKR observed from satellites, peaking in the pre-midnight to midnight sector. This data base of >30

  5. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  6. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  7. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  8. Exposure to radon in dwellings below the ground level in the area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sokolovic, E.; Petroci, L.; Sencar, J.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in 44 dwellings at 22 locations in the area of Zagreb with the aim of establishing possible differences in radon levels between dwellings located below ground level, and those on higher floors. The measurements were performed using a Honeywell professional radon monitor both during the spring/summer and the autumn/winter seasons. Significant differences were found: for dwellings below ground level, the average annual radon activity concentration was 57±20 Bqm -3 ; for those on higher floors the value was 35±15 Bqm -3 . (A.K.)

  9. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  10. Detection of Changes in Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations via Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone concentration is a key indicator of air quality. Theremay exist sudden changes in ozone concentration data over a long time horizon, which may be caused by the implementation of government regulations and policies, such as establishing exhaust emission limits for on-road vehicles. To monitor and assess the efficacy of these policies, we propose a methodology for detecting changes in ground-level ozone concentrations, which consists of three major steps: data transformation, simultaneous autoregressive modelling and change-point detection on the estimated entropy. To show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the methodology is applied to detect changes in ground-level ozone concentration data collected in the Toronto region of Canada between June and September for the years from 1988 to 2009. The proposed methodology is also applicable to other climate data.

  11. The solar forcing on the 7Be-air concentration variability at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the correlation between the temporal and spatial variability of 7 Be-air concentration at ground level and the amount of precipitation. There were used the measured data from 26 stations distributed on North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. The variability study was made using EOF and principal components analysis. The presented results show that the variability of 7 Be air concentration at ground level is simultaneously influenced by the solar cycle and some atmospheric processes like precipitation, turbulent transport, advection, etc. The solar forcing on the 7 Be variability at ground level was outlined for time-scales longer than 1 year and can be considered a global phenomenon. The atmospheric processes influence the 7 Be variability for scale shorter than one year and can be considered a local phenomenon. (author)

  12. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  13. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  14. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  15. Advanced evaluation method of SG TSP BEC hole blockage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Harada, Yutaka; Murakami, Ryuji

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the control of the water chemistry of SG secondary feed-water in PWR-SG, SG TSP BEC holes, which are the flow path of secondary water, are often clogged. In the past, the trending of BEC hole blockage rate has conducted by evaluating ECT original signals and visual inspections. However, the ECT original signals of deposits are diversified, it becomes difficult to analyze them with the existing evaluation method using the ECT original signals. In this regard, we have developed the secondary side visual inspection system, which enables the high-accuracy evaluation of BEC hole blockage rate, and new ECT signal evaluation method. (author)

  16. Conversion of Airborne Gamma ray Spectra to Ground Level Air Kerma Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1997-01-01

    A new method for relating airborne gamma-ray spectra to dose rates and kerma rates at ground level is presented. Dependent on flying altitude 50 m to 125 m the method gives correct results for gamma energies above 250 keV respective 350 keV. At lower energies the method underestimate the dose...... or kerma rates; by having a large fraction of the ground level gamma-rays at energies below 350 keV special care should be taken at an interpretation of the results....

  17. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  18. A review of tsp as one of the transportation security aspects of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiryono

    2013-01-01

    A review has done for the Transportation Safety Plan (TSP) as one of the aspects of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. The review is necessary to harmonize national regulations with international practice. International practice of using TSP as one of the security requirements in addition to the Radiation Protection Program as a requirement of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. TSP is intended to ensure sound implementation of the transport of nuclear materials. TSP evaluation process can be done with a prescriptive approach, performance, and combinations. TSP contains information about administrative requirements, delivery security and response planning. TSP can be used to ensure the security of the implementation of the transport of nuclear materials effectively and efficiently. BAPETEN should require the applicant to submit the TSP as one document security requirements prior approval transporting nuclear materials. BAPETEN need to define the approach to the formulation and evaluation of TSP. BAPETEN need to set up an evaluation and inspection procedures for the implementation of TSP. (author)

  19. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  20. Development of a package program for estimating ground level concentrations of radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilkamhang, W.

    1986-01-01

    A package program for estimating ground level concentration of radioactive gas from elevate release was develop for use on IBM P C microcomputer. The main program, GAMMA PLUME NT10, is based on the well known VALLEY MODEL which is a Fortran computer code intended for mainframe computers. Other two options were added, namely, calculation of radioactive gas ground level concentration in Ci/m 3 and dose equivalent rate in mren/hr. In addition, a menu program and editor program were developed to render the program easier to use since the option could be readily selected and the input data could be easily modified as required through the keyboard. The accuracy and reliability of the program is almost identical to the mainframe. Ground level concentration of radioactive radon gas due to ore program processing in the nuclear chemistry laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Technology was estimated. In processing radioactive ore at a rate of 2 kg/day, about 35 p Ci/s of radioactive gas was released from a 14 m stack. When meteorological data of Don Muang (average for 5 years 1978-1982) were used maximum ground level concentration and the dose equivalent rate were found to be 0.00094 p Ci/m 3 and 5.0 x 10 -10 mrem/hr respectively. The processing time required for the above problem was about 7 minutes for any case of source on IBM P C which was acceptable for a computer of this class

  1. Nonstandard usage of ASS-500 station filters for determination of ground-level air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Jasinska, M.; Kwiatek, W.; Mietelski, J.W.; Dutkiewicz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work describes nonstandard application of filters from ASS-500 station for the determination of the element content in the samples collected by PIXE method. Determination of gamma radioactive isotopes and alpha radioactive plutonium is also reviewed. Authors conclude that ASS-500 workstation allows collection of representative samples from the ground level air. These samples are suitable for the complex analysis of industrial pollution

  2. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models.

  3. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Brade, T.K.; MacKenzie, A.R.; Whyatt, J.D.; Carruthers, D.J.; Stocker, J.; Cai, X.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness. -- Highlights: • Spatially variable roughness improved performance of an operational model. • Scenario modelling explored effect of reduced roughness on air pollution. • Reducing surface roughness can increase modelled ground-level pollution. • Damped vertical mixing outweighs increased horizontal advection in model study. • Result should hold for any model with a land-surface coupling based on roughness. -- Spatially varying roughness improves model simulations of urban air pollutant dispersion. Reducing roughness does not always decrease ground-level pollution concentrations

  4. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  5. Waste Analysis Plan for the Low-Level Burial Grounds [CANCELLED] Reissued as HNF-5841

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Canceled see HNF-5841 Rev 0. This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  6. The quasi-biennial oscillation of 1.7 years in ground level enhancement events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Pérez-Peraza, J.; Soon, W.; Márquez-Adame, J. C.

    2018-04-01

    The so-called Ground Level Enhancement events are sporadic relativistic solar particles measured at ground level by a network of cosmic ray detectors worldwide. These sporadic events are typically assumed to occur by random chance. However, we find that by studying the last 56 ground level enhancement events reported from 1966 through 2014, these events occur preferentially in the positive phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation of 1.7 year periodicity. These discrete ground level enhancement events show that there is another type of solar emission (i.e., wavelike packets) that occurs only in a specific phase of a very particular oscillation. We interpret this empirical result to support that ground level enhancement events are not a result of purely stochastic processes. We used the Morlet wavelet to analyze the phase of each of the periodicities found by the wavelet analyses and local variations of power spectral density in these sporadic events. We found quasi-regular periodicities of 10.4, 6.55, 4.12, 2.9, 1.73, 0.86, 0.61, 0.4 and 0.24 years in ground level enhancements. Although some of these quasi-biennial oscillation periodicities (i.e., oscillations operating between 0.6 and 4 years) may be interpreted as simply harmonics and overtones of the fundamental solar cycle from the underlying sun-spot magnetism phenomenon. The sources of these periodicities are still unclear. Also there is no clear mechanism for the variability of the quasi-biennial oscillation periodicities itself. The quasi-biennial oscillation periodicities are broadly considered to be a variation of solar activity, associated with the solar dynamo process. Also, the intensity of these periodicities is more important around the years of maximum solar activity because the quasi-biennial oscillation periodicities are modulated by the solar cycle where the Sun is more energetically enhanced during activity maxima. To identify the relationships among ground level enhancement, solar, and cosmic

  7. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  8. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  9. Investigating Margin and Grounding Line Dynamics with a Coupled Ice and Sea Level Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, J.; Milne, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the coupling of an adaptive mesh glaciological model (BISICLES) with a model of glacial isostatic adjustment and sea level. We apply this coupled model to study the deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from the last glacial maximum. The proximity of the GrIS to the much larger Laurentide results in an east-west gradient in sea level rates across Greenland during the deglaciation. We investigate the impacts of this sea level gradient on ice and grounding line dynamics at the margins, as well as the influence of both local and non-local ice on sea level and ice dynamics.

  10. General k-opt submoves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    2009-01-01

    Local search with k-exchange neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This paper presents an effective implementation of k-opt in LKH-2, a variant of the Lin–Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation...

  11. An Effective Implementation of K-opt Moves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    Local search with k-change neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This report presents an effective implementation of k-opt for the Lin- Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation is demonstrated with extensive...

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s performance are important to measure? 102-117.280 Section 102-117.280 Public Contracts and... § 102-117.280 What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? Important TSP performance...) Percentage of customer satisfaction reports on carrier performance. ...

  13. Ground level and Lidar monitoring of volcanic dust and dust from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. A.; Losno, R.; Salvador, J. O.; Journet, E.; Qu, Z.; Triquet, S.; Monna, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Bulnes, D.; Ristori, P. R.; Quel, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    A combined approach including ground level aerosol sampling, lidar and sunphotometer measurements is used to monitor suspended particles in the atmosphere at several sites in Patagonia. Motivated by the Puyehue volcanic eruption in June 2011 two aerosol monitoring stations with several passive and active instruments were installed in Bariloche and Comodoro Rivadavia. The main goal which is to monitor ground lifted and transported ashes and dust involving danger to civil aviation, is achieved by measuring continuously aerosol concentration at ground level and aerosol vertical distribution using lidar. In addition, starting from December 2011, continuous series of weekly accumulated aerosol concentrations at Rio Gallegos are being measured to study the impact of Patagonian dust over the open ocean on phytoplankton primary productivity and CO2 removal. These measurements are going to be coupled with LIDAR monitoring and a dust optical response models to test if aerosol extrapolation can be done from the ground to the top of the layer. Laboratory chemical analysis of the aerosols will include elemental composition, solubilisation kinetic and mineralogical determination. Expected deliverables for this study is the estimation of the amount of dust exported from Patagonia towards the South Atlantic, its chemical properties, including bioavailability simulation, from model and comparison to experimental measurements.

  14. Penanganan Fuzzy Time Window pada Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP dengan Penerapan Algoritma Genetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Eka Yuliastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The route of the travel tour packages offered by travel agents is not considered optimum, so the level of satisfaction the tourist is not maximal. Selection of the route of the travel packages included in the traveling salesman problem (TSP. The problem that occurs is uncertain tourists visiting destinations at the best destinations timing hereinafter be referred to as the fuzzy time window problem. Therefore, the authors apply the genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Based on test results obtained optimum solution with the fitness value of 1.3291, a population size of 100, the number of generations of 1000, a combination of CR=0,4 and MR=0.6.

  15. The threonine protease activity of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is essential for its function in cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50, a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.

  16. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20)

  18. Relationship between atomically related core levels and ground state properties of solids: first-principles calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, Jiří; Šipr, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 045112/1-045112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100514; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : core levels * ab-initio calculations * electronic states * ground state properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  19. Statistical Models to Assess the Health Effects and to Forecast Ground Level Ozone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlink, U.; Herbath, O.; Richter, M.; Dorling, S.; Nunnari, G.; Cawley, G.; Pelikán, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 547-558 ISSN 1364-8152 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : statistical models * ground level ozone * health effects * logistic model * forecasting * prediction performance * neural network * generalised additive model * integrated assessment Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2006

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.255 - What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.255 Section 102-117.255 Public Contracts and... may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? If the TSP's performance is not satisfactory...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.285 - What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.285 Section 102-117.285 Public Contracts and Property... are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? You may choose to place a TSP in temporary...

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  4. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  5. The ground water chemical characteristics of Beishan area-the China's potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxiao; Guo Yonghai

    2004-01-01

    The ground water chemical characteristics have impact on nuclide migration in high level waste repository, so the study on the ground water chemical characteristics is an important aspect in site screening and characterization. The geochemical modeling of the reaction trend between ground water and solid phase, the water-rock interaction modeling of the formation and evolution of ground water chemistry, the modeling of the reaction between ground water and nuclear waste are all carried out in this paper to study the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area. The study illustrates that the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area is favorable to the disposal of high level nuclear waste and to prevent the nuclides migration. (author)

  6. Hydrographs Showing Ground-Water Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Lower Skagit River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrographs for selected wells in the Lower Skagit River basin, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate monthly and seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the study area. Ground-water level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and were stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) System.

  7. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Lindh, K.

    2005-04-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  8. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Vintersved, I.

    2002-01-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  9. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) for low-level waste disposal facilities. In fulfillment of these requirements, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area burial grounds and the 200 West Area burial grounds. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area low-level burial grounds be written and approved by the Richland Operations Office. As a result of a record of decision for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Program and acceptance of the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the use of the low-level burial ground (LLBG) as a disposal facility for low-level and mixed low-level wastes has been restricted to lined trenches and the Navy reactor-compartment trench only. Hence, as of July 2004, only the two lined trenches in burial ground 218-W-5 (trenches 31 and 34, see Appendix A) and the Navy reactor-compartment trench in burial ground 218 E 12B (trench 94) are allowed to receive waste. When the two lined trenches are filled, the LLBG will cease to operate except for reactor compartment disposal at trench 94. Remaining operational lifetime of the LLBG is dependent on waste volume disposal rates. Existing programs for air sampling and analyses and subsidence monitoring are currently adequate for performance assessment at the LLBG. The waste disposal authorization for the Hanford Site is based (in part) on the post-closure performance assessments for the LLBG. In order to maintain a useful link between operational monitoring (e.g., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA], Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and State Waste Discharge Permits), constituents, monitoring frequencies, and boundaries require

  10. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m 3 for homes and 1000 Bq/m 3 for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y -1 , lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  11. Temperature Switch PCR (TSP: Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather Diane E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP, a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. Results We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Conclusion Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  12. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  13. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  14. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  15. Ground reaction forces in shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Ruschel, Caroline; dos Santos, Daniela Pacheco; Roesler, Helio

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the effect of depth of immersion, running speed and gender on ground reaction forces during water running. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty adults (ten male and ten female) participated by running at two levels of immersion (hip and chest) and two speed conditions (slow and fast). Data were collected using an underwater force platform. The following variables were analyzed: vertical force peak (Fy), loading rate (LR) and anterior force peak (Fx anterior). Three-factor mixed ANOVA was used to analyze data. Significant effects of immersion level, speed and gender on Fy were observed, without interaction between factors. Fy was greater when females ran fast at the hip level. There was a significant increase in LR with a reduction in the level of immersion regardless of the speed and gender. No effect of speed or gender on LR was observed. Regarding Fx anterior, significant interaction between speed and immersion level was found: in the slow condition, participants presented greater values at chest immersion, whereas, during the fast running condition, greater values were observed at hip level. The effect of gender was only significant during fast water running, with Fx anterior being greater in the men group. Increasing speed raised Fx anterior significantly irrespective of the level of immersion and gender. The magnitude of ground reaction forces during shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender and, for this reason, these factors should be taken into account during exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrologic transport of radionuclides from low-level waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results

  17. Temporal Characterisation of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzah Mohamad Hashim, Nur; Noor, Norazian Mohamed; Yasina Yusof, Sara

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the most significant air pollutants due to the increasing sources of ozone precursors. Hence, the surface O3 concentration should have received substantial attention because of its negative effects to human health, vegetation and the environment. In this study, hourly air pollutants dataset (i.e O3, Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Particulate matter (PM10), Non-methane hydrocarbon (NmHC), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)) and weather parameters (i.e. wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), temperature (T), ultraviolet B (UVB)) for ten years period (2003-2012) in Klang Valley were selected for analysis in this study. Two monitoring stations were selected that are Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The aim of the study is to determine the diurnal variations of O3 concentrations according to the seasonal monsoon and the correlation between the ground-level O3 concentration and others parameter. A high concentration of ground-level O3 was observed during the first transition (April to May) for both of the stations. While at a low surface, O3 concentration was found out during the southwest monsoon within June to September. Pearson correlation was used to find the correlation between the O3 concentration and all other pollutants and weather parameters. Most of the relationship between O3concentrationswas positively correlated with NO2 and negative relationship was found out with NMHC. These results were expected since these pollutants are known as the O3 precursors. Besides that, O3 concentration and its precursors show a positive significant correlation with all meteorological factors except for relative humidity.

  18. Temporal Characterisation of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hashim Nur Izzah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, ground-level ozone (O3 is one of the most significant air pollutants due to the increasing sources of ozone precursors. Hence, the surface O3 concentration should have received substantial attention because of its negative effects to human health, vegetation and the environment. In this study, hourly air pollutants dataset (i.e O3, Carbon monoxide (CO, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, Particulate matter (PM10, Non-methane hydrocarbon (NmHC, Sulphur dioxide (SO2 and weather parameters (i.e. wind speed (WS, wind direction (WD, temperature (T, ultraviolet B (UVB for ten years period (2003-2012 in Klang Valley were selected for analysis in this study. Two monitoring stations were selected that are Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The aim of the study is to determine the diurnal variations of O3 concentrations according to the seasonal monsoon and the correlation between the ground-level O3 concentration and others parameter. A high concentration of ground-level O3 was observed during the first transition (April to May for both of the stations. While at a low surface, O3 concentration was found out during the southwest monsoon within June to September. Pearson correlation was used to find the correlation between the O3 concentration and all other pollutants and weather parameters. Most of the relationship between O3concentrationswas positively correlated with NO2 and negative relationship was found out with NMHC. These results were expected since these pollutants are known as the O3 precursors. Besides that, O3 concentration and its precursors show a positive significant correlation with all meteorological factors except for relative humidity.

  19. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  20. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  1. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste 5 acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall 6 processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for disposal at the Low-Level 7 Burial Grounds (LLBG), which are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of 8 the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not 9 include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of 10 mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. 11 The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. The 12 LLBG also receive low-level radioactive waste for disposal. The requirements 13 of this WAP are not applicable to this low-level waste

  2. An assessment of ground-level ozone concentrations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. A first air quality assessment was prepared as part of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board application, in order to evaluate the emissions and potential impacts associated with the development. The Pembina Institute raised several issues with respect to potential future changes in ambient ozone levels as a result of the Aurora Mine operations. In response to these concerns, another more rigorous assessment was conducted to predict future ground-level ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area. This report includes: (1) ambient air quality guidelines for ozone, (2) emissions inventory for dispersion modelling, (3) dispersion modelling methodology, and (4) predicted ambient ozone concentrations. Ground level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations result from anthropogenically produced ozone, and from naturally occurring ozone. Ozone is not directly emitted to the atmosphere from industrial sources, but is formed as a result of chemical reactions between NO x and VOCs, which are emitted from industrial sources within the Athabasca oil sands region. NO x and VOC emissions associated with the Aurora Mine operation are predicted to increase hourly average ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area by only 0.001 ppm. 17 refs., 18 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Ground-level O3 pollution and its impacts on food crops in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Enzhu; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) pollution has become one of the top environmental issues in China, especially in those economically vibrant and densely populated regions. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the O 3 concentration observation and O 3 effects on food crops throughout China. Data from 118 O 3 monitoring sites reported in the literature show that the variability of O 3 concentration is a function of geographic location. The impacts of O 3 on food crops (wheat and rice) were studied at five sites, equipped with Open Top Chamber or O 3 -FACE (free-air O 3 concentration enrichment) system. Based on exposure concentration and stomatal O 3 flux–response relationships obtained from the O 3 -FACE experimental results in China, we found that throughout China current and future O 3 levels induce wheat yield loss by 6.4–14.9% and 14.8–23.0% respectively. Some policies to reduce ozone pollution and impacts are suggested. - Highlights: • Ozone concentrations are increasing in most of regions of China. • Ozone has caused high yield loss of food crops in China. • More species and local varieties should be investigated for ozone sensitivity. • Developing the air quality standards for crops is required in China. • More air quality stations in the rural are needed. - Ground-level ozone is one of the most serious environmental pollutants for food production in China

  4. Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, E; Sanhudo, C E; Diehl-Fleig, Ed

    2004-02-01

    Richness and diversity of ant species are related to environmental factors such as vegetation, soil, presence of heavy metals, and insecticides, which allow the use of the assemblage members as terrestrial indicators of environmental conservation status. This study presents the results of ground ants surveyed in Minas do Camaquã in the municipality of Cacapava do Sul (Camaquã Basin), State of Rio Grande do Sul. Collections were performed in four sites, which high levels of copper in the soil, three of which--a mine, a liquid reject, and a solid reject-, had sparse or no plant cover, and one site where Pinus has been used for rehabilitation. Parque das Guaritas was the control site, since it presented normal levels of copper and a dense savanna cover. For each site, three transect lines extending 100 m were draw, and at each 10 m sardine baits were distributed; after two hours the ants present were collected. Hand collections in all five sites were performed during one hour (capture effort). A total of 51 species belonging to 17 genera were collected. The control site was the richest in ant species (r = 45). Sites with high level of copper and poor plant cover presented the lowest richness: mine (r = 14), solid reject (r = 15), and liquid reject (r = 16). In contrast, the site planted with Pinus presented an increment in richness (r = 24) of ground-dwelling ants, suggesting a reahabilitation process.

  5. Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Diehl

    Full Text Available Richness and diversity of ant species are related to environmental factors such as vegetation, soil, presence of heavy metals, and insecticides, which allow the use of the assemblage members as terrestrial indicators of environmental conservation status. This study presents the results of ground ants surveyed in Minas do Camaquã in the municipality of Caçapava do Sul (Camaquã Basin, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Collections were performed in four sites, with high levels of copper in the soil, three of which - a mine, a liquid reject, and a solid reject -, had sparse or no plant cover, and one site where Pinus has been used for rehabilitation. Parque das Guaritas was the control site, since it presented normal levels of copper and a dense savanna cover. For each site, three transect lines extending 100 m were draw, and at each 10 m sardine baits were distributed; after two hours the ants present were collected. Hand collections in all five sites were performed during one hour (capture effort. A total of 51 species belonging to 17 genera were collected. The control site was the richest in ant species (r = 45. Sites with high level of copper and poor plant cover presented the lowest richness: mine (r = 14, solid reject (r = 15, and liquid reject (r = 16. In contrast, the site planted with Pinus presented an increment in richness (r = 24 of ground-dwelling ants, suggesting a reahabilitation process.

  6. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  7. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  8. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  9. Collision strengths from ground levels of Ti XIII using relativistic-Breit-Pauli approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.; Hibbert, H.; Burke, P.G.; Keenan, F.

    1998-09-01

    The R-matrix method is used to calculate collision strengths from ground state to the first twenty-six fine structure levels of neon-like titanium by including the relativistic term coupling coefficients in the semi-Breit-Pauli approximation. Configuration interaction wave-functions are used to represent the first fifteen lowest LS-coupled target states in the R-matrix expansion. Results obtained are compared with other calculations. This is the first detailed calculation on this ion in which relativistic, exchange, channel couplings and short-range correlation effects are taken into account. (author)

  10. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document presents the Functional Design Criteria for trenches to be constructed to receive solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW) from on and offsite generators. The new RMW disposal facilities are considered modifications to or lateral expansion of the existing low-level waste burial grounds. The new facilities upgrade the existing disposal practice for RMW to the minimum technology requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The proposed locations for the two facilities are: 218-E-10 for drag-off-waste packages and, 218-W-4C for non drag-off waste packages

  11. Gamma radiation at ground level in Sweden in 1975-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    After a peak of about 24 mR/y in 1963 (17 mR/y the actual value including absorption in the snow), the average additional exposure due to fallout decreased to about 10 mR/y (the actual value 7 mR/y) and since 1965 there have been no significant variations in the annual exposure due to fallout. The contribution from fallout to the irradiation level above the ground depends mostly on cesium-137 from the atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 with some contribution from fresh fallout originating from later nuclear explosions

  12. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Key words: Cancer classification, gene expression, k-TSP, information entropy, gene selection. INTRODUCTION ..... The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also ... TCF3 is in acute myeloid leukemia pathway, so it is.

  13. Pumping characteristics of sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Patel, R.J.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Pandiyar, M.L.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    For achieving hydrocarbon free, clean ultra high vacuum, SIP-TSP combination is one of the ideal choice for pumping. For the SRS facility in Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), we are utilising this combination, enmass. For this purpose, two modules of these combination set-ups are assembled, one with the TSP as an integral part of SIP and the other, with TSP as a separate pump mounted on the top of SIP. The pump bodies were vacuum degassed at 700 degC at 10 -5 mbar for 3 hrs. An ultimate vacuum of 3 x 10 -11 mbar was achieved, after a bake-out at 250 degC for 4 hrs, followed by continuous SIP pumping for 48 hrs, with two TSP flashing at approximately 10 hrs interval. The pump-down patterns as well as the pressure-rise patterns are studied. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  14. Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0615 TITLE: Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy PRINCIPAL...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy...infection or cigarette smoke enhanced pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer in humans and mice. Similarly, autoimmune arthritis, characterized by

  15. Onsets of Solar Proton Events in Satellite and Ground Level Observations: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Rodriguez, Juan V.

    2018-03-01

    The early detection of solar proton event onsets is essential for protecting humans and electronics in space, as well as passengers and crew at aviation altitudes. Two commonly compared methods for observing solar proton events that are sufficiently large and energetic to be detected on the ground through the creation of secondary radiation—known as ground level enhancements (GLEs)—are (1) a network of ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) and (2) satellite-based particle detectors. Until recently, owing to the different time resolution of the two data sets, it has not been feasible to compare these two types of observations using the same detection algorithm. This paper presents a comparison between the two observational platforms using newly processed >100 MeV 1 min count rates and fluxes from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 8-12 satellites, and 1 min count rates from the Neutron Monitor Database. We applied the same detection algorithm to each data set (tuned to the different background noise levels of the instrument types). Seventeen SPEs with GLEs were studied: GLEs 55-70 from Solar Cycle 23 and GLE 71 from Solar Cycle 24. The median difference in the event detection times by GOES and NM data is 0 min, indicating no innate benefit in time of either system. The 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the onset time differences (GOES minus NMs) are -7.2 min, -1.5 min, 2.5 min, and 4.2 min, respectively. This is in contrast to previous studies in which NM detections led GOES by 8 to 52 min without accounting for different alert protocols.

  16. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  17. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  18. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  19. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  20. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  1. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  2. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  3. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  4. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  5. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  6. Gamma radiation at ground level in Sweden in 1975-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1978-03-01

    Measurement of the gamma radiation 2 1/2 m above the ground, carried out continuously in Sweden since 1960, has been continued during 1975 - 1977 at 24 places in Sweden. The net of gamma stations is intended for the rapid detection of large quantities of fallout. The standard deviation of an exposure reading (incl. natural exposure) has been estimated to be +- 5 percent. Figures show the variation of the exposure in μR/h from 1960 for three of the stations. After a peak of about 24 mR/y in 1963 (17 mR/y the actual value including absorption in the snow), the average additional exposure due to fallout decreased to about 10 mR/y (the actual value 7 mR/y) and since 1965 there have been no significant variations in the annual exposure due to fallout. The contribution from fallout to the irradiation level above the ground depends mostly on cesium-137 from the atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 with some contribution from fresh fallout originating from later nuclear explosions

  7. Proton energy spectra during ground level enhancements as measured by EPHIN aboard SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Klassen, Andreas; Dresing, Nina [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Gomez-Herrero, Raul [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are recorded by ground-based instrumentation. The energy of the particles is so high that they produce secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. protons and neutrons, which are detected as sudden increases in cosmic ray intensities measured by e.g. neutron monitors. Since the launch of SOHO in December 1995 the neutron monitor network recorded 16 GLEs. The Electron Proton Helium INstrument on board SOHO has been designed to measure protons and helium up to 53 MeV/nucleon as well as electrons up to 8.3 MeV. Above these energies, particles penetrate all detector elements and thus, a separation between different particle species becomes more complicated. Recently we developed a method that allows deriving the energy spectrum for penetrating protons up to more than 1 GeV. In this contribution we present the proton energy spectra and time profiles of above mentioned GLEs and compare them to previous measurements. Although there are differences of up to a factor two the overall shape of the energy spectra agree surprisingly well. Thus it has been demonstrated that EPHIN measurements are a valuable tool for understanding GLE.

  8. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  9. Radiation dose of aircrews during a solar proton event without ground-level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant enhancement of radiation doses is expected for aircrews during ground-level enhancement (GLE events, while the possible radiation hazard remains an open question during non-GLE solar energetic particle (SEP events. Using a new air-shower simulation driven by the proton flux data obtained from GOES satellites, we show the possibility of significant enhancement of the effective dose rate of up to 4.5 μSv h−1 at a conventional flight altitude of 12 km during the largest SEP event that did not cause a GLE. As a result, a new GOES-driven model is proposed to give an estimate of the contribution from the isotropic component of the radiation dose in the stratosphere during non-GLE SEP events.

  10. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  11. Levelling Airborne and Ground Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Data to Assist Uranium Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matolin, M., E-mail: matolin@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Minty, B. [Geoscience Australia, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Geophysical methods can be used for mapping in both 2 and 3 dimensions, as well as the direct detection of ore bodies. The gamma-ray spectrometric method is an efficient method for the regional assessment of uranium potential and the detection of surface mineralization. However, the full potential of the method can only be realized when the data are adequately standardized. Examples of this standardization at both regional and local scales are dealt in this paper. At a regional scale, it is shown how the levelling of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data over Australia increases the value of the resulting data, and on a local scale a geometrical correction for ground gamma-ray spectrometry in shallow holes that improves the accuracy of measurements is introduced. (author)

  12. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  14. On-ground calibration of the BEPICOLOMBO/SIMBIO-SYS at instrument level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Poulet, F.; Eng, P.; Longval, Y.; Dassas, K.; Arondel, A.; Langevin, Y.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Palumbo, P.; Cremonese, G.; Dami, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Mercury Planetary Orbiter/BepiColombo carries an integrated suite of instruments, the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS). SIMBIO-SYS has 3 channels: a stereo imaging system (STC), a high-resolution imager (HRIC) and a visible-near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VIHI). SIMBIO-SYS will scan the surface of Mercury with these three channels and determine the physical, morphological and compositional properties of the entire planet. Before integration on the S/C, an on-ground calibration at the channels and at the instrument levels will be performed so as to describe the instrumental responses as a function of various parameters that might evolve while the instruments will be operating [1]. The Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) is responsible for the on-ground instrument calibration at the instrument level. During the 4 weeks of calibration campaign planned for June 2012, the instrument will be maintained in a mechanical and thermal environment simulating the space conditions. Four Optical stimuli (QTH lamp, Integrating Sphere, BlackBody with variable temperature from 50 to 1200°C and Monochromator), are placed over an optical bench to illuminate the four channels so as to make the radiometric calibration, straylight monitoring, as well as spectral proofing based on laboratory mineral samples. The instrument will be mounted on a hexapod placed inside a thermal vacuum chamber during the calibration campaign. The hexapod will move the channels within the well-characterized incoming beam. We will present the key activities of the preparation of this calibration: the derivation of the instrument radiometric model, the implementation of the optical, mechanical and software interfaces of the calibration assembly, the characterization of the optical bench and the definition of the calibration procedures.

  15. Environmental contamination from a ground-level release of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Kephart, G.S.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1986-08-01

    On January 11, 1985, a ground-level release of fission products, primarily 90 Sr, occurred at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The release was detected during routine surveys and the majority of the contamination was confined to the immediate area where the release occurred. Response to the incident was complicated by a strong inversion that resulted in a buildup of 222 Rn daughter products on environmental air samples and outdoor surfaces. The cause of the release appears to have been the operation of a transfer jet that inadvertently pressurized an unblanked line leading to the 241-C-151 Diversion Box. A buildup of pressure inside the diversion box forced contaminated air through gaps in the diversion box cover blocks resulting in an unmonitored, short duration release to the environment. The source term was estimated using data obtained from environmental air samplers. The ground deposition speed was calculated using the integrated exposure (air samples) and surface contamination levels obtained from recently fallen snow. The total release was estimated to be 1.4 Ci 90 Sr and 0.02 Ci 137 Cs. Based on this source term, the maximum 50-yr dose commitment to onsite pesonnel was 50 mrem whole body and 600 mrem bone. No detectable internal deposition occurred during the incident and corrective action which followed; this was probably due to several factors: (1) prompt detection of the release; (2) localized contamination control; (3) excellent personnel protection practices; and (4) the protection offered by building ventilation systems. The theoretical maximum offsite individual would receive a potential 1-yr dose commitment of 0.01 mrem whole body and 0.2 mrem bone from this incident. The potential 50-yr dose commitment would be 0.13 mrem whole body and 2.0 mrem bone. In actuality, neither onsite or offsite individuals would be expected to receive even these small dose commitments

  16. Diffusion of dust particles from a point-source above ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1998-10-01

    A pollutant of small particles is emitted by a point source at a height h above ground level in an atmosphere in which a uni-directional wind speed, U, is prevailing. The pollutant is subjected to diffusion in all directions in the presence of advection and settling due to gravity. The equation governing the concentration of the pollutant is studied with the wind speed and the different components of diffusion tensor are proportional to the distance above ground level and the source has a uniform strength. Adopting a Cartesian system of coordinates in which the x-axis lies along the direction of the wind velocity, the z-axis is vertically upwards and the y-axis completes the right-hand triad, the solution for the concentration c(x,y,z) is obtained in closed form. The relative importance of the components of diffusion along the three axes is discussed. It is found that for any plane y=constant (=A), c(x,y,z) is concentrated along a curve of ''extensive pollution''. In the plane A=0, the concentration decreases along the line of extensive pollution as we move away from the source. However, for planes A≅0, the line of extensive pollution possesses a point of accumulation, which lies at a nonzero value of x. As we move away from the plane A=0, the point of accumulation moves laterally away from the plane x=0 and towards the plane z=0. The presence of the point of accumulation is entirely due to the presence of lateral diffusion. (author)

  17. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Ground water Level Changes Induced by the 2006 Hengchun Earthquake Doublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeping Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-level changes were ob served in 107 wells at 67 monitoring stations in the southern coastal plain of Tai wan during the 2006 Mw 7.1 Hengchun earthquake doublet. Two consecutive coseismic changes induced by the earth quake doublet can be observed from high-frequency data. Obervations from multiple-well stations indicate that the magnitude and direction of coseismic change may vary in wells of different depths. Coseismic rises were dominant on the south east side of the costal plain; whereas, coseismic falls prevailed on the north west side. In the transition zone, rises appeared in shallow wells whilst falls were evident in deep wells. As coseismic ground water level changes can reflect the tectonic strain field, tectonic extension likely dominates the deep subsurface in the transition area, and possibly in the en tire southern coastal plain. The coseismic rises in water level showed a tendency to de crease with distance from the hypocenter, but no clear trend was found for the coseismic falls.

  19. Ground-level ozone pollution and its health impacts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Shuai; Xue, Boru; Lv, Zhaofeng; Meng, Zhihang; Yang, Xiaofan; Xue, Tao; Yu, Qiao; He, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution in China has become an increasingly prominent problem. This study simulated and analyzed spatiotemporal distribution of ozone and exposure level by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models and monitoring data from 1516 national air quality monitoring stations in China during 2015. The simulation results show that the Sichuan Basin, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had relatively high average annual concentrations of ozone. The regions with more than 10% nonattainment days of 160 μg/m3 (daily maximum 8-h) are mainly concentrated in BTH, Shandong Peninsula and YRD, where large seasonal variations were also found. Exposure levels were calculated based on population data and simulated ozone concentrations. The cumulative population exposed to daily maximum 8-h concentration greater than or equal to 100 μg/m3 was 816.04 million, 61.17% of the total. Three methods were used to estimate the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ozone. A comparative study using different exposure concentrations and threshold concentrations found large variations among these methods, although they were all peer-reviewed methods. The estimated mortality of COPD caused by ozone in China in 2015 ranged from 55341 to 80280, which mainly distributed in Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Sichuan Province, the YRD and PRD region.

  20. Electrocortical correlates of human level-ground, slope, and stair walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Phat Luu

    Full Text Available This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW, ramp ascent (RA, and stair ascent (SA. Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL, Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC, and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC. Results showed that the changes of spectral power in the PPC and SMC clusters were associated with the level of motor task demands. Specifically, we observed α and β suppression at the beginning of the gait cycle in both SA and RA walking (relative to LW in the SMC. Additionally, we observed significant β rebound (synchronization at the initial swing phase of the gait cycle, which may be indicative of active cortical signaling involved in maintaining the current locomotor state. An increase of low γ band power in this cluster was also found in SA walking. In the PPC, the low γ band power increased with the level of task demands (from LW to RA and SA. Additionally, our results provide evidence that electrocortical amplitude modulations (relative to average gait cycle are correlated with the level of difficulty in locomotion tasks. Specifically, the modulations in the PPC shifted to higher frequency bands when the subjects walked in RA and SA conditions. Moreover, low γ modulations in the central sensorimotor area were observed in the LW walking and shifted to lower frequency bands in RA and SA walking. These findings extend our understanding of cortical dynamics of human walking at different level of locomotion task demands and reinforces the growing body of literature supporting a shared-control paradigm between spinal and

  1. Electrocortical correlates of human level-ground, slope, and stair walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trieu Phat; Brantley, Justin A; Nakagome, Sho; Zhu, Fangshi; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW), ramp ascent (RA), and stair ascent (SA)). Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL), Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC), and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC). Results showed that the changes of spectral power in the PPC and SMC clusters were associated with the level of motor task demands. Specifically, we observed α and β suppression at the beginning of the gait cycle in both SA and RA walking (relative to LW) in the SMC. Additionally, we observed significant β rebound (synchronization) at the initial swing phase of the gait cycle, which may be indicative of active cortical signaling involved in maintaining the current locomotor state. An increase of low γ band power in this cluster was also found in SA walking. In the PPC, the low γ band power increased with the level of task demands (from LW to RA and SA). Additionally, our results provide evidence that electrocortical amplitude modulations (relative to average gait cycle) are correlated with the level of difficulty in locomotion tasks. Specifically, the modulations in the PPC shifted to higher frequency bands when the subjects walked in RA and SA conditions. Moreover, low γ modulations in the central sensorimotor area were observed in the LW walking and shifted to lower frequency bands in RA and SA walking. These findings extend our understanding of cortical dynamics of human walking at different level of locomotion task demands and reinforces the growing body of literature supporting a shared-control paradigm between spinal and cortical

  2. Incorporation Between AHP and N-TSP for Plant Surveillance Routing with Multiple Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho

    2002-01-01

    This paper observed plant on-line surveillance routing for maintenance management with multiple constraints using TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem). In the research N-TSP (nomadic TSP) type was used. In this case, on-line surveillance could be implemented on moving robot. Route for preventive maintenance management was observed sequentially per stage using multiple constraints (a) distance between components, and (b) failure probability of components using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Simulation was observed utilizing DURESS as a complex system. The simulation result showed that the route with single constraint distance between components represents the sequence of 1 - 6 - 2 - 4 - 3 - 5. Routing for DURESS with multiple constraints using incorporation of AHP and TSP showed that the first priority in the route is flow sensor FB2 with the value of comparation of 0.1042. The next priority is sequentially FB1, FA2, FA1, FA, FB, VB, VA, VA1, VA2, VB1, VB2, pump B, pump A, FR1, FR2, reservoir 2, and reservoir 1. Numerical experiment obtained that the incorporation between AHP and N-TSP has successfully constructed the surveillance routing with multiple constraints. (author)

  3. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA TSP DALAM PENYELESAIAN TRACKING PAKET PADA UNIT PROCESSING CENTER POS INDONESIA KOTA LHOKSEUMAWE ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richki Hardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traveling salesperson problem-TSP problem is an optimization problem to find the optimal way for the traveling salesman who wants to visit several cities, and returned to the original departure city. TSP is a difficult problem when viewed from the point of computing. Several methods have been used to solve these problems but until now not been found mangkus algorithms to solve them. The easiest way to solve TSP is to try all possible routes and find the optimal route. However, at the time of the very practical now required to complete an algorithm that quickly so that the TSP solution obtained near optimal solutions.TSP is very precise algorithm used for solving complex optimization problems and solved difficult conventional methods. Route and distance data used to determine the optimal route in the system is obtained from the survey results at the post office Lhokseumawe. The results showed that the algorithm is the shortest route from the post office to post office Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Lhokseumawe is through the route - Bireun-Simpang Tiga-Takengon-Meulaboh with a total distance of 326 kilometers. The implementation of this system using the programming language PHP, MySQL, and Macromedia Flash.

  4. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancement of 1989 September 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R. A. [Ciencias Espaciales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    The ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 1989 September 29 is one of the largest of 71 solar energetic particle events observed by neutron monitors on Earth. It was smaller than the record-breaking GLE 5 of 1956 February 23, but by some measures it was larger than GLE 69 of 2005 January 20. It is also the most extensively studied of the 71 GLEs, and it was observed by more than 50 ground-based detectors in the worldwide network. This paper contains another study of the event, with the main difference from previous studies that all the existing observations are employed, instead of the usual selection of stations. An effort is made to represent all the information graphically. This reveals new insight in the event, mainly about its time profile. The main conclusion is that the event is the best example available of a 'classical' GLE that has a gradual increase toward peak intensity and does not contain two or more distinct peaks as inferred previously. It does, however, suggest that there were two acceleration or release mechanisms: a prompt, rapid one and a delayed, slower one. This conclusion is based on a detailed comparison with GLE 69 of 2005 January 20, which is the best-known example of a double-peaked event with a 'prompt' component. It is also found that the rigidity spectrum was probably softer than derived in several previous studies, and that the decay phase of the event reveals that the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient in the neutron monitor range is proportional to rigidity.

  5. Alteration of the ground state by external magnetic fields. [External field, coupling constant ratio, static tree level approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, B J; Shepard, H K [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-03-22

    By fully exploiting the mathematical and physical analogy to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, a complete discussion of the ground state behavior of the four-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the static tree level approximation is presented. It is shown that a sufficiently strong external magnetic field can alter the ground state of the theory by restoring a spontaneously broken symmetry, or by creating a qualitatively different 'vortex' state. The energetically favored ground state is explicitly determined as a function of the external field and the ratio between coupling constants of the theory.

  6. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  7. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. ohoud-aljawi@hotmail.com (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  8. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  9. Modelling of Edge Insulation Depending on Boundary Conditions for the Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska, Agata; Strzałkowski, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    The article presents results of CFD software aided simulations of a thermal bridge, existing at the wall-slab on ground connection. Calculations were made for different variants of the edge insulation location. Schemes without any edge insulation, with some vertical insulation, horizontal, diagonal, and diagonal combined with insulation used as formwork under the slab on ground were analysed. Each variant was differentiated with boundary conditions for the ground. Vertical borders of the model in the ground, as well as the lower border were described in the first solution as adiabatic, while in the second case, a variable temperature value, depending on the ground depth, was set. For comparison, additional calculations were conducted for non-stationary conditions, in which the initial temperature of the ground was set to the average annual temperature of air. The calculations were based on the location of Szczecin, for which the outside air temperature was set to -16.0°C. Results obtained from the simulation were then used to determine the thermal bridge parameters, in particular, thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance. The effect of the set of boundary conditions is clearly seen. In general, for all the five variants, lower values of heat fluxes and linear thermal transmittances were obtained, when variable temperature in the ground was assumed. From the point of view of energy balance, it is more favourable to use the values of ψg obtained when the ground temperature is taken into account. The data breakdown shows that application of the actual temperature distribution in the ground to a model has a strong effect on distribution of the 0.0°C isotherm. The adiabatic model indicates that the ground under the slab freezes, while the model, which takes into account the temperature of the ground, shows that the ground under the floor has positive temperatures and the 0.0°C isotherm reaches only the edge of the outer wall. Moreover, the

  10. Projected global ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation under different emission and climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sicard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ground-level ozone (O3 on vegetation is largely under-investigated at the global scale despite large areas worldwide that are exposed to high surface O3 levels. To explore future potential impacts of O3 on vegetation, we compared historical and projected surface O3 concentrations simulated by six global atmospheric chemistry transport models on the basis of three representative concentration pathways emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5. To assess changes in the potential surface O3 threat to vegetation at the global scale, we used the AOT40 metric. Results point out a significant exceedance of AOT40 in comparison with the recommendations of UNECE for the protection of vegetation. In fact, many areas of the Northern Hemisphere show that AOT40-based critical levels will be exceeded by a factor of at least 10 under RCP8.5. Changes in surface O3 by 2100 worldwide range from about +4–5 ppb in the RCP8.5 scenario to reductions of about 2–10 ppb in the most optimistic scenario, RCP2.6. The risk of O3 injury for vegetation, through the potential O3 impact on photosynthetic assimilation, decreased by 61 and 47 % under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, respectively, and increased by 70 % under RCP8.5. Key biodiversity areas in southern and northern Asia, central Africa and North America were identified as being at risk from high O3 concentrations.

  11. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Hans D.; Odame-Ankrah, Charles A.; Taha, Youssef M.; Tokarek, Travis W.; Schiller, Corinne L.; Haga, Donna; Jones, Keith; Vingarzan, Roxanne

    2018-05-01

    The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2), can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( = NO + NO2), radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3) production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements. Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX) located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy), O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1). At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O except for a short period after sunrise.

  12. Aromatic volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports proton mass spectrometry data on aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and propylbenzene) obtained in different Russian regions along the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok, based on expedition data retrieved using the TRO-ICA-12 mobile laboratory in the summer of 2008. The contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation in the cities and regions along the measurement route has been estimated quantitatively. The greatest contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation is characteristic of large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway (up to 7.5 ppbv O3) specified by the highest concentrations of aromatic VOCs (1-1.7 ppbv) and nitrogen oxides (>20 ppbv). The results obtained are indicative of a considerable contribution (30-50%) of anthropogenic emissions of VOCs to photochemical ozone generation in the large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway in hot and dry weather against the background of a powerful natural factor such as isoprene emissions controlling the regional balance of ground-level ozone in warm seasons.

  13. Web Monitoring of EOS Front-End Ground Operations, Science Downlinks and Level 0 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Wilkinson, Chris; McLemore, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the efforts undertaken and the technology deployed to aggregate and distribute the metadata characterizing the real-time operations associated with NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS) high-rate front-end systems and the science data collected at multiple ground stations and forwarded to the Goddard Space Flight Center for level 0 processing. Station operators, mission project management personnel, spacecraft flight operations personnel and data end-users for various EOS missions can retrieve the information at any time from any location having access to the internet. The users are distributed and the EOS systems are distributed but the centralized metadata accessed via an external web server provide an effective global and detailed view of the enterprise-wide events as they are happening. The data-driven architecture and the implementation of applied middleware technology, open source database, open source monitoring tools, and external web server converge nicely to fulfill the various needs of the enterprise. The timeliness and content of the information provided are key to making timely and correct decisions which reduce project risk and enhance overall customer satisfaction. The authors discuss security measures employed to limit access of data to authorized users only.

  14. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms at ground level in four separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (brief description of the TETRA-I observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary results of the first events observed by TETRA-II will be presented including frequency and time history of events, spectral information, and correlation with local radar and radio data.

  15. The ground level event 70 on december 13, 2006 and related effective doses at aviation altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthia, D.; Heber, B.; Reitz, G.; Sihver, L.; Berger, T.; Meier, M.

    2009-01-01

    The 70. ground level event in the records of the Neutron Monitor network occurred on 13 December 2006 reaching a maximum count rate increase at the Oulu station of more than 90% during the 5 min interval 3.05-3.10 UTC. Thereafter, count rates gradually decreased registering increases of a few per cent above the galactic cosmic ray background after a few hours. The primary proton spectrum during the first 6 h after the onset of the event is characterised in this work by fitting the energy and angular distribution by a power law in rigidity and a linear dependence in the pitch angle using a minimisation technique. The results were obtained by analysing the data from 28 Neutron Monitor stations. At very high northern and southern latitudes, the effective dose rates were estimated to reach values of 25-30 μSv h -1 at atmospheric depth of 200 g cm -2 during the maximum of the event. The increase in effective dose during north atlantic and polar flights was estimated to be in the order of 20%. (authors)

  16. Seasonal Variability of Ground Water Levels in the Puszcza Zielonka Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajewski Sylwester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies on seasonal variability of ground water tables recorded in long-term observations of water levels in the Puszcza Zielonka forest complex. The Puszcza Zielonka Forest is located in the middle part of the Warta basin in the central part of the Wielkopolska region. Its western boundary is located approx. 6 km north-east of Poznań. The area is situated in the western part of the Wielkopolska-Mazovian climatic region. The natural landscape is of young glacial type of Pleistocene and Holocene formation. For this reason parent materials for soils in this area were mainly postglacial drifts, deposits coming from the Poznań stage of the Würm glaciation. In terms of granulometric composition these were mainly low clayey sands deposited on loose sands with an admixture of gravel and eroded sandy clay. Scots pine is the dominant species. Oaks, alders, larches and scarce spruces are also found in this area. Predominant sites include fresh mixed forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest, fresh broadleaved forest and alder swamp forest.

  17. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  18. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  19. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  20. 5 CFR 1605.22 - Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... record keeper errors; time limitations. 1605.22 Section 1605.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL... § 1605.22 Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations. (a) Filing claims... after that time, the Board or TSP record keeper may use its sound discretion in deciding whether to...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? For... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.260 - Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA? 102-118.260 Section 102-118.260 Public Contracts and... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Quotations, Tenders Or Contracts § 102-118.260 Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to...

  3. INCREASED VASOOCCLUSIVE CRISIS IN “O” BLOOD GROUP SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH UNDERLYING THROMBOSPONDIN LEVELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Huneini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To explore the incidence of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in Blood Group “O” sickle cell disease (SCD patients, and correlate it with the blood group and thrombospondin (TSP levels. Methods: In 89 consecutive SCD patients, blood samples were obtained for vWF antigen, collagen binding activity, blood group typing, C-reactive protein, variant hemoglobin analysis (HPLC, Serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels, complete blood counts, liver function tests, LDH and renal function tests during VOC episodes and in steady state conditions. Results: In the steady state SCD patients (n=72, “O” blood group patients (n=37 showed significantly higher median serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels than the non “O” blood group patients [n=35] [p <0.05, Mann-Whitney test], with an inverse relation between VWF:Ag, Factor VIII:C and TSP levels. Furthermore, the serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with acute VOC [n=17], and in those with repeated VOC’s (group 1, n=16 especially amongst those patients with blood group “O” [p, <0.05, Mann-Whitney test]. Conclusions: The study shows that there was an inverse relation between TSP and vWF levels, in blood group “O” SCD patients with an upregulation of the TSP levels. Expectedly, during active VOC crisis, the TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly elevated.    Key Words: VOC; SCD; TSP; vWD; Blood groups

  4. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Osthoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3, dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2, can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( =  NO + NO2, radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3 production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements.Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy, O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1.At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( <  30 and  <  100 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv and median nocturnal peak values of 7.8 and 7.9 pptv, respectively. Mixing ratios of ClNO2 frequently peaked 1–2 h after sunrise rationalized by more efficient formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH

  5. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  6. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  7. The Response to P-Derived from Phosphate Rock and TSP by Crops Grown in a Simulated Crop Rotation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsye L; Sisworo, Widjang H; Havid-Rasjid; Syamsul-Rizal; Komarudin-Idris

    2002-01-01

    A green house experiment was carried out on a simulated crop rotation system of upland rice-soybean-mungbean to determine the effect of P-derived from different phosphate rock (PR) sources and TSP using 32 P. The data obtained reveal that all the P-sources has a significant effect on the growth of all the three crops, expressed in dry weight, % P-total and total P-uptake (mg P pot -1 ). For the P-source it was shown that % P-derived from PR/TSP and their uptake (mg P pot -1 ) was quite high, showing that the PR s applied were of good reactivity. The residue of the PR s has also still a good effect on plant growth than that of TSP. The efficiency of PR s was far below that of TSP. This apparently was due to the high rate of application, ten times the rate of TSP. (author)

  8. Long-lived 222Rn progeny concentrations in ground level air of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzan, G.M.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Bocelli, R.

    2002-01-01

    Short-lived (2 18P o, 2 14P b, 2 14B i, 2 14P o) as well as long-lived (2 10P b, 2 10B i, 2 10P o) Radon's decay products in atmosphere are due to the 2 22R n exhalation from the continental Earth's crust, where it is generated in the 2 38U decay series. The measurement of the radionuclides concentration in the atmosphere - in addition to yielding valuable data for radioprotection purposes and for assessing the environmental impact of natural radioactivity - can provide information on atmospheric thermodynamic conditions as well as on atmospheric processes that involve aerosols such as transport, dispersion, removal rates and residence time. In particular, the concentration ratio of 2 10P b with other Radon's daughters can be used to obtain information on mean residence time of aerosols (Poet et al., 1972; Rangarajan, 1992; Gaggeler et al., 1995). Continuous measurements of hourly concentration of Radon and its short-lived progeny are routinely carried out in Milan by our group, and the temporal behaviour comes out a suitable tracer of atmospheric stability conditions and a local index of the evolution of the mixing layer height (Marcazzan et al., 1993; Marcazzan et al., 1997). The aim of this work was to measure the concentration and temporal behaviour of 2 10P b on a weekly and a monthly scale at ground level in the urban area of Milan and to get reliable measurements on the annual average concentration for the implementation of the existing data base (Preiss et al., 1996)

  9. A new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandji Nyamsi, William; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Aoun, Youva; Blanc, Philippe; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Bernhard, Germar; Koskela, Tapani; Lindfors, Anders V.; Arola, Antti; Wald, Lucien

    2017-12-01

    A new method has been developed to estimate the global and direct solar irradiance in the UV-A and UV-B at ground level in cloud-free conditions. It is based on a resampling technique applied to the results of the k-distribution method and the correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) over the UV band. Its inputs are the aerosol properties and total column ozone that are produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The estimates from this new method have been compared to instantaneous measurements of global UV irradiances made in cloud-free conditions at five stations at high latitudes in various climates. For the UV-A irradiance, the bias ranges between -0.8 W m-2 (-3 % of the mean of all data) and -0.2 W m-2 (-1 %). The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.1 W m-2 (6 %) to 1.9 W m-2 (9 %). The coefficient of determination R2 is greater than 0.98. The bias for UV-B is between -0.04 W m-2 (-4 %) and 0.08 W m-2 (+13 %) and the RMSE is 0.1 W m-2 (between 12 and 18 %). R2 ranges between 0.97 and 0.99. This work demonstrates the quality of the proposed method combined with the CAMS products. Improvements, especially in the modeling of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface in the UV region, are necessary prior to its inclusion into an operational tool.

  10. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7 Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of 7 Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of 7 Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7 Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of 7 Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  11. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves de Assis, Natan Raimundo; Batistoni de Morais, Suellen; Figueiredo, Bárbara Castro Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Almeida, Leonardo Augusto; da Silva Pinheiro, Carina; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2) are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed. PMID:25942636

  12. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Raimundo Gonçalves de Assis

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2 are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed.

  13. Approximation algorithms for deadline-TSP and vehicle routing with time-windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Blum, A.; Chawla, S.; Meyerson, A.; Babai, L.

    2004-01-01

    Given a metric space G on n nodes, with a start node r and deadlines D(v) for each vertex v, we consider the Deadline-TSP problem of finding a path starting at r that visits as many nodes as possible by their deadlines. We also consider the more general Vehicle Routing with Time-Windows problem, in

  14. 5 CFR 839.1119 - How is the actuarial reduction for TSP computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefit that is payable, the present value factor for the survivor's age at the time of death is used. The survivor benefit is not reduced for TSP if the retiree's rate was reduced. Survivor Benefits ... reduction. OPM will divide the Government contributions and earnings by the present value factor for your...

  15. Heuristics for Comparing the Lengths of Completed E-TSP Tours: Crossings and Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.

    2017-01-01

    The article reports three experiments designed to explore heuristics used in comparing the lengths of completed Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (E-TSP) tours. The experiments used paired comparisons in which participants judged which of two completed tours of the same point set was shorter. The first experiment manipulated two factors, the…

  16. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to t...

  17. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Hodgins, Michelle Jurkouich, Delwyn Kellogg, Juan Lopez, Andy Oughton, Rafael Salazar, and Jim Van Buren. vi | CMU/SEI-2010-SR-016 vii | CMU/SEI...which it was deemed that TSP coaches must be competent; Sections C through G (listed below in bold font ) are areas that should be of particular

  18. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    Fort Cobb Reservoir in northwest Caddo County Oklahoma is managed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, recreation, flood control, and wildlife. Excessive amounts of nitrogen in the watershed have the potential to cause long-term eutrophication of the reservoir and increase already elevated concentrations of nitrogen in the Rush Springs aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation studied ground water in the area surrounding a swine feeding operation located less than 2 miles upgradient from Fort Cobb Reservoir in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Objectives of the study were to (1) determine if the operation was contributing nitrogen to the ground water and (2) measure changes in ground-water levels and determine the local ground-water flow direction in the area surrounding the swine feeding operation. Nitrate concentrations (28.1 and 31.5 milligrams per liter) were largest in two ground-water samples from a well upgradient of the wastewater lagoon. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 4.30 to 8.20 milligrams per liter in samples from downgradient wells. Traces of ammonia and nitrite were detected in a downgradient well, but not in upgradient wells. d15N values indicate atmospheric nitrogen, synthetic fertilizer, or plants were the predominate sources of nitrate in ground water from the downgradient wells. The d15N values in these samples are depleted in nitrogen-15, indicating that animal waste was not a significant contributor of nitrate. Manganese concentrations (1,150 and 965 micrograms per liter) in samples from a downgradient well were substantially larger than concentrations in samples from other wells, exceeding the secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Larger concentrations of bicarbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and iron and a higher pH were also measured in water from a downgradient well. Ground-water levels in an observation well were higher from April to mid-July and lower during the late summer

  19. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllander, Ch; Hollman, S; Widemo, U

    1969-04-15

    Within the framework of the IRIS-project (Iodine Research in Safety Project) an experiment to study diffusion at near-ground level was carried out on 19 December 1967 using {sup 85}Kr as the tracer element. The object of the experiment was a) to test the method using |3-sensitive thermoluminescence dosimeters under actual field conditions. b) to study the initial dilution from a ground level point source. The test area chosen was the Tranvik valley just south of Trobbofjaerden, an inland bay of the Baltic. Dose distributions have been studied at two sections, 50 and 200 m respectively, from the release point. At each level various dispersion parameters have been experimentally determined and their conformity to normal distribution have been calculated. Dilution factors valid for the centre of the plume are related to the values reported in the literature. The experiment was made under ideal weather conditions above snow-free ground. Results of the next experiment, a point release at ground level from a building at Studsvik, are expected to yield valuable information concerning the effect of buildings on the diffusion pattern.

  20. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyllander, Ch.; Hollman, S.; Widemo, U.

    1969-04-01

    Within the framework of the IRIS-project (Iodine Research in Safety Project) an experiment to study diffusion at near-ground level was carried out on 19 December 1967 using 85 Kr as the tracer element. The object of the experiment was a) to test the method using |3-sensitive thermoluminescence dosimeters under actual field conditions. b) to study the initial dilution from a ground level point source. The test area chosen was the Tranvik valley just south of Trobbofjaerden, an inland bay of the Baltic. Dose distributions have been studied at two sections, 50 and 200 m respectively, from the release point. At each level various dispersion parameters have been experimentally determined and their conformity to normal distribution have been calculated. Dilution factors valid for the centre of the plume are related to the values reported in the literature. The experiment was made under ideal weather conditions above snow-free ground. Results of the next experiment, a point release at ground level from a building at Studsvik, are expected to yield valuable information concerning the effect of buildings on the diffusion pattern

  1. Effects of the addition of functional electrical stimulation to ground level gait training with body weight support after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Sousa, Catarina O; Souza, Andréa S; Soares, Márcio R; Barela, Ana M F; Salvini, Tania F

    2011-01-01

    The addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to treadmill gait training with partial body weight support (BWS) has been proposed as a strategy to facilitate gait training in people with hemiparesis. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of FES addition on ground level gait training with BWS, which is the most common locomotion surface. To investigate the additional effects of commum peroneal nerve FES combined with gait training and BWS on ground level, on spatial-temporal gait parameters, segmental angles, and motor function. Twelve people with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. An A1-B-A2 design was applied. A1 and A2 corresponded to ground level gait training using BWS, and B corresponded to the same training with the addition of FES. The assessments were performed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), and filming. The kinematics analyzed variables were mean walking speed of locomotion; step length; stride length, speed and duration; initial and final double support duration; single-limb support duration; swing period; range of motion (ROM), maximum and minimum angles of foot, leg, thigh, and trunk segments. There were not changes between phases for the functional assessment of RMA, for the spatial-temporal gait variables and segmental angles, no changes were observed after the addition of FES. The use of FES on ground level gait training with BWS did not provide additional benefits for all assessed parameters.

  2. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sour...

  3. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  4. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M.; Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C.; Corredera, G.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N 2 H 4 , amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide-solution interfaces

  5. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Catarina O; Barela, José A; Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Salvini, Tania F; Barela, Ana M F

    2009-12-01

    Body weight support (BWS) systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years) were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical assistance.

  6. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  7. Experimental studies of the NaRb ground-state potential up to the v''=76 level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docenko, O.; Nikolayeva, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E.A.; Stolyarov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the C 1 Σ + -X 1 Σ + system of 23 Na 85 Rb and 23 Na 87 Rb have allowed vibrational levels of the electronic ground state up to v '' =76, spanning 99.85% of the potential well to be observed. The ground-state term values have been fitted to a Dunham polynomial expansion, and also to a direct modified Lennard-Jones (MLJ) potential. The analytical MLJ construction allowed us to match previous measured term values for v '' ≤30 with long-range behavior of the potential through the intermediate internuclear distance region covered by the present investigation

  8. Using satellite observations in performance evaluation for regulatory air quality modeling: Comparison with ground-level measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M. T.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A.; Chai, T.; Lee, P.; Shankar, U.; Boylan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory air quality modeling, such as State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling, requires that model performance meets recommended criteria in the base-year simulations using period-specific, estimated emissions. The goal of the performance evaluation is to assure that the base-year modeling accurately captures the observed chemical reality of the lower troposphere. Any significant deficiencies found in the performance evaluation must be corrected before any base-case (with typical emissions) and future-year modeling is conducted. Corrections are usually made to model inputs such as emission-rate estimates or meteorology and/or to the air quality model itself, in modules that describe specific processes. Use of ground-level measurements that follow approved protocols is recommended for evaluating model performance. However, ground-level monitoring networks are spatially sparse, especially for particulate matter. Satellite retrievals of atmospheric chemical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) provide spatial coverage that can compensate for the sparseness of ground-level measurements. Satellite retrievals can also help diagnose potential model or data problems in the upper troposphere. It is possible to achieve good model performance near the ground, but have, for example, erroneous sources or sinks in the upper troposphere that may result in misleading and unrealistic responses to emission reductions. Despite these advantages, satellite retrievals are rarely used in model performance evaluation, especially for regulatory modeling purposes, due to the high uncertainty in retrievals associated with various contaminations, for example by clouds. In this study, 2007 was selected as the base year for SIP modeling in the southeastern U.S. Performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, at a 12-km horizontal resolution, for this annual simulation is evaluated using both recommended ground-level measurements and non-traditional satellite

  9. Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Influence of the Solar Proton Events and Ground Level Enhancement in January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C. H.; Marsh, D. R.; Vitt, F. M.; Roble, R. G.; Randall, C. E.; Bernath, P. F.; Funke, B.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Versick, S.; Stiller, G. P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    (x)increases, which were statistically significant at the 95% level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-I Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) NO(x) measurements and MIPAS NO, measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE) occurred during the SPE period on January 20, 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20,000 MeV, not normally included in our computations, led to enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1% as a result of this GLE.

  10. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2011-07-01

    ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95 % level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, associated with this GLE, led to very small enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1 % and ozone decreases of less than 0.01 %.

  11. Impacts of a large boreal wildfire on ground level atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, VOCs and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Gregory R.; Aklilu, Yayne-abeba; Landis, Matthew S.; Hsu, Yu-Mei

    2018-04-01

    During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements collected every sixth day at four and seven sites, respectively, from May to August 2016. The sum of PAHs (ΣPAH) was on average 17 times higher in fire-influenced samples (852 ng m-3, n = 8), relative to non-fire influenced samples (50 ng m-3, n = 64). Diagnostic PAH ratios in fire-influenced samples were indicative of a biomass burning source, whereas ratios in June to August samples showed additional influence from petrogenic and fossil fuel combustion. The average increase in the sum of VOCs (ΣVOC) was minor by comparison: 63 ppbv for fire-influenced samples (n = 16) versus 46 ppbv for non-fire samples (n = 90). The samples collected on August 16th and 22nd had large ΣVOC concentrations at all sites (average of 123 ppbv) that were unrelated to wildfire emissions, and composed primarily of acetaldehyde and methanol suggesting a photochemically aged air mass. Normalized excess enhancement ratios (ERs) were calculated for 20 VOCs and 23 PAHs for three fire influenced samples, and the former were generally consistent with previous observations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report ER measurements for a number of VOCs and PAHs in fresh North American boreal wildfire plumes. During May the aged wildfire plume intercepted the cities of Edmonton (∼380 km south) or Lethbridge (∼790 km south) on four separate occasions. No enhancement in ground-level ozone (O3) was observed in these aged plumes despite an assumed increase in O3 precursors. In the AOSR, the only daily-averaged VOCs which approached or exceeded the hourly Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives (AAAQOs) were benzene (during the fire) and acetaldehyde (on August 16th

  12. Ground Level Ozone Regional Background Characteristics In North-west Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C.; Fan, J.; Chang, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the ground level ozone regional background characteristics is essential in understanding the contribution of long-range transport of pollutants from Asia Mainland to air quality in downwind areas. In order to understand this characteristic in north-west Pacific Rim, we conducted a coupled study using ozone observation from regional background stations and 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model simulations. We used O3, CO, wind speed and wind direction data from two regional background stations and ¡§other stations¡¨ over a ten year period and organized several numerical experiments to simulate one spring month in 2003 to obtain a deeper understanding. The so called ¡§other stations¡¨ had actually been named as background stations under various governmental auspices. But we found them to be often under strong influence of local pollution sources with strong diurnal or slightly longer time variations. We found that the Yonagunijima station (24.74 N, 123.02 E) and Heng-Chuen station (21.96 N,120.78 E), about a distance of 400 km apart, have almost the same ozone time series pattern. For these two stations in 2003, correlation coefficients (R2) for annual observed ozone concentration is about 0.64, in the springtime it is about 0.7, and in a one-month period at simulation days it is about 0.76. These two stations have very little small scale variations in all the variables studied. All variations are associated with large scale circulation changes. This is especially so at Yonagunijima station. Using a 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model for East Asia region including contribution from Asia continental outflow and neighboring island pollution areas we found that the Yonagunijima and HengChuen station are indeed free of pollutants from all neighboring areas keeping in mind that pollutants from Taiwan area is never far away. Ozone concentrations in these two stations are dominated by synoptic scale weather patterns, with diffused

  13. Flow of supersonic jets across flat plates: Implications for ground-level flow from volcanic blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Mara M.; Prisco, David; Austin, Joanna M.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on laboratory experiments examining the interaction of a jet from an overpressurized reservoir with a canonical ground surface to simulate lateral blasts at volcanoes such as the 1980 blast at Mount St. Helens. These benchmark experiments test the application of supersonic jet models to simulate the flow of volcanic jets over a lateral topography. The internal shock structure of the free jet is modified such that the Mach disk shock is elevated above the surface. In elevation view, the width of the shock is reduced in comparison with a free jet, while in map view the dimensions are comparable. The distance of the Mach disk shock from the vent is in good agreement with free jet data and can be predicted with existing theory. The internal shock structures can interact with and penetrate the boundary layer. In the shock-boundary layer interaction, an oblique shock foot is present in the schlieren images and a distinctive ground signature is evident in surface measurements. The location of the oblique shock foot and the surface demarcation are closely correlated with the Mach disk shock location during reservoir depletion, and therefore, estimates of a ground signature in a zone devastated by a blast can be based on the calculated shock location from free jet theory. These experiments, combined with scaling arguments, suggest that the imprint of the Mach disk shock on the ground should be within the range of 4-9 km at Mount St. Helens depending on assumed reservoir pressure and vent dimensions.

  14. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  15. The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soula-Rothhut, Mahdhia; Coissard, Cyrille; Sartelet, Herve; Boudot, Cedric; Bellon, Georges; Martiny, Laurent; Rothhut, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain extracellular macromolecule that was first identified as natural modulator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells. Both EGF and TSP-1 induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation. EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN. Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF-but not TSP-1-stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1. Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells. Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer. Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development

  16. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  17. Radiocaesium in reindeer in relation to ground deposition, levels in vegetation, season and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, reindeer pastures in Fennoscandia were contaminated with radioactive material (mainly 137 Cs). There were large geographical variations in contamination of reindeer and in apparent transfer of 137 Cs from ground and vegetation to reindeer. There could be several reasons for the observed differences between areas. This work aims at collecting basic data on 137 Cs activity concentrations in soil, vegetation and reindeer and constructing a model to describe the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer over time. Field data on 137 Cs in soil and vegetation has been collected during two years from one reindeer herding district (Jiingevaerie) in central Sweden. Data on 137 Cs in reindeer is available from the same area from 1986 to 1998. The collected data, and data from earlier investigations, has been put in a simple dynamic model, taking into account ground deposition, initial transfer of 137 Cs from fallout to different types of vegetation and long term change of 137 Cs in vegetation as well as food intake, diet composition, absorption and biological half-time of 137 Cs in reindeer. The ground contamination of 137 Cs was 9 441 Bq/m 2 , at average, within reindeer pastures used during the summer period and 22 629 Bq/m 2 within the areas used in wintertime. The relation between ground contamination and vegetation differed very much between sampling sites but were generally higher for lichens (however, not statistically significant) and fungi (significant). The relation between ground contamination and reindeer (T ag ) counted back to 1986 with the observed effective ecological half-time (t ef = 3. 6 years), was 0. 14 m 2 /kg for the season August-September and 0. 69 and 0. 66 m 2 /kg for the seasons October-December and January-April, respectively. Three simulations of 137 Cs in reindeer over 12 years were made with the constructed model and simulated values were compared to observed activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer from 1986 to

  18. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  19. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  20. Photoionization cross-sections of ground and excited valence levels of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarzhemsky Victor G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoionization cross-sections of ground and excited atomic states of actinide atoms were calculated by the Dirac-Fock-Slater method for two excitation energies of X-ray radiation (1253.6 eV and 1486.6 eV. These data are required for calculations of intensities of X-ray photoelectron spectra of actinide compound valence bands and interpretation of experimental spectra.

  1. Applying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. den Outer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term analysis of cloud effects on ultraviolet (UV radiation on the ground using spaceborne observations requires the use of instruments that have operated consecutively. The longest data record can be built from the reflectivity measurements produced by the instruments Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI flown on EOS Aura since 2004. The reflectivity data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing the standard reflectivity are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low-elevation stations. The reflectivity data of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage, i.e. 2–3%. In contrast, the reflectivity product of OMI requires correction of 7–10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicates a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of the reflectivity data would have indicated the opposite.

    An optimal area was established for reflectivity data for the calculation of daily sums of UV radiation. It measures approximately 1.25° in latitudinal direction for square-shaped areas overhead the ground-based UV stations. Such an area can be traversed within 5 to 7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  2. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  3. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jessica H.; Chang, Howard H.; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xuefei; Lyapustin, Alexei; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, approximately 70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  4. The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.

  5. Long-Term Ground-Water Levels and Transmissivity in the Blackstone River Basin, Northern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Church, Peter E.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water provides about 7.7 million gallons per day, or 28 percent of total water use in the Rhode Island part of the Blackstone River Basin. Primary aquifers in the basin are stratified glacial deposits, composed mostly of sand and gravel along valley bottoms. The ground-water and surface-water system in the Blackstone River Basin is under stress due to population growth, out-of-basin water transfers, industrialization, and changing land-use patterns. Streamflow periodically drops below the Aquatic Base Flow standard, and ground-water withdrawals add to stress on aquatic habitat during low-flow periods. Existing hydrogeologic data were reviewed to examine historical water-level trends and to generate contour maps of water-table altitudes and transmissivity of the sand and gravel aquifer in the Blackstone River Basin in Rhode Island. On the basis of data from four long-term observation wells, water levels appear to have risen slightly in the study area during the past 55 years. Analysis of available data indicates that increased rainfall during the same period is a likely contributor to the water-level rise. Spatial patterns of transmissivity are shown over larger areas and have been refined on the basis of more detailed data coverage as compared to previous mapping studies.

  6. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  7. Exploring the relationship between a ground-based network and airborne CCN spectra observed at the cloud level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, C.; Roberts, G. C.; Ritchie, J.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are aerosol particles that participate in the formation of clouds, and consequently, play a significant role in the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on atmospheric processes and climate change. Ultimately, the CCN of the most interest occupy the part of the atmosphere where cloud processes are occurring. A question arises as to whether in-cloud CCN are properly represented by the measurements of CCN at the ground level. While different locations may result in different answers depending upon local meteorology, the data set collected during CalWater 2011 may allow us to answer to what degree the ground-based observations of CCN are sufficient for evaluating cloud micro-physics over California's Central Valley and the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. During CalWater 2011, ground observations were performed at three different altitudes to assess the evolution of cloud-active aerosols as they were transported from sources in California's Central Valley to the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. CCN spectra were collected over a supersaturation range of 0.08 to 0.80%. Results from these data sets show a diurnal cycle with aerosol concentrations increasing during the afternoon and retreating during the night. In addition, a CCN instrument was placed aboard aircraft for several flights and was able to collect vertical profiles that encompassed the altitudes of the ground sites. The flight data shows a large drop in CCN concentration above the boundary layer and suggests the highest altitude ground site at China Wall ( 1540 masl)was sometimes above the Central Valley boundary layer. By using estimates of boundary layer heights over the mid-altitude site at Sugar Pine Dam (1060 masl), the events when the China Wall site is near or above the boundary layer are identified. During these events, the CCN measurements at China Wall best represent in-cloud CCN behavior. The results of this analysis may be applied towards a

  8. Structural and electrical characterization of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) doped with NH4HCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, M.; Mathavan, T.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Selvalakshmi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In the modern era, development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors gain attention due to the deficiency of renewable energy resources. More specifically, proton conducting materials create prime interest in the development of electrochemical devices. In this regards, a novel proton conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide (TSP) was synthesized with different concentration of ammonium formate (NH4HCO2). The amorphous nature of the polymer electrolytes has been identified by XRD technique. The observed ionic conductivity values reveal that the biopolymer containing 1 g TSP: 0.4 g NH4HCO2 has highest ionic conductivity 1.23×10-3 S cm-1.

  9. Data-Acquisition Software for PSP/TSP Wind-Tunnel Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Goad, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Wing-Viewer is a computer program for acquisition and reduction of image data acquired by any of five different scientificgrade commercial electronic cameras used at Langley Research center to observe wind-tunnel models coated with pressure or temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP). Wing-Viewer provides full automation of camera operation and acquisition of image data, and has limited data-preprocessing capability for quick viewing of the results of PSP/TSP test images. Wing- Viewer satisfies a requirement for a standard interface between all the cameras and a single personal computer: Written by use of Microsoft Visual C++ and the Microsoft Foundation Class Library as a framework, Wing-Viewer has the ability to communicate with the C/C++ software libraries that run on the controller circuit cards of all five cameras.

  10. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Richon, P.; Arnautou, J.C.; Sabroux, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m 3 to less than 200 Bq/m 3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  11. Experimental and numerical study of deposit formation in secondary side SG TSP by electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillodo, Michael; Foucault, Marc; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Chahma, Farah; Guingo, Mathieu; Mansour, Carine; Alos-Ramos, Olga; Corredera, Geraldine

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion products deposit formation observed in PWR steam generators (SGs) - related to SG free span fouling and SG clogging - is now reported since several years. SG clogging is a localized phenomenon observed between the leading edge of the Tube Support Plate (TSP) and SG tubing materials. Based on visual inspections, it was found that the gaps between SG tubing material and TSP at the lower part of the broached holes were getting progressively blocked. Therefore, for safe operation, most affected PWRs had to be operated at reduced power. TSP blockage was mainly observed for low-pH water chemistry conditioning, which directly depends on the operating water chemistry. The TSP blockage mechanism is complex due to the localized conditions in which flow pattern change, chemistry and electrochemical conditions are not well understood. Electrokinetic considerations could be pointed out to explain the coupling of chemistry, materials and thermohydraulic (T/H) conditions. In this frame AREVA and EDF have launched a long-term R and D program in order to understand the mechanisms driving the formation of SG clogging. This study based on parametric laboratory tests aims to assess the role of secondary water chemistry, material and T/H conditions on deposit formation. The experimental approach focused on electrokinetic measurements of metallic substrates and on the assessment of oxidation properties of materials in secondary side chemistry. An overall analysis of recent results is presented to address SG deposit formation in secondary water chemistry for various conditioning amines - morpholine, ethanolamine and dimethylamine. To complete the study, the experimental results have been correlated to CFD simulations of particle deposition, by means of stochastic Lagrangian models. These calculations have in particular reproduced correctly the location of the most important particle deposit (the leading edge of the test tube), and have stressed the influence of the

  12. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  13. Fast-response underwater TSP investigation of subcritical instabilities of a cylinder in crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Beifuss, Uwe; Miozzi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the classic cylinder in crossflow case to test the effectiveness of a fast-response underwater temperature-sensitive paint coating (TSP) in providing highly resolved spatial and time observations of the action of a flow over a bluff body surface. The flow is investigated at Reynolds number crisis state. The obtained TSP image sequences convey an accurate description of the evolution of the main features in the fluid-cylinder interaction, like the separation line position, the pattern of the large coherent structures acting on the cylinder's surface and the small-scale intermittent streamwise arrays of vortices. Ad hoc data management and features extraction techniques are proposed which allow extraction of quantitative data, such as separation line position and vortex-shedding frequency, and results are compared to the literature. Use of TSP for water applications introduces an interesting point of view about the fluid-body interactions by focusing directly on the effect of the flow on the model surface.

  14. INTEGRATING CASE-BASED REASONING, KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH AND TSP ALGORITHM FOR MINIMUM TOUR FINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Erfani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine you have traveled to an unfamiliar city. Before you start your daily tour around the city, you need to know a good route. In Network Theory (NT, this is the traveling salesman problem (TSP. A dynamic programming algorithm is often used for solving this problem. However, when the road network of the city is very complicated and dense, which is usually the case, it will take too long for the algorithm to find the shortest path. Furthermore, in reality, things are not as simple as those stated in AT. For instance, the cost of travel for the same part of the city at different times may not be the same. In this project, we have integrated TSP algorithm with AI knowledge-based approach and case-based reasoning in solving the problem. With this integration, knowledge about the geographical information and past cases are used to help TSP algorithm in finding a solution. This approach dramatically reduces the computation time required for minimum tour finding.

  15. Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasilis, Vasilis; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Tsanou, Elena; Kitsou, Evangelia; Kalofonos, Haralambos; Fountzilas, George; Fotsis, Theodore; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options. We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets. Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%). The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data. VEGF expression was detected in all cases and was strong in 83%. Stromal expression of TSP-1 was seen in 80% of cases and was strong in 20%. The expression of both proteins was not associated with any clinical or pathological parameters. Tumor MVD was higher in tumors classified as unfavorable compared to more favorable and was positively associated with VEGF and negatively with TSP-1. Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary. These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting

  16. Properties of Ground Level Enhancement Events and the Associated Solar Eruptions During Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Usokin, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the most complete set of observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events. We present an overview of the observed properties of the GLEs and those of the two associated phenomena, viz., flares and CMEs, both being potential sources of particle acceleration. Although we do not find a striking correlation between the GLE intensity and the parameters of flares and CMEs, the solar eruptions are very intense involving X-class flares and extreme CME speeds (average approx. 2000 km/s). An M7.1 flare and a 1200 km/s CME are the weakest events in the list of 16 GLE events. Most (80 %) of the CMEs are full halos with the three non-halos having widths in the range 167 to 212 degrees. The active regions in which the GLE events originate are generally large: 1290 msh (median 1010 msh) compared to 934 msh (median: 790 msh) for SEP-producing active regions. For accurate estimation of the CME height at the time of metric type II onset and GLE particle release, we estimated the initial acceleration of the CMEs using flare and CME observations. The initial acceleration of GLE-associated CMEs is much larger (by a factor of 2) than that of ordinary CMEs (2.3 km/sq s vs. 1 km/sq s). We confirmed the initial acceleration for two events for which CME measurements are available in the inner corona. The GLE particle release is delayed with respect to the onset of all electromagnetic signatures of the eruptions: type II bursts, low frequency type III bursts, soft X-ray flares and CMEs. The presence of metric type II radio bursts some 17 min (median: 16 min; range: 3 to 48 min) before the GLE onset indicates shock formation well before the particle release. The release of GLE particles occurs when the CMEs reach an average height of approx 3.09 R(sub s) (median: 3.18 R (sub s) ; range: 1.71 to 4.01 R (sub s) ) for well-connected events (source longitude in the range W20–W90). For poorly connected events, the

  17. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B

    Estimates of Holocene sea-level variations have been presented in a range of studies based on different approaches, including interpretation of internal beach ridge characteristics from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geomorphological data. We present GPR data and geomorphological observations...... of independent GPR and geomorphologic data collected across the recent and sub-recent beach ridge deposits. The data analyses include coastal topography, internal dips of beach ridge layers, and sea-level measurements. A clear change in characteristic layer dip is observed between beach face and upper shoreface...

  18. Types of Lightning Discharges that Abruptly Terminate Enhanced Fluxes of Energetic Radiation and Particles Observed at Ground Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.; Mareev, E.; Rakov, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present ground-based measurements of thunderstorm-related enhancements of fluxes of energetic radiation and particles that are abruptly terminated by lightning discharges. All measurements were performed at an altitude of 3200 m above sea level on Mt. Aragats (Armenia). Lightning signatures were recorded using a network of five electric field mills, three of which were placed at the Aragats station, one at the Nor Amberd station (12.8 km from Aragats), and one at the Yerevan station (39 km from Aragats), and a wideband electric field measuring system with a useful frequency bandwidth of 50 Hz to 12 MHZ. It appears that the flux-enhancement termination is associated with close (within 10 km or so of the particle detector) -CGs and normal polarity ICs; that is, with lightning types which reduce the upward-directed electric field below the cloud and, hence, suppress the acceleration of electrons toward the ground. (author)

  19. Two-dimensional transport of dust from an infinite line source at ground level: non-zero roughness height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  20. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; hide

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  1. Real-Time and Seamless Monitoring of Ground-Level PM2.5 Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Zhang, Chengyue; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been reported to be a promising approach for the monitoring of atmospheric PM2.5. However, the satellite-based monitoring of ground-level PM2.5 is still challenging. First, the previously used polar-orbiting satellite observations, which can be usually acquired only once per day, are hard to monitor PM2.5 in real time. Second, many data gaps exist in satellitederived PM2.5 due to the cloud contamination. In this paper, the hourly geostationary satellite (i.e., Harawari-8) observations were adopted for the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 in a deep learning architecture. On this basis, the satellite-derived PM2.5 in conjunction with ground PM2.5 measurements are incorporated into a spatio-temporal fusion model to fill the data gaps. Using Wuhan Urban Agglomeration as an example, we have successfully derived the real-time and seamless PM2.5 distributions. The results demonstrate that Harawari-8 satellite-based deep learning model achieves a satisfactory performance (out-of-sample cross-validation R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 17.49 μg/m3) for the estimation of PM2.5. The missing data in satellite-derive PM2.5 are accurately recovered, with R2 between recoveries and ground measurements of 0.75. Overall, this study has inherently provided an effective strategy for the realtime and seamless monitoring of ground-level PM2.5.

  2. Ground-level ozone in China: Distribution and effects on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Manning, William; Feng Zongwei; Zhu Yongguan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid economic development and an increasing demand for food in China have drawn attention to the role of ozone at pollution levels on crop yields. Some assessments of ozone effects on crop yields have been carried out in China. Determination of ozone distribution by geographical location and resulting crop loss estimations have been made by Chinese investigators and others from abroad. It is evident that surface level ozone levels in China exceed critical levels for occurrence of crop losses. Current levels of information from ozone dose/response studies are limited. Given the size of China, existing ozone monitoring sites are too few to provide enough data to scale ozone distribution to a national level. There are large uncertainties in the database for ozone effects on crop loss and for ozone distribution. Considerable research needs to be done to allow accurate estimation of crop losses caused by ozone in China. - More research is needed to reliably estimate ozone caused crop losses in China

  3. Structure and dynamics of the peptide strand KRFK from the thrombospondin TSP-1 in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb Bendiab, W; Benomrane, B; Bounaceur, B; Dauchez, M; Krallafa, A M

    2018-02-14

    Theoretical investigations of a solute in liquid water at normal temperature and pressure can be performed at different levels of theory. Static quantum calculations as well as classical and ab initio molecular dynamics are used to completely explore the conformational space for large solvated molecular systems. In the classical approach, it is essential to describe all of the interactions of the solute and the solvent in detail. Water molecules are very often described as rigid bodies when the most commonly used interaction potentials, such as the SPCE and the TIP4P models, are employed. Recently, a physical model based upon a cluster of rigid water molecules with a tetrahedral architecture (AB 4 ) was proposed that describes liquid water as a mixture of both TIP4P and SPCE molecular species that occur in the proportions implied by the tetrahedral architecture (one central molecule versus four outer molecules; i.e., 20% TIP4P versus 80% SPCE molecules). In this work, theoretical spectroscopic data for a peptide strand were correlated with the structural properties of the peptide strand solvated in water, based on data calculated using different theoretical approaches and physical models. We focused on a particular peptide strand, KRFK (lysine-arginine-phenylalanine-lysine), found in the thrombospondin TSP-1, due to its interesting properties. As the activity and electronic structure of this system is strongly linked to its structure, we correlated its structure with charge-density maps obtained using different semi-empirical charge Q eq equations. The structural and thermodynamic properties obtained from classical simulations were correlated with ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) data. Structural changes in the peptide strand were rationalized in terms of the motions of atoms and groups of atoms. To achieve this, conformational changes were investigated using calculated infrared spectra for the peptide in the gas phase and in water solvent. The calculated AIMD

  4. Ground-water levels in aquifers used for residential supply, Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.

  5. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  6. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  7. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Troscianko, Jolyon T; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator strategies in the animal kingdom, yet no animal can match its background perfectly in a complex environment. Therefore, selection should favor individuals that use information on how effective their camouflage is in their immediate habitat when responding to an approaching threat. In a field study of African ground-nesting birds (plovers, coursers, and nightjars), we tested the hypothesis that individuals adaptively modulate their escape behavior in relation to their degree of background matching. We used digital imaging and models of predator vision to quantify differences in color, luminance, and pattern between eggs and their background, as well as the plumage of incubating adult nightjars. We found that plovers and coursers showed greater escape distances when their eggs were a poorer pattern match to the background. Nightjars sit on their eggs until a potential threat is nearby, and, correspondingly, they showed greater escape distances when the pattern and color match of the incubating adult's plumage-rather than its eggs-was a poorer match to the background. Finally, escape distances were shorter in the middle of the day, suggesting that escape behavior is mediated by both camouflage and thermoregulation.

  8. EDF feedback on recent EPRI SGOG SG chemical cleanings applications for TSP blockage reduction and heat transfer recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijoux, M.; De Bouvier, O.; Mercier, S.; Pages, D.; Bretelle, J.-L.; Leclercq, P.; Mermillod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2008, six Steam Generators Chemical Cleanings (SGCC) with the inhibitor free high temperature process were applied on EDF PWR units. The main goal was to reduce the excessive Tube Support Plate blockages observed on several units of the EDF fleet and the consequences on wide range levels and the risk of tube cracks. The heat transfer recovery was the second objective. Despite the correct results obtained, the corrosion impact of the high temperature process on internal metallic surfaces, higher than expected, and the environmental issues led EDF to move to a new cleaning process. The low temperature process developed by EPRI SGOG and applied for many years was selected for the same purpose. Some qualification laboratory tests were performed by Dominion Engineering Inc (DEI) to demonstrate the innocuousness an the efficiency of the process to achieve these goals. The EPRI SGOG process was then applied seven times by Westinghouse on the EDF units Cruas 3, Cruas 2, Belleville 1, Cattenom 1, Cattenom 3, Chinon B3 and Cattenom 4 between 2008 and 2010. All these units operate from the initial start at low AVT pH 25 o C (9,2) in the secondary circuit. Due to copper presence in the deposits to remove, the cleaning sequence 'Copper - Iron - Copper steps' was performed each time. After a short description of the process, including the specific adaptation in France, lessons learned are reported in this paper in the following areas: process monitoring, corrosion, efficiency, liquid and gaseous wastes, chemical pollution during start-up. Based on the 3 first applications in 2008, some modifications of the process were implemented, particularly for the copper step. For the units cleaned, 1100 to 4500 kg of deposits per SG have been removed, including TS sludge lancing. The reduction of TSP blockages was satisfying. The effect on steam pressure improvement and the wide range level is then discussed. The paper concludes on EDF perspectives for soft

  9. Ground-water development and the effects on ground-water levels and water quality in the town of Atherton, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Fio, John L.

    1997-01-01

    measured hydraulic heads in the study area from April 1993 through September 1995 were above sea level indicates that saltwater intrusion was unlikely during this period. The chemistry of 20 well-water samples is characterized as a calcium magnesium carbonate bicarbonate type water. There is no evidence of saltwater intrusion from San Francisco Bay; how ever, water samples from wells nearest the bay and bedrock assemblages indicate a greater concentra tion of dissolved constituents and salinity. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water samples from wells in these areas exceeded 1,000 milli grams per liter, and several samples contained a substantial fraction of sodium and chloride. Water hardness for the 20 wells sampled averaged 471 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, which is classified as very hard. One well sample exceeded the primary maximum contaminant level for drinking water in nitrate, several wells exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for chloride and sulfate, and all wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for total dissolved solids. Land-subsidence and the resultant damage because of excessive ground-water pumping, in combination with periodic drought, have a well- documented history in the south San Francisco Bay area. Land-elevation surveying data from 1934 to 1967 indicate that subsidence ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.5 foot in the vicinity of the study area. It could not be determined from land- surface elevation surveying data from 1993 whether subsidence is currently occurring in the study area.

  10. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  11. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...

  12. Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Jagielak, J.; Kolb, W.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wershofen, H.; Zarucki, R.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1989 the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. In the framework of this co-operation the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw, and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, conducted a co-operation project in the field of monitoring the airborne radioactivity in ground level air. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July 1990 to December 1992, the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. (orig.)

  13. The maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant and the effect of plume rise on concentration estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Azzam, A.

    1991-01-01

    The emission of an air pollutant from an elevated point source according to Gaussian plume model has been presented. An elementary theoretical treatment for both the highest possible ground-level concentration and the downwind distance at which this maximum occurs for different stability classes has been constructed. The effective height release modification was taken into consideration. An illustrative case study, namely, the emission from the research reactor in Inchas, has been studied. The results of these analytical treatments and of the derived semi-empirical formulae are discussed and presented in few illustrative diagrams

  14. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Christine E.; DeVol, Timothy A.; Husson, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L"−"1 uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L"−"1 uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. - Highlights: • Extractive scintillating resins synthesized with covalently bound fluor and ligand. • Methylphosphonic acid-derivitized resins characterized for optical properties. • Online detection of uranium in ground water demonstrated at near-neutral pH.

  15. Extractive scintillating polymer sensors for trace-level detection of uranium in contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Christine E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); DeVol, Timothy A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, 342 Computer Court, Anderson, SC 29625 (United States); Husson, Scott M., E-mail: shusson@clemson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis. The resin was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Fluorophore degradation was observed in the resin hydrolyzed by strong acid, while the resin hydrolyzed by TMSBr-mediated methanolysis maintained luminosity and showed hydrogen bonding-induced Stokes' shift of ∼100 nm. The flow cell detection efficiency for uranium of the TMSBr-mediated methanolysis resin was evaluated at pH 4, 5 and 6 in DI water containing 500 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 and demonstrated flow cell detection efficiencies of 23%, 16% and 7%. Experiments with pH 4, synthetic groundwater with 50 Bq L{sup −1} uranium-233 exhibited a flow cell detection efficiency of 17%. The groundwater measurements show that the resins can concentrate the uranyl cation from waters with high concentrations of competitor ions at near-neutral pH. Findings from this research will lay the groundwork for development of materials for real-time environmental sensing of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. - Highlights: • Extractive scintillating resins synthesized with covalently bound fluor and ligand. • Methylphosphonic acid-derivitized resins characterized for optical properties. • Online detection of uranium in ground water demonstrated at near-neutral pH.

  16. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  17. Accurate Determination of Rotational Energy Levels in the Ground State of ^{12}CH_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Iwakuni, K.; Okubo, S.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have measured absolute frequencies of saturated absorption of 183 allowed and 21 forbidden transitions in the νb{3} band of ^{12}CH_4 using an optical comb-referenced difference-frequency-generation spectrometer from 86.8 to 93.1 THz (from 2890 to 3100 wn). The pump and signal sources are a 1.06-μ m Nd:YAG laser and a 1.5-μ m extended-cavity laser diode. An enhanced-cavity absorption cell increases the optical electric field and enhances the sensitivity. The typical uncertainty is 3 kHz for the allowed transitions and 12 kHz for the forbidden transitions. Twenty combination differences are precisely determined, and the scalar rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the ground state are thereby yielded as r@ = l@ r@ = l B_{{s}} (157 122 614.2 ± 1.5) kHz, D_{{s}} (3 328.545 ± 0.031) kHz, H_{{s}} (190.90 ± 0.26) Hz, and L_{{s}} (-13.16 ± 0.76) mHz. Here, B_{{s}} is the rotational constant and D_{{s}}, H_{{s}} and L_{{s}} are the scalar quartic, sextic, octic distortion constants. The relative uncertainties are considerably smaller than those obtained from global analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba and H. Sasada, Opt. Express 19, 23878 (2011). M. Abe, K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, and H. Sasada, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published). S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. -P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, Chem. Phys. 356, 131 (2009).

  18. On the local and regional influence on ground-level ozone concentrations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, K.L.; Wang, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is imperative to consider regional scale emissions and dynamic transport in managing ozone pollution in Hong Kong. - Hong Kong is a densely populated city situated in the fast developing Pearl River Delta of southern China. In this study, the recent data on ozone (O 3 ) and related air pollutants obtained at three sites in Hong Kong are analyzed to show the variations of O 3 in urban, sub-urban and rural areas and the possible regional influences. Highest monthly averaged O 3 was found at a northeastern rural site and lowest O 3 level was observed at an urban site. The levels of NO x , CO, SO 2 and PM 10 showed a different spatial pattern with the highest level in the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Analysis of chemical species ratios such as SO 2 /NO x and CO/NO x indicated that the sites were under the influences of local and regional emissions to varying extents reflecting the characteristics of emission sources surround the respective sites. Seasonal pattern of O 3 is examined. Low O 3 level was found in summer and elevated levels occurred in autumn and spring. The latter appears different from the previous result obtained in 1996 indicating a single maximum occurring in autumn. Principal component analysis was used to further elucidate the relationships of air pollutants at each site. As expected, the O 3 variation in the northeastern rural area was largely determined by regional chemical and transport processes, while the O 3 variability at the southwestern suburban and urban sites were more influenced by local emissions. Despite the large difference in O 3 levels across the sites, total potential ozone (O 3 +NO 2 ) showed little variability. Cases of high O 3 episodes were presented and elevated O 3 levels were formed under the influence of tropical cyclone bringing in conditions of intense sunlight, high temperature and light winds. Elevated O 3 levels were also found to correlate with enhanced ratio of SO 2 to NO x , suggesting influence of

  19. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  20. Ground-based research on vestibular adaptation to g-level transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Eric L.; Nooij, Suzanne A E; Bos, Jelte E.

    2008-01-01

    At TNO research is ongoing on neuro-vestibular adaptation to altered G-levels. It is well-known that during the first days in weightlessness 50-80% of all astronauts suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS), which involves space motion sickness, spatial disorientation and motion illusions.

  1. Monitoring the ground water level change during the pump test by using the Electric resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.; Chang, P. Y.; Yao, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    For hydrodynamics study of the unconfined aquifer in gravel formation, a pumping test was established to estimate the hydraulic conductivity in the midstream of Zhoushui River in Taiwan. The hydraulic parameters and the cone of depression could be estimated by monitoring the groundwater drawdown in an observation well which was in a short distance far from the pumping well. In this study we carried out the electric resistivity image monitoring during the whole pumping test. The electric resistivity data was measured with the surface and downhole electrodes which would produce a clear subsurface image of groundwater level through a larger distance than the distance between pumping and observation wells. The 2D electric image could also describe how a cone of depression truly created at subsurface. The continuous records could also show the change of groundwater level during the whole pumping test which could give a larger scale of the hydraulic parameters.

  2. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  3. Ground-level climate at a peatland wind farm in Scotland is affected by wind turbine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Burton, Ralph R.; Lee, Susan E.; Mobbs, Stephen; Ostle, Nicholas; Smith, Victoria; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    The global drive to produce low-carbon energy has resulted in an unprecedented deployment of onshore wind turbines, representing a significant land use change for wind energy generation with uncertain consequences for local climatic conditions and the regulation of ecosystem processes. Here, we present high-resolution data from a wind farm collected during operational and idle periods that shows the wind farm affected several measures of ground-level climate. Specifically, we discovered that operational wind turbines raised air temperature by 0.18 °C and absolute humidity (AH) by 0.03 g m-3 during the night, and increased the variability in air, surface and soil temperature throughout the diurnal cycle. Further, the microclimatic influence of turbines on air temperature and AH decreased logarithmically with distance from the nearest turbine. These effects on ground-level microclimate, including soil temperature, have uncertain implications for biogeochemical processes and ecosystem carbon cycling, including soil carbon stocks. Consequently, understanding needs to be improved to determine the overall carbon balance of wind energy.

  4. Spectrometry using the PTB neutron multisphere spectrometer (NEMUS) at flight altitudes and at ground level

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, B; Matzke, M; Schrewe, U J; Wittstock, J

    2002-01-01

    Bonner sphere measurements are presented for flights at altitudes of up to 12 km and geomagnetic latitudes between 26 deg.N and 86 deg.N and compared with results obtained by several survey meters. As an example of the natural neutron background near sea level, results from a recent longterm measurement campaign performed at the PTB site using an extended spectrometer are presented. The dependence of neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent on the atmospheric pressure is demonstrated.

  5. Gaussian Plume Model Parameters for Ground-Level and Elevated Sources Derived from the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation in the Neutral and Stable Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The analytical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation for a point source gives the ground-level concentration profiles. It depends on the wind speed ua nd vertical dispersion coefficient σ z expressed by Pasquill power laws. Both σ z and u are functions of downwind distance, stability and source elevation, while for the ground-level emission u is constant. In the neutral and stable conditions, the Gaussian plume model and finite difference numerical methods with wind speed in power law and the vertical dispersion coefficient in exponential law are estimated. This work shows that the estimated ground-level concentrations of the Gaussian model for high-level source and numerical finite difference method are very match fit to the observed ground-level concentrations of the Gaussian model

  6. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  7. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  8. Adiabatic interpretation of a two-level atom diode, a laser device for unidirectional transmission of ground-state atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschhaupt, A.; Muga, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a generalized two-level scheme for an 'atom diode', namely, a laser device that lets a two-level ground-state atom pass in one direction, say from left to right, but not in the opposite direction. The laser field is composed of two lateral state-selective mirror regions and a central pumping region. We demonstrate the robustness of the scheme and propose a physical realization. It is shown that the inclusion of a counterintuitive laser field blocking the excited atoms on the left side of the device is essential for a perfect diode effect. The reason for this, the diodic behavior, and the robustness may be understood with an adiabatic approximation. The conditions to break down the approximation, which imply also the diode failure, are analyzed

  9. Aseguramiento de la Calidad en el Proceso de Desarrollo de Software utilizando CMMI, TSP y PSP

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarría, Alex Espejo; Oré, Sussy Bayona; Pastor, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad las empresas que desarrollan software se han convertido en socios estratégicos de sus clientes a través de la generación de valor, mediante la entrega de productos que soportan sus diversos procesos de negocio. Sin embargo, aún existen problemas en los proyectos de desarrollo de software como la calidad. En este artículo se describe los resultados de la implementación de un modelo de aseguramiento de la calidad que integra CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration), TSP (Te...

  10. A performance evaluation of ACO and SA TSP in a supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Supply Chain management and E commerce business solutions are one of the prominent areas of active research. In our paper we have modelled a supply chain model which aggregates all the manufacturers requirement and the products are supplied to all the manufacturer through a common vehicle routing algorithm. An appropriate tsp has been constructed for all the manufacturers which determines the shortest route thru which the aggregated material can be supplied in the shortest possible time. In this paper we have solved the shortest route through constructing a Simulated annealing algorithm and Ant colony algorithm and their performance is evaluated.

  11. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NO x and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O 3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O 3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O 3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NO x and VOC. -- Highlights: ► A recently developed air quality model reproduces well observed O 3 levels in MABA. ► Modelled summer maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations vary in the area between 15 and 53 ppb. ► All hourly values are below the air quality standard (120 ppb). ► Possible future emission reductions would have small impact on the highest level. -- The distribution of summer maximum diurnal ground-level O 3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires is evaluated applying a recently developed simple urban air quality model

  12. PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI GOOGLE MAPS UNTUK PENYELESAIAN ONLINE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (TSP BERBASIS GEOGRAFIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA HEURISTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Agustiono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP adalah salah satu metode klasik dalam proses pemecahan masalah optimasi dan penemuan rute terpendek dari sebuah rute perjalanan yang melewati beberapa titik lokasi. Oleh karena kehandalan metode ini banyak sekali algoritma dan metode optimasi yang mencoba memecahkan TSP dalam banyak penelitian. Sebagin besar hasil dari rangkaian ujicoba tersebut berupa kombinasi teroptimal dari rangkaian perjalanan salesman yang umumnya digambarkan dalam sebuah graph. Namun belum banyak penelitian yang menerapkan TSP pada data spasial atau geografis seperti Google Maps yang dapat memberikan representasi nyata permasalahan TSP dalam menemukan rute perjalanan melewati titik-titik wilayah di muka bumi. Dibandingkan dengan representasi graph, Google Maps memiliki kemampuan tidak sekedar menampilkan rute perjalanan akan tetapi juga dapat menyajikan informasi yang lebih komprehensif, interaktif dan faktual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan metode TSP pada layanan data spasial sehingga akan dihasilkan visualisasi secara riil dari alternatif rute perjalanan salesman. Sebagai basis dari data spasial, penelitian ini memanfaatkan Google Maps Mashup untuk mendapatkan informasi rute yang lebih aktual, interaktif, dan komprehensif.

  13. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 2 – Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, David; LaBrier, Daniel; Ali, Amir; Blandford, Edward D.; Howe, Kerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc release is limited to less than 1 mg/L in TSP-buffered solution under a variety of conditions (pH, temperature, zinc source). • Zinc release in high-temperature non-TSP-buffered environment is approximately 25 mg/L. • Long-term zinc release is controlled by passivation (without TSP) and zinc solubility (with TSP). • Precipitation and solubility of zinc phosphate limit the release of zinc. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of zinc from metallic zinc-bearing surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that in non-buffered (acidic) environments, measurable quantities of zinc are released from zinc-bearing surfaces. Precipitation and solubility of phosphate-based corrosion products, such as zinc phosphate, limit the release of zinc from zinc-bearing surfaces. These experiments have found that under a variety of conditions, including variations of temperature, pH, and across different zinc-bearing surfaces, the release of zinc into solution is limited to <1 mg/L when phosphate is present. When phosphate is not present, zinc release is instead bounded by a markedly higher saturation limit which is a strong function of the solution temperature.

  14. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  15. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-11-01

    East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

  17. Variations in uranium and radioactivity levels in surface and ground water at selected sites in British Columbia, April 1980 - March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes field and analytical work carried out between April, 1980 and March, 1981 on a program to investigate uranium and radioactivity levels in potable surface and ground water in selected regions throughout British Columbia

  18. Effects of Seismological and Soil Parameters on Earthquake Energy demand in Level Ground Sand Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    nabili, sara; shahbazi majd, nafiseh

    2013-04-01

    any specified level were estimated by three several method including the strain energy in which is the areas of hysteresis loops, the arias intensity and the kinetic energy computed from the acceleration time histories at its corresponding level. Finally, the dependency of the demand energy to the soil and seismological parameters was shown by means of several diagrams.

  19. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY Level 2 Ground Processor Towards Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Markus; Noël, Stefan; Lichtenberg, Günter; Lerot, Christophe; Theys, Nicolas; Fehr, Thorsten; Dehn, Angelika; Liebing, Patricia; Gretschany, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming version 7 of ESA's operational level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had originally been developed for the GOME-2 sensor and was later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to split BrO total columns, which are already an operational product, into stratospheric VCD_{strat} and tropospheric VCD_{trop} fractions. BrO VCD_{strat} is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O_3 and NO_2 observations. Tropospheric vertical column densities are then determined as difference VCD_{trop}=VCD_{total}-VCD_{strat}. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher

  20. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, Kerry R., E-mail: hgp3@cdc.gov [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Peel, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Robinson, Byron F. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Busacker, Ashley [Field Support Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Grandpre, Joseph [Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Bisgard, Kristine M. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Road, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Yip, Fuyuen Y. [Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Murphy, Tracy D. [Wyoming Department of Health, 101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  1. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pride, Kerry R.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Byron F.; Busacker, Ashley; Grandpre, Joseph; Bisgard, Kristine M.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.; Murphy, Tracy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  2. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events.

  3. The relationship between typhoons' peripheral circulation and ground-level ozone concentrations in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Li; Lai, Li-Wei; Den, Walter; Wu, Meng-Ting; Hsueh, Chao-An; Lin, Pay-Liam; Pai, Chueh-Ling; Yan, Yeou-Lih

    2014-02-01

    Surface data of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and mixing height) and air pollutant concentrations (O3, NO, and NO2) were collected for a 92-day period associated with typhoon formation in 2005. The influence of typhoons on O3 concentration were defined by azimuth and distance from Taiwan, and Types A, B, and C correspond to typhoons less than 1,500 km from Taiwan and located between azimuths 45° and 135°, 135° and 225°, and 225° and 45°, respectively. Type D corresponds to typhoons more than 1,500 km from Taiwan. Titration reactions were conducted at three temporal phases: 2000-0700, 0800-1100, and 1200-1400 LST (Local Standard Time). The air pollution model (TAPM) was used to simulate wind fields and trajectories of air masses. It was determined that typhoon position affected O3 concentration, temporal and spatial patterns of O3 titration and vertical meteorological characteristics, which were not all at the statistically significant level.

  4. Comparison of 1972 and 1996 water levels in the Goleta central ground-water subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Pratt, David A.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water levels for 1996 were compared with 1972 water levels to determine if a "drought buffer" currently exists. The drought buffer was defined previously, in a litigated settlement involving the Goleta Water District, as the 1972 water level in the Central ground-water subbasin. To make this deter mination, a network of 15 well sites was selected, water levels were measured monthly from April through December 1996, and the 1996 water-level data were compared with1972 data. The study was done in cooperation with the Goleta Water District. The 1972-1996 water-level-altitude changes for corresponding months of the comparison years were averaged for each network well. These averaged changes ranged from a rise of 9.4 ft for well 2N2 to a decline of 45.0 ft for well 8K8. The results of the comparison indicate a rise in water level at 1 site (well 2N2) and a decline at 14 sites. The mean of the 14 negative average values was a decline of 24.0 ft. The altitude of the bottom of well 2N2 was higher than the bottom altitudes at the other network sites, and this well is located a few feet from a fault that acts as a hydrologic barrier. The results of the water-level comparison for the Central subbasin were influenced to some unknown degree by the areal distribution of the set of wells selected for the network and the vertical dis tribution of the perforated intervals of the wells. For this reason, the mean water-level change--a decline of 21.8 ft--calculated from the averages of the month-to-month changes for the 15 network sites, should be used with caution. In addition, the number of usable individual monthly comparison measurements available for an individual site ranged from one to nine, and averaged six. Therefore, a weighted mean of the monthly averages was calculated on the basis of the number of comparison measurements available for each site. The weighted mean is a decline of 20.9 ft. All Central subbasin wells that were idle (that is, were not being pumped

  5. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails

  6. Influence of ground level enhancements on the terrestrial production of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Konstantin; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Beer, Juerg [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG (Switzerland); Tylka, Allan J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Dietrich, William F. [Praxis, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are a product of the interaction of primary cosmic rays, in particular galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), with the Earth's atmosphere. But only primary particles with energies above several 100 MeV can trigger the necessary reaction chains. Because GCRs are modulated by the solar activity on their way through the interplanetary medium the GCR-induced cosmogenic radionuclide production is anti-correlated to the solar cycle. During phases of strong solar activity also solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur frequently. In particular SEP events which can be detected by ground-based instruments, so-called ground level enhancements (GLEs), may strongly contribute to the cosmogenic radionuclide production. Beside the variation due to the modulation of GCRs we investigate the influence of 58 GLEs, which occurred within the past five solar cycles and discuss the possibility to detect such events in present ice-core and tree-ring records. In addition, an estimate for the probability to find such events over the past 10'000 years, also known as Holocene, during different modulation conditions are given.

  7. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  8. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  9. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  10. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, X. F.; Saunders, S. M.; Fan, S. J.; Zuo, H. C.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities - Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site downwind of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv), while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in situ production. The O3 production was in a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-limited regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2) on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO), were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  11. Solving Large-Scale TSP Using a Fast Wedging Insertion Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new partitioning method, called Wedging Insertion, is proposed for solving large-scale symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The idea of our proposed algorithm is to cut a TSP tour into four segments by nodes’ coordinate (not by rectangle, such as Strip, FRP, and Karp. Each node is located in one of their segments, which excludes four particular nodes, and each segment does not twist with other segments. After the partitioning process, this algorithm utilizes traditional construction method, that is, the insertion method, for each segment to improve the quality of tour, and then connects the starting node and the ending node of each segment to obtain the complete tour. In order to test the performance of our proposed algorithm, we conduct the experiments on various TSPLIB instances. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm in this paper is more efficient for solving large-scale TSPs. Specifically, our approach is able to obviously reduce the time complexity for running the algorithm; meanwhile, it will lose only about 10% of the algorithm’s performance.

  12. Communication: The ground electronic state of Si2C: Rovibrational level structure, quantum monodromy, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Kokkin, Damian L.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si 2 C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its 1 A 1 ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed K a = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm −1 with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the K a = 0, 2,  and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν 2 ) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm −1 (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm −1 ). The calculated (K a , ν 2 ) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si 2 C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC 2 molecule is known to be abundant

  13. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy''s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed

  14. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... is collected on an hourly basis, filtered, interpolated, and presented on zoomable maps and graphs. Compared with other environmental information initiatives, the main aspects of this Website is the allowance for user interactivity, free access to data, and high timeliness. Data are published 2 to 3 h after...

  16. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Kerry J., E-mail: howe@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Mitchell, Lana, E-mail: lmitchell@alionscience.com [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kim, Seung-Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kee, Ernest J., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company, P.O. Box 270, Wadsworth, TX 77483 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH){sub 3}. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known.

  17. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Kerry J.; Mitchell, Lana; Kim, Seung-Jun; Blandford, Edward D.; Kee, Ernest J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH) 3 . • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known

  18. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  19. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  20. The 2015 Summer Solstice Storm: One of the Major Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Raulin, J. P.; Tueros, E.; de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Fauth, A. C.; Vieira de Souza, H.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the 22 - 23 June 2015 geomagnetic storm that occurred at the summer solstice. There have been fewer intense geomagnetic storms during the current solar cycle, Solar Cycle 24, than in the previous cycle. This situation changed after mid-June 2015, when one of the largest solar active regions (AR 12371) of Solar Cycle 24 that was located close to the central meridian, produced several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with M-class flares. The impact of these CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere resulted in a moderate to severe G4-class geomagnetic storm on 22 - 23 June 2015 and a G2 (moderate) geomagnetic storm on 24 June. The G4 solstice storm was the second largest (so far) geomagnetic storm of Cycle 24. We highlight the ground-level observations made with the New-Tupi, Muonca, and the CARPET El Leoncito cosmic-ray detectors that are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. These observations are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (ACE, GOES, SDO, and SOHO) and other ground-based experiments. The CME designations are taken from the Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) automated catalog. As expected, Forbush decreases (FD) associated with the passing CMEs were recorded by these detectors. We note a peculiar feature linked to a severe geomagnetic storm event. The 21 June 2015 CME 0091 (CACTus CME catalog number) was likely associated with the 22 June summer solstice FD event. The angular width of CME 0091 was very narrow and measured {˜} 56° degrees seen from Earth. In most cases, only CME halos and partial halos lead to severe geomagnetic storms. We perform a cross-check analysis of the FD events detected during the rise phase of Solar Cycle 24, the geomagnetic parameters, and the CACTus CME catalog. Our study suggests that narrow angular-width CMEs that erupt in a westward direction from the Sun-Earth line can lead to moderate and severe geomagnetic storms. We also report on the strong solar proton

  1. Dynamic factor modeling of ground and surface water levels in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, A.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2006-02-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the interaction between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component for fine-tuning the process. The Frog Pond is an intensively instrumented agricultural 2023 ha area adjacent to ENP. The interactions among 21 multivariate daily time series (ground and surface water elevations, rainfall and evapotranspiration) available from this area were studied by means of dynamic factor analysis, a novel technique in the field of hydrology. This method is designed to determine latent or background effects governing variability or fluctuations in non-stationary time series. Water levels in 16 wells and two drainage ditch locations inside the area were selected as response variables, and canal levels and net recharge as explanatory variables. Elevations in the two canals delimiting the Frog Pond area were found to be the main factors explaining the response variables. This influence of canal elevations on water levels inside the area was complementary and inversely related to the distance between the observation point and each canal. Rainfall events do not affect daily water levels significantly but are responsible for instantaneous or localized groundwater responses that in some cases can be directly associated with the risk of flooding. This close coupling between surface and groundwater levels, that corroborates that found by other authors using different methods, could hinder on-going environmental restoration efforts in the area by bypassing the function of wetlands and other surface features. An empirical model with a reduced set of parameters was successfully developed and validated in the area by interpolating the results from the dynamic factor analysis across the spatial domain (coefficient of efficiency across the domain: 0.66-0.99). Although

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR? 102-117.50 Section 102-117.50... Related Services § 102-117.50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP... office is able to handle the requirement. (b) The FAR may be a disadvantage when you: (1) Cannot prepare...

  3. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  4. Distribution and urban-suburban differences in ground-level ozone and its precursors over Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Ren, Wanhui; Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Bingkun

    2018-03-01

    Hourly mixing ratio data of ground-level ozone and its main precursors at ambient air quality monitoring sites in Shenyang during 2013-2015 were used to survey spatiotemporal variations in ozone. Then, the transport of ozone and its precursors among urban, suburban, and rural sites was examined. The correlations between ozone and some key meteorological factors were also investigated. Ozone and O x mixing ratios in Shenyang were higher during warm seasons and lower during cold ones, while ozone precursors followed the opposite cycle. Ozone mixing ratios reached maximum and minimum values in the afternoon and morning, respectively, reflecting the significant influence of photochemical production during daytime and depletion via titration during nighttime. Compared to those in downtown Shenyang, ozone mixing ratios were higher and the occurrence of peak values were later in suburban and rural areas downwind of the prevailing wind. The differences were most significant in summer, when the ozone mixing ratios at one suburban downwind site reached a maximum value of 35.6 ppb higher than those at the downtown site. This suggests that photochemical production processes were significant during the transport of ozone precursors, particularly in warm seasons with sufficient sunlight. Temperature, total radiation, and wind speed all displayed positive correlations with ozone concentration, reflecting their important role in accelerating ozone formation. Generally, the correlations between ozone and meteorological factors were slightly stronger at suburban sites than in urban areas, indicating that ozone levels in suburban areas were more sensitive to these meteorological factors.

  5. Ground-Penetrating Radar Study of Fort Morgan Peninsula Holocene Beach Ridges as Sea-level Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, A.; Frederick, B.; Blum, M. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Holocene sea-level change along the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) coast is controversial. One view interprets basal peats from the Mississippi Delta to indicate continual sea-level (SL) rise for the GoM as a whole. An alternate view proposes that data from the subsiding delta is primarily a subsidence signal, and that sandy non-deltaic shorelines indicate that regional SL reached present elevations by the middle Holocene, with minor oscillations since then. In fact, new regional long-term subsidence records from biostratigraphic indicators display significant subsidence in deltaic areas where basal-peat data were collected, and negligible rates along the GoM shoreline to the east. However, the use of sandy progradational shorelines, commonly known as "beach ridge systems", has been criticized for a lack of precise sea-level indicators, and therefore discounted. This research focuses on developing Holocene progradational sandy shorelines along the Alabama coast in the eastern GoM as SL indicators. Sandy shorelines in this area are ideal to examine SL change because they are well preserved, sufficiently distant from the subsiding delta, well mapped, and ages are known from previous work. Two-dimensional ground-penetrating radar imaging of well-dated beach-ridge successions is used here to examine and identify changes through time in the elevation of the shoreface clinoform topset-foreset break, which represents the transition between flat-lying foreshore and seaward-dipping shoreface facies, and forms in the intertidal zone. Beach-ridge successions with optical luminescence ages of ca. 5500-4800 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks at current mean sea-level elevation, whereas beach-ridge successions from ca. 3500-2400 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks that are 1 m above present mean SL and the elevation of modern topset-foreset breaks. These data support the view that current sea-level was reached by the middle Holocene, and was higher than present for at least

  6. The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Maurice; Teplitz, Dale

    2004-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

  7. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  8. Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retire Tool When Deciding Between High 36 Retirement and Blended TSP Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...VALUE OF THE TSP ...........16 D. ELEMENTS OF RETIRE TOOL ANALYSIS .....................................18 1. Cash Flow Analysis...23 3. Cash Flow Comparison ...............................................................24 4. Volatility Analysis

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.45 - How does a transportation service provider (TSP) bill my agency for transportation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) Billing method (1)(i) Government issued agency charge card, (1) Bill from charge card company (may be electronic). (ii) Centrally billed travel account citation. (2)(i) Purchase order, (2) Bill from TSP (may be electronic). (ii) Bill of lading, (iii) Government Bill of Lading, (iv) Government...

  10. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. The Application of Fitness Sharing Method in Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimizing the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmaulidar Nurmaulidar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is one of complex optimization problem that is difficult to be solved, and require quite a long time for a large number of cities. Evolutionary algorithm is a precise algorithm used in solving complex optimization problem as it is part of heuristic method. Evolutionary algorithm, like many other algorithms, also experiences a premature convergence phenomenon, whereby variation is eliminated from a population of fairly fit individuals before a complete solution is achieved. Therefore it requires a method to delay the convergence. A specific method of fitness sharing called phenotype fitness sharing has been used in this research. The aim of this research is to find out whether fitness sharing in evolutionary algorithm is able to optimize TSP. There are two concepts of evolutionary algorithm being used in this research. the first one used single elitism and the other one used federated solution. The two concepts had been tested to the method of fitness sharing by using the threshold of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75. The result was then compared to a non fitness sharing method. The result in this study indicated that by using single elitism concept, fitness sharing was able to give a more optimum result for the data of 100-1000 cities. On the other hand, by using federation solution concept, fitness sharing can yield a more optimum result for the data above 1000 cities, as well as a better solution of data-spreading compared to the method without fitness sharing.

  12. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  13. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  14. Levels of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in ground beef patties irradiated by low-energy X-ray and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj M; Smith, J Scott

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation improves food safety and maintains food quality by controlling microorganisms and extending shelf life. However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation is still low. Consumer groups such as Public Citizen and the Food and Water Watch have opposed irradiation because of the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) in irradiated, lipid-containing foods. The objectives of this study were to measure and to compare the level of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in ground beef irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays. Beef patties were irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays (Cs-137) at 3 targeted absorbed doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The samples were extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus, and the 2-DCB concentration was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration increased linearly (P irradiation dose for gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. There was no significant difference in 2-DCB concentration between gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties (P > 0.05) at all targeted doses. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. A Study of The Direct Aerosol Forcing At Ground Level For A Pollution Event During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Dubuisson, P.; Putaud, J. P.; van Dingenen, R.; Despiau, S.

    Radiative forcing by aerosol particles is one of the largest source of uncertainties in predicting climate change (IPCC, 2001). Indeed, quantitative estimates of this effect are still uncertain due to little knowledge of these atmospheric particles. Atmospheric particles influence the Earth's radiation balance both directly and indirectly. The indi- rect effect denotes the effect of aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei, possibly modifying cloud albedo and cloud lifetime. The direct effect is due to scattering and absorption of radiation and each of these processes depends mainly on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosol particles. During the ESCOMPTE campaign, which took place in coastal Mediterranean area during the summer 2001, we estimated these aerosol micro-physical properties during a pollution event at two different sites. The first is an urban site (the city of Marseille), and the second is a rural area located fifty kilometers inland. The aerosol size distribution was measured with an SMPS for the particles with radii 1 µm. The chemi- cal composition (including different ionic compounds , dust, elemental and organic carbon) was deduced from chromatography analysis. The aerosol optical properties calculated from measured aerosol physical and chemical properties at ground level (from Mie theory) are used as input to a shortwave radiative transfer model. Then, this model is used to calculate the diurnally averaged direct aerosol forcing at surface and to compare this values with those measured from the ARAT aircraft and surface pyranometer during the campaign.

  16. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DERIVING THE PROPERTIES OF CORONAL PRESSURE FRONTS IN 3D: APPLICATION TO THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; Rosa, M. L. De; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM , of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical ( M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  18. DERIVING THE PROPERTIES OF CORONAL PRESSURE FRONTS IN 3D: APPLICATION TO THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse III (UPS) (France); Zucca, P. [LESIA-UMR 8109—Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and 7, F-92190, Meudon (France); Vainio, R. [University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Tylka, A. J. [Emeritus, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Vourlidas, A. [Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland (United States); Rosa, M. L. De [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, California (United States); Linker, J. [Predictive Sciences Inc., San Diego, California (United States); Warmuth, A.; Mann, G. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Potsdam (Germany); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A., E-mail: arouillard@irap.omp.eu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M {sub FM}, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M {sub FM} values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical ( M {sub FM} > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  19. The effectiveness of ground level post-flight 100 percent oxygen breathing as therapy for pain-only altitude Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demboski, John T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    In both the aviation and space environments, decompression sickness (DCS) is an operational limitation. Hyperbaric recompression is the most efficacious treatment for altitude DCS. However, the inherent recompression of descent to ground level while breathing oxygen is in itself therapy for altitude DCS. If pain-only DCS occurs during a hypobaric exposure, and the symptoms resolver during descent, ground level post-flight breathing of 100% O2 for 2 hours (GLO2) is considered sufficient treatment by USAF Regulation 161-21. The effectiveness of the GLO2 treatment protocol is defined.

  20. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  1. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  2. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP: contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP: contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el TSP Probabilístico. Entre los principales campos de inspiración para resolver el TSP están la evolución biológica y su base genético-molecular, el comportamiento de hormigas reales, la termodinámica, las estrategias sistemáticas para combinar reglas de decisión y la búsqueda de vecindades. Hoy día se tiende a desarrollar métodos híbridos, especialmente integrando enfoques globales con búsquedas locales, y se identifica la necesidad de introducir nuevos campos de inspiración.This paper describes and analyzes, in terms of content, the types of TSP, methods and fields of inspiration - the most relevant "literary space" on TSP. It is built based on the top most cited on the TSP history and the Top 10 cited from 2006 to 2010. The study of TSP still prevails in Research, focusing on the original problem and its variants: Multiple TSP (m-TSP and Probabilistic TSP (PTSP. Evidence shows that there has been progress in the development of TSP solving methods, highlighted by various inspiration fields: biological evolution, behavior of real ants, thermodynamics, systematic strategies for combining decision rules, and neighborhood search. There is a tendency to develop hybrid methods, in particular by integrating global approaches to local search. There is need to introduce new fields of inspiration.

  3. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 3—Calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Sterling; Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward D, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Calcium leaching from NUKON fiberglass in borated TSP-buffered solution is independent of the level of fiberglass destruction. • The initial calcium release rate and the maximum calcium concentration increases with increased fiber concentration. • The calcium release in solution has a repeatable pattern of four distinct regions (prompt release, metastable, autocatalytic drop, and stable region) for all experiments. • Magnesium plays a significant role in initiating calcium precipitation in TSP-buffered environment. • Head loss through multi-constituents debris beds was found to increase progressively in all calcium concentration regions. - Abstract: Calcium that leaches from damaged or destroyed NUKON fiberglass in containment post a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) could lead to the formation of chemical precipitates. These precipitates could be filtered through the accumulated fibrous debris on the sump screen and compromising the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) sump pump performance. Reduced-scale leaching experiments were conducted on three solution inventory scales—bench (0.5 L), vertical column (31.5 L), and tank (1136 L) using three different flow conditions, and fiberglass concentrations (1.18–8 g/L) to investigate calcium release from NUKON fiber. All experiments were conducted in simulated post-LOCA water chemistry. (∼220 mM boric acid with ∼5.8 mM trisodium phosphate (TSP) buffer). Prior to the leaching tests, a preliminary experiment was carried out on the bench scale to determine the effect of the fiber preparation (unaltered and blended) method on calcium leaching. Results indicate that the extent of fiberglass destruction does not affect the amount of calcium released from fiberglass. Long-term calcium leach testing at constant temperature (80 °C) in borated TSP-buffered solution had repeatable behavior on all solution scales for different fiberglass concentrations. The calcium-leaching pattern can be divided into

  4. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO 2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO 2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO 2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  5. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  6. Why variation of ground-level O3 differed during air quality control for APEC and Parade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R.; Shao, M.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important photochemical product, which represents the atmospheric oxidants capacity. The increasing ground-level O3 in Beijing attracts people's attention and became an urgent thing to manage in recent years. In the autumn of 2014 and summer of 2015, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014 and the 2015 China Victory Day parade (Parade) were held in Beijing. Thus, spell of emission restrictions was conducted for improving the air quality for the two great events, respectively. Previous studies indicated that significant reduction in the emissions of primary anthropogenic pollutants had been achieved, and the monthly averaged concentration of CO, SO2, NOx (NO + NO2) and NMHCs were decreased by 30%-60% for both events. In contrast to the obvious reduction in primary pollutants, O3 increased by 42% in APEC but decreased by 33% in Parade, which was surprising as the control measures are almost the same during the two events. The regional transport from the surrounding areas contributed lot in APEC, and the non-linearity relationship of O3 and its precursors may be another reason. A zero-dimensional box model based on the compact Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2 (RACM 2) was applied to chase down the internal factor to determine the O3 variation. The EKMA plot showed that / was the important role to effect photochemical regime as well as ozone production efficiency. Except that, the influence of NO-O3 titration effect and low photolysis frequencies in autumn also contributed to that. As high / does help O3 control and NOx continues to fall down due to the government policy, reactivity-based regulations for VOC controls are more cost-effective. With source profile and annual PMF analysis of source apportionment by related studies, we suggest solvent use should be focus on involving VOC control.

  7. ARE THERE TWO DISTINCT SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE RELEASES IN THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examine ion release times in the solar vicinity for the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement event using the velocity dispersion analysis method. In situ energetic proton data from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite are used. We find two distinct releases of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) near the Sun, separated by ∼40 minutes. From soft X-ray observations, we find that the first release coincides with the solar flare eruption: the release starts from the flare onset and ends near the peak of the soft X-ray; type-III radio bursts also occur when the release starts. A type II radio burst may also start at the begining of the release. However, the associated Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) only has a height of 0.08R s from extrapolation of SOHO/LASCO data. At the start of the second release, the CME propagates to more than 8.4R s in height, and there are signatures of an enhanced type II radio burst. The time-integrated spectra for the two releases differ. The spectrum for the second release shows the common double-power-law feature of gradual SEP events. The spectrum for the first release does not resemble power laws because there is considerable modulation at lower energies. Based on our analysis, we suggest that SEPs of the first release were dominated by particles accelerated at the flare, and those of the second release were dominated by particles accelerated at the associated CME-driven shock. Our study may be important to understand certain extreme SEP events

  8. An estimation of COPD cases and respiratory mortality related to Ground-Level Ozone in the metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study :  Ground-Level Ozone (GLO is the component of one of greatest concern that threatened human health in both developing as well as developed countries. The GLO mainly enters the body through the respiration and can cause decrements in pulmonary complications, eye burning, shortness of breath, coughing, failure of immune defense, decreases forced vital capacity, reduce lung function of the lungs and increase rate of mortality. Ahwaz with high emission air pollutants because of numerous industries is one of the metropolitan Iranian polluted. The aim of this study is evaluate to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and respiratory mortality related to GLO in the air of metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011. Materials & Methods: We used the generalized additive Air Q model for estimation of COPD and respiratory mortality attributed to GLO pollutant. Data of GLO were collected in four monitoring stations Ahvaz Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software and at final step they were converted as input file to the Air Q model for estimate number of COPD Cases and respiratory mortality. Results: According to result this study, The Naderi and Havashenasi had the highest and the lowest GLO concentrations. The results of this study showed that cumulative cases of COPD and respiratory mortality which related to GLO were 34 and 30 persons, respectively. Also, Findings showed that approximately 11 % COPD and respiratory mortality happened when the GLO concentrations was more than 20 μg/m 3 . Conclusions: exposure to GLO pollution has stronger effects on human health in Ahvaz. Findings showed that there were a significant relationship between concentration of GLO and COPD and respiratory mortality. Therefore; the higher ozone pollutant value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.  

  9. Temporal multiscaling characteristics of particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 concentrations in Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Calif, Rudy; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    A good knowledge of the intermittency of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for air pollution management. We consider here particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 time series in Guadeloupe archipelago which experiments a tropical and humid climate in the Caribbean zone. The aim of this paper is to study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. Firstly, we estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. The power spectra computed follows a power law behavior for both considered pollutants. Thereafter we study the scaling behavior of PM 10 and O3 time series. Contrary to numerous studies where the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is frequently applied, here, the classical structure function analysis is used to extract the scaling exponent or multifractal spectrum ζ(q) ; this function provides a full characterization of a process at all intensities and all scales. The obtained results show that PM 10 and O3 possess intermittent and multifractal properties. The singularity spectrum MS(α) also confirms both pollutants multifractal features. The originality of this work comes from a statistical modeling performed on ζ(q) and MS(α) by a lognormal model to compute the intermittency parameter μ. By contrast with PM 10 which mainly depends on puffs of Saharan dust (synoptic-scale), O3 is more intermittent due to variability of its local precursors. The results presented in this paper can help to better understand the mechanisms governing the dynamics of PM 10 and O3 in Caribbean islands context.

  10. Yield and nutritive quality of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) exposed to ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.C.; Muntifering, R.B.; Lin, J.C.; Chappelka, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-level ozone decreased the nutritive quality of select warm-season forages for ruminant herbivores. - Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata cv. Interstate 76) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium cv. Aldous) were raised from seed in a glasshouse, transplanted into 5.7-l pots and placed into open-top chambers (OTC) on 6 June 1999. Following a 7-day adjustment period, each of six OTCs (duplicate OTCs per treatment) was ventilated with either air that had been carbon-filtered (CF) to remove ambient ozone (O 3 ); non-filtered (NF), representative of ambient air; or enriched to twice-ambient O 3 concentration (2X). Primary-growth forage was harvested on days 7, 32, 46, 59 and 72 following the start of fumigation, and regrowth forage from the first primary-growth harvest was harvested on days 36, 54 and 72 following the start of fumigation. Dry matter (DM) yield of either forage species did not differ among treatments except in the final regrowth period when yield of sericea lespedeza was greater for the NF than 2X O 3 treatment. In vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and concentrations of crude protein (CP), soluble phenolics (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) in primary-growth sericea lespedeza did not differ between treatments, but NF primary-growth forage had higher concentration of protein-precipitating tannins (PPT) than did 2X primary-growth forage. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in NF and 2X than in CF primary-growth sericea lespedeza. Similarly, concentrations of NDF and ADL were higher, and IVDMD was lower for NF and 2X than for CF regrowth sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of ADF and ADL were lower, whereas IVDMD, in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) and concentrations of CP and SP were greater, in CF than in NF and 2X primary-growth little bluestem. Percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD and concentrations of CP and SP in NF primary-growth little bluestem were greater than

  11. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  12. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  13. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith LaRue, J.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-feet in 1996 and 6,300 acre-feet in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by E T, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased

  14. Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distributions at ground level and 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Han, Tingting; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Fu, Pingqing; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2017-06-01

    Despite extensive studies into the characterization of particle number size distributions at ground level, real-time measurements above the urban canopy in the megacity of Beijing have never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed overall similar temporal variations in number size distributions between ground level and 260 m, yet periods with significant differences were also observed. Particularly, accumulation-mode particles were highly correlated (r2 = 0. 85) at the two heights, while Aitken-mode particles presented more differences. Detailed analysis suggests that the vertical differences in number concentrations strongly depended on particle size, and particles with a mobility diameter between 100 and 200 nm generally showed higher concentrations at higher altitudes. Particle growth rates and condensation sinks were also calculated, which were 3.2 and 3.6 nm h-1, and 2.8 × 10-2 and 2.9 × 10-2 s-1, at ground level and 260 m, respectively. By linking particle growth with aerosol composition, we found that organics appeared to play an important role in the early stage of the growth (09:00-12:00 LT) while sulfate was also important during the later period. Positive matrix factorization of size-resolved number concentrations identified three common sources at ground level and 260 m, including a factor associated with new particle formation and growth events (NPEs), and two secondary factors that represent photochemical processing and regional transport. Cooking emission was found to have a large contribution to small particles and showed much higher concentration at ground level than 260 m in the evening. These results imply that investigation of NPEs at ground level in megacities needs to consider the influences of local cooking emissions. The impacts of regional emission controls on

  15. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    high flows. Conveyance losses in the Pebble-Topaz reach were greatest, about 283 cubic feet per second, during the spring regulated high flows and were attributed to a hydroelectric project.Comparison of water levels in 30 wells in the Portneuf Valley during September and October 1968 and 2001 indicated long-term declines since 1968; the median decline was 3.4 feet. September and October were selected for characterizing long-term ground-water-level fluctuations because declines associated with irrigation reach a maximum at the end of the irrigation season. The average annual snowpack in the study area has declined significantly; 1945 85 average annual snowpack was 16.1 inches, whereas 1986 through 2002 average annual snowpack was 11.6 inches. Water-level declines during 1998 2002 may be partially attributable to the extended dry climatic conditions. It is unclear whether the declines could be partially attributed to increases in ground-water withdrawals. Between 1968 and 1980, water rights for ground-water withdrawals nearly doubled from 23,500 to 46,000 acre-feet per year. During this period, ground-water levels were relatively constant and did not exhibit a declining trend that could be related to increased ground-water withdrawal rights. However, ground-water withdrawals are not measured in the valley; thus, the amount of water pumped is not known. Since the 1990s, there have been several years when the Chesterfield Reservoir has not completely refilled, and the water in storage behind the reservoir has been depleted by the middle of the irrigation season. In this situation, surface-water diversions for irrigation were terminated before the end of the irrigation season, and irrigators, who were relying in part on diversions from the Portneuf River, had to rely solely on ground water as an alternate supply. Smaller volumes of water in the Chesterfield Reservoir since the 1990s indicate a growing demand for ground-water supplies.

  16. Geriatric Trauma Patients With Cervical Spine Fractures due to Ground Level Fall: Five Years Experience in a Level One Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Coppola, Marco; Robinson, Richard D; Scribner, James T; Vithalani, Veer; de Moor, Carrie E; Gandhi, Raj R; Burton, Mandy; Delaney, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    It has been found that significantly different clinical outcomes occur in trauma patients with different mechanisms of injury. Ground level falls (GLF) are usually considered "minor trauma" with less injury occurred in general. However, it is not uncommon that geriatric trauma patients sustain cervical spine (C-spine) fractures with other associated injuries due to GLF or less. The aim of this study is to determine the injury patterns and the roles of clinical risk factors in these geriatric trauma patients. Data were reviewed from the institutional trauma registry of our local level 1 trauma center. All patients had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Basic clinical characteristics, the distribution of C-spine fracture(s), and mechanism of injury in geriatric patients (65 years or older) were compared with those less than 65 years old. Furthermore, different clinical variables including age, gender, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood alcohol level, and co-existing injuries were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression in geriatric trauma patients due to GLF and internally validated by random bootstrapping technique. From 2006 - 2010, a total of 12,805 trauma patients were included in trauma registry, of which 726 (5.67%) had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Among all C-spine fracture patients, 19.15% (139/726) were geriatric patients. Of these geriatric patients 27.34% (38/139) and 53.96% (75/139) had C1 and C2 fractures compared with 13.63% (80/587) and 21.98% (129/587) in young trauma patients (P geriatric trauma patients 13.67% (19/139) and 18.71% (26/139) had C6 and C7 fractures compared with 32.03% (188/587) and 41.40% (243/587) in younger ones separately (P geriatric patients had sustained C-spine fractures due to GLF with more upper C-spine fractures (C1 and C2). Only 3.2% of those had positive blood alcohol levels compared with 52.9% of younger patients (P geriatric patients due to GLF had intracranial pathology (ICP) which was one of the most common co

  17. An Extension of the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun TSP Solver for Constrained Traveling Salesman and Vehicle Routing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    This report describes the implementation of an extension of the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun TSP solver for solving constrained traveling salesman and vehicle routing problems. The extension, which is called LKH-3, is able to solve a variety of well-known problems, including the sequential ordering...... problem (SOP), the traveling repairman problem (TRP), variants of the multiple travel-ing salesman problem (mTSP), as well as vehicle routing problems (VRPs) with capacity, time windows, pickup-and-delivery and distance constraints. The implementation of LKH-3 builds on the idea of transforming...... the problems into standard symmetric traveling salesman problems and handling constraints by means of penalty functions. Extensive testing on benchmark instances from the literature has shown that LKH-3 is effective. Best known solutions are often obtained, and in some cases, new best solutions are found...

  18. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  19. Ground water level, Water storage, Soil moisture, Precipitation Variability Using Multi Satellite Data during 2003-2016 Associated with California Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. W.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural market of California is a multi-billion-dollar industry, however in the recent years, the state is facing severe drought. It is important to have a deeper understanding of how the agriculture is affected by the amount of rainfall as well as the ground conditions in California. We have considered 5 regions (each 2 degree by 2 degree) covering whole of California. Multi satellite (MODIS Terra, GRACE, GLDAS) data through NASA Giovanni portal were used to study long period variability 2003 - 2016 of ground water level and storage, soil moisture, root zone moisture level, precipitation and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) in these 5 regions. Our detailed analysis of these parameters show a strong correlation between the NDVI and some of these parameters. NDVI represents greenness showing strong drought conditions during the period 2011-2016 due to poor rainfall and recharge of ground water in the mid and southern parts of California. Effect of ground water level and underground storage will be also discussed on the frequency of earthquakes in five regions of California. The mid and southern parts of California show increasing frequency of small earthquakes during drought periods.

  20. Determination of samples with TSP size at PLTU Pacitan, Jawa Timur have been done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmanto, Tri; Mulyono; Irianto, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is done using equipment High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) and analysis using gamma spectrometer. Sampling at 3 locations, each location of the sampling carried out 24 hours, air samples on filter conditioned at room temperature, weighed to a contained weight, counting for 24 hours with gamma spectrometer. The result of qualitative and quantitative analysis of filter TSP was contained of locations I Ra-226 = 0,000888 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000356 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,000859 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000712 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,004447 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,035454 Bq/m 3 ) , Locations II Ra-226 = 0,00113 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,00079 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,001351 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000433 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,007138 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,018532 Bq/m 3 , Locations III Ra-226 = 0,001424 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000208 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 000052 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,001408 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,008362 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,020536 Bq/m 3 . Radionuclides activity was all still below quality of air enabled by BAPETEN. Become the activities of ambient air of PLTU area still be peaceful enough as settlement area. (author)

  1. Diffusion from a Ground Level Point Source Experiment with Thermoluminescence Dosimeters and Kr 85 as Tracer Substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, B I

    1969-06-15

    In this report the theoretical conditions necessary for the study of the behaviour of released activity by the use of CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters are considered. A method is derived for calculating exposure distributions from drifting volume activity. The correlation between exposure distributions and concentration distributions is discussed. One of thirty experiments where Br 82 was released into water through a nozzle some metres above the bottom is described. The resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at distances of 10, 50 and 200 metres by CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. The measured exposures are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are compared with other methods. The method using exposure measurements for the study of active release in water has given satisfactory results in practice. The measurements have been made at concentration levels which are considerably below that permissible for drinking water according to the recommendations by ICRPA special advantage with this method is that the measurements can be made simultaneously at a large number of places and that integration is possible over sufficiently long periods of time. An experiment is described where Ar 41 was released in free air at a height of one metre above ground and the resulting exposure distribution was measured in a vertical plane at 100 and 250 metres distance by CaSO{sub 4}: Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters. Shielding problems in connection with the experiments have been small since the method permits the measurement of very small doses. An account is given of the possibility of using the beta emitting isotope Kr 85 instead of the gamma emitting Ar 41 for diffusion experiments in air. The results obtained from some experiments are presented and discussed. The thermoluminescent signal from the dosimeters are, at the same concentration and exposure time, 2.5 times greater for Kr 85 than for

  2. How to Mutually Advance General Education and Major-Based Education: A Grounded Theory Study on the Course Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hualiang

    2018-01-01

    The author employs grounded theory to investigate the teaching process of an interdisciplinary general education course at A University as a case. The author finds that under the condition of rather concrete relations between the subject of a major-based course and that of an elected general education course, if the major course is taught with a…

  3. From phonemes to images : levels of representation in a recurrent neural model of visually-grounded language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderloos, L.J.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model of visually-grounded language learning based on stacked gated recurrent neural networks which learns to predict visual features given an image description in the form of a sequence of phonemes. The learning task resembles that faced by human language learners who need to discover

  4. ATOMIC DATA FOR ABSORPTION-LINES FROM THE GROUND-LEVEL AT WAVELENGTHS GREATER-THAN-228-ANGSTROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; BARTHEL, PD; TYTLER, D

    1994-01-01

    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  5. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Infiltration properties of covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to fluctuation of ground water level and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Tadashi; Tadano, Hideki; Abe, Satoshi; Imai, Jun; Yanagisawa, Eiji; Mitachi, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Low level radioactive concrete waste will be produced in future by breaking up the nuclear facilities, and the waste will be disposed in shallow depth of ground. In order to prepare for those situation, it is needed to clarify the infiltration properties of the covering soil into the void of buried concrete waste due to the fluctuation of ground water level and to develop the prevention methods against the infiltration of the covering soil. In this study, full-scale concrete structure specimens were broken up, and were compacted in large scale testing boxes and a series tests changing water level up and down in the concrete waste and covering soil were performed. From the test results, it was found that the appropriate filter installed between the covering soil and the concrete waste, enable us to prevent the infiltration of covering soil into the void of concrete waste. (author)

  7. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  8. Beach-ridge architecture constrained by beach topography and Ground-Penetrating Radar, Itilleq (Lakse Bugt), Disko, Greenland – Implications for sea-level reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...

  9. Measurement of underground contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on the basis of the radon concentration in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated whether measurements of radon concentrations in ground level air are a suitable method of detecting sub-surface soil contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The working postulation was that, due to the very high solubility of radon in NAPLs, and the resulting accumulation of radon in NAPLs, radon exhalation to the ground level air in the proximity of such NAPL contamination should be locally reduced, thus indicating contamination of sub-surface soils with NAPLs. The research work reported was to verify the working theory by way of experiments, and to finally develop a reliable detection method for NAPL contaminations. The investigations comprised theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, experiments in defined soil columns, and extensive field studies [de

  10. Cloning and analysis of a bifunctional methyltransferase/restriction endonuclease TspGWI, the prototype of a Thermus sp. enzyme family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylicz-Stachula Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction-modification systems are a diverse class of enzymes. They are classified into four major types: I, II, III and IV. We have previously proposed the existence of a Thermus sp. enzyme family, which belongs to type II restriction endonucleases (REases, however, it features also some characteristics of types I and III. Members include related thermophilic endonucleases: TspGWI, TaqII, TspDTI, and Tth111II. Results Here we describe cloning, mutagenesis and analysis of the prototype TspGWI enzyme that recognises the 5'-ACGGA-3' site and cleaves 11/9 nt downstream. We cloned, expressed, and mutagenised the tspgwi gene and investigated the properties of its product, the bifunctional TspGWI restriction/modification enzyme. Since TspGWI does not cleave DNA completely, a cloning method was devised, based on amino acid sequencing of internal proteolytic fragments. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme shares significant sequence similarity with another representative of the Thermus sp. family – TaqII. Interestingly, these enzymes recognise similar, yet different sequences in the DNA. Both enzymes cleave DNA at the same distance, but differ in their ability to cleave single sites and in the requirement of S-adenosylmethionine as an allosteric activator for cleavage. Both the restriction endonuclease (REase and methyltransferase (MTase activities of wild type (wt TspGWI (either recombinant or isolated from Thermus sp. are dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Conclusion TspGWI is a bifunctional protein comprising a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains; particularly noticeable is the central HsdM-like module comprising a helical domain and a highly conserved S-adenosylmethionine-binding/catalytic MTase domain, containing DPAVGTG and NPPY motifs. TspGWI also possesses an N-terminal PD-(D/EXK nuclease domain related to the corresponding domains in HsdR subunits, but lacks the ATP-dependent translocase module

  11. Inclusion in the simulation of air pollutants recorded over the borders of test areas in Niedersachsen and forecasting of local ground level concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Reissmann, K.F.; Schaffner, J.

    1991-08-01

    In 1987-1989 an emission-ground level concentration-model (conversion of emission into ground level concentration) was established for the pollutant sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) by the ISP (Hannover) in cooperation with GEOS (Berlin) and was with emission data of the environs of Braunschweig for 1987 subjected to different trial runs. The pollution sources were devided into four groups: - Large Emitters (particularly power plants) - medium emitters (particularly industry) - space heating and small consumers - traffic. The pollution emitters of the first two groups were considered as point sources and the last two groups as surface sources, their emissions being evently distributed over squares of 1 km x 1 km, each surface unit of one km 2 being represented by 400 point sources in a distance of 50 m from each other. The conversion of emissions into ground level concentration is based on the Gaussian dispersion model on which also the dispersion calculation of the TA Luft (technical regulation about air pollution) is based. (orig./KW) [de

  12. Geologic studies to identify the source for high levels of radium and barium in illinois ground-water supplies: a preliminary report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, K.; Specht, S.A.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Griffin, R.A.; Larson, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Analyses of water from municipal wells in Illinois by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency showed that more than 300 wells exceeded the upper limit for gross alpha radiation in drinking water. More than 30 wells exceeded the upper limit for barium in drinking water. High levels of radiation in ground water were more extensive in areal distribution than the high levels of barium. All of the affected wells were finished in bedrock, primarily in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems of northern Illinois. The geologic settings in which the high levels of radiation and barium were documented indicated that the problem was not restricted to Illinoise. The source of the radiation in ground water was thought to be the natural occurrence of the radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 in the aquifer rocks. Analyses of a limited number of rock samples indicated that uranium and thorium concentrations were highest in fine-grained sediments in the aquifer systems; the highest concentration was in shales that confine the aquifer. Chemical analyses of rock samples indicated that high concentrations of barium were widespread in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The concentration of barium in ground water was controlled by solubility equilibria reactions with sulfate ion. A map showing sulfate ion concentration in the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer could be used to delimit regions where barium might occur at concentrations exceeding 1 milligram/liter

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications. © 2013.

  14. Quantifying Airborne Allergen Levels Before and After Rain Events Using TRMM/GPM and Ground-Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randy M.

    2006-01-01

    Allergies affect millions of Americans, increasing health risks and also increasing absenteeism and reducing productivity in the workplace. Outdoor allergens, such as airborne pollens and mold spores, commonly trigger respiratory distress symptoms, but rainfall reduces the quantity of allergens in the air (EPA, 2003). The current NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission provides accurate information related to rain events. These capabilities will be further enhanced with the future Global Precipitation Measurement mission. This report examines the effectiveness of combining these NASA resources with established ground-based allergen/spore sampling systems to better understand the benefits that rain provides in removing allergens and spores from the air.

  15. NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

  16. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  17. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  18. Sea-level proxies in Holocene raised beach ridge deposits (Greenland) revealed by ground-penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars; Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Clemmensen, Lars B; Weβling, Ronny; Elberling, Bo

    2017-04-19

    Identification of sea-level proxies is important for reconstruction of past sea-level variation. Methods for reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level curves are crucial for quantification of the impact of Greenland ice thickness variation on global sea level and vertical land movement. Arctic beach ridges constitute important potential archives of sea-level variation. However, their surface morphology may have undergone modification since deposition due to freezing/thawing processes and erosion, and their morphology may therefore not be trustworthy for sea-level reconstruction. Therefore, geophysical imaging is used to examine the internal structures of the beach ridges and to define a sea-level proxy unaffected by surface processes. The GPR reflections from study sites in West and South Greenland show deposition of beachface deposits and upper shoreface deposits; the contact between steeply dipping beachface reflections and less-dipping shoreface reflections is used as sea-level proxy. Numerous points are identified along GPR transects facilitating reconstruction of relative sea-level variation of hitherto unprecedented resolution. Erosional events and deformation caused by freezing/thawing processes are clearly delineated. The approach constitutes a solid base for reconstruction of relative sea-level curves affected by a well-defined vertical land movement history since the studied beach ridge systems represent long time intervals and only relatively small spatial extents.

  19. The Remediation of Hanford's Last Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in the 300 Area: 618-7 and 618-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) River Corridor Closure Project, Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) has completed remediation of more than seven low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The records of decision for the burial grounds required excavation, characterization, and transport of contaminated material to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976-compliant hazardous waste landfill. This paper discusses the challenges and lessons learned from remediating the last two major burial grounds in the 300 Area: 618-7 and 618-1. The 618-7 Burial Ground was in operation from 1960 through 1973, during which it received waste from the production of Zircaloy (zirconium alloy) jacketed metallic uranium fuel rods and thoria targets for the production of uranium-233. Its major remediation challenges included the recovery, characterization, and disposal of 550 drums and disposal of two compressed gas cylinders that were suspected to contain highly toxic chemicals. Approximately 100 of the drums contained Zircaloy metal turnings that could be pyrophoric under certain conditions. Remediation activities were completed in December 2008. The 618-1 Burial Ground was in operation from 1945 (i.e., the beginning of Hanford operations) through 1951. It received waste from 300 Area laboratories that conducted experimental work associated with World War II and Cold War era processes for fuel fabrication and the production of plutonium. Some of the wastes were associated with highly radioactive irradiated material. Remediation of this burial ground is still in progress and is expected to be completed by June 2009. Information presented in this paper will be an aid to those involved in the planning, design, and remediation of burial grounds located on the DOE complex. (authors) Remediation of the 618-7 Burial Ground was completed in December 2008; the 618-1 Burial Ground is proceeding without incident and is expected to be completed in June

  20. Comparison of HTLV-I Proviral Load in Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy (HAM-TSP) and Healthy Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Hassannia, Tahereh; Shoja Razavi, Ghazaleh; Sabet, Faezeh; Shirdel, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Human T Lymphocyte Virus Type one (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects about 10-20 million people worldwide. Khorasan province in Iran is an endemic area. The majority of HTLV-I-infected individuals sustain healthy carriers but small proportion of infected population developed two progressive diseases: HAM/TSP and ATL. The proviral load could be a virological marker for disease monitoring, therefore in the present study HTLV-I proviral load has been evaluated in ATL and compared to HAM/TSP and healthy carriers. In this case series study, 47 HTLV-I infected individuals including 13 ATL, 23 HAM/TSP and 11 asymptomatic subjects were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were investigated for presence of HTLV-I DNA provirus by PCR using LTR and Tax fragments. Then in infected subjects, HTLV-I proviral load was measured using real time PCR TaqMan method. The average age of patients in ATL was 52±8, in HAM/TSP 45.52±15.17 and in carrier's 38.65±14.9 years which differences were not statistically significant. The analysis of data showed a significant difference in mean WBC among study groups (ATL vs HAM/TSP and carriers P=0.0001). Moreover, mean HTLV-I proviral load was 11967.2 ± 5078, 409 ± 71.3 and 373.6 ± 143.3 in ATL, HAM/TSP and Healthy Carriers, respectively. The highest HTLV-I proviral load was measured in ATL group that had a significant correlation with WBC count (R=0.495, P=0.001). The proviral load variations between study groups was strongly significant (ATL vs carrier P=0.0001; ATL vs HAM/TSP P= 0.0001 and HAM/TSP vs carriers P< 0.05). Conclusion : The present study demonstrated that HTLV-I proviral load was higher in ATL group in comparison with HAM/TSP and healthy carriers. Therefore, HTLV-I proviral load is a prognostic factor for development of HTLV-I associated diseases and can be used as a monitoring marker for the efficiency of therapeutic regime.

  1. Direct Observation of the M1 Transition between the Ground Term Fine Structure Levels of W VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoe Mita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a direct observation of the M1 transition between the fine structure splitting in the 4 f 13 5 s 2 5 p 6 2 F ground term of W VIII. The spectroscopic data of few-times ionized tungsten ions are important for the future ITER diagnostics, but there is a serious lack of data. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to solve this problem. Emission from the tungsten ions produced and trapped in a compact electron beam ion trap is observed with a Czerny–Turner visible spectrometer. Spectra in the EUV range are also observed at the same time to help identify the previously-unreported visible lines. The observed wavelength 574.47 ± 0.03 nm (air, which corresponds to the fine structure splitting of 17,402.5 ± 0.9 cm − 1 , shows reasonable agreement with the previously reported value 17,410 ± 5 cm − 1 obtained indirectly through the analysis of EUV spectra [Ryabtsev et al., Atoms 3 (2015 273].

  2. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  3. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  4. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesgaard, Kristine S; Albert, Kristian R; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Michelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-08-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion study in high arctic Greenland. During the growing season, the gas exchange (H₂O and CO₂) and chlorophyll-a fluorescence were measured in Vaccinium uliginosum. The leaf dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, stable carbon isotope ratio, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined from a late season harvest. The net photosynthesis per leaf area was on average 22% higher in 61% reduced UV-B treatment across the season, but per ground area photosynthesis was unchanged. The leaf level increase in photosynthesis was accompanied by increased leaf nitrogen, higher stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m). There was no change in total leaf biomass, but reduction in total leaf area caused a pronounced reduction of specific leaf area and leaf area index in reduced UV-B. This demonstrates the structural changes to counterbalance the reduced plant carbon uptake seen per leaf area in ambient UV-B as the resulting plant carbon uptake per ground area was not affected. Thus, our understanding of long-term responses to UV-B reduction must take into account both leaf level processes as well as structural changes to understand the apparent robustness of plant carbon uptake per ground area. In this perspective, V. uliginosum seems able to adjust plant carbon uptake to the present amount of solar UV-B radiation in the High Arctic. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  5. Ground-level ozone in the Pearl River Delta and the roles of VOC and NO(x) in its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Liuju; Wang, Boguang

    2009-01-01

    In many regions of China, very rapid economic growth has been accompanied by air pollution caused by vehicle emissions. In one of these regions, the Pearl River Delta, the variations of ground-level ozone and its precursors were investigated. Overall, the ambient concentrations of NO(2) increased quickly between 1995 and 1996, but then slightly decreased due to stringent nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission controls. Nonetheless, ambient NO(2) levels in the Pearl River Delta remained high. The regional average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 290 ppbC in summer and 190 ppbC in autumn. Local emissions and long-distance transportation of pollutants play important roles in the regional distribution of VOCs. Ambient O(3) production is significant in urban areas and also downwind of cities. The relative incremental reactivities (RIRs), determined by an observation-based model, showed that ground-level ozone formation in the Guangzhou urban area is generally limited by the concentrations of VOCs, but there are also measurable impacts of NO(x).

  6. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground: a summary and interpretation of the analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace-level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated, but most of these were shown to be incapable of mobilizing more than trace quantities of plutonium. The parameters of greatest importance were oxidation-reduction potential, pH, dissolved organic carbon, phosphate and carbonate. Of these, organic and phosphate complexation had the greatest potential for mobilizing plutonium in the SRP groundwater. In the absence of such complexants, plutonium would be essentially immobile in the soil/water system of the SRP burial ground. 50 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  7. Quantifying the Uncertainty in High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Synthetic Land Surface Reflectance at Pixel Level Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J.; Ryu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Algorithms for fusing high temporal frequency and high spatial resolution satellite images are widely used to develop dense time-series land surface observations. While many studies have revealed that the synthesized frequent high spatial resolution images could be successfully applied in vegetation mapping and monitoring, validation and correction of fused images have not been focused than its importance. To evaluate the precision of fused image in pixel level, in-situ reflectance measurements which could account for the pixel-level heterogeneity are necessary. In this study, the synthetic images of land surface reflectance were predicted by the coarse high-frequency images acquired from MODIS and high spatial resolution images from Landsat-8 OLI using the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion (FSDAF). Ground-based reflectance was measured by JAZ Spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) on rice paddy during five main growth stages in Cheorwon-gun, Republic of Korea, where the landscape heterogeneity changes through the growing season. After analyzing the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal variation of land surface reflectance based on the ground measurements, the uncertainties of the fused images were quantified at pixel level. Finally, this relationship was applied to correct the fused reflectance images and build the seasonal time series of rice paddy surface reflectance. This dataset could be significant for rice planting area extraction, phenological stages detection, and variables estimation.

  8. Effect of high lying states on the ground and few low lying excited O+ energy levels of some closed-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, N.Y.

    1980-02-01

    The ground and some excited O + (J=O, T=O positive parity) energy levels of closed-shell nuclei are examined, in an oscillator basis, using matrix techniques. The effect of states outside the mixed (O+2(h/2π)ω). model space in 4 He (namely configurations at 4(h/2π)ω excitation) are taken into account by renormalization using the generalized Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation expressions for a mixed multi-configurational model space, where the resultant non-symmetric energy matrices are diagonalized. It is shown that the second-order renormalized O + energy spectrum is close to the corresponding energy spectrum obtained by diagonalizing the O+2+4(h/2π)ω 4 He energy matrix. The effect, on the ground state and the first few low-lying excited O + energy levels, of renormalizing certain parts of the model space energy matrix up to second order in various approximations is also studied in 4 He and 16 O. It is found that the low-lying O + energy levels in these various approximations behave similarly in both 4 He and 16 O. (author)

  9. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  10. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  11. Past sea-level data from Lakse Bugt, Disko Island, West Greenland from ground-penetrating radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    Beach-ridge deposits have been used as sea-level indicators in numerous studies from temperate coastal regions. However, their present surface morphology in artic regions may not accurately correspond to past sea-level, because subsequent surface erosion, solifluction processes and/or later...... sediment deposition may have altered the surface significantly. The internal structure of these beach ridges, however, is often well-preserved and thus constitutes an important key to reconstruction of past sea levels as seen elsewhere. In the present study, high-resolution reflection GPR data and high......-precision topographic data were collected at Lakse Bugt (Disko Island, West Greenland) using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a RTK-Trimble R8 DGPS, respectively. Three transects were collected across a sequence of fossil, raised beach ridge deposits, and two transects were obtained across modern beach deposits...

  12. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    a number of profile lines across less than c. 60 years old berm, beach ridge and swale structures at the Feddet peninsula. The GPR images allow us to interpret internal sedimentary architecture, and here we focus especially on the identification of downlapping reflections, which are interpreted to mark...... fluctuations in past sea level due to variations in tidal effects and meteorological conditions (isostatic rebound is expected to have a minimal effect on Feddet (Hansen et al., 2011)). Comparison with existing time series of measurements of actual sea level from the Danish Maritime Safety Administration (from...

  13. A comparison of foot/ground interaction during stair negotiation and level walking in young and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamel, Kathryn A.; Okita, Noriaki; Bus, Sicco A.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    Stair design and environmental conditions may play a role in slip accidents on stairs in the workplace, but little is known about the slip resistance requirements on stairs compared to level walking. Older adults have an increased risk of falling compared to younger adults and may be at greater risk

  14. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  15. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface over land (DSSF, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of regional applications of the method is attainable by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite instrument which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and radiative transfer computations.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments: an urban site near Paris and a continental background site located South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6 in magnitude. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 W m−2 (5% in relative in 70% of the situations, and within 40 W m−2 in 90% of the situations, for the two case studies considered here.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 W m−2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous

  16. Past sea-level data from Lakse Bugt, Disko Island, West Greenland from ground-penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila E.; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2016-04-01

    Beach-ridge deposits have been used as sea-level indicators in numerous studies from temperate coastal regions. However, their present surface morphology in artic regions may not accurately correspond to past sea-level, because subsequent surface erosion, solifluction processes and/or later sediment deposition may have altered the surface significantly. The internal structure of these beach ridges, however, is often well-preserved and thus constitutes an important key to reconstruction of past sea levels as seen elsewhere. In the present study, high-resolution reflection GPR data and high-precision topographic data were collected at Lakse Bugt (Disko Island, West Greenland) using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a RTK-Trimble R8 DGPS, respectively. Three transects were collected across a sequence of fossil, raised beach ridge deposits, and two transects were obtained across modern beach deposits at the shoreline of the mesotidal regime. Along all radar profiles we observed downlap reflection points, which we interpret to represent the boundary between sediments deposited on the beachface and sediments deposited in the upper shoreface regime. Both the upper shoreface and the beachface deposits exhibit reflection patterns dipping in the seaward direction. The beachface deposits show the strongest dip. At or just below the downlap points strong diffractions are often observed indicating the presence of a layer containing stones. These stones are large enough to generate significant signal scattering. At the present day beach a sharp transition defined by the presence of large stones is observed near the low tide water level: cobbles characterize the seaside, while the land side is characterized by sand and gravel. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that downlap points observed in the GPR data serve as indicators of past low-tide levels (at the time of deposition). The downlap points show a consistent offset with respect to present surface topography

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  18. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  19. Influence of wind velocity fluctuation on air temperature difference between the fan and ground levels and the effect of frost protective fan operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, T.; Matsuo, K.; Miyama, D.; Sumikawa, O.; Araki, S.

    2008-01-01

    We invested the influence of wind velocity fluctuation on air temperature difference between the fan (4.8 m) and ground levels (0.5 m) and the effect of frost protective fan operation in order to develop a new method to reduce electricity consumption due to frost protective fan operation. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: (1) Air temperature difference between the fan (4.8 m) and ground levels (0.5 m) was decreased following an increase in wind velocity, and the difference was less than 1°C for a wind velocity more than 3.0 m/s at a height of 6.5 m. (2) When the wind velocity was more than 2-3 m/s, there was hardly any increase in the temperature of the leaves. In contrast, when the wind velocity was less than 2-3 m/s, an increase in the temperature of the leaves was observed. Based on these results, it is possible that when the wind velocity is greater than 2-3 m, it prevents thermal inversion. Therefore, there would be no warmer air for the frost protective fan to return to the tea plants and the air turbulence produced by the frost protective fan would not reach the plants under the windy condition

  20. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available al lbl d i I e I e dt ω ωρ ρ ρ − = − = −∑h (1) where, , .a b a bω ω ω= − , (2) ρab gives the elements of the density matrix, ωa the frequencies... of the individual vibrational levels, and Iab the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian [2] which include the detailed time dependence of the shaped femtosecond pulse. 2. Simulation results A transform limited 150 femtosecond laser pulse with a...

  1. Comparison between reflectivity statistics at heights of 3 and 6 km and rain rate statistics at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the relations between the empirical distribution functions of reflectivity at specified locations above the surface and the corresponding functions at the surface. A bistatic radar system was used to measure continuously the scattering cross section per unit volume at heights of 3 and 6 km. A frequency of 3.7 GHz was used in the tests. It was found that the distribution functions for reflectivity may significantly change with height at heights below the level of the melting layer.

  2. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  3. Airborne lead and particulate levels in Semarang, Indonesia and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, D R; Husni, A; Risk, M J

    1999-03-09

    Spatial and temporal variation in airborne lead and total suspended particulates was examined in the city of Semarang, Indonesia, and surrounding area. Both airborne lead and TSP varied significantly with the type of urban development. Mean urban airborne lead levels were 0.35 microgram/m3 in the highway zone, 0.95 microgram/m3 in the residential zone, and 0.99 microgram/m3 in the commercial zone. Airborne lead levels in the industrial zone were significantly higher than all other areas, with a mean of 8.41 micrograms/m3. Airborne lead concentrations of this magnitude have not been reported in Indonesia previously. Mean TSP levels ranged from 115.5 micrograms/m3 to 165.8 micrograms/m3 in urban areas. Increased levels of TSP were associated with areas adjacent to major transportation routes. On a seasonal basis, TSP levels were significantly lower during the rainy season, while mean airborne lead levels did not show a significant seasonal trend. Observed ambient pollution levels were translated into potential heath impacts based on previously established relationships. Increased levels of TSP pollution near major roads was estimated to result in a 1.6% increase in mortality for all causes of death and a 7.9% increase in mortality due to respiratory disease. Estimated child blood lead levels indicated possible lead toxicity among Semarang children.

  4. Are Bavarian Forests (southern Germany) at risk from ground-level ozone? Assessment using exposure and flux based ozone indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, Manuela; Huber, Christian; Bueker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Nunn, Angela J.; Heerdt, Christian; Beudert, Burkhard; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Exposure and flux-based indices of O 3 risk were compared, at 19 forest locations across Bavaria in southern Germany from 2002 to 2005; leaf symptoms on mature beech trees found at these locations were also examined for O 3 injury. O 3 flux modelling was performed using continuously recorded O 3 concentrations in combination with meteorological and soil moisture data collected from Level II forest sites. O 3 measurements at nearby rural open-field sites proved appropriate as surrogates in cases where O 3 data were lacking at forest sites (with altitude-dependent average differences of about 10% between O 3 concentrations). Operational thresholds of biomass loss for both O 3 indices were exceeded at the majority of the forest locations, suggesting similar risk under long-term average climate conditions. However, exposure-based indices estimated higher O 3 risk during dry years as compared to the flux-based approach. In comparison, minor O 3 -like leaf injury symptoms were detected only at a few of the forest sites investigated. Relationships between flux-based risk thresholds and tree response need to be established for mature forest stands for validation of predicted growth reductions under the prevailing O 3 regimes. - Exposure- and flux-based ozone indices suggest Bavarian forests to be at risk from ozone; the flux-based index offers a means of incorporating stand-specific and ecological variables that influence risk.

  5. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  6. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  7. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  8. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  9. Non-Sagittal Knee Joint Kinematics and Kinetics during Gait on Level and Sloped Grounds with Unicompartmental and Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnik, Igor; David, Sina; Weiss, Stefan; Potthast, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    After knee arthroplasty (KA) surgery, patients experience abnormal kinematics and kinetics during numerous activities of daily living. Biomechanical investigations have focused primarily on level walking, whereas walking on sloped surfaces, which is stated to affect knee kinematics and kinetics considerably, has been neglected to this day. This study aimed to analyze over-ground walking on level and sloped surfaces with a special focus on transverse and frontal plane knee kinematics and kinetics in patients with KA. A three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis was performed by means of optoelectronic stereophogrammetry 1.8 ± 0.4 years following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental arthroplasty surgery (UKA). AnyBody™ Modeling System was used to conduct inverse dynamics. The TKA group negotiated the decline walking task with reduced peak knee internal rotation angles compared with a healthy control group (CG). First-peak knee adduction moments were diminished by 27% (TKA group) and 22% (UKA group) compared with the CG during decline walking. No significant differences were detected between the TKA and UKA groups, regardless of the locomotion task. Decline walking exposed apparently more abnormal knee frontal and transverse plane adjustments in KA patients than level walking compared with the CG. Hence, walking on sloped surfaces should be included in further motion analysis studies investigating KA patients in order to detect potential deficits that might be not obvious during level walking. PMID:28002437

  10. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  11. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs

  14. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Whalley, Laura E.; Claydon, Andrew; Carter, Joseph H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The S_{1} electronic state and ground state of the cation of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Here we focus on the low wavenumber region where a number of "pure" torsional, fundamental vibrational and vibration-torsional levels are expected; assignments of observed transitions are discussed, which are compared to results of published work on toluene (methylbenzene) from the Lawrance group. The similarity in the activity observed in the excitation spectrum of the two molecules is striking. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015).

  15. Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As China is suffering from severe fine particle pollution from dense industrialization and urbanization, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD has been widely used for estimating particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5. However, the correlation between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 could be influenced by aerosol vertical distribution, as satellite AOD represents the entire column, rather than just ground-level concentration. Here, a new column-to-surface vertical correction scheme is proposed to improve separation of the near-surface and elevated aerosol layers, based on the ratio of the integrated extinction coefficient within 200–500 m above ground level (AGL, using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP aerosol profile products. There are distinct differences in climate, meteorology, terrain, and aerosol transmission throughout China, so comparisons between vertical correction via CALIOP ratio and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH were conducted in different regions from 2014 to 2015, combined with the original Pearson coefficient between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 for reference. Furthermore, the best vertical correction scheme was suggested for different regions to achieve optimal correlation with PM2.5, based on the analysis and discussion of regional and seasonal characteristics of aerosol vertical distribution. According to our results and discussions, vertical correction via PBLH is recommended in northwestern China, where the PBLH varies dramatically, stretching or compressing the surface aerosol layer; vertical correction via the CALIOP ratio is recommended in northeastern China, southwestern China, Central China (excluding summer, North China Plain (excluding Beijing, and the spring in the southeast coast, areas that are susceptible to exogenous aerosols and exhibit the elevated aerosol layer; and original AOD without vertical correction is

  16. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  17. Measurement of indoor radon-thoron and their progeny levels in dwellings and radon concentrations in ground water of Hassan city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2014-01-01

    The indoor radon and thoron concentrations in dwellings of Hassan city have been measured by using LR-115 type-Il Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were carried in summer season from March to May-2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bqm -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 14.47±8 Bqm -3 respectively. The overall average radon concentrations are found to be less than the lower reference level of 200 Bq m -3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual effective dose received due to radon and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which found to vary from 0.320 ±0.4 to 1.86 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.957±0.8 mSv -1 . The obtained results are much lower than the upper reference level of 10 mSv y -1 (ICRP 2007). Radon in bore well water at different locations of Hassan city was determined using the emanometry technique and exposure dose from ingestion of drinking water was estimated. The radon concentration in ground water was found to vary from 19.49 to 60.74 Bq l -1 with an average value of 47.16±14Bq l -1 . From this study it is evident that, the recorded ground water radon concentration values are higher than MCL of 11 Bq l -1 proposed by USEPA. The total dose due to inhalation and ingestion of 222 Rn in ground water ranges from 0.053 mSv y -1 to 0.165mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.127±0.038mSv y -1 . (author)

  18. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  19. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  20. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HTLV-I isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with TSP/HAM: comparison to other HTLV-I isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyaya, R; Sadaie, M R

    1993-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the chronic neurologic disorder tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). To study the genetic structure of the virus associated with TSP/HAM, we have obtained and sequenced a partial genomic clone from an HTLV-I-positive cell line established from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a Jamaican patient with TSP/HAM. This clone consisted of a 4.3-kb viral sequence containing the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, and N-terminal portion of the pol gene, with an overall 1.3% sequence variation resulting from mostly nucleotide substitutions, as compared to the prototype HTLV-I ATK-1. The gag and pol regions showed only 1.4% and 1.2% nucleotide variations, respectively. However, the U3 region of the LTR showed the highest sequence variation (3.6%), where several changes appear to be common among certain TSP/HAM isolates. Several of these changes reside within the 21-bp boundaries and the Tax-responsive element. It would be important to determine if the observed changes are sufficient to cause neurologic disorders similar to the murine leukemia virus system or simply reflect the divergent pool of HTLV-I from different geographic locations. At this time, we cannot rule out the possibility that the observed changes have either direct or indirect significance for the HTLV-I pathogenesis in TSP/HAM.

  1. Chemotoxic materials in a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes. CHEMOTOX concept for defence in depth concerning ground water protection from chemotoxic materials in a final high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Sailer, Michael; Schmidt, Gerhard; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Krone, Juergen; Tholen, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a final repository includes chemotoxic materials. The chemotoxic materials are either part of the radioactive material or part of the packaging material, or the structures within the repository. In the frame of the licensing procedure it has to be demonstrated that no hazardous pollution of the ground water or other disadvantageous changes can occur. The report describes the common project of the Oeko-Institut e.V., the DBE Technology GmbH and the GRS mbH concerning the possible demonstration of a systematic protection of the groundwater against chemotoxic materials in case of a final high-level-radioactive waste repository in the host materials salt and clay stone.

  2. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  3. Impact of geo-chemical environment of subsurface water on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium in ground water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Karpe, Rupali; Ajay Kumar; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    During the present work, impacts of cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ,), anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) and DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) on the measurement of ultra trace level of uranium (VI) in subsurface water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is studied. The concentrations of these anions, cations and DOC in subsurface water changes due to change in the geo-chemical environment at different locations. In AdSV, concentration of U was determined by forming an uranium-chloranilic acid complex (2,5-dichloro- 3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone). AdSV measurements were carried out in the differential pulse (DP) mode using a pulse amplitude of -50 mV, a pulse time of 30 ms and a potential step of 4 mV. The detection limit, was calculated to 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + ) and anions (Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- ) was carried out by using Ion Chromatography. Ground water samples were spiked with varying degree of cations, anions and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). DOC in ground waters were measured by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer. Various experiments show that analysis of uranium in the concentration range of 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Cl -1 , F -1 , and PO 4 3- . In case of DOC there is no interference observed in the concentration range of 0.02-15 ppm but beyond 15 ppm the concentration of uranium decrease sharply. Further, if DOC exceeded 16 ppm it was not possible to do the analysis of uranium by AdSV without destruction of DOC, as DOC is surface active organic compound and accumulates on Hg electrode preferentially over uranium-chloroanailic complex. (author)

  4. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in eastern China using aerosol optical depth determined from the GOCI satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.-W.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Z.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Che, H.; Lin, P.; Lin, N.

    2015-11-01

    We determine and interpret fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in eastern China for January to December 2013 at a horizontal resolution of 6 km from aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Korean geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) satellite instrument. We implement a set of filters to minimize cloud contamination in GOCI AOD. Evaluation of filtered GOCI AOD with AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates significant agreement with mean fractional bias (MFB) in Beijing of 6.7 % and northern Taiwan of -1.2 %. We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to relate the total column AOD to the near-surface PM2.5. The simulated PM2.5 / AOD ratio exhibits high consistency with ground-based measurements in Taiwan (MFB = -0.52 %) and Beijing (MFB = -8.0 %). We evaluate the satellite-derived PM2.5 versus the ground-level PM2.5 in 2013 measured by the China Environmental Monitoring Center. Significant agreement is found between GOCI-derived PM2.5 and in situ observations in both annual averages (r2 = 0.66, N = 494) and monthly averages (relative RMSE = 18.3 %), indicating GOCI provides valuable data for air quality studies in Northeast Asia. The GEOS-Chem simulated chemical composition of GOCI-derived PM2.5 reveals that secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) and organic matter are the most significant components. Biofuel emissions in northern China for heating increase the concentration of organic matter in winter. The population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg m-3, with 400 million residents in regions that exceed the Interim Target-1 of the World Health Organization.

  5. Concept and development of measurement method of time sensitivity profile (TSP) in X-ray CT. Comparison of non-helical, single-slice helical, and multi-slice helical scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujioka, Katsumi; Ida, Yoshihiro; Ohtsubo, Hironori; Takahashi, Yasukata; Niwa, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    We focused on the time element contained in a single CT image, and devised the concept of a time-sensitivity profile (TSP) describing how the time element is translated into an image. We calculated the data collection time range when the helical pitch is changed in non helical scans, single slice helical scans, and multi slice helical scans. We then calculated the time sensitivity profile (TSP) from the weighting applied when the data collection time range is translated into an image. TSP was also measured for each scanning method using our self-made moving phantom. TSPs obtained from the calculation and the experiments were very close. TSP showed interesting characteristics with each scanning method, especially in the case of multi slice helical scanning, in which TSP became shorter as helical pitch increased. We referred to the TSP's FWHM as the effective scanning time. When we conducted multi slice helical scanning at helical pitch 3, the effective scanning time increased to about 24% longer than that of a non helical scan. When we conducted multi slice helical scanning at helical pitch 5 or 6, the effective scanning time was about half that of a non helical scan. The time sensitivity profile (TSP) is a totally new concept that we consider an important element in discussing the time resolution of a CT scanner. The results of this review will provide significant data in determining the scanning parameters when scanning a moving object. (author)

  6. Isometric scaling of above- and below-ground biomass at the individual and community levels in the understorey of a sub-tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongliang; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J; Ma, Yuzhu; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-02-01

    Empirical studies and allometric partitioning (AP) theory indicate that plant above-ground biomass (MA) scales, on average, one-to-one (isometrically) with below-ground biomass (MR) at the level of individual trees and at the level of entire forest communities. However, the ability of the AP theory to predict the biomass allocation patterns of understorey plants has not been established because most previous empirical tests have focused on canopy tree species or very large shrubs. In order to test the AP theory further, 1586 understorey sub-tropical forest plants from 30 sites in south-east China were harvested and examined. The numerical values of the scaling exponents and normalization constants (i.e. slopes and y-intercepts, respectively) of log-log linear MA vs. MR relationships were determined for all individual plants, for each site, across the entire data set, and for data sorted into a total of 19 sub-sets of forest types and successional stages. Similar comparisons of MA/MR were also made. The data revealed that the mean MA/MR of understorey plants was 2·44 and 1·57 across all 1586 plants and for all communities, respectively, and MA scaled nearly isometrically with respect to MR, with scaling exponents of 1·01 for all individual plants and 0·99 for all communities. The scaling exponents did not differ significantly among different forest types or successional stages, but the normalization constants did, and were positively correlated with MA/MR and negatively correlated with scaling exponents across all 1586 plants. The results support the AP theory's prediction that MA scales nearly one-to-one with MR (i.e. MA ∝ MR (≈1·0)) and that plant biomass partitioning for individual plants and at the community level share a strikingly similar pattern, at least for the understorey plants examined in this study. Furthermore, variation in environmental conditions appears to affect the numerical values of normalization constants, but not the scaling exponents

  7. Mortality after ground-level fall in the elderly patient taking oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation/flutter: a long-term analysis of risk versus benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Tazo Stowe; Parina, Ralitza; Chang, David C; Inui, Thomas S; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-03-01

    Elderly patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter who experience ground-level falls are at risk for lethal head injuries. Patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) for thromboprophylaxis may be at higher risk for these head injuries. Trauma surgeons treating these patients face a difficult choice: (1) continue OAC to minimize stroke risk while increasing the risk of a lethal head injury or (2) discontinue OAC to avoid intracranial hemorrhage while increasing the risk of stroke. To inform this choice, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess long-term outcomes and risk factors for mortality after presentation with a ground-level fall among patients with and without OAC. Retrospective analysis of the longitudinal version of the California Office of Statewide Planning and Development database was performed for years 1995 to 2009. Elderly anticoagulated patients (age > 65 years) with known atrial fibrillation or flutter who fell were stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score and compared with a nonanticoagulated control cohort. Multivariable logistic regression including patient demographics, stroke risk, injury severity, and hospital type identified risk factors for mortality. A total of 377,873 patient records met the inclusion criteria, 42,913 on OAC and 334,960 controls. The mean age was 82.4 and 80.6 years, respectively. Most were female, with CHA2DS2-VASc scores between 3 and 5. Mortality among OAC patients after a first fall was 6%, compared with 3.1% among non-OAC patients. Patients dying with a head injury constituted 31.6% of deaths within OAC patients compared with 23.8% among controls. Risk of eventual death with head injury exceeded annualized stroke risk for patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 to 2. Predictors for mortality with head injury on the first admission included male sex, Asian ethnicity, a history of stroke, and trauma center admission. Elderly patients on OAC for atrial fibrillation and/or flutter who fall have a greater risk for

  8. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Draft protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    The draft Protocol to be tabled as item 2 of the seventeenth session of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (29 November - 3 December 1999) has the objective of controlling and reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds caused by anthropogenic activities and likely to cause adverse effects due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and to ensure that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed, for Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP (the programme for monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe), and Canada, the critical loads of acidity for EMEP countries as described in Annex I of the document; the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen as described in Annex I, and, for ozone, the critical levels as described in Annex I for EMEP countries, for Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone, and for the USA, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. It specifies limit values for boilers rated at {gt} 50 MW{sub th}. 9 apps.

  10. Decreased astrocytic thrombospondin-1 secretion after chronic ammonia treatment reduces the level of synaptic proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Tong, Xiao Y; Curtis, Kevin M; Ruiz-Cordero, Roberto; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Abuzamel, Missa; Johnstone, Joshua; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is a major complication in patients with severe liver disease. Elevated blood and brain ammonia levels have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and astrocytes are the principal neural cells involved in this disorder. Since defective synthesis and release of astrocytic factors have been shown to impair synaptic integrity in other neurological conditions, we examined whether thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an astrocytic factor involved in the maintenance of synaptic integrity, is also altered in CHE. Cultured astrocytes were exposed to ammonia (NH₄Cl, 0.5-2.5 mM) for 1-10 days, and TSP-1 content was measured in cell extracts and culture media. Astrocytes exposed to ammonia exhibited a reduction in intra- and extracellular TSP-1 levels. Exposure of cultured neurons to conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes showed a decrease in synaptophysin, PSD95, and synaptotagmin levels. Conditioned media from TSP-1 over-expressing astrocytes that were treated with ammonia, when added to cultured neurons, reversed the decline in synaptic proteins. Recombinant TSP-1 similarly reversed the decrease in synaptic proteins. Metformin, an agent known to increase TSP-1 synthesis in other cell types, also reversed the ammonia-induced TSP-1 reduction. Likewise, we found a significant decline in TSP-1 level in cortical astrocytes, as well as a reduction in synaptophysin content in vivo in a rat model of CHE. These findings suggest that TSP-1 may represent an important therapeutic target for CHE. Defective release of astrocytic factors may impair synaptic integrity in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. We found a reduction in the release of the astrocytic matricellular proteins thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in ammonia-treated astrocytes; such reduction was associated with a decrease in synaptic proteins caused by conditioned media from ammonia-treated astrocytes. Exposure of neurons to CM from ammonia-treated astrocytes, in which TSP-1 is over

  11. Branching Fractions and log(gf)s for Weak Lines of Co II connected to the Ground and Low Metastable Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James Edward; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2018-01-01

    New branching fraction (BF) measurements and log(gf)s of Highly Reliable Lines (HRLs) of Co II are reported. Our measurements test and confirm earlier work by Salih et al. [1985] and Mullman et al. [1998] and expand the earlier BF measurements to include more weak and very weak HRLs. HRLs are UV lines that connect to the population reservoir levels including the ground and low metastable levels of Co+. Such levels contain most of the cobalt in the photospheres of typical F, G, and K stars used in abundance studies. HRLs are essentially immune to departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) because they connect to the primary reservoir levels. Lightly-populated high-lying levels of the ion and essentially all levels of the neutral atom have some possibility of being pulled out of LTE through various reactions. Weak and very weak HRLs are needed to determine Co abundances in higher metallicity stars while dominant branches are useful in low metallicity stars of abundance surveys. A large set of HRLs with reliable log(gf)s is desired to avoid blending and saturation problems in photospheric studies. The relative abundance of Fe-peak elements changes as a function of metallicity [e.g. Henry et al. 2010, Sneden et al. 2016] but contributions to the trends from nuclear physics effects in early stars need to be cleanly separated from effect due to limitations of classic photospheric models based on One Dimensional (1D) and LTE approximations. The 1D/LTE approximations of classic photospheric models, which work in well in metal rich dwarf stars such as the Sun, are a source of some concern in Metal Poor (MP) giant stars due to much lower electron and atom pressures. Our new measurements on HRLS of Co II are applied to determine stellar abundances in MP stars.Henry, R. B. C., Cowan, J. J., & Sobeck, J, 2010, ApJ 709, 715Mullman, K. L., Cooper, J. C., & Lawler, J. E. 1998, ApJ, 495, 503Salih, S., Lawler, J. E., & Whaling, W. 1985, PhRvA, 31, 744Sneden et al. 2016

  12. Sound transmission at ground level in a short-grass prairie habitat and its implications for long-range communication in the swift fox Vulpes velox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi K; Pedersen, Simon B; Larsen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    The acoustic environment of swift foxes Vulpes velox vocalizing close to the ground and the effect of propagation on individual identity information in vocalizations were quantified in a transmission experiment in prairie habitat. Sounds were propagated (0.45 m above the ground) at distances up t...

  13. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  14. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  15. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  16. Measurements of 212Pb concentration in the ground-level air in Beijing area and assessment of ionizing radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Wen Huifen; Zhou Yuanwen

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the method of measuring 212 Pb concentration in the ground-level air with a gamma spectrometer and the results of the measurements of 212 Pb concentrations during February 1988-January 1989. The results showed that the average and standard deviation are 0.54 and 0.40 Bq·m -3 ; the distribution of 212 Pb concentrations in air was logarithmic normal distribution, geometric average and geometric standard deviation are 0.44 Bq·m -3 and 2.0. The 212 Pb concentration in rain season is the lowest (0.42 Bq·m -3 ) while in heating season is the highest (0.66 Bq· -3 ). In period of a day, 212 Pb concentration in the morning 0-4 o'clock is the highest and in the afternoon 12-18 o'clock is the lowest, 212 Pb(max)/ 212 Pb(min) = 4.8

  17. Electrochemical techniques implementation for corrosion rate measurement in function of humidity level in grounding systems (copper and stainless steel) in soil samples from Tunja (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Blanco, J.; Jimenez, C.; Vera-Monroy, S. P.; Mejía-Camacho, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, DC electrochemical techniques were used to determine the corrosion rate of copper and stainless-steel electrodes used in grounding, varying the level of humidity, in sandy loam and clay loam soils. The maximum corrosion potentials were: for copper -211 and -236mV and for stainless steel of -252 and -281mV, in sandy loam and clay loam respectively, showing that in sandy loam the values are higher, about 30mV. The mechanism by which steel controls corrosion is by diffusion, whereas in copper it is carried out by transfer of mass and charge, which affects the rate of corrosion, which in copper reached a maximum value of 5mm/yr and in Steel 0.8mm/yr, determined by Tafel approximations. The behaviour of the corrosion rate was mathematically adjusted to an asymptotic model that faithfully explains the C.R. as a function of humidity, however, it is necessary to define the relation between the factor □ established in the model and the precise characteristics of the soil, such as the permeability or quantity of ions present.

  18. Estimating Ground-Level PM2.5 by Fusing Satellite and Station Observations: A Geo-Intelligent Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Xuechen; Zhang, Liangpei

    2017-12-01

    Fusing satellite observations and station measurements to estimate ground-level PM2.5 is promising for monitoring PM2.5 pollution. A geo-intelligent approach, which incorporates geographical correlation into an intelligent deep learning architecture, is developed to estimate PM2.5. Specifically, it considers geographical distance and spatiotemporally correlated PM2.5 in a deep belief network (denoted as Geoi-DBN). Geoi-DBN can capture the essential features associated with PM2.5 from latent factors. It was trained and tested with data from China in 2015. The results show that Geoi-DBN performs significantly better than the traditional neural network. The out-of-sample cross-validation R2 increases from 0.42 to 0.88, and RMSE decreases from 29.96 to 13.03 μg/m3. On the basis of the derived PM2.5 distribution, it is predicted that over 80% of the Chinese population live in areas with an annual mean PM2.5 of greater than 35 μg/m3. This study provides a new perspective for air pollution monitoring in large geographic regions.

  19. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  20. Influence of warfarin and low-dose aspirin on the outcomes of geriatric patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage resulting from ground-level fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Miyatake, Satoru; Hirose, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    Ground-level fall is the most common cause of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (TICH) in the elderly, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in that population. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate whether the use of warfarin/low-dose aspirin (LDA) is predictive of unfavorable outcomes in geriatric patients who sustain a fall-induced TICH. Charts of 76 geriatric patients (≥ 65 years-of-age) with fall-induced TICH were reviewed. The number of patients taking warfarin and LDA was 12 and 21, respectively, whereas the other 43 took neither medication (non-user group). The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at discharge was calculated. Furthermore, variables predictive of unfavorable outcomes were identified by logistic regression analysis. The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes was 75% in the warfarin group, 33% in the LDA group and 27% in the non-user group, respectively. The risk of having unfavorable outcomes was significantly higher in the warfarin group compared with the LDA group (P = 0.03) and non-user group (P fall-induced TICH. The risk of TICH should be communicated properly to elderly taking warfarin. The information might be important not only to trauma surgeons who take care of injured elderly, but also to geriatric physicians who prescribe warfarin/LDA to them. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emberson, Lisa D.; Bueker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO 3 SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O 3 risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O 3 risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air from 1984 to mid 1986 in North Germany and North Norway; influence of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.

    1986-09-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean monthly activity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured from 1984 to mid 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. Early in 1984 the ground level air at all three stations still contained some fission and activation products resulting from the latest nuclear test carried out at a high altitude by the People's Republic of China. By the end of 1984 only Cs-137 was still detectable with activity concentrations of less than 1 μBq/m 3 . The occasional appearance of some activation products in 1984 and 1985 is commented on and compared with similar findings of several Scandinavian institutes. Fresh fission products from the Chernobyl accident arrived in late April 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn. The mean Cs-137 concentration in May estimated for Brunswick was 28 mBq/m 3 (i.e. 15 times higher than the hitherto recorded maximum in June 1964). It had decreased by July 1986 down to 0.13 mBq/m 3 . The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  3. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  4. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7. 5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-09-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and /sup 40/K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 R/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum.

  5. AMS of actinides in ground- and seawater: a new procedure for simultaneous analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes below ppq levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    U-236, Np-237, Pu isotopes and Am-243 were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq with a maximum sample size of 0.250 l. Such high sensitivity measurement was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with an improved gas stripping and an additional high resolving magnet. The use of non-isotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow the determination of those nuclides, namely Np-237 and Am-243, for which isotopic tracers for mass spectrometry are rarely available. The actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide co-precipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated with the analysis of IAEA 443 seawater Reference Material and applied to background samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration project at the Grimsel Test Site and to sea- and freshwater samples affected solely by global fallout. The sensitivity of the presented analytical method provides the capability to study the long-term release of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems.

  6. Influence of environmental factors on indoor radon concentration levels in the basement and ground floor of a building – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Dong; Liao, Maili; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to measure indoor radon concentrations variations and observe any correlations with indoor and outdoor atmospheric parameters for over a period of one year. Indoor environmental parameters and radon concentrations were measured on an hourly basis in a two-story building both in a laboratory on the well-ventilated ground floor and in the basement below it which had negligible ventilation. The monthly average indoor radon concentration value of 29 ± 21 Bq m"−"3 in the laboratory was below the ICRP recommended limit of 200–300 Bq m"−"3. The monthly normalization factor for that location ranged from 0.5 to 2.0, while the seasonal normalization factor ranged from 0.78 to 2.0. In the unventilated basement, however, the average monthly indoor radon concentration was 1083 ± 6 Bq m"−"3 with little seasonal variation. The basement is only used for storage and thus the elevated radon concentration does not pose a serious health risk. The results indicated that indoor radon levels are higher in the autumn–winter season than in the spring–summer season. Analysis further showed that indoor radon concentrations negatively correlated with indoor humidity (correlation coefficient R = −0.14, p < 0.01), outdoor temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.3, p < 0.01), outdoor dew point temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.17, p < 0.01) and outdoor wind speeds (correlation coefficient R = −0.25, p < 0.05). Radon concentrations correlated positively with outdoor barometric pressure (correlation coefficient R = 0.35, p < 0.01), indoor–outdoor temperature difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.32, p < 0.05) and indoor–outdoor barometric pressure difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.67, p < 0.01). Indoor temperature, indoor barometric pressure and outdoor wind direction showed no clear correlations with indoor radon concentration. - Highlights: • Environmental variables and

  7. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  9. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel; Blandford, Edward; Howe, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  10. Sabiedriskās ēdināšanas uzņēmuma konkurētspējas analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Beinaroviča, Kristīne

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Sabiedriskās ēdināšanas uzņēmuma konkurētspējas analīze”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt SIA „G & K” restorāna „Zilā govs” konkurētspēju un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās uzlabošanai. Bakalaura darba pirmajā nodaļā pētīti konkurences un konkurētspējas teorētiskie aspekti, otrajā nodaļā raksturota nozare, kurā uzņēmums darbojas, valsts ekonomiskās lejupslīdes kontekstā, veikta nozares vides analīze, izmantojot M.E.Portera 5 spēku modeli. Trešajā nodaļā raksturota uzņēmuma vēsturiskā ...

  11. Cēsu alus konkurētspēja un to ietekmējošie faktori Latvijas tirgū.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltroka, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma „Cēsu alus konkurētspēja un to ietekmējošie faktori Latvijas tirgū”. Konkurence ir viens no svarīgākajiem nosacījumiem uzņēmuma pilnveidošanās procesā, stratēģijas izstrādē. Latvijas tirgū, dzērienu nozarē ir liela konkurence, piedāvāto produktu klāsts ir ļoti plašs. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt akciju sabiedrības „Cēsu alus” konkurētspēju ietekmējošos faktorus Latvijas tirgū, kā arī izstrādāt priekšlikumus konkurētspējas paaugstināšanai. Kvantitatīvās analīze...

  12. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  13. Determination of trace metal concentration in compost, DAP, and TSP fertilizers by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and insights from density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Sajjadur; Hossain, Syed Mohammod; Rahman, Mir Tamzid; Halim, Mohammad A; Ishtiak, Mohammad Niaz; Kabir, Mahbub

    2017-11-08

    Leaching of toxic metals from fertilizers is a growing concern in an agricultural country like Bangladesh due to the serious consequences in health and food chain. Fertilizers used in farming fields and nurseries (plant sales outlet) in the mid-southern part of Bangladesh were collected for the determination of toxic metals. This study employed the neutron activation method and a relative standardization approach. Three standard/certified reference materials, namely NIST coal fly ash 1633b, IAEA-Soil-7, and IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), were considered for elemental quantification. Concentration of As (2.63-16.73 mg/kg), Cr (40.93-261.77 mg/kg), Sb (0.47-63.58 mg/kg), Th (1.44-19.16 mg/kg), and U (1.90-209.41 mg/kg) were determined in fertilizers. High concentrations of Cr, Sb, and U were detected in some compost and phosphate fertilizers (TSP and diammonium phosphate (DAP)) in comparison with the IAEA/European market standard and other studies. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to understand the molecular level interaction of CrO 3 , Sb 2 O 3 , and AsO 3 , with DAP by employing density functional theory with the B3LYP/SDD level of theory. Our results indicated that CrO 3 and Sb 2 O 3 have strong binding affinity with DAP compared to AsO 3 , which supports the experimental results. These compounds attached to the phosphate group through covalent-like bonding with oxygen. The frontier molecular orbital calculation indicated that HOMO-LUMO gap of the AsO 3 -DAP (5.46 eV) and Sb 2 O 3 -DAP (6.48 eV) complexes are relatively lower than the CrO 3 -DAP, which indicates that As and Sb oxides are chemically more prone to attach with the phosphate group of DAP fertilizer.

  14. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  15. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  17. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  18. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  19. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  20. Commentary by Jerry S. Szymanski and C.B. Archambeau regarding ''Spring deposits and late pleistocene ground-water levels in southern Nevada'', by J. Quade. Special report number 16, Contract number 94/96.0003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a critical analysis of a paper presented at the 5th Annual International Conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management. The thrust of this paper was to determine the historic level of ground water in the vicinity of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. This author reviews conclusions reached by the former author and analyzes reference materials used to obtain his assessment of paleo-ground water levels. This author disagrees with the conclusions and analytical methods used. This author presents information relative to water table fluctuations as a result of intrusion of geothermal fluids and makes claim that such intrusion would jeopardize the integrity of the repository by flooding

  1. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  2. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed...

  3. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  4. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. TSP Symposium 2012 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    royalty -free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or disclose the work, in whole or in part and in any manner, and to have or permit others to... Malaysian Journal of Computer Science 18, 2 (December 2005): 11–27. [Pomeroy-Huff 2012] Pomeroy-Huff, M.; Cannon, R.; Chick, T. A.; Mullaney, J

  6. TSP Symposium 2013 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Innovación con Nuevas Tecnologías en la Docencia de la Ingeniería. IEEE, 2009. [Börstler 2002] Börstler, J., Carrington, D., Hislop, G. W., Lisack, S...Região do Norte), under project reference SI IDT - 21562/2011. The work of M. Raza is funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia ), under

  7. [The rotationally stable screw-anchor with trochanteric stabilizing plate (RoSA/TSP) : First results in unstable trochanteric femur fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K-J; Bücking, B; Horst, K; Andruszkow, H; Hildebrand, F; Knobe, M

    2017-12-01

    In unstable trochanteric fractures, the extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor (RoSA) combines the benefits of the load and rotational stability of the blade with the advantages of the screw (pull-out resistance, compression capability) in a single load carrier, and was designed to prevent femoral neck shortening by using an additional locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). The aim of the current prospective cohort study was the clinical evaluation of the RoSA/TSP system regarding the mechanical re-operation rate and the amount of postoperative femoral neck shortening. From September 2011 to January 2014 80 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures underwent internal extramedullary fixation with the RoSA/TSP (Königsee Implantate GmbH, Allendorf, Germany). Due to fracture stability and after induction of compression, additional long locked antitelescoping screws (AT, n = 1-4) were placed reaching the femoral head. Radiological (femoral neck shortening) and clinical re-examination of patients (n = 61) was performed 6-10 weeks and 6-10 months later. In the 61 re-examined patients (76 %) femoral neck shortening was very low with 2 mm 6-10 months after operation. Re-operations occurred in 8 % (n = 6) and in 4 % (n = 3) as prophylactic surgical intervention. Whereas one-third (4 %) of re-operations occurred due to iatrogenic surgical problems from the first operation two-thirds of patients (8 %) had a re-operation due to delay of bone union (3× nonunion, 3 planned removals of AT-screws to improve healing). The in-hospital mortality was 3 % (n = 2). The fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures using the RoSA/TSP in a first clinical setting led to a great primary stability, with significant advantages with regard to limited femoral neck shortening. However, the rigidity of the construct with its consequences regarding bone healing can be challenging for the surgeon. Nevertheless, in some cases of revision it could be beneficial

  8. Radionuclide migration in ground water at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predicted radionuclide transport modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), in Ontario, Canada, a number of LLW shallow-land burial facilities have existed for 25-30 years. These facilities are useful for testing the concept of site modelability. In 1984, CRNL and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) established a cooperative research program to examine two disposal sites having plumes of slightly contaminated ground water for study. This report addresses the LLW Nitrate Disposal Pit site, which received liquid wastes containing approximately 1000-1500 curies of mixed fission products during 1953-54. The objective of this study is to test the regulatory requirement that a site be modeled and to use the Nitrate Disposal Pit site as a field site for testing the reliability of models in predicting radionuclide movement in ground water. The study plan was to approach this site as though it were to be licensed under the requirements of 10 CFR 61. Under the assumption that little was known about this site, a characterization plan was prepared describing the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information needed to assess site performance. After completion of the plan, site data generated by CRNL were selected to fill the plan data requirements. This paper describes the site hydrogeology, modeling of ground water flow, the comparison of observed and predicted radionuclide movement, and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations. 3 references, 10 figures

  9. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  10. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  11. Comparing and combining terrestrial laser scanning with ground-and UAV-based imaging for national-level assessment of soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Gareth; James, Mike R.; Quinton, John; Anderson, Karen; DeBell, Leon; Evans, Martin; Farrow, Luke; Glendell, Miriam; Jones, Lee; Kirkham, Matthew; Lark, Murray; Rawlins, Barry; Rickson, Jane; Quine, Tim; Wetherelt, Andy; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    3D topographic or surface models are increasingly being utilised for a wide range of applications and are established tools in geomorphological research. In this pilot study 'a cost effective framework for monitoring soil erosion in England and Wales', funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), we compare methods of collecting topographic measurements via remote sensing for detailed studies of dynamic processes such as erosion and mass movement. The techniques assessed are terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography and ground-based photography, processed using structure-from-motion (SfM) 3D reconstruction software. The methods will be applied in regions of different land use, including arable and horticultural, upland and semi natural habitats, and grassland, to quantify visible erosion pathways at the site scale. Volumetric estimates of soil loss will be quantified using the digital surface models (DSMs) provided by each technique and a modelled pre-erosion surface. Visible erosion and severity will be independently established through each technique, with their results compared and combined effectiveness assessed. A fixed delta-wing UAV (QuestUAV, http://www.questuav.com/) captures photos from a range of altitudes and angles over the study area, with automated SfM-based processing enabling rapid orthophoto production to support ground-based data acquisition. At sites with suitable scale erosion features, UAV data will also provide a DSM for volume loss measurement. Terrestrial laser scanning will provide detailed, accurate, high density measurements of the ground surface over long (100s m) distances. Ground-based photography is anticipated to be most useful for characterising small and difficult to view features. By using a consumer-grade digital camera and an SfM-based approach (using Agisoft Photoscan version 1.0.0, http://www.agisoft.ru/products/photoscan/), less expertise and fewer control

  12. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  13. AAS "BALTA" konkurētspēja juridisko personu īpašuma produkta apdrošināšanā Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Jukštaka, Elīna

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā tiek pētīta AAS Balta juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas produkta konkurētspēja starp vadošajiem tirgus līderiem īpašuma apdrošināšanā Latvijas tirgū. Analizējot juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas noteikumus un finanšu rādītājus ir izteikti secinājumi un priekšlikumi AAS Balta juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas produkta konkurētspējas paaugstināšanai. Lai sasniegtu izvirzīto mērķi, autors izpētīja Latvijas nedzīvības apdrošināšanas tirgus attīstību un atse...

  14. Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

    2003-02-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM.

  15. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bergeron

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management.

  16. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  17. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  18. Lava Lake Level Drop and Related Ground Subsidence in the Nyiragongo Main Crater (D.R.Congo) Measured by Close-Range Photogrammetry and InSAR Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Samsonov, S. V.; Nobile, A.; Geirsson, H.; Kervyn, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nyiragongo volcano is the most active African volcano and among the most active volcanoes on Earth. It is also among the infrequent volcanoes that host a long-lived lava lake. The morphology of the Nyiragongo main crater is characterized by 2 levels of remnant platforms partly preserved and attached to its inner flanks, which correspond to former lava lake levels, and by a bottom "active" platform, which delimits the current active lava lake. The elevation of the bottom platform increases through time, with successive lava lake overflows. After a period of low level between late 2010 and August 2011, the lava lake next came back to its highest level. However, on September 30, 2011, it started a long and progressive fall, reaching ~70 m below the bottom platform in July 2014. This recent evolution of the lava lake, which occurred at the same time period as eruptive events at the neighboring Nyamulagira volcano, was accompanied by a ground subsidence of the bottom platform, leading to the appearance of ring fissures. This ground deformation is restricted to the bottom platform and, hence, suggests a very shallow source for the observed movement. All these changes in the Nyiragongo main crater were recorded by time-series of photographs, allowing the 3D reconstruction of the crater using close-range photogrammetric techniques and, hence, a detailed measurement of the observed changes. The ground subsidence was also recorded by time-series of RADARSAT-2 and CosmoSky-Med SAR interferograms, providing more detailed information on the velocity of deformation. Based on field data and the photogrammetric and InSAR time-series measurements, several hypotheses on the cause(s) of these changes in the Nyiragongo crater are discussed. The present work also highlights the potential of close-range photogrammetry and high-resolution InSAR to study and monitor active volcanoes in Equatorial environment.

  19. Observations of magnetic field and TEC fluctuations caused by ionospheric responses to acoustic and gravity waves from ground-level, natural hazard sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchin, P.; Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have reported magnetic field fluctuations following intense seismic hazard events [e.g. Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016; Toh et al., JGR, 116, 2011]. These perturbations can be associated with ionospheric dynamo phenomena driven by seismically generated acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs). AGW-related dynamo effects can be separated from other sources of magnetic fluctuations (e.g. piezo magnetic effects, magnetospheric forcing or Rayleigh surface waves) based on time delays from event onset (corresponding closely with travel times for AGWs from ground to the ionosphere) and spectral content measured concurrently in total electron content (TEC). Modeling studies aimed at understanding these magnetic field fluctuations have demonstrated the idea that AGWs propagating through the conducting ionosphere can induce current densities sufficient to produce observable magnetic signatures [Zettergren and Snively, JGR, 120, 2017]. Here, we investigate the features of seismic-related magnetic field fluctuations in data and their generation via the effects of seismically-forced AGWs on the ionosphere [Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013; Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005]. Concurrent magnetic field and TEC data are analyzed for several events: the Chilean earthquakes of 2010 and 2015, Chile's Calbuco volcano eruption and the Sumatran earthquake on March 28, 2005. We investigate the qualitative features of the disturbances as well as quantitative spectral and timing analysis of the data. For Chilean earthquakes, TEC and ground-based magnetometer data reveal fluctuations in magnetic field exhibiting 4-5 mHz frequencies, the same as in TEC. For the Calbuco volcano eruption and Sumatran earthquake both TEC and magnetic field perturbations exhibit frequencies of 4-5 mHz. The results are consistent with previous reports [Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016, Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005, Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013]. These observations are further interpreted through detailed numerical

  20. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  1. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  2. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  3. Chemical mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains /sup 60/Co in concentrations of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ dpm/g in the soil and 10/sup 3/ dpm/ml in the water. Traces of /sup 125/Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The /sup 60/Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, /sup 60/Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of /sup 60/Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate /sup 60/Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas.

  4. Association between increase in vertical ground reaction force loading rate and pain level in women with patellofemoral pain after a patellofemoral joint loading protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Waiteman, Marina Cabral; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2018-04-11

    The etiology of patellofemoral pain (PFP) is thought to be the result of increased patellofemoral joint (PFJ) load and aberrant lower extremity mechanics, including altered vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF). However, few studies have investigated the association between an increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in the context of PFP. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of PFJ loading on pain and VGRF loading rate, and to see if there is a link between modification of both pain and VGRF loading rate during stair negotiation. Thirty-four women with PFP underwent VGRF analysis during stair negotiation under two conditions: with (condition 2) and without (condition 1) being previously submitted to a PFJ loading protocol in order to or not to exacerbate their knee pain, respectively. The VGRF loading rates were significantly higher in condition 2 (Mean ± standard deviation (SD)=4.0±0.6N/s) compared to condition 1 (Mean±SD=3.6±0.5N/s) during stair ascent and during stair descent (Mean±SD: condition 1=6.3±1.1N/s; condition 2=7.0±1.4N/s). In addition, VGRF loading rates were higher during stair descent compared to stair ascent in both conditions. There were significant correlations between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rate during both tasks. There seemed to be an important relation between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in women with PFP. Based on these findings, interventions aimed at reducing VGRF loading rates are important in the context of PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical mechanisms of 60Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains 60 Co in concentrations of 10 4 to 10 6 dpm/g in the soil and 10 3 dpm/ml in the water. Traces of 125 Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The 60 Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, 60 Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of 60 Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate 60 Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of 60 Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas

  6. Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšanas un tās uzlabošanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Artemjeva, Anžela

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma – „Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšana un tās uzlabošanas iespējas”. Bakalaura darba mērķis-pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām par konkurenci un konkurētspēju, izpētīt SIA McDonalds konkurētspēju tirgū un tās pilnveidošanas iespējas balstoties uz Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas investīciju nozares analīzes datu rezultātiem, izdarīt secinājumus un sniegt priekšlikumus SIA McDonalds konkurētspējas uzlabošanai. Bakalaura darba izstrādes gaitā autore ir izstr...

  7. Implementasi Algoritma Best-First Search (BeFS pada Penyelesaian Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP (Studi Kasus: Perjalanan Wisata Di Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Abrori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yogyakarta offers many tourist attractions, from nature based tourism, culinary tourism until cultural tourism. With so many tourist attractions offered by Yogyakarta, tourist often finds it difficult to arrange their travel schedule (from choosing which tourist attractions to be visited until choosing which route tourist should takes to maximize their vacation time. Therefore, it’s required to have a way to determine the shortest tour route so tourist can make their tour in the Yogyakarta effective. This problem can be categorized as Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP case. There are a lot of methods can be used to find the shortest route in Travelling Salesman Problems (TSP case. To solve the problem, which is to find the shortest tour route in Yogyakarta, Algorithm Best-First Travelling will be used in this undergraduate thesis. The implementation of Algorithm Best-First Search to find the shortest tour route in Yogyakarta can be used to produce a solution for tourist to choose the shortest tour package and decide which route they should take. The premium tour package produces tour route from Adi Sucipto Airport-Gembira Loka Zoo- Purawisata-N’dalem Gamelan Hotel-Yogyakarta Palace-Benteng Vredeburg Museum-Taman Pintar-Tamansari-Adi Sucipto Airport with distance covered 20.297 meter. The middle tour package produces tour route from Tugu railway station-Benteng Vredeburg Museum- Taman Pintar-Yogyakarta Palace-Mawar Asri Hotel-Tamansari-Purawisata-Gembira Loka Zoo-Tugu railway station with distance covered 11.772 meter. The economy tour package produces tour route from Giwangan bus station- Gembira Loka zoo-Purawisata-Yogyakarta Palace-Mitra Hotel-Benteng Vredeburg Museum-Taman Pintar-Tamansari-Giwangan bus station with distance covered 14.037 meter.

  8. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  9. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Doane, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations

  10. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    associated with intersectional research. The findings assist in positioning the proposed methodological framework within recent intersectional debates. Findings – The review shows a rise in intersectional publications since the birth of the “intersectionality” term in 1989. Moreover, the paper points to four...... oriented but still emphasizes stable concepts. Moreover, it does not give primacy to oppression. Finally, it adopts a critical stance on the nature of the macro, meso, and micro levels as dominant analytical perspectives. As a result, this paper focusses on the importance of intersectionality...

  11. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... reveals how personalized political communication is profoundly influencing electoral outcomes and transforming American democracy. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen is research fellow at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford and assistant professor at Roskilde University...

  12. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  13. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion s...

  14. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level; Dosimetria de Rn-222 no ar em ambientes localizados acima e abaixo do nivel do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m{sup 3} for homes and 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y{sup -1}, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Determination of trace metals in TSP and PM2.5 materials collected in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico: A characterization study by XPS, ICP-AES and SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lucy T.; Longoria Rodríguez, F. E.; Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; Cavazos, Aleyda; Leyva-Porras, C.; Silva-Vidaurri, L. G.; Askar, Karim Acuña; Kharissov, B. I.; Villarreal Chiu, J. F.; Alfaro Barbosa, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The concentration levels of trace metals of toxicological importance were evaluated in the total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) collected in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) in Mexico. Samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy system (SEM-EDS). In addition, the data were statistically treated by the methodology of Pearson Correlation (PC) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to identify the possible emitting sources. Surface analysis of the particulate matter (PM) by XPS revealed that the most abundant elements were Ca, Al, Na, Zn, Cu and Mg. The deconvolution of the Ca2p, Zn2p and Cu2p signals showed that the main contributors were CaCO3, ZnO and Cu/Cu2O, respectively. The bulk analysis of the PM by ICP-AES showed Fe, Cu and Zn as the most abundant elements. Fe-rich particles presented two different morphologies: the prismatic particles were associated with a natural origin, while the spherical particles with anthropogenic sources. The Zn and Cu were predominantly observed in the sampling stations with high vehicular traffic, and the emitting sources were associated with the burning of fuels from automobiles and the wear of the tires and brakes. The highest concentration of Pb was detected in the sampling station located near the industrial zones, and its cause was associated with the ceramic and glass industries, the burning of fuel oil in power plants and the production of lead-based batteries for automobiles.

  16. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  17. Detailed investigation of the β-decay of the 9/2+ ground state of 99Nb to levels in 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhersonneau, G.; Persson, J.R.; Suhonen, J.; Dendooven, P.; Wang, J.C.; Aeystoe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The decay of 99 Nb to 99 Mo has been investigated. The use of the ion-guide technique for on-line mass separation and of a Ge-array for γ-ray detection have allowed the observation of decay branchings lower than 10 -3 . Medium-spin levels, some already known from reaction studies and new ones at high energy, are populated. The β-feeding patterns of the decays of the 9/2 + states in 99 Nb and in its isotones 97 Y, and 101 Tc are qualitatively reproduced by QRPA calculations. (orig.). With 5 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  19. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudic, D.E.; Randall, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, NY, are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 -8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and/or reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10 -5 to 10 -3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  20. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudic, D.E.; Randall, A.D.

    1977-07-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y. are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 -8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and(or) reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10 -5 to 10 -3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  1. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  3. Comparison of different models for ground-level atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) prediction with a new model according to local weather data for FSO applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia Bazil Raj, A; Arputha Vijaya Selvi, J; Durairaj, S

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric parameters strongly affect the performance of free-space optical communication (FSOC) systems when the optical wave is propagating through the inhomogeneous turbulence transmission medium. Developing a model to get an accurate prediction of the atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) according to meteorological parameters (weather data) becomes significant to understand the behavior of the FSOC channel during different seasons. The construction of a dedicated free-space optical link for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m built at Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu) is described in this paper. The power level and beam centroid information of the received signal are measured continuously with weather data at the same time using an optoelectronic assembly and the developed weather station, respectively, and are recorded in a data-logging computer. Existing models that exhibit relatively fewer prediction errors are briefed and are selected for comparative analysis. Measured weather data (as input factors) and C(n)(2) (as a response factor) of size [177,147×4] are used for linear regression analysis and to design mathematical models more suitable in the test field. Along with the model formulation methodologies, we have presented the contributions of the input factors' individual and combined effects on the response surface and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) estimated using analysis of variance tools. An R(2) value of 98.93% is obtained using the new model, model equation V, from a confirmatory test conducted with a testing data set of size [2000×4]. In addition, the prediction accuracies of the selected and the new models are investigated during different seasons in a one-year period using the statistics of day, week-averaged, month-averaged, and seasonal-averaged diurnal Cn2 profiles, and are verified in terms of the sum of absolute error (SAE). A Cn2 prediction maximum average SAE of 2.3×10(-13)  m(-2/3) is achieved using the new model in

  4. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  5. Effects of Boundary Layer Height on the Model of Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations from AOD: Comparison of Stable and Convective Boundary Layer Heights from Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengliang Zang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol optical depth (AOD from satellites or ground-based sun photometer spectral observations has been widely used to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations by regression methods. The boundary layer height (BLH is a popular factor in the regression model of AOD and PM2.5, but its effect is often uncertain. This may result from the structures between the stable and convective BLHs and from the calculation methods of the BLH. In this study, the boundary layer is divided into two types of stable and convective boundary layer, and the BLH is calculated using different methods from radiosonde data and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data for the station in Beijing, China during 2014–2015. The BLH values from these methods show significant differences for both the stable and convective boundary layer. Then, these BLHs were introduced into the regression model of AOD-PM2.5 to seek the respective optimal BLH for the two types of boundary layer. It was found that the optimal BLH for the stable boundary layer is determined using the method of surface-based inversion, and the optimal BLH for the convective layer is determined using the method of elevated inversion. Finally, the optimal BLH and other meteorological parameters were combined to predict the PM2.5 concentrations using the stepwise regression method. The results indicate that for the stable boundary layer, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of surface relative humidity, BLH, and surface temperature. These three factors can significantly enhance the prediction accuracy of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations, with an increase of determination coefficient from 0.50 to 0.68. For the convective boundary layer, however, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of BLH and surface wind speed. These two factors improve the determination coefficient, with a relatively low increase from 0.65 to 0.70. It is found that the

  6. Konkurētspējas analīze medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Kadincovs, Artūrs

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Konkurētspējas analīze medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā”. Medicīnas tūrisms mūsdienās ir eksporta pakalpojums ar augstu pievienoto vērtību, kurš pozitīva scenārija rezultātā nes lielus ienākumus uzņēmējdarbības videi un valsts ekonomikai un rada labi apmaksātu speciālistu pieprasījumu. Pēc autora domām, medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā ir perspektīvs scenārijs, jo Latvijai ir visss nepieciešamais, gan kvalificēts darbaspēks, gan resursi, turklāt pietiekoši ...

  7. „Honda” korporācijas konkurētspēja Japānas un pasaules auto industrijas tirgū

    OpenAIRE

    Rubina, Jeļena

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „„Honda” korporācijas konkurētspēja Japānas un pasaules auto industrijas tirgū” ir veltīts „Honda” korporācijas izpētei, balstoties uz vairākiem faktoriem, kuri ietekmējuši tās panākumus Japānas un pasaules auto industrijā. To skaitā ir korporācijas vēsture un pieredze moto industrijā, kas sekmējusi korporācijas stratēģijas izveidi, tehnoloģiju attīstīšana, kuru veic speciāla korporācijas filiāle, un to pielietošana auto būvniecībā, tai skaitā arī hibrīdauto un sacīkšu auto...

  8. Storage of low-level radioactive wastes in the ground hydrogeologic and hydrochemical factors (with an appendix on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, radioactive waste storage site: current knowledge and data needs for a quantitative hydrogeologic evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, S.S.; Winograd, I.J.

    1974-01-01

    Hydrogeologic criteria presented by Cherry and others (1973) are adopted as a guideline to define the hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs for the evaluation of the suitability of proposed or existing low-level radioactive waste burial sites. Evaluation of the suitability of a site requires the prediction of flow patterns and of rates of nuclide transport in the regional hydrogeologic system. Such predictions can be made through mathematical simulation of flow and solute transport in porous media. The status of mathematical simulation techniques, as they apply to radioactive waste burial sites, is briefly reviewed, and hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs are listed in order of increasing difficulty and cost of acquisition. Predictive modeling, monitoring, and management of radionuclides dissolved and transported by ground water can best be done for sites in relatively simple hydrogeologic settings; namely, in unfaulted relatively flat-lying strata of intermediate permeability such as silt, siltstone and silty sandstone. In contrast, dense fractured or soluble media and poorly permeable porous media (aquitards) are not suitable for use as burial sites, first, because of media heterogeneity and difficulties of sampling, and consequently of predictive modeling, and, second, because in humid zones burial trenches in aquitards may overflow. A buffer zone several thousands of feet to perhaps several miles around existing or proposed sites is a mandatory consequence of the site selection criteria. As a specific example, the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level waste disposal site is examined. (U.S.)

  9. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  10. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  11. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, i