WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground level release

  1. Solar Energetic-Particle Release Times in Historic Ground-Level Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2009-11-01

    Ground-level events (GLEs) are large solar energetic-particle events with sufficiently hard spectra for GeV protons to be detected by neutron monitors at ground level. For each of 30 well-observed historic GLEs from four solar cycles, extending back to 1973, I have plotted onset times versus velocity-1 for particles observed on the IMP-7 and 8, ISEE-3, Wind, and GOES spacecraft and by neutron monitors. A linear fit on such a plot for each GLE determines the initial solar particle release (SPR) time, as the intercept, and the magnetic path length traversed, as the slope, of the fitted line. Magnetic path lengths and SPR times are well determined by the fits and cannot be used as adjustable parameters to make particle and photon emission times coincide. SPR times follow the onsets of shock-induced type II radio bursts and the coronal height of the coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock at SPR time can be determined for GLEs spanning an interval of solar longitude of ~140 deg. For a given GLE, all particle species and energies diverge from a single SPR point at a given coronal height and footpoint longitude of the field line to the Earth. These heights tend to increase with longitudinal distance away from the source, a pattern expected for shock acceleration. Acceleration for magnetically well-connected large GLEs begins at ~2 solar radii, in contrast to non-GLEs that have been found to be strongly associated with shocks above ~3 solar radii. The higher densities and magnetic field strengths at lower altitudes may be responsible for the acceleration of higher-energy particles in GLEs, while those GLEs that begin above 3R S may compensate by having higher shock speeds. These results support the joint dependence of maximum particle energy on magnetic field strength, injected particle density, and shock speed, all predicted theoretically.

  2. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  3. Heliocentric Distance of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Time of Energetic Particle Release: Revisiting the Ground Level Enhancement Events of Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Using the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), onset time of soft X-ray flares, and the finite size of the pre-eruption CME structure, we derive the heliocentric distane at which the energetic particles during the ground level enhancement (GLE) events of Solar Cycle 23. We find that the GLE particles are released when the CMEs reach an average heliocentric distance of approx.3.25 solar radii (Rs). From this we infer that the shocks accelerating the particles are located at similar heights. Type II radio burst observations indicate that the CMEs are at much lower distances (average approx.1.4 Rs) when the CME-driven shock first forms. The shock seems to travel approx.1.8 Rs over a period of approox.30 min on the average before releasing the GLE particles. In deriving these results, we made three assumptions that have observational support: (i) the CME lift off occurs from an initial distance of about 1.25 Rs; (ii) the flare onset and CME onset are one and the same because these are two different manifestations of the same eruption; and (iii) the CME has positive acceleration from the onset to the first appearance in the coronagraphic field of view (2.5 to 6 Rs). Observations of coronal cavities in eclipse pictures and in coronagraphic images justify the assumption (i). The close relationship between the flare reconnection magnetic flux and the azimuthal flux of interplanetary magnetic clouds justify assumption (ii) consistent with the standard model (CSHKP) of solar eruption. Coronagraphic observations made close to the solar surface indicate a large positive acceleration of CMEs to a heliocentric distance of approx.3 Rs before they start slowing down due to the drag force. The inferred acceleration (approx.1.5 km/s/s) is consistent with reported values in the literature.

  4. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  5. Concentration Fluctuations in Smoke Plumes Released Near the Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, Torben; Pécseli, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Near-ground artificial cloud releases in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer were investigated experimentally by Lidar measurement techniques. Simple scaling relations between the average concentration and the lowest order moments are suggested by simple analytical models, and the experiment...

  6. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wirt, Laurie; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Shallow ground water beneath the Puerco River of Arizona and New Mexico was studied to determine the effects of uranium-mining releases on water quality. Ground-water samples collected from 1989 to 1991 indicate that concentrations of dissolved uranium have decreased. Most samples from the alluvial aquifer downstream from Gallup, New Mexico, met with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha, gross beta, and radium and the proposed maximum contaminant level for uranium.

  7. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  8. Concentration Fluctuations in Smoke Plumes Released Near the Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, Torben; Pécseli, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    results are tested against these hypotheses. We find strong evidence for a simple scaling of the standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis with the average concentrations at the downwind distances observed in our experiments. Near-ground concentration fluctuations in fixed as well as moving frames...

  9. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  10. Four-Parameter Scheme for Ground Level of Helium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-Quan; XU Jie; MA Yong; ZHENG Rui-Lun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the ground state wave function of four parameters is developed and the expression of the ground state level is derived for the helium atom when the radial Schrodinger equation of the helium atom is solved.The ground energy is respectively computed by the optimized algorithms of Matlab 7.0 and the Monte Carlo methods.Furthermore, the ground state wave function is obtained. Compared with the experiment value and the value with the variation calculus in reference, the results of this paper show that in the four-parameter scheme, not only the calculations become more simplified and precise, but also the radial wave function of the helium atom meets the space symmetry automatically in ground state.

  11. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  12. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  13. Photoionization of ground and excited levels of P II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoionization cross section (σPI) of P II, (hν + P II → P III + e), from ground and a large number of excited levels are presented. The study includes the resonant structures and the characteristics of the background in photoionization cross sections. The present calculations were carried out in the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method that includes relativistic effects. The autoionizing resonances are delineated with a fine energy mesh to observe the fine structure effects. A singular resonance, formed by the coupling of channels in fine structure but not allowed in LS coupling, is seen at the ionization threshold of photoionization for the ground and many excited levels. The background cross section is seen enhanced compared to smooth decay for the excited levels. Examples are presented to illustrate the enhanced background cross sections at the energies of the core levels, 4P3/2 and 2D3/2, that are allowed for electric dipole transitions by the core ground level 2 P1/2o. In addition strong Seaton or photo-excitation-of-core (PEC) resonances are found in the photoionization of single valence electron excited levels. Calculations used a close coupling wave function expansion that included 18 fine structure levels of core P III from configurations 3s23p, 3s3p2, 3s23d, 3s24s, 3s24p and 3p3. Photoionization cross sections are presented for all 475 fine structure levels of P II found with n ≤ 10 and l ≤ 9. The present results will provide high precision parameters of various applications involving this less studied ion.

  14. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  15. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  16. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  17. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michálek Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  18. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  19. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K. [CH2M Hill Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Slate, J.L. [Associated Western Universities Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  20. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  2. Detection of 6 November 1997 Ground Level Event by Milagrito

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Solar Energetic Particles from the 6 November 1997 solar flare/CME(coronal mass ejection) with energies exceeding 10 GeV have been detected by Milagrito, a prototype of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory. While particle acceleration beyond 1 GeV at the Sun is well established, few data exist for protons or ions beyond 10 GeV. The Milagro observatory, a ground based water Cherenkov detector designed for observing very high energy gamma ray sources, can also be used to study the Sun. Milagrito, which operated for approximately one year in 1997/98, was sensitive to solar proton and neutron fluxes above ~5- 10 GeV. Milagrito operated in a scaler mode, which was primarily sensitive to muons, low energy photons, and electrons, and the detector operated in a mode sensitive to showers and high zenith angle muons. In its scaler mode, Milagrito registered a rate increase coincident with the 6 November 1997 ground level event observed by Climax and other neutron monitors. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of >...

  3. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  4. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  5. GROUND VIBRATIONS LEVEL CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH THE GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mesec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the results of trial, construction and quarry blasting, carried out in sediment rock deposits, mainly limestone and dolomite, at diff erent locations in the Republic of Croatia. The division of the three test groups was based on the lithology changes and GSI values of the rock units at these locations. The peak particle velocity measurements with 246 recorded events, was conducted during a long period of six years. Based on the results of seismic measurements, the empirical relationships between peak particle velocity and scaled distance were established for each group. In order to establish a useful relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance, simple regression analysis was conducted with the Blastware software program from Instantel. The results of this study can be used to characterize ground vibration levels to the environment, through the geological strength index (GSI.

  6. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  7. Sea level and ground water table depth (WTD): A biogeochemical pacemaker for glacial-interglacial cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The role that changes in sea level have on potential carbon-climate feedbacks are discussed as a potential contributing mechanism for terminating glacial periods. Focus will be on coastal wetlands because these systems can be substantially altered by changing sea level and ground water table depth (WTD); in addition to being important moderators of the exchange of nutrients and energy between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. A hypothesis is outlined that describes how the release of carbon from formerly anaerobic wetland soils and sediments can influence climate when sea levels begin to decline. As ground WTD deepens and eventually recedes from the surface, coastal wetland basins may become isolated from their belowground source of water. With their primary source of base flow removed, coastal wetlands likely dried up, promoting decomposition of the carbon compounds buried in their sediments. Depending on the timing of basin isolation and the timing of decomposition, glacial sea level lows could have triggered a relatively large positive carbon feedback on climate warming, just at the time when a new interglacial period is about to begin.

  8. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  9. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  10. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  11. Electron and proton acceleration during the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C; Sun, L P; Miroshnichenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 +/- 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 +/- 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active r...

  12. ELECTRON AND PROTON ACCELERATION DURING THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Sun, L. P. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Firoz, Kazi A. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Miroshnichenko, L. I., E-mail: lic@nju.edu.cn [N. V. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, 142190 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-10

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 {+-} 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 {+-} 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active region has been performed to provide escape channels for flare-accelerated electrons. Meanwhile, relativistic protons are found to be released {approx}10 minutes later than the electrons, assuming their scatter-free travel along the same IMF path length. Combining multi-wavelength imaging data of the prominence eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME), we obtain evidence that GLE protons, with an estimated kinetic energy of {approx}1.12 GeV, are probably accelerated by the CME-driven shock when it travels to {approx}3.07 solar radii. The time-of-maximum spectrum of protons is typical for shock wave acceleration.

  13. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  14. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...

  15. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  16. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancement of 1989 September 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R. A. [Ciencias Espaciales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    The ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 1989 September 29 is one of the largest of 71 solar energetic particle events observed by neutron monitors on Earth. It was smaller than the record-breaking GLE 5 of 1956 February 23, but by some measures it was larger than GLE 69 of 2005 January 20. It is also the most extensively studied of the 71 GLEs, and it was observed by more than 50 ground-based detectors in the worldwide network. This paper contains another study of the event, with the main difference from previous studies that all the existing observations are employed, instead of the usual selection of stations. An effort is made to represent all the information graphically. This reveals new insight in the event, mainly about its time profile. The main conclusion is that the event is the best example available of a 'classical' GLE that has a gradual increase toward peak intensity and does not contain two or more distinct peaks as inferred previously. It does, however, suggest that there were two acceleration or release mechanisms: a prompt, rapid one and a delayed, slower one. This conclusion is based on a detailed comparison with GLE 69 of 2005 January 20, which is the best-known example of a double-peaked event with a 'prompt' component. It is also found that the rigidity spectrum was probably softer than derived in several previous studies, and that the decay phase of the event reveals that the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient in the neutron monitor range is proportional to rigidity.

  17. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  18. Synchronized Periodicities of Cosmic Rays, Solar Flares and Ground Level Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Perez-Peraza, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The behaviour changes in galactic cosmic rays before the occurrence of a ground level enhancement may be used as a predictor of ground level enhancements occurrence. In order to go deep into the determination of which is the agent for such connections we study in this work the common periodicities among them and the source of ground level enhancements, namely solar flares. To find the relationships among different indexes in time-frequency space, we use wavelet coherence analysis. Also we used the probability density function in galactic cosmic rays and solar flare, which allowed the finding of a binomial asymmetric distribution and a Beta distribution respectively.

  19. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  20. Effect of shipping emissions on European ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Ioannis; -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2017-04-01

    Shipping emissions contribution to the global nitrogen oxides emissions is about 15%, affecting ozone formation and the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe suggesting regions where air quality degradation due to shipping emissions dominates against the rest of the anthropogenic source emissions. Ranking the importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone mixing ratio, road transport has the major impact followed by other mobile sources, power generation, and industrial combustion sectors. All other sectors have a minor impact, therefor, our analysis is focused on these four emission categories. Results suggest that shipping emissions seem to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone, while they could partly offset the benefits from the emissions reduction of other mobile sources, power generation and industrial combustion sources, over a great part of the European land.

  1. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck LFI

    CERN Document Server

    Zacchei, A; Maris, M; Morisset, N; Rohlfs, R; Meharga, M; Binko, P; Turler, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Lowe, S R; Maino, D; Maggio, G; Malaspina, M; Mandolesi, N; Manzato, P; Meinhold, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Pasian, F; Perrotta, F; Sandri, M; Stringhetti, L; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12019

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the hou...

  2. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Wöppelmann, Guy; Garcin, Manuel; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit; Gravelle, Médéric; Lavigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992-2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year-1. Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions.

  3. AN EXPRESSION OF THE SEISMIC INTENSITY LEVEL FOR LONG-PERIOD GROUND MOTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAI, Akira

    2015-01-01

    ... on the instrumental seismic intensity is used. The present study proposes the long-period ground motion scale by using a long-period seismic intensity level with the intermediate characteristics of velocity and displacement...

  4. 2014 TRI National Analysis: Toxic Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  5. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  6. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  7. Effects of cold stress on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing and thyrotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA levels in chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jintao; XU Shiwen

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid-axis, and further affect the synthesis and secretion of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). To evaluate the effect of cold stress on the hypothalamic CRH and TRH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in Yisha chickens, male Yisha chickens were subjected to acute (1, 6, 12 h) and chronic (5, 10, 20 d) cold stress (12±1)℃. Hypothalami were collected for assessment of mRNA levels by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Acute stress resulted in a significant decrease of CRH mRNA levels at 6 and 12 h, and a significant increase of TRH mRNA levels at every stress time point. Chronic cold stress resulted in a significant increase of CRH mRNA levels and a significant decrease of TRH mRNA levels compared with the control group at every stress time point. The results suggest that the two genes differently respond to cold stress at the mRNA levels. And the different degrees of cold stress will produce different effects on the identical gene.

  8. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  9. Ground-water levels and directions of flow in Geauga County, Ohio, September 1994, and changes in ground-water levels, 1986-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, M.L.; Lesney, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to determine directions of ground-water flow and to assess differences from 1986 to 1994 in ground-water levels in the glacial deposits and Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. Water levels were measured in 219 wells in Geauga County, Ohio, in September 1994. Water levels measured in January and February 1986 in 88 of the 219 wells were used for comparison. Water-level maps constructed from measurements made in September 1994 to show that ground-water levels in the Pottsville Formation and the glacial deposits generally correspond to the land-surface configuration and that ground water flows from the uplands to adjacent streams and buried valleys. Ground-water flow in the Cuyahoga Group is generally downward from the Pottsville Formation to the Berea Sandstone. Directions of ground-water flow in the Berea Sandstone are toward outcrop areas at the north and east edges of Geauga County and toward sub-crops beneath buried glacial valley deposits in Chardon, Chester, Munson, and Russel Townships and along the west edge of the county. A comparison of water level measurements in 1986 and 1994 indicates that water levels declined in 70 percent of the measured wells and increased in 30 percent. The change in water levels from 1986 to 1994 ranged from an increase of 13.58 feet to a decrease of 29.25 feet. Thirty percent of all water-level changes were less than 1 foot in magnitude. In nearly 80 percent of the wells, water-level changes were within the range of plus or minus 5 feet. Among the wells for which two or more historical measurements were available, the 1994 water levels in 54 percent were outside the range of water-levels observed in previous studies (only 24 percent were greater than 1 foot outside of the previously-observed range). Water-level declines of greater than 10 feet

  10. Dopaminergic regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release at the median eminence level: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, A M; Gonzalez, C; Singh, H N; Malamed, S; Troncoso, S; Advis, J P

    1992-03-01

    Theoretically, the most effective inhibitory control of hypophysiotropic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release might occur through a presynaptic inhibition of LHRH neuronal terminals at the median eminence (ME) level. Since: (a) we have recently reported the existence of synaptic contacts between dopamine- and LHRH-containing processes in the ewe ME, and (b) nutritional deprivation induces an ovulatory failure in both birds and mammals, we have assessed the possibility that the anovulatory state induced by feed withdrawal (FW) in laying hens, might be caused by a dopaminergic inhibition of LHRH release at the ME level. Laying hens at the start (35 weeks old) and end (75 weeks old) of their commercial egg-laying life were killed at 0, 1, 2 and 4 days after FW. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P4), in vitro release of LHRH by isolated ME, and LHRH content in ME and preoptic area (POA) were determined by RIA. ME content of dopamine (DA) and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were assessed by LCED. The distribution of LHRH and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing processes at the ME level of the hen was determined immunocytochemically. In the hen, LHRH-containing cell bodies are localized in the anterior hypothalamus and medial POA. LHRH-containing axons project toward the ME and infundibulum through the ventral-lateral hypothalamus. TH-containing perikarya are concentrated in the arcuate nucleus and in the adjacent part of the periventricular nucleus, dorsal to the arcuate. TH-containing axons converge toward the ME and descend into the infundibulum. Dense concentrations of TH- and LHRH-containing processes are located in the lateral and mediobasal portions of the external layer of the ME, providing opportunities for synaptic interactions between them. Ovulatory failure and regression of the ovary and reproductive tract occurred 2-3 days after FW at the end, but not at the beginning of the hen's commercial egg

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  13. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  14. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 t...

  15. Space Weather and the Ground-Level Solar Proton Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    2012-10-01

    Solar proton events can adversely affect space and ground-based systems. Ground-level events are a subset of solar proton events that have a harder spectrum than average solar proton events and are detectable on Earth's surface by cosmic radiation ionization chambers, muon detectors, and neutron monitors. This paper summarizes the space weather effects associated with ground-level solar proton events during the 23rd solar cycle. These effects include communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations. The major effect of ground-level events that affect manned spacecraft operations is increased radiation exposure. The primary effect on commercial aircraft operations is the loss of high frequency communication and, at extreme polar latitudes, an increase in the radiation exposure above that experienced from the background galactic cosmic radiation. Calculations of the maximum potential aircraft polar route exposure for each ground-level event of the 23rd solar cycle are presented. The space weather effects in October and November 2003 are highlighted together with on-going efforts to utilize cosmic ray neutron monitors to predict high energy solar proton events, thus providing an alert so that system operators can possibly make adjustments to vulnerable spacecraft operations and polar aircraft routes.

  16. Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10 / C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.

  17. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  18. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  19. Powered ankle-foot prosthesis to assist level-ground and stair-descent gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Samuel; Berniker, Max; Herr, Hugh

    2008-05-01

    The human ankle varies impedance and delivers net positive work during the stance period of walking. In contrast, commercially available ankle-foot prostheses are passive during stance, causing many clinical problems for transtibial amputees, including non-symmetric gait patterns, higher gait metabolism, and poorer shock absorption. In this investigation, we develop and evaluate a myoelectric-driven, finite state controller for a powered ankle-foot prosthesis that modulates both impedance and power output during stance. The system employs both sensory inputs measured local to the external prosthesis, and myoelectric inputs measured from residual limb muscles. Using local prosthetic sensing, we first develop two finite state controllers to produce biomimetic movement patterns for level-ground and stair-descent gaits. We then employ myoelectric signals as control commands to manage the transition between these finite state controllers. To transition from level-ground to stairs, the amputee flexes the gastrocnemius muscle, triggering the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex at terminal swing, and initiating the stair-descent state machine algorithm. To transition back to level-ground walking, the amputee flexes the tibialis anterior muscle, triggering the ankle to remain dorsiflexed at terminal swing, and initiating the level-ground state machine algorithm. As a preliminary evaluation of clinical efficacy, we test the device on a transtibial amputee with both the proposed controller and a conventional passive-elastic control. We find that the amputee can robustly transition between the finite state controllers through direct muscle activation, allowing rapid transitioning from level-ground to stair walking patterns. Additionally, we find that the proposed finite state controllers result in a more biomimetic ankle response, producing net propulsive work during level-ground walking and greater shock absorption during stair descent. The results of this study highlight the

  20. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    wells during 1995, 1997, and (or) 1998. Nitrate concentrations in two wells were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in 1998 and in 2001. Ground-water levels were measured during June and July 2002 and during June, July, and August 2003 in 18 monitoring wells. The median change in water level for all 18 wells was a decline of 2.03 feet.

  1. Conversion of Airborne Gamma ray Spectra to Ground Level Air Kerma Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1997-01-01

    A new method for relating airborne gamma-ray spectra to dose rates and kerma rates at ground level is presented. Dependent on flying altitude 50 m to 125 m the method gives correct results for gamma energies above 250 keV respective 350 keV. At lower energies the method underestimate the dose...... or kerma rates; by having a large fraction of the ground level gamma-rays at energies below 350 keV special care should be taken at an interpretation of the results....

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  3. Nursing care process for releasing psychiatric inpatients from long-term seclusion in Japan: modified grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yutaka; Hasegawa, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Based on a modified grounded theory approach, in this study, we sought to elucidate the nursing care process used to guide psychiatric inpatients in long-term seclusion towards release from seclusion. Participant observations and interviews were conducted with a total of 18 nurses from three long-term psychiatric wards at two institutions from September 2011 to November 2012, to collect data on the nursing care they provided for psychiatric patients in long-term seclusion. Consequently, four categories and 15 concepts were extracted. The nurses viewed "a mature therapeutic environment that utilizes flexible apportionment of care" as the foundation (i.e. the core category) in guiding psychiatric inpatients towards release from long-term seclusion. The results revealed a care structure in which nurses in such a treatment environment provided care by flexible apportionment of three types of care: care aimed at avoiding mental and physical exhaustion, standardized care that does not confer a disadvantage to patients, and immediately responding to prevent problematic behaviors.

  4. Identification of active release planes using ground-based differential InSAR at the Randa rock slope instability, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gischig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Five ground-based differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-DInSAR surveys were conducted between 2005 and 2007 at the rock slope instability at Randa, Switzerland. Resultant displacement maps revealed, for the first time, the presence of an active basal rupture zone and a lateral release surface daylighting on the exposed 1991 failure scarp. Structures correlated with the boundaries of interferometric displacement domains were confirmed using a helicopter-based LiDAR DTM and oblique aerial photography. Former investigations at the site failed to conclusively detect these active release surfaces essential for kinematic and hazard analysis of the instability, although their existence had been hypothesized. The determination of the basal and lateral release planes also allowed a more accurate estimate of the currently unstable volume of 5.7±1.5 million m3. The displacement patterns reveal that two different kinematic behaviors dominate the instability, i.e. toppling above 2200 m and translational failure below. In the toppling part of the instability the areas with the highest GB-DInSAR displacements correspond to areas of enhanced micro-seismic activity. The observation of only few strongly active discontinuities daylighting on the 1991 failure surface points to a rather uniform movement in the lower portion of the instability, while most of the slip occurs along the basal rupture plane. Comparison of GB-DInSAR displacements with mapped discontinuities revealed correlations between displacement patterns and active structures, although spatial offsets occur as a result of the effective resolution of GB-DInSAR. Similarly, comparisons with measurements from total station surveys generally showed good agreement. Discrepancies arose in several cases due to local movement of blocks, the size of which could not be resolved using GB-DInSAR.

  5. TETRA Observation of Gamma Rays at Ground Level Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) -- very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms -- have been detected with satellite instruments. TETRA, an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, twenty-four events with durations 0.02- 4.2 msec have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 msec and 3 miles of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  6. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  7. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models. Sector-

  9. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  10. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  11. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-WATER LEVEL BY MODERN NON-DISTRUCTIVE METHODS (GPR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. NICU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ground-water level by modern non-dis¬tructive methods (ground-penetrating radar technology. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is now a well-accepted geophysical technique, which unfortunately in our country its less used. Historically, the development of GPR comes from the use of radio echosounding to determine ice thickness and it was only a short step to enlarge the domain of research such as permafrost, geological investigation (bedrock, sedimentology, environmental assessment and hydrogeophysical studies (under-ground water location, soil water content. The GPR method measures the travel time of electromagnetic impulses in subsurface materials. An impulse radar system radiates repetitive electromagnetic impulses into the soil. A bandwidth antenna is usually placed in close proximity and electromagnetic coupled to the ground surface. It detects and measures the depth of reflecting discontinuities in subsurface soils and other earth materials to within a few centimeters depending of antenna frequency. For over 30 years, GPR has been used extensively for hydropedological investigations. Our research aims to determine the groundwater to estimate the degree of evolution of hydro-geomorphological processes.

  14. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  15. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    CERN Document Server

    Vexiau, R; Aymar, M; Bouloufa-Maafa, N; Dulieu, O

    2015-01-01

    We have calculated the isotropic $C\\_6$ coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state $X^1\\Sigma^+$. We consider the ten species made up of $^7$Li, $^{23}$Na, $^{39}$K, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs. Following our previous work [M.~Lepers \\textit{et.~al.}, Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{88}, 032709 (2013)] we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it i...

  16. Direct Photoassociative Formation of Ultracold KRb Molecules in the Lowest Vibrational Levels of the Ground State

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Jayita; Carollo, Ryan; Bellos, Michael; Eyler, Edward E; Gould, Phillip L; Stwalley, William C

    2012-01-01

    We report continuous direct photoassociative formation of ultracold KRb molecules in the lowest vibrational levels $(v"=0 -10)$ of the electronic ground state $(X ^1\\Sigma^+)$, starting from $^{39}$K and $^{85}$Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The process exploits a newfound resonant coupling between the $2(1), v'=165$ and $4(1), v'=61$ levels, which exhibit an almost equal admixture of the uncoupled eigenstates. The production rate of the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ ($v"$=0) level is estimated to be $5\\times10^3$ molecules/sec.

  17. 5 CFR 351.601 - Order of release from competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standing, beginning with the employee with the lowest retention standing on the retention register. An... employee with lower retention standing except: (1) As required under § 351.606 when an employee is retained... before final release of the employee with the lowest-retention standing from the competitive level. (c...

  18. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  19. Circulating levels of GH-releasing hormone and GH during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, M; Spence-Jones, C; Chard, T; Landon, J; McLean, C

    1990-04-01

    To study the potential role of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in maintaining circulating levels of GH during pregnancy, 302 maternal plasma samples were collected from non-fasted subjects at various stages of pregnancy and assayed for GHRH using a 'two-site' immunoradiometric assay. The GH and placental lactogen levels were also determined. In addition, maternal plasma samples taken during labour, amniotic fluid and cord blood were also assayed for these hormones. Maternal plasma GHRH levels were similar to non-pregnant levels throughout gestation despite fluctuations in GH values which were always higher than non-pregnant levels. There was no significant difference between GHRH levels in maternal plasma and cord blood although high GH levels were observed in the latter. These findings suggest that peripheral GHRH levels do not play an important role in maintaining circulating GH levels during pregnancy.

  20. Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RDDO for Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Using High Performance Computing to Realize a System-Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles • David A. Lamb, Ph.D. • Computational Reliability and...fictitious load cases is number of design variables X number of static load cases (6 X 24 = 144 for Stryker A-arm). RBDO Flowchart Pre-processor Morpher...Based Geometry Morpher Mesh Finite Element Analysis Durability Sensitivity RBDO /PBDO FE Analysis FE re-analysis for DSA Sensitivity of SIC and Fatigue

  1. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-08-12

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Plaste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Low-Level Burial Grounds (this document, DOE/RL-88-20).

  3. Munc18-1 expression levels control synapse recovery by regulating readily releasable pool size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Ruud F. G.; Wierda, Keimpe; Sons, Michèle S.; de Wit, Heidi; Cornelisse, L. Niels; Brussaard, Arjen; Plomp, Jaap J.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Prompt recovery after intense activity is an essential feature of most mammalian synapses. Here we show that synapses with reduced expression of the presynaptic gene munc18-1 suffer from increased depression during intense stimulation at glutamatergic, GABAergic, and neuromuscular synapses. Conversely, munc18-1 overexpression makes these synapses recover faster. Concomitant changes in the readily releasable vesicle pool and its refill kinetics were found. The number of vesicles docked at the active zone and the total number of vesicles per terminal correlated with both munc18-1 expression levels and the size of the releasable vesicle pool. These data show that varying expression of a single gene controls synaptic recovery by modulating the number of docked, release-ready vesicles and thereby replenishment of the secretion capacity. PMID:17110441

  4. Ground Level Ozone Precursors: Emission Changes in Lithuania 1990–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata DAGILIŪTĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Lithuanian national strategy for sustainable development is aiming to reduce air pollution per GDP unit significantly and to ensure compliance with international commitments in the air pollution sphere. Ground-level ozone (O3 is one of the most important secondary air pollutants, which is assigned to be harmful to environmental and human health and is one of the main problems of air pollution in cities. This paper aims to overview the changes in the emissions of ground level ozone precursors and their ozone forming potential as well as the achieved progress in foreseen goals. During the analysis period (1990 - 2006 emissions of ground-level ozone precursors declined twofold in Lithuania. After transitional decline intensity of ground level ozone precursors also significantly decreased due to advanced technologies, more efficient energy consumption and changes in fuel mix. However, intensity of ground-level ozone precursors in Lithuania was higher compared to the old EU member states on average, therefore much more attention should be given to special air pollution mitigation measures.

  5. Magnetism of Rare-Earth Compounds with Non-Magnetic Crystal-Field Ground Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among rare-earth compounds, there are many materials having non-magnetic crystal-field (CF) ground levels.To understand their magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, we study the effects of the CF levels and the Heisenberg-like coupling on the magnetic process of such a crystalline with mean-field and CF theory. It is found that the material can be magnetically ordered if the Heisenberg exchange is sufficiently strong. Additionally we obtain a condition for initial magnetic ordering, and derive a formula for estimating the Curie temperature if the ordering occurs.

  6. Estimating national-scale ground-level PM25 concentration in China using geographically weighted regression based on MODIS and MISR AOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei; Zang, Zengliang; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Yi; Wang, Weiqi

    2016-05-01

    Taking advantage of the continuous spatial coverage, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been widely used to assess the spatial and temporal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the ground and their effects on human health. However, the national-scale ground-level PM2.5 estimation is still very limited because the lack of ground PM2.5 measurements to calibrate the model in China. In this study, a national-scale geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was developed to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentration based on satellite AODs, newly released national-wide hourly PM2.5 concentrations, and meteorological parameters. The results showed good agreements between satellite-retrieved and ground-observed PM2.5 concentration at 943 stations in China. The overall cross-validation (CV) R (2) is 0.76 and root mean squared prediction error (RMSE) is 22.26 μg/m(3) for MODIS-derived AOD. The MISR-derived AOD also exhibits comparable performance with a CV R (2) and RMSE are 0.81 and 27.46 μg/m(3), respectively. Annual PM2.5 concentrations retrieved either by MODIS or MISR AOD indicated that most of the residential community areas exceeded the new annual Chinese PM2.5 National Standard level 2. These results suggest that this approach is useful for estimating large-scale ground-level PM2.5 distributions especially for the regions without PMs monitoring sites.

  7. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements of 29 September 1989 and 20 January 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; McCracken, K G

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. This hypothesis, together with other properties of GLEs, is demonstrated graphically in this paper by plotting and comparing the time profiles of GLEs 42 of 29 September 1989 and GLE 69 of 20 January. These two events are respectively the largest examples of gradual and prompt events.

  8. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  9. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  10. Guide of the CSN about methodology of radiological Checking of location and general levels of release; Guia del CSN sobre metodologia de comprobacion del estado radiologico de un emplazamiento y niveles genericos de liberacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Alduan, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    The guide aims to recommend a methodology for checking radiological status of a site with a view to his release, complete and with a reasonable, statistically representative number of measures. Checking of the radiological situation of a site allows to determine if it is contaminated and, if so, whether, after cleaning performances, has reached a level of residual contamination, allowing their release with or without restrictions. Generic levels for the release without restrictions on the grounds of sites recommended for this verification of nuclear installations on the basis of the radiological dose criteria laid down in the instruction of the CSN IS-13. I agree with the IS-13, the site includes terrain, structures and facilities described in the authorization of exploitation, as well as any area has been released prior to the closing statement. The Guide recommends only the levels of release of land, regardless of the structures and facilities. (Author)

  11. EVALUATION OF BPA LEVELS RELEASED FROM DIFFERENT DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USING HPLC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ASCİ, Ali; DERELİOGLU, Sera Simsek; YİLMAZ, Bilal; GURBUZ, Taskin; SONGUR, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A(BPA) is a chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in theproduction of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA is also present indental materials used to treat and prevent caries. There have been concernsraised regarding the safety of bisphenol A in dental sealants and composites.The aim of the study is to measure BPA levels which were released fromcomposite resins after curing with different polymerization conditions. Fourcomposite resins which are commonly us...

  12. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  13. Comparison of radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, C.; Campos, M.; Mazzilli, B. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radon-222, a decay product of Ra-226, is a natural radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water and air. Radon and its short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is recognized as the second most significant risk for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The World Health Organization established a concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} for radon in air, in order to limit its hazards. The main source of radon exposition indoors comes from Ra-226, a decay product of the U-238 natural series, present in rocks and soils underneath the building and, to a lesser extent, in the building materials. The dynamics of radon production in rocks and soil and its subsequent indoors emanation is quite complex. It is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, meteorological variability, building foundation characteristics and the usual positive differential pressure between the soil and the indoor environment. This is normally sufficient to bring soil gas from the ground into the building. Radon gas can enter a building by several mechanisms, but the most significant ones are diffusion and pressure-driven flow from the ground. Usually, cracks and holes in the floor and walls and gaps around service pipes are the main entrance for the radon gas. Studies indicated that indoor radon concentration present significant variation on the basement, ground floor and upper floors. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors in the city of Sao Paulo. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear- track detectors (CR-39), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period was, at least, three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  15. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  16. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  17. An analysis of the trend in ground-level ozone using non-homogeneous poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Thomas S.

    This paper provides a method for measuring the long-term trend in the frequency with which ground-level ozone present in the ambient air exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. A major weakness of previous studies that estimate the long-term trend in the very high values of ozone, and therefore the long-term trend in the probability of satisfying the NAAQS for ozone, is their failure to account for the confounding effects of meterological conditions on ozone levels. Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, and frontal passage play an important role in the formation of ground-level ozone. A non-homogenous Poisson process is used to account for the relationship between very high values of ozone and meteorological conditions. This model provides an estimate of the trend in the ozone values after allowing for the effects of meteorological conditions. Therefore, this model provides a means to measure the effectiveness of pollution control programs after accounting for the effects of changing weather conditions. When our approach is applied to data collected at two sites in Houston, TX, we find evidence of a gradual long-term downward trend in the frequency of high values of ozone. The empirical results indicate how possibly misleading results can be obtained if the analysis does not account for changing weather conditions.

  18. The fine structure levels for ground states of negative ions of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure levels for negative ions (anions of nitrogen and phosphorus have been investigated using multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian (MCHF+BP. Nitrogen and phosphorus have half-filled outer shell in ground state 1s22s22p3 4S and 1s22s22p33s23p3 4S, respectively. It has been stated in most works that the negative ion of nitrogen is instable whereas the negative ion of phosphorus is stable. The results obtained have been compared with other works.

  19. Quinoidal Oligo(9,10-anthryl)s with Chain-Length-Dependent Ground States: A Balance between Aromatic Stabilization and Steric Strain Release

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Zhenglong

    2015-11-12

    Quinoidal π-conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons have attracted intensive research interest due to their unique optical/electronic properties and possible magnetic activity, which arises from a thermally excited triplet state. However, there is still lack of fundamental understanding on the factors that determine the electronic ground states. Herein, by using quinoidal oligo(9,10-anthryl)s, it is demonstrated that both aromatic stabilisation and steric strain release play balanced roles in determining the ground states. Oligomers with up to four anthryl units were synthesised and their ground states were investigated by electronic absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, assisted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The quinoidal 9,10-anthryl dimer 1 has a closed-shell ground state, whereas the tri- (2) and tetramers (3) both have an open-shell diradical ground state with a small singlet-triplet gap. Such a difference results from competition between two driving forces: the large steric repulsion between the anthryl/phenyl units in the closed-shell quinoidal form that drives the molecule to a flexible open-shell diradical structure, and aromatic stabilisation due to the gain of more aromatic sextet rings in the closed-shell form, which drives the molecule towards a contorted quinoidal structure. The ground states of these oligomers thus depend on the overall balance between these two driving forces and show chain-length dependence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. System-level view of geospace dynamics: Challenges for high-latitude ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, research programs including GEM, CEDAR, GEMSIS, GO Canada, and others are focusing on how geospace works as a system. Coupling sits at the heart of system level dynamics. In all cases, coupling is accomplished via fundamental processes such as reconnection and plasma waves, and can be between regions, energy ranges, species, scales, and energy reservoirs. Three views of geospace are required to attack system level questions. First, we must observe the fundamental processes that accomplish the coupling. This "observatory view" requires in situ measurements by satellite-borne instruments or remote sensing from powerful well-instrumented ground-based observatories organized around, for example, Incoherent Scatter Radars. Second, we need to see how this coupling is controlled and what it accomplishes. This demands quantitative observations of the system elements that are being coupled. This "multi-scale view" is accomplished by networks of ground-based instruments, and by global imaging from space. Third, if we take geospace as a whole, the system is too complicated, so at the top level we need time series of simple quantities such as indices that capture important aspects of the system level dynamics. This requires a "key parameter view" that is typically provided through indices such as AE and DsT. With the launch of MMS, and ongoing missions such as THEMIS, Cluster, Swarm, RBSP, and ePOP, we are entering a-once-in-a-lifetime epoch with a remarkable fleet of satellites probing processes at key regions throughout geospace, so the observatory view is secure. With a few exceptions, our key parameter view provides what we need. The multi-scale view, however, is compromised by space/time scales that are important but under-sampled, combined extent of coverage and resolution that falls short of what we need, and inadequate conjugate observations. In this talk, I present an overview of what we need for taking system level research to its next level, and how

  1. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  2. Autocorrelation in ultraviolet radiation measured at ground level using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Filho, Paulo Cavalcante; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Corso, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the autocorrelation among four ultraviolet (UV) radiation data sets obtained at 305 nm, 320 nm, 340 nm, and 380 nm. The data were recorded at ground level at the INPE climate station in Natal, RN, Brazil, which is a site close to the equator. The autocorrelations were computed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to estimate the index α. We found that the ​fluctuations in the UV radiation data were fractal, with scale-free behavior at a DFA index α ≃ 0.7. In addition, we performed a power law spectral analysis, which showed that the power spectrum exhibited a power law behavior with an exponent of β ≃ 0.45. Given that the theoretical result is β = 2 α - 1, these two results are in good agreement. Moreover, the application of the DFA ​method to the UV radiation data required detrending using a polynomial with an order of at least eight, which was related to the complex daily solar radiation curve obtained at ground level in a tropical region. The results indicated that the α exponent of UV radiation is similar to other climatic records such as air temperature, wind, or rain, but not solar activity.

  3. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  5. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  6. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid

    2016-09-01

    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  7. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  8. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  9. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  10. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  11. Calcium buffering properties of sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium-induced Ca(2+) release during the quasi-steady level of release in twitch fibers from frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénelon, Karine; Lamboley, Cédric R H; Carrier, Nicole; Pape, Paul C

    2012-10-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the properties of the intrinsic Ca(2+) buffers in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cut fibers from frog twitch muscle. The concentrations of total and free calcium ions within the SR ([Ca(T)](SR) and [Ca(2+)](SR)) were measured, respectively, with the EGTA/phenol red method and tetramethylmurexide (a low affinity Ca(2+) indicator). Results indicate SR Ca(2+) buffering was consistent with a single cooperative-binding component or a combination of a cooperative-binding component and a linear binding component accounting for 20% or less of the bound Ca(2+). Under the assumption of a single cooperative-binding component, the most likely resting values of [Ca(2+)](SR) and [Ca(T)](SR) are 0.67 and 17.1 mM, respectively, and the dissociation constant, Hill coefficient, and concentration of the Ca-binding sites are 0.78 mM, 3.0, and 44 mM, respectively. This information can be used to calculate a variable proportional to the Ca(2+) permeability of the SR, namely d[Ca(T)](SR)/dt ÷ [Ca(2+)](SR) (denoted release permeability), in experiments in which only [Ca(T)](SR) or [Ca(2+)](SR) is measured. In response to a voltage-clamp step to -20 mV at 15°C, the release permeability reaches an early peak followed by a rapid decline to a quasi-steady level that lasts ~50 ms, followed by a slower decline during which the release permeability decreases by at least threefold. During the quasi-steady level of release, the release amplitude is 3.3-fold greater than expected from voltage activation alone, a result consistent with the recruitment by Ca-induced Ca(2+) release of 2.3 SR Ca(2+) release channels neighboring each channel activated by its associated voltage sensor. Release permeability at -60 mV increases as [Ca(T)](SR) decreases from its resting physiological level to ~0.1 of this level. This result argues against a release termination mechanism proposed in mammalian muscle fibers in which a luminal sensor of [Ca(2+)](SR) inhibits

  12. Construct validity of RT3 accelerometer: A comparison of level-ground and treadmill walking at self-selected speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hendrick, MPhty

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in accelerometer output when subjects walked on level ground and on a treadmill. We asked 25 nondisabled participants to wear an RT3 triaxial accelerometer (StayHealthy, Inc; Monrovia, California and walk at their "normal" and "brisk" walking speeds for 10 minutes. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from level-ground walking on two occasions 1 week apart. Paired t-tests found a difference in RT3 accelerometer vector magnitude (VM counts/min between the two walking speeds on both surfaces on days 1 and 2 (p 0.05, we found wide limits of agreement between level ground and treadmill walking at both speeds. Measurement and discrimination of walking intensity employing RT3 accelerometer VM counts/min on the treadmill demonstrated reasonable validity and stability over two time points compared with level-ground walking.

  13. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (test identification of sea-level markers in GPR data from microtidal depositional environments. Nielsen and Clemmensen (2009) showed...

  14. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  15. Changes in Therapeutic Intensity Level Following Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jeffrey J; Wilson, Thomas J; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Davidson, Scott B; Walsh, Jon C

    2016-09-20

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV. The study included 21 epochs of APRV in 21 patients. In the 6-hour epoch following the application of APRV, the TIL was significantly increased (P = .002) and the ICP significantly decreased (P = .041) compared to that before 6 hours. There was no significant change in CPP (P = .42) over time. The baseline static compliance and time interaction was not significant for TIL (χ(2) = 0.2 [df 1], P = .655), CPP (χ(2) = 0 [df 1], P = 1), or ICP (χ(2) = 0.1 [df 1], P = .752). Application of APRV in patients with severe traumatic brain injury was associated with significantly, but not clinically meaningful, increased TIL and decreased ICP. No significant change in CPP was observed. No difference was observed based on the baseline pulmonary static compliance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    OpenAIRE

    Regina A. A.; I. Mohammad Halim Shah

    2010-01-01

    The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model uti...

  17. Modeling of Regional Climate Change Effects on Ground-Level Ozone and Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Knowlton, Kim; Carr, Jessie L.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The adverse respiratory effects of ground-level ozone are well-established. Ozone is the air pollutant most consistently projected to increase under future climate change. Purpose To project future pediatric asthma emergency department visits associated with ground-level ozone changes, comparing 1990s to 2020s. Methods This study assessed future numbers of asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years using (1) baseline New York City metropolitan area emergency department rates, (2) a dose–response relationship between ozone levels and pediatric asthma emergency department visits, and (3) projected daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentrations for the 2020s as simulated by a global-to-regional climate change and atmospheric chemistry model. Sensitivity analyses included population projections and ozone precursor changes. This analysis occurred in 2010. Results In this model, climate change could cause an increase in regional summer ozone-related asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years of 7.3% across the New York City metropolitan region by the 2020s. This effect diminished with inclusion of ozone precursor changes. When population growth is included, the projections of morbidity related to ozone are even larger. Conclusions The results of this analysis demonstrate that the use of regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models make possible the projection of local climate change health effects for specific age groups and specific disease outcomes – such as emergency department visits for asthma. Efforts should be made to improve on this type of modeling to inform local and wider-scale climate change mitigation and adaptation policy. PMID:21855738

  18. The pulse shape of cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; Caballero-Lopez, R A

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground-level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. With this hypothesis in mind we study the time profiles of all the available GLEs. The main results are that there is a continuous range from gradual to impulsive, that the fastest risers are concentrated at heliolongitudes that are magnetically well-connected to Earth, and that the shape of the pulse is a powerful indicator of propagation conditions between Sun and Earth. This ranges from relatively quiet to highly disturbed.

  19. What Are Special About Ground-Level Events? Flares, CMEs, Active Regions And Magnetic Field Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, N V; DeRosa, M L; Nightingale, R W

    2012-01-01

    Ground level events (GLEs) occupy the high-energy end of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. They are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, but we still do not clearly understand the special conditions that produce these rare events. During Solar Cycle 23, a total of 16 GLEs were registered, using ground-based neutron monitor data. We first ask if these GLEs are clearly distinguishable from other SEP events observed from space. Setting aside possible difficulties in identifying all GLEs consistently, we then try to find observables which may unmistakably isolate these GLEs by studying the basic properties of the associated eruptions and the active regions (ARs) that produced them. It is found that neither the magnitudes of the CMEs and flares nor the complexities of the ARs give sufficient conditions for GLEs. It is possible to find CMEs, flares or ARs that are not associated with GLEs but that have more extreme properties than those associated with GLEs. We also try to ev...

  20. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  1. A Possible Detection of Solar Gamma-Rays by the Ground Level Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Muraki, Y; Gonzalez, L X; Koga, K; Matsumoto, H; Masuda, S; Matsubara, Y; Nagai, Y; Tanaka, Y; Sakai, T; Sako, T; Shibata, S; Watanabe, K

    2013-01-01

    On March 7, 2011 from 19:48:00 to 20:03:00 UT, the solar neutron telescope located at Mt. Sierra Negra, Mexico (4,600m) observed a 8.8sigma enhancement. In this paper, we would like to try to explain this enhancement by a hypothesis that a few GeV gamma-rays arrived at the top of the mountain produced by the Sun. We postulate that protons were accelerated at the shock front. They precipitate at the solar surface and produced those gamma-rays. If hypothesis is confirmed, this enhancement is the first sample of GeV gamma-rays observed by a ground level detector.

  2. Isomeric and ground state energy level measurements of natural tellurium isotopes via (γ,n) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkas, M.; Akcali, O.; Durusoy, A.

    2015-04-01

    We have planned to measure isomeric and ground state energy levels in 120Te(γ,n)119m,gTe, 122Te(γ,n)121m,gTe, 128Te(γ,n)127m,gTe, 130Te(γ,n)129m,gTe photonuclear reactions of natural tellurium induced by bremsstrahlung photons with end-point energy at 18 MeV. The sample was irradiated in the clinical linear electron accelerator (Philips SLi-25) at Akdeniz University Hospital. The gamma spectrum of the tellurium sample was measured using HP(Ge) semiconductor detector (ORTEC) and multi channel analyzer. We used both MAESTRO (ORTEC) and home made root based gui program (Theia) for data analyzing. The obtained experimental data values are compared with NUDAT energy values.

  3. Cost-Effective Control of Ground-Level Ozone Pollution in and around Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xuxuan; Zhang Shiqiu; Xu Jianhua; Wu Dan; Zhu Tong

    2012-01-01

    Ground level ozone pollution has become a significant air pollution problem in Beijing. Because of the complex way in which ozone is formed, it is difficult for policy makers to identify optimal control options on a cost-effective basis. This paper identi- fies and assesses a range of options for addressing this problem. We apply the Ambient Least Cost Model and compare the eco- nomic costs of control options, then recommend the most effective sequence to realize pollution control at the lowest cost. The study finds that installing of Stage II gasoline vapor recovery system at Beijing's 1446 gasoline stations would be the most cost-effective option. Overall, options to reduce ozone pollution by cutting ve- hicular emissions are much more cost-effective than options to "clean up" coal-fired power plants.

  4. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Ground water Level Changes Induced by the 2006 Hengchun Earthquake Doublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeping Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-level changes were ob served in 107 wells at 67 monitoring stations in the southern coastal plain of Tai wan during the 2006 Mw 7.1 Hengchun earthquake doublet. Two consecutive coseismic changes induced by the earth quake doublet can be observed from high-frequency data. Obervations from multiple-well stations indicate that the magnitude and direction of coseismic change may vary in wells of different depths. Coseismic rises were dominant on the south east side of the costal plain; whereas, coseismic falls prevailed on the north west side. In the transition zone, rises appeared in shallow wells whilst falls were evident in deep wells. As coseismic ground water level changes can reflect the tectonic strain field, tectonic extension likely dominates the deep subsurface in the transition area, and possibly in the en tire southern coastal plain. The coseismic rises in water level showed a tendency to de crease with distance from the hypocenter, but no clear trend was found for the coseismic falls.

  6. Deriving the Properties of Coronal Pressure Fronts in 3D: Application to the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; De Rosa, M. L.; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical (M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  7. A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of total phosphate in selected surface water and groundwater bodies from Manzini and Lubombo regions of Swaziland were determined using UV spectroscopic method. Samples were collected from three rivers (upstream and downstream of each, three industrial effluents, one reservoir, one pond, one tap water and fifteen boreholes. Mean phosphate levels in the tap water and reservoir varied between 0.08-0.09 mg/L while for the river samples, the range was 0.11-0.37 and for the industrial discharge, it was 0.11-1.60 mg/L PO4–P. For the ground water systems it ranged between 0.10-0.49 mg/L PO4–P. The mean phosphate levels in all the analyzed surface and groundwater samples were below the recommended maximum contaminant level (MCL by SWSC (Swaziland Water Service Corporation – i.e. 1.0 mg/L for drinking water; 2.0 mg/L for rivers and industrial effluents, and the South African criterion of 1.0 mg/L PO4–P, for sewage effluents being discharged into receiving waters. However, pooled mean values for all the sites were higher than the USEPA criterion of 0.03 mg/L maximum for uncontaminated lakes. Dominant factors considered to have influenced the levels of phosphates in both the surface and groundwater samples analyzed include industrial activities (where present, agricultural activities (including livestock, population density, location (urban, suburban or rural, soil/rock type in the vicinity of the sampling point, climate and rainfall pattern of the area or region concerned.

  8. Assessing Vegetation Composition and Characteristics Using Ground-Level Hyperspectral Data in Northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    The study of ecosystem properties and processes through remote sensing allows ecological questions to be answered more efficiently for large geographical expanses than field work alone, especially in areas that are relatively inaccessible. These properties and processes are often studied at coarse spatial scales with multispectral data; however, the use of hyperspectral data to ask plant community and species-level questions is still a developing field. Many applications, such as understanding the influence of disturbances and assessing management strategies, need finer-scale information than is currently available using multispectral data. In this study, we used hyperspectral data to examine vegetation community properties in preparation for addressing these finer-scale questions. Specifically, we examined the ability to assess vegetation composition and diversity using ground-level hyperspectral data for early successional and other non-forested fields in north-central Virginia. Twelve 5m by 5m plots were established at which a vegetation survey was conducted at the ground, understory, and canopy levels at 0.5m intervals. We additionally collected twelve spectra with approximately 1m footprints at each plot. We then ran ordinations to assess clustering of plots by similarity in species compositions and assessed the spectral bands most strongly correlated with clustering. We found that plots do cluster by species composition, but the most influential wavelengths varied by year of data collection. In 2012, the most influential bands were in the near-infrared plateau region followed by some influence from the red region. The most influential bands in 2014 were in the blue-green and red regions. The correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity also differed by year; however, when an outlier was removed from each of the years, there was a weak positive correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity during both years. These results are

  9. Level 1 on-ground telemetry handling in Planck-LFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchei, A.; Frailis, M.; Maris, M.; Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Türler, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Franceschi, E.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Maino, D.; Maggio, G.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Sandri, M.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by covering the frequency range 30-70 GHz in three bands. The primary instrument data source are the temperature samples acquired by the 22 radiometers mounted on the Planck focal plane. Such samples represent the scientific data of LFI. In addition, the LFI instrument generates the so called housekeeping data by sampling regularly the on-board sensors and registers. The housekeeping data provides information on the overall health status of the instrument and on the scientific data quality. The scientific and housekeeping data are collected on-board into telemetry packets compliant with the ESA Packet Telemetry standards. They represent the primary input to the first processing level of the LFI Data Processing Centre. In this work we show the software systems which build the LFI Level 1. A real-time assessment system, based on the ESA SCOS 2000 generic mission control system, has the main purpose of monitoring the housekeeping parameters of LFI and detect possible anomalies. A telemetry handler system processes the housekeeping and scientific telemetry of LFI, generating timelines for each acquisition chain and each housekeeping parameter. Such timelines represent the main input to the subsequent processing levels of the LFI DPC. A telemetry quick-look system allows the real-time visualization of the LFI scientific and housekeeping data, by also calculating quick statistical functions and fast Fourier transforms. The LFI Level 1 has been designed to support all the mission phases, from the instrument ground tests and calibration to the flight operations, and developed according to the ESA engineering standards.

  10. Analysis of the Level-Release Polynomial from a Hydroelectric Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Hidalgo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic representation of the tailrace elevation as function of the water release can be modified, for example, by the geomorphologic impact of large floods. The level-release polynomial from a hydroelectric plant is important information to computational models used for optimization and simulation of the power generation systems operation. They depend on data quality to provide reliable results. Therefore, this paper presents a method for adjusting of the tailrace polynomial based on operation data recorded by the plant’s owner or company. The proposed method uses a non-linear regression tool, such as Trendline in Excel. A case study has been applied to the data from a large Brazilian hydroelectric plant whose operation is under the coordination of the Electric System ational Operator. The benefits of the data correction are analyzed using a simulation model for the hydroelectric plants operation. This simulator is used to reproduce the past operation of the plant, first with official data and second with adjusted data. The results show significant improvements in terms of quality of the data, contributing to bring the real and simulated operation closer.

  11. Preparations for the public release of high-level CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    McCauley, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration is preparing for a public release up to a half of the reconstructed collision data collected in 2010, in accordance with its commitment to open access and data preservation. Efforts are at present focused on the usability of the data in education. The data will be accompanied by example applications tailored for different levels, including ready-to-use web-based applications for histogramming or visualising individual collision events, and a virtual machine image of the CMS software environment that is compatible with these data. The VM image will contain instructions for using the data with the online applications as well as examples of simple analyses. The novelty of this initiative is two-fold: in terms of open science, it lies in releasing the data in a format that is good for analysis; from an outreach perspective, it is to provide the possibility for people outside CMS to build educational applications using our public data. CMS will rely on services for data preservation and open ...

  12. Analysis of the Level-Release Polynomial from a Hydroelectric Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Hidalgo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic representation of the tailrace elevation as function of the water release can be modified, for example, by the geomorphologic impact of large floods. The level-release polynomial from a hydroelectric plant is important information to computational models used for optimization and simulation of the power generation systems operation. They depend on data quality to provide reliable results. Therefore, this paper presents a method for adjusting of the tailrace polynomial based on operation data recorded by the plant’s owner or company. The proposed method uses a non-linear regression tool, such as Trendline in Excel. A case study has been applied to the data from a large Brazilian hydroelectric plant whose operation is under the coordination of the Electric System ational Operator. The benefits of the data correction are analyzed using a simulation model for the hydroelectric plants operation. This simulator is used to reproduce the past operation of the plant, first with official data and second with adjusted data. The results show significant improvements in terms of quality of the data, contributing to bring the real and simulated operation closer.

  13. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  14. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  15. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites

  16. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls.......Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls....

  17. Regaining the Moral High Ground on Gitmo...is there a Basis for released Guantanamo Detainees to Receive Reparations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    or 53 the Taliban.14 This action and the opening of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base detention facility served to mark the beginning for a new genre of...life of victims or on the experiences of horror .31 Any reparation program for released detainees would be well served to head thi 1Naomi Roht

  18. Communicating Nursing Care Using the Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 Care Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Susan A; Dolin, Gay; Buhl, Lindy; Sheide, Amy

    2016-03-01

    A care plan provides a patient, family, or community picture and outlines the care to be provided. The Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture (C-CDA) Release 2 Care Plan Document is used to structure care plan data when sharing the care plan between systems and/or settings. The American Nurses Association has recommended the use of two terminologies, Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for assessments and outcomes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for problems, procedures (interventions), outcomes, and observation findings within the C-CDA. This article describes C-CDA, introduces LOINC and SNOMED CT, discusses how the C-CDA Care Plan aligns with the nursing process, and illustrates how nursing care data can be structured and encoded within a C-CDA Care Plan.

  19. Solar cosmic rays during the extremely high ground level enhancement on 23 February 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belov

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The 23 February 1956 ground level enhancement of the solar cosmic ray intensity (GLE05 is the most famous among the proton events observed since 1942. But we do not have a great deal of information on this event due to the absence of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements at that time. Furthermore, there were no X-Ray or gamma observations and the information on the associated flare is limited. Cosmic ray data was obtained exclusively by ground level detectors of small size and in some cases of a non-standard design. In the present work all available data from neutron monitors operating in 1956 were analyzed, in order to develop a model of the solar cosmic ray behavior during the event. The time-dependent characteristics of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, cosmic ray anisotropy, and differential and integral fluxes have been evaluated utilizing different isotropic and anisotropic models. It is shown that the most outstanding features of this proton enhancement were a narrow and extremely intense beam of ultra-relativistic particles arriving at Earth just after the onset and the unusually high maximum solar particle energy. However, the contribution of this beam to the overall solar particle density and fluency was not significant because of its very short duration and small width. Our estimate of the integral flux for particles with energies over 100 MeV places this event above all subsequent. Perhaps the number of accelerated low energy particles was closer to a record value, but these particles passed mainly to the west of Earth.

    Many features of this GLE are apparently explained by the peculiarity of the particle interplanetary propagation from a remote (near the limb source. The quality of the available neutron monitor data does not allow us to be certain of some details; these may be cleared up by the incorporation into the analysis of data from muonic telescopes and ionization chambers

  20. Postural sway at ground and bevel levels in subjects with spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shin-Tsu; Ku, Chih-Hung

    2007-06-01

    To assess whether the postural function is impaired by comparing the performances in upright standing at ground and bevel levels in adult subjects with spina bifida occulta (SBO). Eighty subjects with SBO (38 with minor type and 42 with major type) and 35 healthy control subjects participated in the study. All participants performed ten tests while standing upright on a platform at ground level (0 degrees, baseline) and on a beveled surface (with their feet in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at 10 degrees and 20 degrees). Tests were done with their eyes open and closed. The postural sway was examined using a force platform (CATSYS, Danish) that records sway intensity and velocity. Sway intensity and sway velocity were universally associated with group, degree of bevel, open- or closed-eyes condition, and dorsiflexion or plantarflexion after adjusting for age and gender. With respect to sway intensity, the differences of minor or major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with control groups, whereas the differences between minor and major SBO were significant differences at 10 degrees and 20 degrees. With respect to sway velocity, the differences of major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with minor SBO and control groups, whereas the difference in minor SBO was only significant at 0 degrees when compared with control. Group differences (minor SBO vs. control, major SBO vs. control) showed a significant decrease in sway velocity when comparing at 10 degrees than at 0 degrees and at 20 degrees than at 0 degrees. In all subjects with SBO, the sway intensity/velocity values obtained with open eyes and with plantarflexion had lower values, when compared with values obtained with closed eyes and with dorsiflexion. This study supports the hypothesis that SBO impairs control of postural sway in both the resting upright and stressful postures. Our results imply that the larger the bone

  1. Comparison of temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Ozone Pollution at Ground Level in the Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Houfeng

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring data from ozone(O3) automatic stations in three typical cities with different climatic areas in the southern and northern parts of eastern China are used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of ozone pollution at ground level. The results show that ozone pollution level has distinct regional differences and the concentration in the suburbs is higher than that in the urban areas. The seasonal variation of ozone concentration in different climatic areas is greatly affected by the variation of precipitation. Ozone concentration in Shenyang and Beijing , in the temperate zone, has one perennial peak concentration, occurring in early summer,May or June. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou, in sub-tropical zone, has two peak values year round. The highest values occur in October and the secondary high value in June. The ozone season in the south is longer than that in the north. The annual average daily peak value of ozone concentrations in different climates usually occur around 3 pm. The diurnal variation range of ozone concentration declines with the increase of latitude. Ozone concentration does not elevate with the increase of traffic flow. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou has a distinct reverse relation to CO and NOx. This complicated non-linearity indicates that the equilibrium of ozone photochemical reaction has regional differences.Exceeding the rate of Beijing's 1h ozone concentration is higher than that of Guangzhou, whereas the average 8h ozone level is lower than that of Guangzhou, indicating that areas in low latitude are more easily affected by moderate ozone concentrations and longer exposure. Thus,China should work out standards for 8h ozone concentration.

  2. Craniosacral therapy and myofascial release in entry-level physical therapy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrett, S L

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to discover the extent to which craniosacral therapy (CST) and myofascial release (MFR) instruction are included in entry-level physical therapy curricula; 2) to determine the amount of faculty and program director interest in such instruction; and 3) to determine what educational materials, if any, are desired. A one-page questionnaire was distributed to the program directors of 109 accredited entry-level physical therapy programs in the United States. Of the 95 respondents, 1 (1%) included a unit on CST only, 14 (15%) included a unit on MFR only, 14 (15%) included units on both CST and MFR, and 66 (69%) included neither. The highest percentages of programs with CST and MFR units were entry-level masters' degree programs and programs located in the Pacific Coast and Middle Atlantic regions. All of the units were presented within required courses, usually during the second year; most were taught by physical therapists. The greatest amount of instructional time was allotted for CST laboratory sessions (mean = 5.8 hours), and the least amount of time was allotted for MFR lectures (mean = 1.7 hours). The mos frequently cited reason for noninclusion of CST or MFR instruction was inadequate room in the current curricula. The most frequently requested materials were bibliographies and laboratory guides on CST and MFR. Implications of these findings are addressed, and suggestions for further research are given.

  3. Ground-Level Geriatric Falls: A Not-So-Minor Mechanism of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Parker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ground-level falls are typically regarded as a minor mechanism of injury that do not necessitate trauma team activation; however, they represent a significant proportion of hospitalised trauma and can result in multisystem injury. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old nursing home resident was brought to the emergency department following an unwitnessed fall. She suffered dementia and had a seizure in the department resulting in a reduced GCS, making history and examination difficult. She was diagnosed with a right proximal humerus fracture and admitted under joint orthopedic and medical care. Following orthopedic review, further X-rays were requested which showed bilateral neck of femur fractures. The following day she had bilateral hip hemiarthroplasties and K-wire stabilisation of the right shoulder. Several days later, when cognition had improved, she was noted to be avoiding use of the left arm and was found to also have a left proximal humerus fracture which was managed conservatively. Conclusion. Trauma patients with reduced cognitive function should undergo full ATLS assessment, and a prospective trial is required to see if age should be incorporated as a criteria for trauma team activation. More liberal use of advanced imaging such as a full body CT-scan may be beneficial.

  4. The Time Structure of Ground Level Enhancements in Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraal, H.; McCracken, K. G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recent paper McCracken et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 113:A12101, 2008) proposed that the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 20 January 2005 may have been produced by more than one acceleration mechanism, with the first acceleration due to the solar flare and the second one due to the CME associated with that event. They also noted several other GLEs with similar multiple pulse structures. This paper systematically investigates all the GLEs of solar cycle 23, from GLE 55 on 6 November 1997 to GLE 70 on 13 December 2006, to study their morphology and pulse structure, and to determine whether the multiple structures that may be found in these events are qualitatively similar to that of the GLE of 20 January 2005. We use all the data of all NMs that saw each event, to have as much directional and spectral information as possible. It is shown that three of these 16 events do contain such double-pulse structures, and the properties of these three are discussed in some detail.

  5. Small Ground-Level Enhancement of 6 January 2014: Acceleration by CME-Driven Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Available spectral data for solar energetic particles (SEPs) measured near the Earth's orbit (GOES-13) and on the terrestrial surface (polar neutron monitors) on 6 January 2014 are analyzed. A feature of this solar proton event (SPE) and weak ground-level enhancement (GLE) is that the source was located behind the limb. For the purpose of comparison, we also use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data on sub-relativistic electrons and GOES-13 measurements of a strong and extended proton event on 8 - 9 January 2014. It was found that the surface observations at energies {>} 433 MeV and GOES-13 data at {>} 30 - {>} 700 MeV may be satisfactorily reconciled by a power-law time-of-maximum (TOM) spectrum with a characteristic exponential tail (cutoff). Some methodological difficulties of spectrum determination are discussed. Assuming that the TOM spectrum near the Earth is a proxy of the spectrum of accelerated particles in the source, we critically consider the possibility of shock acceleration to relativistic energies in the solar corona. Finally, it is suggested to interpret the observational features of this GLE under the assumption that small GLEs may be produced by shocks driven by coronal mass ejections. However, the serious limitations of such an approach to the problem of the SCR spectrum prevent drawing firm conclusions in this controversial field.

  6. Effects of 10% biofuel substitution on ground level ozone formation in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin; Milano, Aaron; Garivait, Savitri; Kamens, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Thai Government's search for alternatives to imported petroleum led to the consideration of mandating 10% biofuel blends (biodiesel and gasohol) by 2012. Concerns over the effects of biofuel combustion on ground level ozone formation in relation to their conventional counterparts need addressing. Ozone formation in Bangkok is explored using a trajectory box model. The model is compared against O 3, NO, and NO 2 time concentration data from air monitoring stations operated by the Thai Pollution Control Department. Four high ozone days in 2006 were selected for modeling. Both the traditional trajectory approach and a citywide average approach were used. The model performs well with both approaches but slightly better with the citywide average. Highly uncertain and missing data are derived within realistic bounds using a genetic algorithm optimization. It was found that 10% biofuel substitution will lead to as much as a 16 ppb peak O 3 increase on these four days compared to a 48 ppb increase due to the predicted vehicle fleet size increase between 2006 and 2012. The approach also suggests that when detailed meteorological data is not available to run three dimensional airshed models, and if the air is stagnant or predominately remains over an urban area during the day, that a simple low cost trajectory analysis of O 3 formation may be applicable.

  7. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  8. Radiological safety studies on ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Environmental simulation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Washio, Masakazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment)

    1982-03-01

    As the method of disposing low level radioactive wastes on land, the underground disposal method disposing the wastes in the structures constructed underground near the ground surface has been investigated as a feasible method. In order to contribute to the environmental safety assessment for this underground disposal method, environmental simulation test is planned at present, in which earth is sampled in the undisturbed state, and the behavior of radioactive nuclides is examined. The testing facilities are to be constructed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from fiscal 1981. First, the research made so far concerning the movement of radioactive nuclides in airing layer and aquifer which compose natural barrier is outlined. As for the environmental simulation test, the necessity and method of the test, earth sampling, the underground simulation facility and the contribution to environmental safety assessment are explained. By examining the movement of radioactive nuclides through natural barrier and making the effective mddel for the underground movement of radioactive nuclides, the environmental safety assessment for the disposal can be performed to obtain the national consensus.

  9. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  10. Aromatic volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports proton mass spectrometry data on aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and propylbenzene) obtained in different Russian regions along the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok, based on expedition data retrieved using the TRO-ICA-12 mobile laboratory in the summer of 2008. The contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation in the cities and regions along the measurement route has been estimated quantitatively. The greatest contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation is characteristic of large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway (up to 7.5 ppbv O3) specified by the highest concentrations of aromatic VOCs (1-1.7 ppbv) and nitrogen oxides (>20 ppbv). The results obtained are indicative of a considerable contribution (30-50%) of anthropogenic emissions of VOCs to photochemical ozone generation in the large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway in hot and dry weather against the background of a powerful natural factor such as isoprene emissions controlling the regional balance of ground-level ozone in warm seasons.

  11. Seasonal Variability of Ground Water Levels in the Puszcza Zielonka Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajewski Sylwester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies on seasonal variability of ground water tables recorded in long-term observations of water levels in the Puszcza Zielonka forest complex. The Puszcza Zielonka Forest is located in the middle part of the Warta basin in the central part of the Wielkopolska region. Its western boundary is located approx. 6 km north-east of Poznań. The area is situated in the western part of the Wielkopolska-Mazovian climatic region. The natural landscape is of young glacial type of Pleistocene and Holocene formation. For this reason parent materials for soils in this area were mainly postglacial drifts, deposits coming from the Poznań stage of the Würm glaciation. In terms of granulometric composition these were mainly low clayey sands deposited on loose sands with an admixture of gravel and eroded sandy clay. Scots pine is the dominant species. Oaks, alders, larches and scarce spruces are also found in this area. Predominant sites include fresh mixed forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest, fresh broadleaved forest and alder swamp forest.

  12. Analysis of Daytime and Nighttime Ground Level Ozone Concentrations Using Boosted Regression Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaitun Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the use of boosted regression trees (BRTs to draw an inference about daytime and nighttime ozone formation in a coastal environment. Hourly ground-level ozone data for a full calendar year in 2010 were obtained from the Kemaman (CA 002 air quality monitoring station. A BRT model was developed using hourly ozone data as a response variable and nitric oxide (NO, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx and meteorological parameters as explanatory variables. The ozone BRT algorithm model was constructed from multiple regression models, and the 'best iteration' of BRT model was performed by optimizing prediction performance. Sensitivity testing of the BRT model was conducted to determine the best parameters and good explanatory variables. Using the number of trees between 2,500-3,500, learning rate of 0.01, and interaction depth of 5 were found to be the best setting for developing the ozone boosting model. The performance of the O3 boosting models were assessed, and the fraction of predictions within two factor (FAC2, coefficient of determination (R2 and the index of agreement (IOA of the model developed for day and nighttime are 0.93, 0.69 and 0.73 for daytime and 0.79, 0.55 and 0.69 for nighttime respectively. Results showed that the model developed was within the acceptable range and could be used to understand ozone formation and identify potential sources of ozone for estimating O3 concentrations during daytime and nighttime. Results indicated that the wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature were the most dominant variables in terms of influencing ozone formation. Finally, empirical evidence of the production of a high ozone level by wind blowing from coastal areas towards the interior region, especially from industrial areas, was obtained.

  13. Characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations over contrasting land uses in a tropical urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, M.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Indian cities feature high human population density, heterogeneous traffic, mixed land-use patterns and mostly tropical meteorological conditions. Characteristics of ambient CO2 concentrations under these distinctive features are very specific and the related studies are limited. This paper presents the characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations at three contrasting land uses (residential, commercial and industrial) in a tropical urban area of India. The CO2 concentrations were monitored in Chennai city for 31 days at each land use during June-September, 2013. Emissions of CO2 from all the major anthropogenic sources present at the three study sites were also quantified. Results indicated that the daily average CO2 concentrations were high at commercial (467 ± 35.15 ppm) and industrial (464 ± 31.68 ppm) sites than at residential site (448 ± 33.45 ppm). The quantified CO2 emissions were also showed high levels at commercial (1190 tons/day) and industrial sites (8886 tons/day) than at residential site (90 tons/day). On a diurnal scale, CO2 concentrations were low during afternoons and high during the late evenings and early morning hours at all the three types of land use sites. At the urban residential site, the domestic sector had a strong impact on the day time CO2 concentrations, while soil and plant respiration phenomena had a greater control over the night time CO2 concentrations. Further, the CO2 concentrations were high during the stagnation and stable meteorological conditions than the ventilation and unstable conditions.

  14. An empirical method of RH correction for satellite estimation of ground-level PM concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Chen, Liangfu; Tao, Jinhua; Liu, Yang; Hu, Xuefei; Tao, Minghui

    2014-10-01

    A hygroscopic growth model suitable for local aerosol characteristics and their temporal variations is necessary for accurate satellite retrieval of ground-level particulate matters (PM). This study develops an empirical method to correct the relative humidity (RH) impact on aerosol extinction coefficient and to further derive PM concentrations from satellite observations. Not relying on detailed information of aerosol chemical and microphysical properties, this method simply uses the in-situ observations of visibility (VIS), RH and PM concentrations to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity, and thus makes the RH correction capable of supporting the satellite PM estimations with large spatial and temporal coverage. In this method, the aerosol average mass extinction efficiency (αext) is used to describe the general hygroscopic growth behaviors of the total aerosol populations. The association between αext and RH is obtained through empirical model fitting, and is then applied to carry out RH correction. Nearly one year of in-situ measurements of VIS, RH and PM10 in Beijing urban area are collected for this study and RH correction is made for each of the months with sufficient data samples. The correlations between aerosol extinction coefficients and PM10 concentrations are significantly improved, with the monthly correlation R2 increasing from 0.26-0.63 to 0.49-0.82, as well as the whole dataset's R2 increasing from 0.36 to 0.68. PM10 concentrations are retrieved through RH correction and validated for each season individually. Good agreements between the retrieved and observed PM10 concentrations are found in all seasons, with R2 ranging from 0.54 in spring to 0.73 in fall, and the mean relative errors ranging from -2.5% in winter to -10.8% in spring. Based on the satellite AOD and the model simulated aerosol profiles, surface PM10 over Beijing area is retrieved through the RH correction. The satellite retrieved PM10 and those observed at ground sites agree well

  15. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  16. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (level markers in GPR data from microtidal depositional environments. Nielsen and Clemmensen (2009) showed that iden......Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (... that identified downlap points in GPR data from Anholt (an island in the Kattegat Sea, Denmark) can be interpreted to mark sea level at the time of deposition. The data presented here support this hypothesis. The GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & Software antennae along...

  17. Risk-informed assessment of radionuclide release from dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae M., E-mail: tae.ahn@nrc.gov

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Dissolution of HLW waste form was assessed with long-term risk informed approach. • The radionuclide release rate decreases with time from the initial release rate. • Fast release radionuclides can be dispersed with discrete container failure time. • Fast release radionuclides can be restricted by container opening area. • Dissolved radionuclides may be further sequestered by sorption or others means. - Abstract: This paper aims to detail the different parameters to be considered for use in an assessment of radionuclide release. The dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste glass was considered for risk and performance insights in a generic disposal system for more than 100,000 years. The probabilistic performance assessment includes the waste form, container, geology, and hydrology. Based on the author’s previous extended work and data from the literature, this paper presents more detailed specific cases of (1) the time dependence of radionuclide release, (2) radionuclide release coupled with container failure (rate-limiting process), (3) radionuclide release through the opening area of the container and cladding, and (4) sequestration of radionuclides in the near field after container failure. These cases are better understood for risk and performance insights. The dissolved amount of waste form is not linear with time but is higher at first. The radionuclide release rate from waste form dissolution can be constrained by container failure time. The partial opening area of the container surface may decrease radionuclide release. Radionuclides sequestered by various chemical reactions in the near field of a failed container may become stable with time as the radiation level decreases with time.

  18. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  19. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  1. Comparison of ground reaction forces during the Basic Step on the Core Board platform at various levels of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewska, Magdalena; Madej, Anna; Sadowska, Aleksandra; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Urbanik, Czesław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine and compare the changes of ground reaction forces observed during the Basic Step on the Core Board fitness device at various levels of stability. The study involved 10 female students. Participants stepped on and off the Core Board 10 times at 3 levels of stability. After completing a series of steps, the Core Board's stability was modified and the participant repeated the whole series. The measurement platform to examine three components of the reaction force (horizontal in the sagittal and frontal planes, and vertical) was used. The ground reaction force (GRF) observed on the Core Board, in the vertical and horizontal components is higher at all three levels of stability than on the platform without the device. Significant differences in GRF were observed in the horizontal component in the frontal plane (Fz) at all three levels of mobility as well as in impulse, measured on platforms with the device. The results on the Core Board training device present highest horizontal ground reaction forces in frontal plane at the highest level of Core Board mobility and this showing little medio-lateral stability and a more reactive way of movement regulation of the participants. As a consequence of the force patterns found it may be suggested that fitness training concepts should focus more possibly higher strains on the locomotor system most likely caused by changed ground reaction force patterns, an idea that has to be further analyzed with more complex measurement approaches.

  2. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  3. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; COhen, C. M. S.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Haggerty, D. K.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPBX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from approximately 0.1 to approximately 500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from approximately 2 to approximately 46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at greater than 40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about approximately 50% of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive He-3-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, Ne-22/Ne-20, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These He-3 rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of (Q(sub Fe) is approximately equal to +20 if the acceleration starts at approximately 1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  4. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  5. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  6. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2011-07-01

    ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95 % level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, associated with this GLE, led to very small enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1 % and ozone decreases of less than 0.01 %.

  7. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2011-03-01

    this time period. Polar mesospheric enhancements of NOx are computed to be greater than 50 ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95% level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, not normally included in our computations, led to enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1% as a result of this GLE.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  9. Ground Maneuver and Air Interdiction: A Matter of Mutual Support at the Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    i title, "Air hiit , rdictiii anid thii Nced for Doictrinal hag, rteiRiuo20, I’all 1992. 3t1 8 Fuotrell, 546; 58 9. Otto P’. Weyliaid, holi Air...George H. Doran Co., 1927), 392. There is a striking resemblance here to the deceptive end run of US ground forces in Desert Storm and the ann~hilation

  10. Mesopredator release by an emergent superpredator: a natural experiment of predation in a three level guild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Nayden; Krüger, Oliver

    2010-12-06

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is widespread but it is often neglected that guilds commonly include many layers of dominance within. This could obscure the effects of IGP making unclear whether the intermediate or the bottom mesopredator will bear higher costs from the emergence of a new top predator. In one of the most extensive datasets of avian IGP, we analyse the impact of recolonization of a superpredator, the eagle owl Bubo bubo on breeding success, territorial dynamics and population densities of two mesopredators, the northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and its IG prey, the common buzzard Buteo buteo. The data covers more than two decades and encompass three adjacent plots. Eagle owls only recolonized the central plot during the second decade, thereby providing a natural experiment. Both species showed a decrease in standardized reproductive success and an increase in brood failure within 1.5 km of the superpredator. During the second decade, territory dynamics of goshawks was significantly higher in the central plot compared to both other plots. No such pattern existed in buzzards. Goshawk density in the second decade decreased in the central plot, while it increased in both other plots. Buzzard density in the second decade rapidly increased in the north, remained unchanged in the south and increased moderately in the center in a probable case of mesopredator release. Our study finds support for top-down control on the intermediate mesopredator and both top-down and bottom-up control of the bottom mesopredator. In the face of considerable costs of IGP, both species probably compete to breed in predator-free refugia, which get mostly occupied by the dominant raptor. Therefore for mesopredators the outcome of IGP might depend directly on the number of dominance levels which supersede them.

  11. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  12. Retrospective Comparison of Posaconazole Levels in Patients Taking the Delayed-Release Tablet versus the Oral Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durani, Urshila; Tosh, Pritish K; Barreto, Jason N; Estes, Lynn L; Jannetto, Paul J; Tande, Aaron J

    2015-08-01

    While posaconazole prophylaxis decreases the risk of invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole, low bioavailability of the oral-suspension formulation limits its efficacy. A new delayed-release tablet formulation demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers. However, serum levels for the two formulations have not been compared in clinical practice. This study compared achievement of therapeutic posaconazole levels in patients taking the delayed-release tablet to those taking the oral suspension. This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients initiated on posaconazole between 2012 and 2014 and had at least one serum posaconazole level measured. The primary measure was the proportion of patients achieving an initial therapeutic level (>700 ng/ml). An initial therapeutic posaconazole level was seen in 29 of 32 (91%) patients receiving tablets and 37 of 61 (61%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.003). Among patients with a steady-state level measured 5 to 14 days after initiation, a therapeutic level was observed in 18 of 20 (90%) patients receiving tablets and 25 of 43 (58%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.01). In these patients, the median posaconazole level of the tablet cohort (1655 ng/ml) was twice that of the suspension cohort (798 ng/ml) (P = 0.004). In this cohort study, the improved bioavailability of delayed-release posaconazole tablets translates into a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic serum levels than in the cohort receiving the oral suspension. The results of this study strongly support the use of delayed-release tablets over suspension in patients at risk for invasive fungal infection.

  13. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  14. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    Estimates of Holocene sea-level variations have been presented in a range of studies based on different approaches, including interpretation of internal beach ridge characteristics from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geomorphological data. We present GPR data and geomorphological observations...... of sea level variation and vertical land movement in southern Scandinavia in response to unloading after the last glaciation. We have tested the validity of downlap points, which marks the transition from beach to upper shoreface as sea-level markers. The test is based on comparative analyses...

  15. Alterations in local cerebral glucose metabolism and endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rolling mouse Nagoya and effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y

    1996-11-01

    To identify the brain region(s) responsible for the expression of ataxic gaits in an ataxic mutant mouse model, Rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN), changes in local cerebral glucose metabolism in various brain regions and the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate (TRH-T), together with alterations in endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels in the brains of RMN, were investigated. Ataxic mice [RMN (rol/rol)] showed significant decreases in glucose metabolism in regions of the diencephalon: thalamic dorsomedial nucleus, lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus; brain stem: substantia nigra, raphe nucleus and vestibular nucleus; and cerebellar nucleus as compared with normal controls [RMN (+/+)]. When RMN (rol/rol) was treated with TRH-T (10 mg/kg, equivalent to 7 mg/kg free TRH), glucose metabolism was significantly increased in these regions. These results suggest that these regions may be responsible for ataxia. We also found that TRH levels in the cerebellum and brain stem of RMN (rol/rol) were significantly higher than those of RMN (+/+). These results suggest that ataxic symptoms in RMN (rol/rol) may relate to the abnormal metabolism of TRH and energy metabolism in the cerebellum and/or brain stem and that exogenously given TRH normalizes them.

  16. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  17. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH.

  18. Analysis of the ground level enhancements on 14 July 2000 and on 13 December 2006 using neutron monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of neutron monitor data we estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction and pitch-angle distribution of solar energetic particles during two major ground level enhancements (GLE 59 on 14 July 2000 and GLE 70 on 13 December 2006). For the analysis we use a newly computed neutron monitor yield function. The method consists of several consecutive steps: definition of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations considered for the data analysis by computations of cosmic ray particles propagation in a model magnetosphere with the MAGNETOCOSMICS code; computation of the neutron monitor model responses and derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics on the basis of inverse problem solution. The pitch-angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of ground level enhancements. A comparison with previously reported results is performed and reasonable agreement is achieved. A discussion of the obtained res...

  19. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  20. Ethacrynic acid inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells: effect on cellular ATP levels and thiol groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    The experiments concerned the effect of ethacrynic acid (0.5 mM) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells and the effect on histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187 (10 microM). Ethacrynic acid decreased the ATP level of the cells in presence of antimycin A and glucose...... as well as in presence of 2-deoxyglucose. A23187-induced histamine release was inhibited by ethacrynic acid, and this inhibition was completely reversed by dithiothreitol. These observations may indicate that ethacrynic acid inhibits glycolytic and respiratory energy production in rat mast cells...

  1. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-Tae SOHN; Deuk-Kyun RHA; Young-Kyung SEO

    2003-01-01

    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematicerror of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values ofthe DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecastswith RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  2. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of a Vibrational Level Within the Electronic Ground State of a Polyatomic Molecule with Ultra Short Pulses Ludwig de Clercq1,2, Lourens Botha1,2, Hermann Uys1, Anton Du Plessis1,2, Erich Rohwer2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO BOX 395, Pretoria... al lbl d i I e I e dt ? , )? ? ? ? ?=?= ??h (1) where, , .a b a b? ? ?= ? , (2) ?ab gives the elements of the density matrix, ?a the frequencies...

  3. Mid-pregnancy corticotropin-releasing hormone levels in association with postpartum depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iliadis, Stavros I; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Olivier, Jocelien D.; Schijven, Dick; Comasco, Erika; Chrousos, George P; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripartum depression is a common cause of pregnancy- and postpartum-related morbidity. The production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the placenta alters the profile of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones and may be associated with postpartum depression. The purpo

  4. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  5. Coseismic Ground level Changes Associated with the Great Andaman-Sumatra Earthquake: A Tour from Nicobar to North Andaman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, K.; Rajendran, C.; Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone led to significant ground level changes, uplift as well as subsidence of land, along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Falling nearly 400 km north of the epicenter of the main shock, and extending northwards, the second phase of the rupture observed in these islands account for more about two thirds of the total rupture. Ground level changes were observed along both the eastern and western margins of the islands. The western margins were generally characterized by uplift of about 1m, while the eastern margins subsided by nearly 1 m, permanently submerging many parts of these islands. Elevated beaches, uplifted coral colonies and biological markers such as mangroves, lines of barnacles on rock exposures and man-made structures provide spectacular visual effects of ground uplift. Along the western margin of the Interview Island, in the middle Andamans, we observed at least two older terraces, probably formed by the predecessors of the 2004 earthquake. In the Diglipur region, north Andaman, we observed elevation change of about 1 m, and in this part of the arc, both the western and eastern margins are characterized by uplift. Coseismic vertical offset observed from GPS data suggest a change of +0.6m at Diglipur, a region that also marks the termination of rupture in the north. Field observations conform to nearly +1m change in this region. Maximum subsidence of nearly 1.5 m was documented in Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, and a GPS site there shows a change in elevation of -1.05m. This paper gives a short tour of the sites of ground level changes from Car Nicobar in the south to Diglipur in the North Andaman.

  6. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  7. Study of the Forbush Decreases, Geomagnetic Storms, and Ground-Level Enhancements in Selected Intervals and Their Space Weather Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Kumar, Anand

    2015-04-01

    We analysed geomagnetic storms, ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and Forbush decreases in cosmic-ray intensity that occurred in selected intervals. We used data of ground-based neutron monitors for the cosmic-ray intensity. We used the geomagnetic index Dst as a measure of the geomagnetic storm intensity. Solar observations and interplanetary plasma/field parameters were used to identify the solar cause(s), interplanetary structure(s), and physical mechanism(s) responsible for the geomagnetic storms, the Forbush decreases, and the GLEs of different amplitudes and time profiles; all of them occurring within four selected periods of one month each. The observed differences in cosmic-ray and geomagnetic-activity responses to the same solar sources were used to distinguish the structures and mechanisms responsible for transient cosmic-ray modulation and geomagnetic storms.

  8. Characteristic of water level changes in river-bed during the 2012 drought in context of ground water levels in a small catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewicz, Michał; Kaznowska, Ewa; Hejduk, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the water level changes in river bed during the 2012 drought, in the context of ground water levels in the catchment. During the growing season , and long- lasting lack of precipitation causes atmospheric drought. Prolonged lack of precipitation causes depletion of water resources in the saturated zone . Groundwater recharge of rivers decreases , and hence streamflow droughts (summer droughts) occur, which is identified as hydrological droughts. In the phase of hydrological drought a much stronger relationship between surface and ground waters is observed. The study area is the Zagożdżonka river. The Zagożdzonka catchment is situated in the strip of the Central Polish Lowlands, in the region where droughts are the most frequent. The basin is the research area of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of WUoLS-SGGW in Warsaw. It is one of the few catchments in Poland, with long-term records of rainfall and runoff occurrences. Hydrometeorological measurements are carried out from July 1962. The catchment area is mainly covered by one Quaternary aquifer . Quaternary layer is composed mostly of Pleistocene sands and gravels, with thickness from 4 to 40 m. Aquifer is at a depth of 1 to 12 m below ground level and is unconfined and fed by direct infiltration of precipitation. The Zagożdżonka river is the main drainage in the local hydrologic cycle. There is a strong relationship between surface waters and occurring in the Quaternary sediments. In the hydrological year 2012 hydrological and atmospheric drought occurred. The duration and deficit of streamflow drought ( defined by with the Q90 % truncation level) in 2012 was three time greater than the average value from the multi-annual period, which influenced the groundwater level fluctuations. Acknowledgment The paper has been prepared with financial support by a grant from National Science Centre

  9. Pushing For Privileged Passage: A grounded theory of guardians to middle level mathematics students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This grounded theory research identified conflict over decisions about placement into high ability mathematics classes. A theory termed pushing for privileged passage emerged from data collected from parents and educators in the Northwest United States as well as international literature. Pushing occurs following a break down of trust among parents and/or educators over various facets of the school and over student abilitygrouping decisions in mathematics specifically. Subsequently they try to circumvent the system to gain advantaged placement for specific students. Those who push use investing strategies to insure a child’s future success. They use pressuring techniques on decision-makers to garner advanced mathematics access. Finally, those who push use strategic lobbying for program changes.

  10. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  11. Effects on the crank torque profile when changing pedalling cadence in level ground and uphill road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William; Grappe, Frederic; Girard, Amaury; Betik, Andrew; Rouillon, Jean Denis

    2005-05-01

    Despite the importance of uphill cycling performance during cycling competitions, there is very little research investigating uphill cycling, particularly concerning field studies. The lack of research is partly due to the difficulties in obtaining data in the field. The aim of this study was to analyse the crank torque in road cycling on level and uphill using different pedalling cadences in the seated position. Seven male cyclists performed four tests in the seated position (1) on level ground at 80 and 100 rpm, and (2) on uphill road cycling (9.25% grade) at 60 and 80 rpm.The cyclists exercised for 1 min at their maximal aerobic power. The bicycle was equipped with the SRM Training System (Schoberer, Germany) for the measurement of power output (W), torque (Nm), pedalling cadence (rpm), and cycling velocity (km h(-1)). The most important finding of this study indicated that at maximal aerobic power the crank torque profile (relationship between torque and crank angle) varied substantially according to the pedalling cadence and with a minor effect according to the terrain. At the same power output and pedalling cadence (80 rpm) the torque at a 45 degrees crank angle tended (p cycling compared to level cycling. During uphill cycling at 60 rpm the peak torque was increased by 42% compared with level ground cycling at 100 rpm. When the pedalling cadence was modified, most of the variations in the crank torque profile were localised in the power output sector (45 degrees to 135 degrees).

  12. Release of zinc and cadmium from sludge amended soil as influenced by varying levels of moisture and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C; Bandyopadhayay, K K

    2015-07-01

    Limited information is available related to the effect of moisture and temperature on release of metals from sludge treated soils. In an incubation experiment, effect of ten levels of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142, 285 g kg(-1)), two levels of moisture (field capacity and 2.5 cm standing water) and two levels of temperature (20 and 35 degrees C) on the release of zinc and cadmium was evaluated in acid and alkaline soils. The results indicated that application of sludge was more effective in enhancing EDTA extractable Zn and Cd in acid soil than in alkaline soil. On an average, maximum increase in release of EDTA extractable Zn and Cd were 32.0 and 5.2 fold in sludge treated soil over control. There was decrease in EDTA extractable Zn and Cd by 37.7% and 25.4%, respectively under submergence as compared to that under field capacity. On an average, the amount of EDTA extractable Zn and Cd increased by 22.6% and 43.6%, respectively at 35 degrees C than that at 20 degrees C.

  13. Difficulties in Interpreting Ballast Degradation Level Estimates from Synthetic Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, K. M.; Hendry, M. T.; Martin, C. D.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    As fine-grained particles accumulate within railway ballast, it becomes more susceptible to differential deformations, which leads to the loss of proper track alignment and an increased risk for car derailment. Methods for estimating the ballast degradation level from low-frequency (signals makes the quantificaion of ballast degradation levels difficult.

  14. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  15. Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF-α release in pro-inflammatory macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabany, Abbas Jawad; Moody, Alan John; Foey, Andrew David; Billington, Richard Andrew

    2016-01-13

    Metabolism and immune responses have been shown to be closely linked and as our understanding increases, so do the intricacies of the level of linkage. NAD(+) has previously been shown to regulate tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis and TNF-α has been shown to regulate NAD(+) homoeostasis providing a link between a pro-inflammatory response and redox status. In the present study, we have used THP-1 differentiation into pro- (M1-like) and anti- (M2-like) inflammatory macrophage subset models to investigate this link further. Pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages showed different resting NAD(+) levels and expression levels of NAD(+) homoeostasis enzymes. Challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory stimulus for macrophages, caused a large, biphasic and transient increase in NAD(+) levels in pro- but not anti-inflammatory macrophages that were correlated with TNF-α release and inhibition of certain NAD(+) synthesis pathways blocked TNF-α release. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation also caused changes in mRNA levels of some NAD(+) homoeostasis enzymes in M1-like cells. Surprisingly, despite M2-like cells not releasing TNF-α or changing NAD(+) levels in response to lipopolysaccharide, they showed similar mRNA changes compared with M1-like cells. These data further strengthen the link between pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and NAD(+). The agonist-induced rise in NAD(+) shows striking parallels to well-known second messengers and raises the possibility that NAD(+) is acting in a similar manner in this model.

  16. Interference at the Single Photon Level Along Satellite-Ground Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele; Tomasin, Marco; Vedovato, Francesco; Schiavon, Matteo; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Quantum interference arising from the superposition of states is striking evidence of the validity of quantum mechanics, confirmed in many experiments and also exploited in applications. However, as for any scientific theory, quantum mechanics is valid within the limits in which it has been experimentally verified. In order to extend such limits, it is necessary to observe quantum interference in unexplored conditions such as moving terminals at large distances in space. Here, we experimentally demonstrate single photon interference at a ground station due to the coherent superposition of two temporal modes reflected by a rapidly moving satellite a thousand kilometers away. The relative speed of the satellite induces a varying modulation in the interference pattern. The measurement of the satellite distance in real time by laser ranging allows us to precisely predict the instantaneous value of the interference phase. We then observed the interference patterns with a visibility up to 67% with three different satellites and with a path length up to 5000 km. Our results attest to the viability of photon temporal modes for fundamental tests of physics and quantum communication in space.

  17. Systemic levels of metallic ions released from orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Liliane Siqueira; Serra, Glaucio Guimarães; Albuquerque Palermo, Elisabete Fernandes; Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Müller, Carlos Alberto; Meyers, Marc André; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2009-04-01

    Orthodontic mini-implants are a potential source of metallic ions to the human body because of the corrosion of titanium (Ti) alloy in body fluids. The purpose of this study was to gauge the concentration of Ti, aluminum (Al), and vanadium (V), as a function of time, in the kidneys, livers, and lungs of rabbits that had Ti-6Al-4V alloy orthodontic mini-implants placed in their tibia. Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Four orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the left proximal tibia of 18 rabbits. Five control rabbits had no orthodontic mini-implants. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, the rabbits were killed, and the selected tissues were extracted and prepared for analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Low amounts of Ti, Al, and V were detectable in the 1-week, 4-weeks, and 12-weeks groups, confirming that release of these metals from the mini-implants occurs, with diffusion and accumulation in remote organs. Despite the tendency of ion release when using the Ti alloy as orthodontic mini-implants, the amounts of metals detected were significantly below the average intake of these elements through food and drink and did not reach toxic concentrations.

  18. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  19. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  20. Effect of copper and aluminium on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altameemi, Rasha N. I.; Gopir, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we determine the effect of aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) shielding on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level. The experiment was performed at Bangi in Malaysia with coordinates of 101.78° E, 2.92° N and elevation 30 m above sea level. Measurements were made along the vertical direction using muon telescopes (MTs) of parallel Geiger-Muller (GM) tubes with metal sheets above the MTs of up to 2.4 cm for Al and 2.7 cm for Cu. For these ranges of metal thicknesses, we find that the muon count rates increase linearly with the increase in metal thicknesses. The observed increase rate values are (0.18 ± 0.10) cm-1 and (0.26 ± 0.10)cm-1 for Al and Cu, respectively, with the larger value for Cu as expected from its higher atomic number and density. This indicates that for this thickness range, only the lower region of the Rossi curve is observed, with incoming cosmic ray muons producing charged particles in the metal layers, resulting in shower events or electromagnetic cascade. Thus, for this range of layer thickness, both aluminium and copper are not suitable to be used as shielding materials for ground level cosmic ray muons.

  1. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-TaeSOHN; Deuk-KyunRHA; Young-KyungSEO

    2003-01-01

    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematic error of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values of the DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecasts with RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  2. Measurement of solar radiation at ground level in the region 1950-2150 A using ammonia actinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, P.; Reeves, R. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The use of ammonia as an actinometer for measurement of the solar flux in the region 1950-2150 A is presented. The solar flux was found to be 270 million photons/sq cm per sec at ground level in this wavelength interval in an area with minimum overhead ozone concentration. The advantages of this method over previously used methods are discussed, and the results are related to the present estimates of the tropospheric photodissociation rates for the freons CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 by radiation in this wavelength region.

  3. Accurate Determination of Rotational Energy Levels in the Ground State of ^{12}CH_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Iwakuni, K.; Okubo, S.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have measured absolute frequencies of saturated absorption of 183 allowed and 21 forbidden transitions in the νb{3} band of ^{12}CH_4 using an optical comb-referenced difference-frequency-generation spectrometer from 86.8 to 93.1 THz (from 2890 to 3100 wn). The pump and signal sources are a 1.06-μ m Nd:YAG laser and a 1.5-μ m extended-cavity laser diode. An enhanced-cavity absorption cell increases the optical electric field and enhances the sensitivity. The typical uncertainty is 3 kHz for the allowed transitions and 12 kHz for the forbidden transitions. Twenty combination differences are precisely determined, and the scalar rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the ground state are thereby yielded as r@ = l@ r@ = l B_{{s}} (157 122 614.2 ± 1.5) kHz, D_{{s}} (3 328.545 ± 0.031) kHz, H_{{s}} (190.90 ± 0.26) Hz, and L_{{s}} (-13.16 ± 0.76) mHz. Here, B_{{s}} is the rotational constant and D_{{s}}, H_{{s}} and L_{{s}} are the scalar quartic, sextic, octic distortion constants. The relative uncertainties are considerably smaller than those obtained from global analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba and H. Sasada, Opt. Express 19, 23878 (2011). M. Abe, K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, and H. Sasada, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published). S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. -P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, Chem. Phys. 356, 131 (2009).

  4. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on gonadotropin levels in Masu salmon and Sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    The salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) is considered to be involved in gonadal maturation via gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in salmonid fishes. However, there is no direct evidence for endogenous sGnRH-stimulated GTH secretion in salmonids. In this study, to clarify whether endogenous sGnRH stimulates GTH secretion, we examined the effects of the mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) antagonist [Ac-Delta(3)-Pro(1), 4FD-Phe(2), D-Trp(3,6)]-mGnRH on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 0-year-old masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou and sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. First, the effects of the GnRH antagonist on LH release were examined in 0-year-old precocious male masu salmon. GnRH antagonist treatment for 3 hr significantly inhibited an increase in plasma LH levels that was artificially induced by exogenous sGnRH administration, indicating that the GnRH antagonist is effective in inhibiting LH release from the pituitary. Subsequently, we examined the effect of the GnRH antagonist on LH synthesis in 0-year-old immature sockeye salmon that were pretreated with exogenous testosterone for 42 days to increase the pituitary LH contents; the testosterone treatment did not affect the plasma LH levels. GnRH antagonist treatment slightly but significantly inhibited an increase in the testosterone-stimulated pituitary LH content levels. However, no significant differences in the plasma LH levels were observed between the GnRH antagonist-treated and control groups. These results suggest that endogenous sGnRH is involved in LH secretion in salmonid fishes.

  5. Hazardous substance releases at the community level: a practical approach to analyzing potential health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, L; Narkunas, D

    1994-07-01

    1. When a hazardous substance release occurs in a community, public health nurses must consider whether community members have been exposed, and whether that exposure is sufficient to impact public health. 2. An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from some source of contamination. The exposure pathway method is effective in determining whether community members are exposed to hazardous substances in their community. 3. After determining a completed exposure pathway, a toxicological analysis estimates the dose of hazardous substances community members may have received and whether that dose may increase risks for an adverse health effect. 4. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides information to health care professionals that can assist them in conducting exposure and toxicological analyses.

  6. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Assessment of the Current Level of Innovation Receptivity of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelianov Oleksandr Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies and generalises existing approaches to identification of criteria of assessment of innovation receptivity of subjects of economic activity and also marks out main groups of methods of this assessment. It provides a chain of competences of an enterprise in the sphere of management of its innovation activity, which meets its passive and active innovation receptivity, which lies in the foundation of formation of the multiplicative approach to assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of an enterprise. The article offers complex qualitative and quantitative indicators of active and also passive innovation receptivity of an enterprise. Further studies of the issue of assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of economic subjects require clarification of capabilities of a more complete consideration of influence of the obtained financial results from the enterprise innovation activity upon this level.

  7. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Juan F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest

  8. Grounding cognitive-level processes in behavior: the view from dynamic systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Jenkins, Gavin W; Spencer, John P

    2015-04-01

    Marr's seminal work laid out a program of research by specifying key questions for cognitive science at different levels of analysis. Because dynamic systems theory (DST) focuses on time and interdependence of components, DST research programs come to very different conclusions regarding the nature of cognitive change. We review a specific DST approach to cognitive-level processes: dynamic field theory (DFT). We review research applying DFT to several cognitive-level processes: object permanence, naming hierarchical categories, and inferring intent, that demonstrate the difference in understanding of behavior and cognition that results from a DST perspective. These point to a central challenge for cognitive science research as defined by Marr-emergence. We argue that appreciating emergence raises questions about the utility of computational-level analyses and opens the door to insights concerning the origin of novel forms of behavior and thought (e.g., a new chess strategy). We contend this is one of the most fundamental questions about cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  10. Hexabromocyclododecane inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Milou M L; Heusinkveld, Harm J; de Groot, Aart; Bergman, Ake; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2009-02-01

    Environmental levels of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) have been increasing. HBCD has been shown to cause adverse effects on learning and behavior in mice, as well as on dopamine uptake in rat synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. For other BFRs, alterations in the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis have been observed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the technical HBCD mixture and individual stereoisomers affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a neuroendocrine in vitro model (PC12 cells). [Ca(2+)](i) and vesicular catecholamine release were measured using respectively single-cell Fura-2 imaging and amperometry. Exposure of PC12 cells to the technical HBCD mixture or individual stereoisomers did neither affect basal [Ca(2+)](i), nor the frequency of basal neurotransmitter release. However, exposure to HBCD (0-20 microM) did cause a dose-dependent reduction of a subsequent depolarization-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i). This effect was apparent only when HBCD was applied at least 5 min before depolarization (maximum effect after 20 min exposure). The effects of alpha- and beta-HBCD were comparable to that of the technical mixture, whereas the inhibitory effect of gamma-HBCD was larger. Using specific blockers of L-, N- or P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) it was shown that the inhibitory effect of HBCD is not VGCC-specific. Additionally, the number of cells showing depolarization-evoked neurotransmitter release was markedly reduced following HBCD exposure. Summarizing, HBCD inhibits depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) and neurotransmitter release. As increasing HBCD levels should be anticipated, these findings justify additional efforts to establish an adequate exposure, hazard and risk assessment.

  11. Clock-controlled rhythm of ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph and testes, and its relation to sperm release in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Marta A; Maksimiuk-Ramirez, Ewa; Ciuk, Marcin A; Kotwica, Joanna; Bebas, Piotr

    2009-05-01

    In Spodoptera littoralis, testicular sperm release occurs in a daily rhythm, which is controlled by endogenous circadian oscillator located in the male reproductive system. Although this rhythm is essential for male fertility, factors that initiate and maintain daily sperm release are not understood. In this study, we investigated a modulatory role for ecdysteroids in the sperm release rhythm and identified the source of ecdysteroids in adult males. We found that the onset of sperm release occurs two days pre-eclosion and coincides with a significant decrease in haemolymph ecdysteroids levels. 20-HE injection into the pupae prior to the first sperm release delayed its initiation and disrupted the developing rhythm in a dose dependent manner. 20-HE injection into adults depressed the number of sperm bundles leaving the testes. A day before the initial sperm release, ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph and testes begin to oscillate in a circadian fashion. Ecdysteroid rhythms continue throughout imaginal life and correlate with the rhythm of sperm release. In each cycle, testicular sperm release coincides with a trough in testicular ecdysteroid concentration. Rhythmic changes in ecdysteroid levels are regulated by an endogenous circadian oscillator that continues to function in decapitated males. The generation of a complete cycle of ecdysteroid release by testes cultured in vitro indicates that this oscillator is located in the gonads. The haemolymph ecdysteroid levels are significantly lower and arrhythmic in males with removed testes, indicating that the testes are an important ecdysteroid source that may contribute to oscillations in haemolymph ecdysteroid levels.

  12. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  13. Analysis of the ground level enhancement on 17 May 2012 using data from the global neutron monitor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed the data of the world neutron monitor network for the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24, the ground level enhancement (GLE) on 17 May 2012. A newly computed neutron monitor yield function and an inverse method are applied to estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, and pitch angle distribution of the high-energy solar particles in interplanetary space. The method includes the determination of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations through computations of trajectories of cosmic rays in a model magnetosphere. The cosmic ray particle trajectories are determined with the GEANT-based MAGNETOCOSMICS code using Tsyganenko 1989 and International Geomagnetic Reference Field models. Subsequent calculation of the neutron monitor responses with the model function is carried out, that represents an initial guess of the inverse problem. Derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics is fulfilled by fitting the data of the global neutron monitor network using the Levenberg-Marquardt method over the nine-dimensional parameter space. The pitch angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of the GLE. The angular distribution appears quite complicated. It comprises a focused beam along the interplanetary magnetic field line from the Sun and a loss-cone feature around the opposite direction, possibly indicative of the particle transport in interplanetary magnetic field structures associated with previous coronal mass ejections.

  14. Ground-level climate at a peatland wind farm in Scotland is affected by wind turbine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Burton, Ralph R.; Lee, Susan E.; Mobbs, Stephen; Ostle, Nicholas; Smith, Victoria; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    The global drive to produce low-carbon energy has resulted in an unprecedented deployment of onshore wind turbines, representing a significant land use change for wind energy generation with uncertain consequences for local climatic conditions and the regulation of ecosystem processes. Here, we present high-resolution data from a wind farm collected during operational and idle periods that shows the wind farm affected several measures of ground-level climate. Specifically, we discovered that operational wind turbines raised air temperature by 0.18 °C and absolute humidity (AH) by 0.03 g m-3 during the night, and increased the variability in air, surface and soil temperature throughout the diurnal cycle. Further, the microclimatic influence of turbines on air temperature and AH decreased logarithmically with distance from the nearest turbine. These effects on ground-level microclimate, including soil temperature, have uncertain implications for biogeochemical processes and ecosystem carbon cycling, including soil carbon stocks. Consequently, understanding needs to be improved to determine the overall carbon balance of wind energy.

  15. Gpm Level 1 Science Requirements: Science and Performance Viewed from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W.; Kirstetter, P.; Wolff, D.; Kidd, C.; Tokay, A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Grecu, M.; Huffman, G.; Jackson, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    GPM meets Level 1 science requirements for rain estimation based on the strong performance of its radar algorithms. Changes in the V5 GPROF algorithm should correct errors in V4 and will likely resolve GPROF performance issues relative to L1 requirements. L1 FOV Snow detection largely verified but at unknown SWE rate threshold (likely < 0.5 –1 mm/hr/liquid equivalent). Ongoing work to improve SWE rate estimation for both satellite and GV remote sensing.

  16. Level ground and uphill cycling ability in elite female mountain bikers and road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, F M; Ebert, T; Sassi, A; Menaspà, P; Rampinini, E; Martin, D T

    2008-02-01

    This study compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of elite female mountain bikers with road cyclists of different specialties and competitive level. Twenty-seven professional road cyclists and 12 mountain bikers (MTB) were involved. Road cyclists were classified as flat specialists (n = 10, FL), time trialists (n = 5, TT) and climbers (n = 12, C). From these cyclists two subgroups were obtained and compared: world class road cyclists (n = 5) and MTB (n = 5). Maximum oxygen uptake, peak power output, oxygen uptake at respiratory compensation point and power output at respiratory compensation point were determined in the laboratory. Body surface area and frontal area were also estimated. TT and FL showed higher body mass, body surface and frontal area compared with C and MTB. Absolute physiological parameters were generally higher in TT than the other groups. The same parameters normalized by body mass were similar between TT, C and MTB but higher compared to FL. No differences were found between world class road cyclists compared with top level MTB. These results confirm that a cyclist's morphological characteristics are important determinants of female cycling performance. Female MTB have anthropometric characteristics similar to road climbers, whilst the physiological profile was not different between time trialists and climbers. This suggests that, as for male professional cyclists, top level time trialists have an overall performance advantage over all types of terrain.

  17. Progress in understanding the formation of fine particulate matter and ground-level ozone in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Junyu; Shao, Min; Wang, Xinming

    2015-12-01

    In the past three decades, the Pearl River Delta of China has been suffered from severe air pollution due to the rapid increase in energy consumption associated with industrialization and urbanization of the region. The number of hazy days, increased from below 20 days in a year before 1970, to more than 150 days a year during 1980 and 2000. The ground-level ozone levels have also on the rise, with hourly concentration of 160 ppbv being observed in Guangzhou and 201 ppbv in nearby Hong Kong (Zhang et al., 2008). The ozone pollution has been difficult to reduce even in air quality improvement program for the Guangzhou Asian Games (Liu et al., 2013).

  18. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... actual monitoring. In a response to the acute characteristics of air pollution, the basic principle is that up-to-date and accurate information about air pollution levels will help 1) citizens to protect their health, 2) policy makers in assessing the state of the environment, and 3) researchers...... in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air...

  19. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  20. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  1. Ground radiometric investigation of natural radiation levels and their radiological effects in Akpabuyo, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E.; Paul, Nnana D.; Uwah, Edet J.

    2016-11-01

    Ground investigations of the activity concentrations from primordial radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) were conducted in Akpabuyo, southeastern Nigeria. These investigations were aimed at assessing the magnitude and spatial distribution of activity concentrations from primordial radionuclides. Also, radiological hazard assessment and their associated risk to both human environmental healths and suitability of soils in the area for constructing dwellings places will be made. Instrument used for the investigations, which were conducted both randomly and along 6 profiles with inter-profile distance of 100 m, was a potable GRS-2 model of a Pico Envirotec spectrometer. Activity concentrations in the area, which vary with spatial distribution of soil texture, lithology, land use and topography, range between 2.22 and 116.09 Bq kg-1 (mean of 34.67 Bq kg-1) for 238U, 3.65-87.41 Bq kg-1 (mean of 38.59 Bq kg-1) for 232Th and 6.26-384.99 Bq kg-1 (mean of 114.66 Bq kg-1) for 40K. The mean activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th are marginally higher than world averages of 30 and 39 Bq kg-1 respectively. However, the activity concentration of 40K, which is the most abundant radionuclide (60.02%), is less than the world average of 400 Bq kg-1. Results obtained from skew and kurtosis analyses of the activity concentration data show that the distribution of 238U and 232Th radionuclides in the soils is nearly symmetrical. The radiological hazard indicators computed from the activity concentrations of the radionuclides are all below maximum permissible limits. For instance, values of radium equivalent, which vary from 41.72 to 171.02 Bq kg-1 (average of 98.68 Bq kg-1), are below the permissible limit of 370 Bq kg-1. External and internal hazard indices vary between 0.11 and 0.46 Bq kg-1 (mean of 0.27 Bq kg-1) and 0.14-0.72 Bq kg-1 (mean of 0.36 Bq kg-1) respectively. These results are below the 1 Bq kg-1 benchmark required for materials to be safe for use in constructing

  2. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.delahaye@univ-reims.fr; Rey, Michaël, E-mail: michael.rey@univ-reims.fr; Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, BP 1039, F-51687, Reims Cedex 2 (France); Nikitin, Andrei [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055 Tomsk, Russia and Quamer, State University of Tomsk (Russian Federation); Szalay, Péter G. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-09-14

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  3. Effects of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the unaffected leg during level-ground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; D'Andrea, Susan

    2013-06-07

    People with a lower-extremity amputation that use conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prostheses encounter a series of stress-related challenges during walking such as greater forces on their unaffected leg, and may thus be predisposed to secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as chronic joint disorders. Specifically, people with a unilateral transtibial amputation have an increased susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis, especially in their unaffected leg. Previous studies have hypothesized that the development of this disorder is linked to the abnormally high peak knee external adduction moments encountered during walking. An ankle-foot prosthesis that supplies biomimetic power could potentially mitigate the forces and knee adduction moments applied to the unaffected leg of a person with a transtibial amputation, which could, in turn, reduce the risk of knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that compared to using a passive-elastic prosthesis, people with a transtibial amputation using a powered ankle-foot prosthesis would have lower peak resultant ground reaction forces, peak external knee adduction moments, and corresponding loading rates applied to their unaffected leg during walking over a wide range of speeds. We analyzed ground reaction forces and knee joint kinetics of the unaffected leg of seven participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation and seven age-, height- and weight-matched non-amputees during level-ground walking at 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 m/s. Subjects with an amputation walked while using their own passive-elastic prosthesis and a powered ankle-foot prosthesis capable of providing net positive mechanical work and powered ankle plantar flexion during late stance. Use of the powered prosthesis significantly decreased unaffected leg peak resultant forces by 2-11% at 0.75-1.50 m/s, and first peak knee external adduction moments by 21 and 12% at 1.50 and 1.75 m/s, respectively. Loading rates were not significantly different

  4. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of Actinides in Ground- and Seawater: An Innovative Method Allowing for the Simultaneous Analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm Isotopes below ppq Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Francesca; Golser, Robin; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schäfer, Thorsten; Steier, Peter; Geckeis, Horst

    2015-06-02

    (236)U, (237)Np, and Pu isotopes and (243)Am were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq (fg/g) with a maximum sample size of 250 g. Such high sensitivity was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) with extreme selectivity and recently improved efficiency and a significantly simplified separation chemistry. The use of nonisotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow for the determination of (237)Np and (243)Am, for which isotopic tracers either are rarely available or suffer from various isobaric mass interferences. In the present study, actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide coprecipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated by the analysis of the Reference Material IAEA 443 and was applied to groundwater samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) project at the deep underground rock laboratory of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) and to natural water samples affected solely by global fallout. While the precision of the presented analytical method is somewhat limited by the use of nonisotopic spikes, the sensitivity allows for the determination of ∼10(5) atoms in a sample. This provides, e.g., the capability to study the long-term release and retention of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems by tracing contamination from global fallout.

  5. AMS of actinides in ground- and seawater: a new procedure for simultaneous analysis of U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes below ppq levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    U-236, Np-237, Pu isotopes and Am-243 were determined in ground- and seawater samples at levels below ppq with a maximum sample size of 0.250 l. Such high sensitivity measurement was possible by using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with an improved gas stripping and an additional high resolving magnet. The use of non-isotopic tracers was investigated in order to allow the determination of those nuclides, namely Np-237 and Am-243, for which isotopic tracers for mass spectrometry are rarely available. The actinides were concentrated from the sample matrix via iron hydroxide co-precipitation and measured sequentially without previous chemical separation from each other. The analytical method was validated with the analysis of IAEA 443 seawater Reference Material and applied to background samples from the Colloid Formation and Migration project at the Grimsel Test Site and to sea- and freshwater samples affected solely by global fallout. The sensitivity of the presented analytical method provides the capability to study the long-term release of actinide tracers in field experiments as well as the transport of actinides in a variety of environmental systems.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Ground water Level Changes Induced by the 2006 Hengchun Earthquake Doublet

    OpenAIRE

    Yeeping Chia; Jessie J. Chiu; Po-Yu Chung; Ya-Lan Chang; Wen-Chi Lai; Yen-Chun Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Water-level changes were ob served in 107 wells at 67 monitoring stations in the southern coastal plain of Tai wan during the 2006 Mw 7.1 Hengchun earthquake doublet. Two consecutive coseismic changes induced by the earth quake doublet can be observed from high-frequency data. Obervations from multiple-well stations indicate that the magnitude and direction of coseismic change may vary in wells of different depths. Coseismic rises were dominant on the south east side of the costal plain; wher...

  7. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  8. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 in China based on ground-level observations for 190 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2016-09-01

    Whereas air pollution in many Chinese cities has reached epidemic levels in recent years, limited research has explored the spatial and temporal patterns of fine air particles such as PM2.5, or particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm, using nationally representative data. This article applied spatial statistical approaches including spatial interpolation and spatial regression to the analysis of ground-level PM2.5 observations for 190 Chinese cities in 2014 obtained from the Chinese Air Quality Online Monitoring Platform. Results of this article suggest that most Chinese cities included in the dataset recorded severe levels of PM2.5 in excess of the WHO's interim target and cities in the North China Plain had the highest levels of PM2.5 regardless of city size. Spatially interpolated maps of PM2.5 and population-weighted PM2.5 indicate vast majority of China's land and population was exposed to disastrous levels of PM2.5 concentrations. The regression results suggest that PM2.5 in a city was positively related to its population size, amount of atmospheric pollutants, and emissions from nearby cities, but inversely related to precipitation and wind speed. Findings from this research can shed new light on the complex spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 throughout China and provide insights into policies aiming to mitigate air pollution in China.

  9. Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation level on speech perception in noise in elderly individuals with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation levels on speech perception in noise for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped noise presented at the most comfortable level. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation levels (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in noise, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.

  10. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, Kerry R., E-mail: hgp3@cdc.gov [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Peel, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Robinson, Byron F. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Busacker, Ashley [Field Support Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Grandpre, Joseph [Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Bisgard, Kristine M. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Road, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Yip, Fuyuen Y. [Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Murphy, Tracy D. [Wyoming Department of Health, 101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  11. Effects of low-level laser exposure on calcium channels and intracellular release in cultured astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; Maneshi, Mohammed M.; Shucard, David W.; Hua, Susan; Sachs, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Prompted by a study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a model system of cultured astrocytes, we discovered that low level laser illumination (LLL) at 660nm elevates the level of intracellular Ca2+. The coherence of the illumination was not essential since incoherent red light also worked. For cells bathed in low Ca2+ saline so that influx was suppressed, the Ca2+ level rose with no significant latency following illumination and consistent with a slow leak of Ca2+ from storage such as from the endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. When the cells were bathed in normal Ca2+ saline, the internal Ca2+ rose, but with a latency of about 17 seconds from the beginning of illumination. Pharmacologic studies with ryanodine inhibited the light effect. Testing the cells with fluid shear stress as used in the TBI model showed that mechanically induced elevation of cell Ca2+ was unaffected by illumination.

  12. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  13. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  14. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  15. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  16. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  17. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  18. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY Level 2 Ground Processor Towards Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Markus; Noël, Stefan; Lichtenberg, Günter; Lerot, Christophe; Theys, Nicolas; Fehr, Thorsten; Dehn, Angelika; Liebing, Patricia; Gretschany, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming version 7 of ESA's operational level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had originally been developed for the GOME-2 sensor and was later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to split BrO total columns, which are already an operational product, into stratospheric VCD_{strat} and tropospheric VCD_{trop} fractions. BrO VCD_{strat} is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O_3 and NO_2 observations. Tropospheric vertical column densities are then determined as difference VCD_{trop}=VCD_{total}-VCD_{strat}. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher

  19. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails.

  20. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  1. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  2. The elementary level science methods course: Breeding ground of an apprehension toward science? a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.

    Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education majors science methods class. Interviews with the students and the instructors as well as survey instruments to assess students' preparation in science were used. Two different approaches to the study of science, one content oriented, the other process oriented, may contribute to the students' confusion, insecurity, and avoidance of science. The students' perception that science is learning content, an objective of introductory level science courses, and the science methods class's objectives of teaching science as a process sets up an antagonistic dilemma between the two. Such antagonistic dilemma may be manifest in the lack of instructional time accorded to science by elementary educators. The type of science experiences an individual encounters influences their perceptions. To offset student perceptions developed in science courses which stress principally content, the students need science experiences which truly represent science as inquiry. New strategies for the training of elementary education majors in science need to be examined.

  3. Ground-level ozone following astrophysical ionizing radiation events: an additional biological hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to-date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling we have examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and find that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supe...

  4. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  5. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  6. Communication: The ground electronic state of Si{sub 2}C: Rovibrational level structure, quantum monodromy, and astrophysical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Kokkin, Damian L.; McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Changala, P. Bryan [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Baraban, Joshua H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si{sub 2}C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its {sup 1}A{sub 1} ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed K{sub a} = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm{sup −1} with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the K{sub a} = 0, 2,  and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν{sub 2}) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm{sup −1} (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm{sup −1}). The calculated (K{sub a}, ν{sub 2}) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si{sub 2}C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC{sub 2} molecule is known to be abundant.

  7. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels.

  8. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  9. In vitro slow-release urea characteristics under different molasses levels contained in rice straw based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kardaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea were examined using in vitro techniques. The objective of this experiment was to study the in vitro slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea under different molasses concentrations in relation to the ruminal fermentative changes observed in different incubation time. The experimental design employed was randomized block design with a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement plus a control treatment, and conducted in two replications. Factors were various urea sources (urea, zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea and molasses concentrations (0%, 6%, and 12% in rice straw based diets. The control treatment was rice straw based diet containing neither urea nor molasses. Diets consisted of 45% rice straw and 55% concentrates (DM basis were formulated to have similar N and TDN levels. Responses of parameters measured were subjected to MANOVA using the GLM procedure of SPSS 16.00 and differences among mean values, if applicable, were examined using HSD-test. Orthogonal comparisons were used to determine the effects of control treatment vs. various urea sources following significance for the two-factor ANOVA model. Results indicated that zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea under different molasses concentrations contained in rice straw based diets decreased ruminal ammonia up to 48 hours incubation, controlled total VFA level and pH values revealed from lower NH3:VFA ratio, and improved both in vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities. The best impact of the in vitro slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea on the ruminal fermentative changes (NH3, VFA, pH, DMD, OMD was well attributed to the diets contained 6% molasses.

  10. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  11. Assessment of Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique to improve the simulation of ground-level ozone over Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardi, V; Ortiz, J; Rincón, A; Jorba, O; Pay, M T; Gassó, S; Baldasano, J M

    2012-02-01

    The CALIOPE air quality modelling system has been used to diagnose ground level O(3) concentration for the year 2004, over the Iberian Peninsula. We investigate the improvement in the simulation of daily O(3) maximum by the use of a post-processing such as the Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique. The Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique is a recursive algorithm to optimally estimate bias-adjustment terms from previous measurements and model results. The bias-adjustment technique improved the simulation of daily O(3) maximum for the entire year and the all the stations considered over the whole domain. The corrected simulation presents improvements in statistical indicators such as correlation, root mean square error, mean bias, and gross error. After the post-processing the exceedances of O(3) concentration limits, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, are better reproduced and the uncertainty of the modelling system, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, is reduced from 20% to 7.5%. Such uncertainty in the model results is under the established EU limit of the 50%. Significant improvements in the O(3) timing and amplitude of the daily cycle are also observed after the post-processing. The systematic improvements in the O(3) maximum simulations suggest that the Kalman filter post-processing method is a suitable technique to reproduce accurate estimate of ground-level O(3) concentration. With this study we evince that the adjusted O(3) concentrations obtained after the post-process of the results from the CALIOPE system are a reliable means for real near time O(3) forecasts.

  12. Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  13. Activation of gastric afferents increases noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Y; Kannan, H; Higuchi, T; Negoro, H; Yamaguchi, K; Yamashita, H

    2000-01-14

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves on plasma levels of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were examined in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves increased the plasma levels of OXT, but not AVP. The concentrations of extracellular noradrenaline (NA) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured by in vivo microdialysis in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves evoked an increase followed by a slight decrease in the concentrations of NA. The responses of spontaneous firing magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the PVN to both electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves and intravenous (i.v.) administration of CCK-8 were examined. Most of the putative OXT-secreting cells recorded were excited by both electrical stimulation of gastric vagal nerves and i.v. administration of CCK-8. These results suggest that gastric vagal afferents activate the central noradrenergic system from the brainstem to the PVN and secretion of OXT.

  14. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.

    2000-02-01

    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  15. A novel lidar-driven two-level approach for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Cui, Bo; Zhang, Xingzhong

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a two-level LIDAR-driven hybrid approach is proposed for real-time unmanned ground vehicle navigation and map building. Top level is newly designed enhanced Voronoi Diagram (EVD) method to plan a global trajectory for an unmanned vehicle. Bottom level employs Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm based on the LIDAR sensor information to locally guide the vehicle under complicated workspace, in which it autonomously traverses from one node to another within the planned EDV with obstacle avoidance. To find the least-cost path within the EDV, novel distance and angle based search heuristic algorithms are developed, in which the cost of an edge is the risk of traversing the edge. An EVD is first constructed based on the environment, which is utilized to generate the initial global trajectory with obstacle avoidance. The VFH algorithm is employed to guide the vehicle to follow the path locally. Its effectiveness and efficiency of real-time navigation and map building for unmanned vehicles have been successfully validated by simulation studies and experiments. The proposed approach is successfully experimented on an actual unmanned vehicle to demonstrate the real-time navigation and map building performance of the proposed method. The vehicle appears to follow a very stable path while navigating through various obstacles.

  16. Using a Simulation Tool to Model the Ground Level Concentrations of Green House Gases Emitted by Flaring in Petroleum Production in Kuwait Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireyah K.A Hamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and its effects on the ecosystem has been a source of concern for many environmental pollution organizations in the world. In particular climatologists who are not directly involved in petroleum industry sometimes express concerns about the environmental impacts of gas emissions from flaring at well heads. For environmental and resource conservation reasons, flaring should always be minimized as much as practicable and consistent with safety considerations. However, any level of flaring has a local environmental impact, as well as producing emissions which have the potential to contribute to the global warming. In the present research the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3 Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of two selected primary pollutants (i.e. methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all of Kuwait Oilfields. In additional, the performance of the ISCST3 model is assessed, by comparing the model prediction with the observed concentration of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons obtained from the monitoring sites. The described model evaluation is based on the comparison of 50 highest daily measured and predicted concentrations of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. The overall conclusion of this comparison is that the model predictions are in good agreement with the observed data (accuracy range of 60-95% from the monitoring stations maintained by the Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (EPA. A specific important conclusion of this study is that, there is a need for a proper emission inventory strategy for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC as means of monitoring and minimizing the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released because of flaring activities.

  17. Low levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone during early pregnancy are associated with precocious maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A

    2008-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. CBs levels in deer tissue samples following an accidental release from a special waste treatment center : 2003 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, A.; Zhang, W.; Gabos, S.; Schopflocher, D.; Robb, J. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance; Ikonomou, M. [Inst. of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    High levels of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were observed in deer and mouse tissues examined after an accidental release of PCDD/F contaminants in the Swan Hills area of Alberta. This paper provided details of follow-up sampling conducted to assess changes in CB concentrations of whitetail deer and mule deer in the region. Field collection was carried out in December 2002 and February 2003. Representative muscle, liver and fat samples were taken from each deer. Four aliquots from each sample were collected by carbon-fibre fractionation. All possible 209 CB congeners were measured with minimum isomeric interference. Fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Concentrations of identified compounds were calculated using mean relative response factors determined from calibration standard runs. Results showed that 55 of 209 CB congeners were not detected in the fat samples. The mean level of CB homologues in the 2003 study was 39 ng/g for the lipid basis in the muscle, 92 ng/g in the liver, and 20.5 ng/g in the fat. Di-ortho CBs constituted 72 per cent to 74 per cent of CBs for the samples. Concentration levels of SCBs were lower than studies conducted in previous years. It was concluded that overall levels of SCBs and SCBs TEQ in the liver and muscle samples in 2003 significantly declined when compared with levels observed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Low Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Precocious Maturation of the Human Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevation in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) during the last trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Less is known about the consequences for the human fetus exposed to high levels of pCRH early in pregnancy. pCRH levels were measured in 138 pregnant women at least once at 15, 20 and 25 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to a startling vibroacoustic stimulus (VAS) were recorded as an index of maturity. pCRH levels at 15 weeks of gestation, but at no later point, predicted FHR responses to the VAS. Fetuses exposed to the lowest concentrations of pCRH at 15 weeks of gestation exhibited a distinguishable response to the VAS, whereas fetuses exposed to higher levels of pCRH did not respond. The findings suggest that exposure to low levels of pCRH early in gestation may be optimal and associated with a response pattern indicating greater maturity. PMID:19127063

  20. Dexamethasone increases growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor mRNA levels in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M; Sato, M; Matsubara, S; Wada, Y; Takahara, J

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) on growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor gene expression, a highly-sensitive and quantitative reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used in this study. Rat anterior pituitary cells were isolated and cultured for 4 days. The cultured cells were treated with dexamethasone for 2, 6, and 24 h. GRH receptor mRNA levels were determined by competitive RT-PCR using a recombinant RNA as the competitor. Dexamethasone significantly increased GRH receptor mRNA levels at 5 nM after 6- and 24 h-incubations, and the maximal effect was found at 25 nM. The GC receptor-specific antagonist, RU 38486 completely eliminated the dexamethasone-induced enhancement of GRH receptor mRNA levels. Dexamethasone did not alter the mRNA levels of beta-actin and prolactin at 5 nM for 24 h, whereas GH mRNA levels were significantly increased by the same treatment. The GH response to GRH was significantly enhanced by the 24-h incubation with 5 nM dexamethasone. These findings suggest that GC stimulates GRH receptor gene expression through the ligand-activated GC receptors in the rat somatotrophs. The direct effects of GC on the GRH receptor gene could explain the enhancement of GRH-induced GH secretion.

  1. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  2. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  3. Binding and release of brain calcium by low-level electromagnetic fields: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, W. R.; Bawin, S. M.

    Evidence has accumulated that sensitivity of brain tissue to specific weak oscillating electromagnetic fields occurs in the absence of significant tissue heating (less than 0.1°C). This review focuses on the ‘windowed’ character of sensitivities of calcium binding and electrical activity in brain tissue to low-frequency modulation and intensity characteristics of impressed RF fields. ELF fields decrease calcium efflux from isolated chick and cat cerebral tissue by about 15% only in narrow amplitude and frequency ‘windows,’ between 6 and 20 Hz and between 10 and 100 V/m (approximate tissue gradient, 10-7 V/cm). VHF (147 MHz) and UHF (450 MHz) fields increase calcium efflux from isolated chick brain by about 15% when amplitude modulated between 6 and 20 Hz, but only for incident fields in the vicinity of 1.0 mW/cm2. We have now shown that this increased efflux in response to 16-Hz amplitude-modulated 450-MHz, 0.75-mW/cm2 field exposure is insensitive to variations in calcium concentration from 0 to 4.16 mM in the testing solution but is enhanced by addition of hydrogen ions (0.108 mM 0.1 N HCl) and inhibited in the absence of normal bicarbonate ion levels (2.4 mM). In the presence of lanthanum ions (2.0 mM), which block transmembrane movement of calcium, exposure to these EM fields decreases the 45Ca2 + efflux. Low-frequency gradients may be transduced in a specific class of extracellular binding sites, normally occupied by calcium ions and susceptible to competitive hydrogen ion binding. Transductive coupling may involve coherent charge states between anionic sites on membrane surface glycoproteins, with longrange cooperative interactions triggered by weak extracellular electric fields. Proton ‘tunneling’ may occur at boundaries between coherent and noncoherent charge zones.

  4. Regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 messenger RNA level in Y-79 retinoblastoma cells: potential implications for human stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, N C; Sioutopoulou, T. O.; Mamuris, Z.; Marcoulatos, P.; Avgerinos, P. C.

    1996-01-01

    We report the regulation of type 1 receptor mRNA in Y-79 human retinoblastoma cells, grown in the absence or presence of pharmacological levels of phorbol esters, forskolin, glucocorticoids and their combinations. To control for inducibility and for assessing the sensitivity of the Y-79 system to glucocorticoids, corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA levels were measured in parallel. All treatments stimulated corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 gene expression relative to baseline....

  5. Signals at ground level of relativistic solar particles associated with a radiation storm on 2014 April 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Carlos; Navia, Carlos; de Oliveira, Marcel N.; Fauth, Anderson; Nepomuceno, André

    2016-02-01

    Active region NOAA AR2036, located at S20W34 at the Sun disk, produced a moderately strong (GOES class M7.3) flare on 2014 April 18. The flare itself was long in duration, and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) was emitted. In addition, a radiation storm, that is, solar energetic particles (SEP), began to reach the Earth at 13:30 UT in the aftermath of the solar blast, meeting the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level. In temporal coincidence with the onset of the S1 radiation storm, the Tupi telescopes located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) detected a fast rise in the muon counting rate, caused by relativistic protons from this solar blast, with a confidence of up to 3.5% at peak. At the time of the solar blast, of all ground-based detectors, the Tupi telescopes had the best geoeffective location. Indeed, in association with the radiation storm, a gradual increase in the particle intensity was found in some neutron monitors (NMs), all of them in the west region relative to the Sun-Earth line, yet within the geoeffective region. However, their confidence levels are smaller: up to 3%. The fast rising observed at Tupi suggests possible detection of solar particles emitted during the impulsive phase, following by a gradual phase observed also at NMs. Details of these observations, including the expected energy spectrum, are reported.

  6. Establishment of a structural equation model for ground-level ozone: a case study at an urban roadside site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Ming; Yu, Tai-Yi; Chang, Len-Fu

    2014-12-01

    This study established a cause-effect relationship between ground-level ozone and latent variables employing partial least-squares analysis at an urban roadside site in four distinct seasons. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were adopted to cite and identify suitable latent variables from 14 observed variables (i.e., meteorological factors, wind and primary air pollutants) in 2008-2010. Analytical results showed that the first six components explained 80.3 % of the variance, and eigenvalues of the first four components were greater than 1. The effectiveness of this model was empirically confirmed with three indicators. Except for surface pressure, factor loadings of observed variables were 0.303-0.910 and reached statistical significance at the 5 % level. Composite reliabilities for latent variables were 0.672-0.812 and average variances were 0.404-0.547, except for latent variable "primary" in spring; thus, discriminant validity and convergent validity were marginally accepted. The developed model is suitable for the assessment of urban roadside surface ozone, considering interactions among meteorological factors, wind factors, and primary air pollutants in each season.

  7. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (p<0.001), independent of the treatment. Needle δ13C values were higher in the control trees than in the irrigated trees, where needle δ13C values were positively correlated with increasing transparency (p<0.01). Annual

  8. Regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 messenger RNA level in Y-79 retinoblastoma cells: potential implications for human stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Vamvakopoulos

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the regulation of type 1 receptor mRNA in Y-79 human retinoblastoma cells, grown in the absence or presence of pharmacological levels of phorbol esters, forskolin, glucocorticoids and their combinations. To control for inducibility and for assessing the sensitivity of the Y-79 system to glucocorticoids, corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA levels were measured in parallel. All treatments stimulated corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 gene expression relative to baseline. A weak suppression of corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA level was observed during dexamethasone treatment. The cell line expressed ten-fold excess of receptor to ligand mRNA under basal conditions. The findings predict the presence of functional phorbol ester, cyclic AMP and glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 gene and support a potential role for its product during chronic stress and immune/inflammatory reaction.

  9. Simulated Sea-Level Rise Effects on the Above and Below-Ground Growth of Two Tidal Marsh Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Callaway, J. C.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise between 55 and 140 cm in the next century and is likely to have significant effects on the distribution and maintenance of tidal wetlands; however, little is known about the effects of increased sea level on Pacific coast tidal marsh vegetation. We initiated a field experiment in March 2011 to examine how increased depth and duration of inundation affect above and below-ground growth of two tidal wetland plant species: Schoenoplectus acutus and S. americanus. PVC planters, referred to as marsh organs, were installed at fixed elevations in channels at two ancient marshes in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: Browns Island and Rush Ranch. Each marsh organ structure is comprised of five rows of three six-inch PVC pipes, with each row 15cm lower than the row above, and was filled with surrounding mudflat sediment. Elevations span 60 cm and were chosen to be lower than the average current elevations of both species at each marsh to reflect projected increases in sea level. Rhizomes were collected from Browns Island, the less-saline site, and were cut to uniform sizes before planting. In every row, each species was grown individually and together. On a monthly basis, plant heights were recorded and pore-water sulfide concentration, salinity, and soil oxidation-reduction potential were measured. Schoenoplectus americanus growth and density significantly decreased with increased inundation at both sites. Schoenoplectus acutus growth was impacted more significantly at lower elevations at Rush Ranch but had little variation in density and growth across elevations at Browns Island. Salinity and sulfide concentrations varied little across elevations within a site but differed between sites. Above and belowground biomass will be collected in September 2011 to measure total annual productivity. The experiment provides basic yet crucial information on the impacts of increased inundation on tidal wetland vegetation and insight into potential changes in

  10. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  11. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  12. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity.

  13. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  14. Deriving the properties of coronal pressure fronts in 3-D: application to the 17 May 2012 ground level enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Rouillard, Alexis P; Pinto, Rui F; Tirole, Margot; Lavarra, Michael; Zucca, Pietro; Vainio, Rami; Tylka, Allan J; Vourlidas, Angelos; De Rosa, Marc; Linker, Jon; Warmuth, Alexander; Mann, Gottfried; Cohen, Christina M; Mewaldt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 17 May 2012. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the 3-D expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3-D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M_FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magneto-hydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M_FM values appear along the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the CME eruption; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric and plasma sheet. We can also estimate the time evolution of the shock speed, shock geometry and Mach number along different modeled ma...

  15. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral Analyses and Radiation Exposures from Several Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) Solar Proton Events: A Comparison of Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan; Dietrich, William; Badavi, Francis; Rojdev, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for analyzing the particle spectra from extremely large solar proton events, called Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs), have been developed and utilized by the scientific community to describe the solar proton energy spectra and have been further applied to ascertain the radiation exposures to humans and radio-sensitive systems, namely electronics. In this paper 12 GLEs dating back to 1956 are discussed, and the three methods for describing the solar proton energy spectra are reviewed. The three spectral fitting methodologies are EXP [an exponential in proton rigidity (R)], WEIB [Weibull fit: an exponential in proton energy], and the Band function (BAND) [a double power law in proton rigidity]. The EXP and WEIB methods use low energy (MeV) GLE solar proton data and make extrapolations out to approx.1 GeV. On the other hand, the BAND method utilizes low- and medium-energy satellite solar proton data combined with high-energy solar proton data deduced from high-latitude neutron monitoring stations. Thus, the BAND method completely describes the entire proton energy spectrum based on actual solar proton observations out to 10 GeV. Using the differential spectra produced from each of the 12 selected GLEs for each of the three methods, radiation exposures are presented and discussed in detail. These radiation exposures are then compared with the current 30-day and annual crew exposure limits and the radiation effects to electronics.

  17. Decoupling of ground level pressures observed in Italian volcanoes: are they driven by space weather geo-effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on correlation drops between near-ground atmospheric pressures measured at sea level and at higher altitudes on Italian volcanoes have been carried out. We looked for perturbations of the atmospheric pressure field driven by volcanic activity, but not excluding possible external triggers for the observed anomalies. Decorrelations between atmospheric pressures measured at Stromboli Island in stations located at different altitudes (years 2002-10 have been analysed and compared with data from other volcanic (Vesuvius and non volcanic (Mt. Soro orographic structures. We investigated as their possible triggers volcanic, meteorological and space weather parameters, with particular attention to Total Solar Irradiance (TSI, Kp index and Forbush decreases. Pressure decorrelations seems to be driven by astronomic cycles, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. A further contribution was found, seemingly assignable to TSI anomalies, with correlation minima occurring 12 hours after these but only during phases of high Sun activity. Moreover, during the same phases a main periodicity of about 27 days in pressure decorrelations was revealed by FFT analysis. This period is the same of the Sun Carrington rotation, expressing the periodic reappearance of sunspot groups on Sun’s surface. The strong similarity between recurrences of sunspot number and atmospheric pressure anomalies further supports the role of the former as a possible trigger for the latter.

  18. 7Be Measured at Ground Air Level and Rainfall in the City of SÃO Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damatto, S. R.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracers for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. This short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 = 53.3 d) was measured, from March 2011 to July 2012, in samples of air at ground level, every fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that ocurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) which campus (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level) is located in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV for 60Co and associated electronic devices and live counting time varing from 150,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clearly seasonal variations was observed.

  19. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Multicentre study of posaconazole delayed-release tablet serum level and association with hepatotoxicity and QTc prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Natasha N; Miceli, Marisa H; Rivera, Christina G; Narayanan, Prasanna P; Perissinotti, Anthony J; Hsu, Meier; Delacruz, Jennifer; Gedrimaite, Zivile; Han, Zhe; Steinbeck, Jennifer; Pisano, Jennifer; Seo, Susan K; Paskovaty, Alla

    2017-08-01

    The association of posaconazole serum concentrations and toxicity is unclear. An assessment of whether levels obtained with the delayed-release tablet (DRT) formulation are correlated with abnormal liver function test (LFT) results and/or QTc prolongation was undertaken. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study of adult patients with cancer between 26 November 2013 and 14 November 2014. Patients were included if they received posaconazole DRT with a posaconazole level obtained between days 5 and 14. Clinical data, including demographics, hepatotoxic medications, posaconazole levels, LFTs and QTc intervals, were obtained. Association of factors with changes in LFTs and QTc prolongation was assessed using linear and logistic regression. One hundred and sixty-six study patients were included. The median posaconazole level was 1250 (range 110-4220) ng/mL and the median time until level was 6 (range 5-14) days. There was a statistically significant increase in AST ( P  <   0.001), ALT ( P  <   0.001), alkaline phosphatase (ALK) ( P  <   0.001), total bilirubin (TBILI) ( P  <   0.001) and QTc ( P  =   0.05) from baseline. Posaconazole levels were not associated with increases in AST [β (SE) = -0.33 (2.2), P  =   0.88], log ALT [β (SE) = -0.02 (0.03), P  =   0.63], ALK [β (SE) = 2.2 (2.9), P  =   0.46] and TBILI [β (SE) = -0.01 (0.04), P  =   0.88]. For each additional hepatotoxic medication, there was a mean change in TBILI of 0.13 mg/dL ( P  =   0.02) and ALK of 7.1 U/L ( P  =   0.09). No statistically significant association between posaconazole level and QTc interval prolongation was found. We did not identify an association between posaconazole serum concentrations and LFT elevations or QTc prolongation. However, some LFTs were found to increase with more hepatotoxic medications administered.

  2. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  3. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the technical basis for a groundwater transport analysis that was conducted to evaluate migration of potentially hazardous materials from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B burial ground. The analysis characterized the geologic, chemical, and hydrologic properties of the disposal site, and used that information to perform a screening analysis for transport of materials from the burial ground to downgradient groundwater locations and to the Columbia River. Subsequent sections of the appendix describe the geologic setting, geochemistry, and hydrology of the disposal site and their relationship to the transport analysis.

  4. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  5. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  6. Prediction of ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo, Brazil: Deterministic versus statistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Brasseur, G.; Andrade, M. F.; Gavidia-Calderón, M.; Bouarar, I.; Ynoue, R. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Two state-of-the-art models (deterministic: Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and statistic: Artificial Neural Networks: (ANN)) are implemented to predict the ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Two domains are set up for WRF-Chem simulations: a coarse domain (with 50 km horizontal resolution) including whole South America (D1) and a nested domain (with horizontal resolution of 10 km) including South Eastern Brazil (D2). To evaluate the spatial distribution of the chemical species, model results are compared to the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, showing that the model satisfactorily predicts the CO concentrations in both D1 and D2. The model also reproduces the measurements made at three air quality monitoring stations in SP with the correlation coefficients of 0.74, 0.70, and 0.77 for O3 and 0.51, 0.48, and 0.57 for NOx. The input selection for ANN model is carried out using Forward Selection (FS) method. FS-ANN is then trained and validated using the data from two air quality monitoring stations, showing correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.75 for daily mean and 0.64 and 0.67 for daily peak ozone during the test stage. Then, both WRF-Chem and FS-ANN are deployed to forecast the daily mean and peak concentrations of ozone in two stations during 5-20 August 2012. Results show that WRF-Chem preforms better in predicting mean and peak ozone concentrations as well as in conducting mechanistic and sensitivity analysis. FS-ANN is only advantageous in predicting mean daily ozone concentrations considering its significantly lower computational costs and ease of development and implementation, compared to that of WRF-Chem.

  7. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  8. Impact of Ground Level Enhancement from Solar Cosmic Rays on 20 January 2005 - Results for Ozone and Ionosphere Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, P.; Tassev, Y.; Spassov, H.; Tomova, D.

    The influences of major solar proton flare from 20 January 2005 on the ionized and neutral components in the middle atmosphere are analyzed in this work This flare is accompanied by ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays and strong geomagnetic storm with SSC on 22 January 2005 Kp index reaches 8 Short-term variations along the ozone profiles are discussed Ozone partial pressure measurements from the programme Halogen Occultation Experiment HALOE realized by the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite UARS are used The GOES-10 satellite obtained the data on high energy protons All energetic intervals 0 8 - 4 MeV 4 - 9 MeV 9 - 15 MeV 15 - 40 MeV 40 - 80 MeV 80 - 165 MeV 165 - 500 MeV are used Cosmic ray data from super neutron monitors Kiel - Germany 54 9 95 6 geomagnetic degree and Potchefstroom - South African Republic -27 3 -90 1 geomagnetic degree are analyzed also Statistical analysis with this big volume of data is accomplished Correlation and cross-correlation analysis between ozone and particle data is made Different behaviors of the ozone response in both hemispheres is obtained on the basis of these computations The ionosphere results for the same period are obtained in the observatory Sofia - Bulgaria by means of A3 method The minimal reflectance frequency fmin which characterizes the state of the lower ionosphere has unusual course For complement the other ionospheric parameters are involved also The present investigation is an example for complex analysis of solar and extra-terrestrial influence in the middle atmosphere

  9. Estimating urban ground-level PM10 using MODIS 3km AOD product and meteorological parameters from WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Saba; Sotoudeheian, Saeed; Arhami, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing products of AOD from MODIS along with appropriate meteorological parameters were used to develop statistical models and estimate ground-level PM10. Most of previous studies obtained meteorological data from synoptic weather stations, with rather sparse spatial distribution, and used it along with 10 km AOD product to develop statistical models, applicable for PM variations in regional scale (resolution of ≥10 km). In the current study, meteorological parameters were simulated with 3 km resolution using WRF model and used along with the rather new 3 km AOD product (launched in 2014). The resulting PM statistical models were assessed for a polluted and largely variable urban area, Tehran, Iran. Despite the critical particulate pollution problem, very few PM studies were conducted in this area. The issue of rather poor direct PM-AOD associations existed, due to different factors such as variations in particles optical properties, in addition to bright background issue for satellite data, as the studied area located in the semi-arid areas of Middle East. Statistical approach of linear mixed effect (LME) was used, and three types of statistical models including single variable LME model (using AOD as independent variable) and multiple variables LME model by using meteorological data from two sources, WRF model and synoptic stations, were examined. Meteorological simulations were performed using a multiscale approach and creating an appropriate physic for the studied region, and the results showed rather good agreements with recordings of the synoptic stations. The single variable LME model was able to explain about 61%-73% of daily PM10 variations, reflecting a rather acceptable performance. Statistical models performance improved through using multivariable LME and incorporating meteorological data as auxiliary variables, particularly by using fine resolution outputs from WRF (R2 = 0.73-0.81). In addition, rather fine resolution for PM

  10. An estimation of COPD cases and respiratory mortality related to Ground-Level Ozone in the metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study :  Ground-Level Ozone (GLO is the component of one of greatest concern that threatened human health in both developing as well as developed countries. The GLO mainly enters the body through the respiration and can cause decrements in pulmonary complications, eye burning, shortness of breath, coughing, failure of immune defense, decreases forced vital capacity, reduce lung function of the lungs and increase rate of mortality. Ahwaz with high emission air pollutants because of numerous industries is one of the metropolitan Iranian polluted. The aim of this study is evaluate to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and respiratory mortality related to GLO in the air of metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011. Materials & Methods: We used the generalized additive Air Q model for estimation of COPD and respiratory mortality attributed to GLO pollutant. Data of GLO were collected in four monitoring stations Ahvaz Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software and at final step they were converted as input file to the Air Q model for estimate number of COPD Cases and respiratory mortality. Results: According to result this study, The Naderi and Havashenasi had the highest and the lowest GLO concentrations. The results of this study showed that cumulative cases of COPD and respiratory mortality which related to GLO were 34 and 30 persons, respectively. Also, Findings showed that approximately 11 % COPD and respiratory mortality happened when the GLO concentrations was more than 20 μg/m 3 . Conclusions: exposure to GLO pollution has stronger effects on human health in Ahvaz. Findings showed that there were a significant relationship between concentration of GLO and COPD and respiratory mortality. Therefore; the higher ozone pollutant value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.  

  11. Succinate receptor GPR91 provides a direct link between high glucose levels and renin release in murine and rabbit kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Ildikó; Kang, Jung Julie; Sipos, Arnold; Vargas, Sarah; Bansal, Eric; Hanner, Fiona; Meer, Elliott; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common and rapidly growing cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. A classic hallmark of early diabetes mellitus includes activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which may lead to hypertension and renal tissue injury, but the mechanism of RAS activation is elusive. Here we identified a paracrine signaling pathway in the kidney in which high levels of glucose directly triggered the release of the prohypertensive hormone renin. The signaling cascade involved the local accumulation of succinate and activation of the kidney-specific G protein-coupled metabolic receptor, GPR91, in the glomerular endothelium as observed in rat, mouse, and rabbit kidney sections. Elements of signal transduction included endothelial Ca2+, the production of NO and prostaglandin (PGE2), and their paracrine actions on adjacent renin-producing cells. This GPR91 signaling cascade may serve to modulate kidney function and help remove metabolic waste products through renal hyperfiltration, and it could also link metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, or metabolic syndrome with RAS overactivation, systemic hypertension, and organ injury.

  12. Characterizing exogenous mRNA delivery, trafficking, cytoplasmic release and RNA-protein correlations at the level of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L; Bhosle, Sushma; Vanover, Daryll; Blanchard, Emmeline L; Loomis, Kristin H; Zurla, Chiara; Murray, Kathryn; Lam, Blaine C; Santangelo, Philip J

    2017-07-07

    The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function. This approach enabled single cell characterization of mRNA uptake and release kinetics from endocytic compartments, the measurement of mRNA/protein correlations, and motivated the investigation of mRNA induced cellular stress, all important mechanisms influencing protein production. In addition, we demonstrated this approach can facilitate near-infrared imaging of mRNA localization in vivo and in ex-vivo tissue sections, which will facilitate mRNA trafficking studies in pre-clinical models. Overall, we demonstrate the ability to study fundamental mechanisms necessary to optimize delivery and therapeutic strategies, in order to design the next generation of novel mRNA therapeutics and vaccines. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  14. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith, Jody L.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-ft in 1996 and 6,300 acre-ft in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by ET, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased.

  15. Experience and levels of satisfaction with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in China: a prospective multicenter survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuping Zhao,1 Jihong Deng,2 Yan Wang,3 Shiliang Bi,4 Xiaoye Wang,5 Wen Qin,6 Zirong Huang,7 Li Li,8 Xin Mi,9 Liping Han,10 Qing Chang,11 Jian Li12 1The Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College Qingdao University, Qingdao, 2Kunming Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Kunming, 3Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan, 4West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 5Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 6Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, 7The Affiliated Women’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 8Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou, 9Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Shunyi District, Beijing, 10The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan, 11Southwest Hospital, Chongqing City, Chongqing, 12Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although surveys conducted in Western countries have shown that the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena® is well accepted by European women, its acceptance by Chinese women is not yet clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences and levels of satisfaction with Mirena among Chinese women living in 12 different cities. Methods: In total, 1,021 women who attended 21 medical centers for insertion of Mirena were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their contraceptive decision at baseline (preinsertion, and two further questionnaires on their experience and satisfaction with Mirena at 3–6 months and 1 year after insertion. Results: At baseline, 36% of women self-reported heavy or very heavy menstrual bleeding, while 41% reported normal bleeding. The majority of women (98% were satisfied with the preinsertion counseling, during which contraceptive reliability was identified as the most important reason for

  16. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    high flows. Conveyance losses in the Pebble-Topaz reach were greatest, about 283 cubic feet per second, during the spring regulated high flows and were attributed to a hydroelectric project.Comparison of water levels in 30 wells in the Portneuf Valley during September and October 1968 and 2001 indicated long-term declines since 1968; the median decline was 3.4 feet. September and October were selected for characterizing long-term ground-water-level fluctuations because declines associated with irrigation reach a maximum at the end of the irrigation season. The average annual snowpack in the study area has declined significantly; 1945 85 average annual snowpack was 16.1 inches, whereas 1986 through 2002 average annual snowpack was 11.6 inches. Water-level declines during 1998 2002 may be partially attributable to the extended dry climatic conditions. It is unclear whether the declines could be partially attributed to increases in ground-water withdrawals. Between 1968 and 1980, water rights for ground-water withdrawals nearly doubled from 23,500 to 46,000 acre-feet per year. During this period, ground-water levels were relatively constant and did not exhibit a declining trend that could be related to increased ground-water withdrawal rights. However, ground-water withdrawals are not measured in the valley; thus, the amount of water pumped is not known. Since the 1990s, there have been several years when the Chesterfield Reservoir has not completely refilled, and the water in storage behind the reservoir has been depleted by the middle of the irrigation season. In this situation, surface-water diversions for irrigation were terminated before the end of the irrigation season, and irrigators, who were relying in part on diversions from the Portneuf River, had to rely solely on ground water as an alternate supply. Smaller volumes of water in the Chesterfield Reservoir since the 1990s indicate a growing demand for ground-water supplies.

  17. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  18. Bird assemblage mist-netted in an Atlantic Forest area: a comparison between vertically-mobile and ground-level nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, M B; Alves, M A S

    2015-08-01

    Mist nets may be opened at different heights in the forest, but they are seldom used over 3 m above the ground. We used two different methods to compare species richness, composition, and relative abundance and trophic structure of the bird assemblage at Ilha Grande (with a 290 birds standardization): conventional ground-level nets (0-2.4 m height range) and elevated nets (0-17 m) with an adjustable-height system (modified from Humphrey et al., 1968) that we call vertically-mobile nets. There were significant differences in capture frequencies between methods for about 20% of the species (Chi-squared test, PForest.

  19. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  20. Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stewart, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

  1. In vitro slow-release urea characteristics under different molasses levels contained in rice straw based diets

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kardaya; K. G. Wiryawan; A. Parakkasi; H.M Winugroho

    2009-01-01

    Slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea were examined using in vitro techniques. The objective of this experiment was to study the in vitro slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea under different molasses concentrations in relation to the ruminal fermentative changes observed in different incubation time. The experimental design employed was randomized block design with a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement pl...

  2. Vip3A resistance alleles exist at high levels in Australian targets before release of cotton expressing this toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rod J; Downes, Sharon J; James, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have revolutionised pest control in agriculture. However field-level resistance to Bt has developed in some targets. Utilising novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips), also derived from Bt but genetically distinct from Cry toxins, is a possible solution that biotechnical companies intend to employ. Using data collected over two seasons we determined that, before deployment of Vip-expressing plants in Australia, resistance alleles exist in key targets as polymorphisms at frequencies of 0.027 (n = 273 lines, 95% CI = 0.019-0.038) in H. armigera and 0.008 (n = 248 lines, 0.004-0.015) in H. punctigera. These frequencies are above mutation rates normally encountered. Homozygous resistant neonates survived doses of Vip3A higher than those estimated in field-grown plants. Fortunately the resistance is largely, if not completely, recessive and does not confer resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab already deployed in cotton crops. These later characteristics are favourable for resistance management; however the robustness of Vip3A inclusive varieties will depend on resistance frequencies to the Cry toxins when it is released (anticipated 2016) and the efficacy of Vip3A throughout the season. It is appropriate to pre-emptively screen key targets of Bt crops elsewhere, especially those such as H. zea in the USA, which is not only closely related to H. armigera but also will be exposed to Vip in several varieties of cotton and corn.

  3. Vip3A resistance alleles exist at high levels in Australian targets before release of cotton expressing this toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod J Mahon

    Full Text Available Crops engineered to produce insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have revolutionised pest control in agriculture. However field-level resistance to Bt has developed in some targets. Utilising novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips, also derived from Bt but genetically distinct from Cry toxins, is a possible solution that biotechnical companies intend to employ. Using data collected over two seasons we determined that, before deployment of Vip-expressing plants in Australia, resistance alleles exist in key targets as polymorphisms at frequencies of 0.027 (n = 273 lines, 95% CI = 0.019-0.038 in H. armigera and 0.008 (n = 248 lines, 0.004-0.015 in H. punctigera. These frequencies are above mutation rates normally encountered. Homozygous resistant neonates survived doses of Vip3A higher than those estimated in field-grown plants. Fortunately the resistance is largely, if not completely, recessive and does not confer resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab already deployed in cotton crops. These later characteristics are favourable for resistance management; however the robustness of Vip3A inclusive varieties will depend on resistance frequencies to the Cry toxins when it is released (anticipated 2016 and the efficacy of Vip3A throughout the season. It is appropriate to pre-emptively screen key targets of Bt crops elsewhere, especially those such as H. zea in the USA, which is not only closely related to H. armigera but also will be exposed to Vip in several varieties of cotton and corn.

  4. ATOMIC DATA FOR ABSORPTION-LINES FROM THE GROUND-LEVEL AT WAVELENGTHS GREATER-THAN-228-ANGSTROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; BARTHEL, PD; TYTLER, D

    1994-01-01

    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  5. Insights into aerosol chemistry during the 2015 China Victory Day parade: results from simultaneous measurements at ground level and 260 m in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Du, Wei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Chen; Xu, Weiqi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Yuying; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Li, Zhanqing; Sun, Yele

    2017-03-01

    Strict emission controls were implemented in Beijing and adjacent provinces to ensure good air quality during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Here, we conducted synchronous measurements of submicron aerosols (PM1) at ground level and 260 m on a meteorological tower by using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor, respectively, in Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed that the average PM1 concentrations are 19.3 and 14.8 µg m-3 at ground level and 260 m, respectively, during the control period (20 August-3 September), which are 57 and 50 % lower than those after the control period (4-30 September). Organic aerosols (OAs) dominated PM1 during the control period at both ground level and 260 m (55 and 53 %, respectively), while their contribution showed substantial decreases (˜ 40 %) associated with an increase in secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs) after the parade, indicating a larger impact of emission controls on SIA than OA. Positive matrix factorization of OA further illustrated that primary OA (POA) showed similar decreases as secondary OA (SOA) at both ground level (40 % vs. 42 %) and 260 m (35 % vs. 36 %). However, we also observed significant changes in SOA composition at ground level. While the more oxidized SOA showed a large decrease by 75 %, the less oxidized SOA was comparable during (5.6 µg m-3) and after the control periods (6.5 µg m-3). Our results demonstrated that the changes in meteorological conditions and PM loadings have affected SOA formation mechanisms, and the photochemical production of fresh SOA was more important during the control period. By isolating the influences of meteorological conditions and footprint regions in polluted episodes, we found that regional emission controls on average reduced PM levels by 44-45 %, and the reductions were close among SIA, SOA and POA at 260 m, whereas primary species showed relatively more reductions (55-67 %) than secondary

  6. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from smokers release higher levels of IL-1-like cytokines after exposure to combustion-generated ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Gianluigi; Terlizzi, Michela; Sirignano, Mariano; Commodo, Mario; D’Anna, Andrea; Aquino, Rita P.; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by combustion processes are often associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the inflammatory processes generated by UFP that may underlie their toxicological activity. Murine macrophages (J774.1 cells) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to evaluate the molecular mechanism underlying the pro-inflammatory activity of UFP. The addition of soot particles to J774.1 cells induced a concentration-dependent release of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-33 This effect was not associated with cell death and, in contrast to literature, was pronounced at very low concentrations (5–100 pg/ml). Similarly, UFP induced the release of IL-1α, IL-18 and IL-33 by PBMCs. However, this effect was solely observed in PBMCs obtained from smokers, as the PBMCs from non-smokers instead released higher levels of IL-10. The release of these cytokines after UFP exposure was caspase-1- and NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent in PBMCs from healthy smokers, whereas IL-1α release was calpain-dependent. These results show that UFP at very low concentrations are able to give rise to an inflammatory process that is responsible for IL-1α, IL-18 and IL-33 release, which is pronounced in PBMCs from smokers, confirming that these individuals are especially susceptible to inflammatory-based airway diseases once exposed to air pollution. PMID:28223692

  7. Records of wells and springs, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the East Portland area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Hogenson, G.M.; Hampton, E.R.

    1964-01-01

    Data are presented on more than 300 wells, including many new ones whose records will not be a part of a forthcoming interpretative report on the occurrence of ground water in this area. A brief description of the geomorphic features is given, and the characteristics of the rock units are summarized in a table. Principal aquifers are beds of loose sand and gravel in the early Pliocene Troutdale Formation, late Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits, and Recent alluvium. Locally, Columbia River Basalt (Miocene) and the Boring Lava (late Pliocene to Pleistocene) yield substantial amounts of wate.. In addition to well records there are 124 driller's logs and a table of chemical analyses of the ground water.

  8. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  9. Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2014-06-01

    Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land-based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground-level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant-soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground-level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land-based renewable energy sources to alter plant-soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research.

  10. The impact of biofuel poplar cultivation on ground-level ozone and premature human mortality depends on cultivar selection and planting location

    OpenAIRE

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, A. S. D.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. Future land use change, driven by the cultivation of biofuel feedstocks, will change the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 comme...

  11. Water-quality and water-level data for a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1998-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.

  12. Impact of Biofuel Poplar Cultivation on Ground-Level Ozone and Premature Human Mortality Depends on Cultivar Selection and Planting Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, Allyson S D; Hewitt, C Nick

    2015-07-21

    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks will contribute to future land use change, altering the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 commercially available poplar hybrids to assess the impact that the large-scale cultivation of poplar for use as a biofuel feedstock will have on air quality, specifically ground-level ozone concentrations, in Europe. We show that the increases in ground-level ozone across Europe will increase the number of premature deaths attributable to ozone pollution each year by up to 6%. Substantial crop losses (up to ∼9 Mt y(-1) of wheat and maize) are also projected. We further demonstrate that these impacts are strongly dependent on the location of the poplar plantations, due to the prevailing meteorology, the population density, and the dominant crop type of the region. Our findings indicate the need for a concerted and centralized decision-making process that considers all aspects of future land use change in Europe, and not just the effect on greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilbride, Sean M

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1) are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington\\'s disease and Alzheimer\\'s disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  14. Effects of mercury release from amalgam dental restorations during cremation on soil mercury levels of three New Zealand crematoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieschmidt, A.K.; Kim, N.D. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-05-01

    A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of mercury during cremation. Mercury is liberated during cremation both because dental amalgams are unstable at cremation temperatures (650-700{degrees}C) and because the free mercury metal is highly volatile. In New Zealand, 58% of deaths are followed by cremation and this figure is likely to rise in the future. This increasing use of cremation as the method of corpse disposal, coupled with the fact that each amalgam restoration is approximately 50% mercury, implies that a significant amount of mercury may be emitted into the environment every year. This study examines mercury released from crematoria in New Zealand. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Adenosine triphosphate levels during anaphylactic histamine release in rat mast cells in vitro. Effects of glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells was studied during and after anaphylactic histamine release. The almost identical time course of ATP decrease from mast cells treated with either glycolytic or respiratory inhibitors supports the view that the ATP depletion was largely re...

  16. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  18. How much is particulate matter near the ground influenced by upper level processes within and above the PBL? A summertime case study in Milan (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Curci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and dynamical processes yield to the formation of aerosol layers in the upper planetary boundary layer (PBL and above it. Through vertical mixing and entrainment into the PBL these layers may contribute to the ground-level particulate matter (PM, but a quantitative assessment of such contribution is still missing. This study investigates this aspect combining chemical and physical aerosol measurements with WRF/Chem model simulations. The observations were collected in the Milan urban area (Northern Italy during summer of 2007. The period coincided with the passage of a meteorological perturbation that cleansed the lower atmosphere, followed by a high pressure period that favoured pollutant accumulation. Lidar observations reveal the formation of elevated aerosol layers and show evidences of their entrainment into the PBL. We analyze the budget of ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm with the help of the online meteorology-chemistry WRF/Chem model, with particular focus on the contribution of upper level processes. We find that an important player in determining the upper PBL aerosol layer is particulate nitrate, which may reach higher values in the upper PBL (up to 30% of the aerosol mass than the lower. The nitrate formation process is predicted to be largely driven by the relative humidity vertical profile, that may trigger efficient aqueous nitrate formation when exceeding the ammonium nitrate deliquescence point. Secondary PM2.5 produced in the upper half of the PBL may contribute up to 7–8 μg m−3 (or 25% to ground level concentrations on hourly basis. A large potential role is also found to be played by the residual aerosol layer above the PBL, which may occasionally contribute up to 10–12 μg m−3 (or 40% to hourly ground level PM2.5 concentrations during the morning. This study highlights the importance of considering the interplay between chemical and dynamical processes

  19. Retention on buprenorphine is associated with high levels of maximal viral suppression among HIV-infected opioid dependent released prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Springer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV-infected prisoners lose viral suppression within the 12 weeks after release to the community. This prospective study evaluates the use of buprenorphine/naloxone (BPN/NLX as a method to reduce relapse to opioid use and sustain viral suppression among released HIV-infected prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence (OD. METHODS: From 2005-2010, 94 subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for OD were recruited from a 24-week prospective trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART for released HIV-infected prisoners; 50 (53% selected BPN/NLX and were eligible to receive it for 6 months; the remaining 44 (47% selected no BPN/NLX therapy. Maximum viral suppression (MVS, defined as HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL, was compared for the BPN/NLX and non-BPN/NLX (N = 44 groups. RESULTS: The two groups were similar, except the BPN/NLX group was significantly more likely to be Hispanic (56.0% v 20.4%, from Hartford (74.4% v 47.7% and have higher mean global health quality of life indicator scores (54.18 v 51.40. MVS after 24 weeks of being released was statistically correlated with 24-week retention on BPN/NLX [AOR = 5.37 (1.15, 25.1], having MVS at the time of prison-release [AOR = 10.5 (3.21, 34.1] and negatively with being Black [AOR = 0.13 (0.03, 0.68]. Receiving DAART or methadone did not correlate with MVS. CONCLUSIONS: In recognition that OD is a chronic relapsing disease, strategies that initiate and retain HIV-infected prisoners with OD on BPN/NLX is an important strategy for improving HIV treatment outcomes as a community transition strategy.

  20. Improvement of penile erection, sperm count and seminal fructose levels in vivo and nitric oxide release in vitro by ayurvedic herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, M; Thompson, D; Connellan, P; Deseo, M A; Morris, C; Dixit, V K

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, the effect of four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs on penile erection, sperm count, seminal fructose content in vivo and nitric oxide (NO) release in vitro was assessed. Lyophilised aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. (CB), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (CO), and Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (DH) were orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar strain male albino rats. Penile erection index and sperm count were determined by visual observation; the seminal fructose concentration was measured spectrophotometrically using resorcinol reagent; and NO release was assessed in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264) spectrophotometrically using a commercial Griess reagent kit. Penile erection index, sperm count, seminal fructose concentration and in vitro NO release were the parameters measured. A significant effect on the sperm count, seminal fructose content and penile erection index was observed upon treatment with the extracts. The effect of extracts on inducible NO release in vitro directly correlated with the enhanced erectile function in vivo. The aphrodisiac claims attributed to the four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs were tested and a distinctive effect of all extracts tested was observed, with C. borivilianum showing a highly significant response for all parameters measured in vivo and in vitro. The present study also provides a good correlation between the in vivo improvement of penile erection and in vitro NO releasing activity of the extracts. Increase in seminal fructose levels and sperm count further validates the role of these herbs in improving reproductive function.

  1. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoydysh, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  2. Serum posaconazole levels among haematological cancer patients taking extended release tablets is affected by body weight and diarrhoea: single centre retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Marisa H; Perissinotti, Anthony J; Kauffman, Carol A; Couriel, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    The posaconazole extended release tablet formulation was developed to improve bioavailability relative to the oral suspension. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used to optimise posaconazole dosing to achieve a target trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients with haematological malignancies who received posaconazole tablets for antifungal prophylaxis. Posaconazole serum trough levels were obtained 5 days after initiation of therapy. Mean trough level was 1.19 ± 0.63 μg ml(-1), and 71% achieved a trough level ≥0.7 μg ml(-1). Diarrhoea was associated with lower mean trough levels (0.65 ± 0.08 μg ml(-1) vs. 1.31 ± 0.13 μg ml(-1)), P = 0.002. Mean trough levels were lower in patients ≥90 kg (0.74 ± 0.09 μg ml(-1)) vs. Posaconazole delayed release tablets attain appropriate trough levels in most patients, but patients with a higher weight and those experiencing diarrhoea are more likely to have lower levels.

  3. Total level and release of silver from a nanoparticles containing dressing used in burns care – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo C.; Roman M.; Munivrana I.; Vindigni V.; Azzena B.; Barbante C.; Cairns W. R. L.

    2013-01-01

    For centuries silver and its compounds have been in use to control infection and avoid septicaemia in the care of burns and chronic wounds. Renewed interest has resulted in a number of silver-based dressings exploiting nanotechnology that are now widely employed in burns centers. Despite extensive use, a systematic study of the chemical composition, release kinetics and biochemical action of these products has yet to be published. In this work we have characterized the morphology and elementa...

  4. Total level and release of silver from a nanoparticles containing dressing used in burns care – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For centuries silver and its compounds have been in use to control infection and avoid septicaemia in the care of burns and chronic wounds. Renewed interest has resulted in a number of silver-based dressings exploiting nanotechnology that are now widely employed in burns centers. Despite extensive use, a systematic study of the chemical composition, release kinetics and biochemical action of these products has yet to be published. In this work we have characterized the morphology and elemental composition of a commercial dressings containing Ag by SEM-EDS. The silver content was determined by ICP-MS to be about 1.4 mg cm-2. Release kinetics in ultra pure water, physiological saline solution and human serum substitute were then deeply investigated. The highest release rates were found in serum substitute, with a maximum of 2.6 μg hr-1 cm-2. Our results show that the mean inhibitory concentrations are exceeded for most common pathogens in serum substitute and sterile water, while the presence of high Cllevels inactivates the dressings.

  5. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs.

  6. Simulation of Zinc Release Affected by Microbial Inoculation and Salinity Levels in a non-sterile Calcareous Soil Using kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza boostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc (Zn is an important nutrient element for humans and plants that controls many biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. Zinc deficiency is common in high pH, low organic matter, carbonatic, saline and sodic soils. Salinity is a major abiotic environmental stresses that limits growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Bioavailability of Zn is low in calcareous and saline soils having high levels of pH and calcium. Desorption of Zinc (Zn from soil as influenced by biological activities is one of the important factors that control Zn bioavailability. Few reports on the effects of salinity on the availability and desorption kinetics of Zn are available. Rupa et al. (2000 reported that increasing the salt concentration led to increase Zn desorption from soil due to ion competition on soil exchangeable sites. Different kinetic equations have been used to describe the release kinetics of nutrients. Reyhanitabar and Gilkes (2010 found that the power function model was the best equation to describe the release of Zn from some calcareous soil of Iran, whereas Baranimotlagh and Gholami (2013 stated that the best model for describing Zn desorption from 15 calcareous soils of Iran was the first-order equation.less attention has been paid to kinetics of Zn release by DTPA extractant over time by inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae fungi in comination with soil salinity.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhizae fungi (MF inoculation on release kinetic of Zn in a calcareous soil at different salinity levels after in cornplantation Materials and Methods: A composite sample of bulk soil from the surface horizon (0-30 cm of a calcareous soil from southern part of Iran was collected, air dried, passed through 2 mm sieve, and thoroughly mixed. Routine soil analysis was performed to determine some

  7. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  8. Combustion analysis for flame stability predictions at ground level and altitude in aviation gas turbine engines with low emissions combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Tomas

    Low emissions combustors operating with low fuel/air ratios may have challenges with flame stability. As combustion is made leaner in the primary zone, the flame can lose its stability, resulting in operability problems such as relight, flameout or cold starting. This thesis analyzes combustion processes for the prediction of flame stability in low emissions combustors. A detailed review of the literature on flame stability was conducted and main approaches in flame stability modelling were indicated. Three flame stability models were proposed (Characteristic Time, Loading Parameter, and Combustion Efficiency models) and developed into a unique Preliminary Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization (PMDO) tool. Results were validated with a database of experimental combustor test data and showed that flame stability can be predicted for an arbitrary shape of combustors running at any operational conditions including ground and altitude situations with various jet fuels and nozzles. In conclusion, flame stability can be predicted for newly designed low emission combustors.

  9. SPARTAN: a global network to evaluate and enhance satellite-based estimates of ground-level particulate matter for global health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Snider

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based observations have insufficient spatial coverage to assess long-term human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 at the global scale. Satellite remote sensing offers a promising approach to provide information on both short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 at local-to-global scales, but there are limitations and outstanding questions about the accuracy and precision with which ground-level aerosol mass concentrations can be inferred from satellite remote sensing alone. A key source of uncertainty is the global distribution of the relationship between annual average PM2.5 and discontinuous satellite observations of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD. We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations designed to evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates for application in health effects research and risk assessment. This Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN includes a global federation of ground-level monitors of hourly PM2.5 situated primarily in highly populated regions and collocated with existing ground-based sun photometers that measure AOD. The instruments, a three-wavelength nephelometer and impaction filter sampler for both PM2.5 and PM10, are highly autonomous. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations are inferred from the combination of weighed filters and nephelometer data. Data from existing networks were used to develop and evaluate network sampling characteristics. SPARTAN filters are analyzed for mass, black carbon, water-soluble ions, and metals. These measurements provide, in a variety of global regions, the key data required to evaluate and enhance satellite-based PM2.5 estimates used for assessing the health effects of aerosols. Mean PM2.5 concentrations across sites vary by an order of magnitude. Initial measurements indicate that the AOD column to PM2.5 ratio is driven temporally primarily by the vertical profile of aerosol scattering; and spatially by a~ more complex interaction

  10. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  11. Beta-endorphin regulation of LHRH release at the median eminence level: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, A M; Malamed, S; Sarkar, D K; Advis, J P

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect that beta-endorphin (beta END) might have at the median eminence (ME) on luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LHRH) during the ovulatory cycle of domestic hens. Thus, we assessed (a) the immunocytochemical distribution of beta END and LHRH in the hen ME, (b) the temporal changes in ME and preoptic area (POA) LHRH and beta END content, in both a spontaneous and a premature C2 ovulatory model. The premature C2 ovulation occurs 6-7 h after the administration of progesterone (P4) injected 14 h before the spontaneous second (C2) ovulation of a sequence and therefore 7-8 h earlier than expected, (c) the ME in vitro release of beta END in both models, and (d) the effect of beta END and naloxone on in vitro ME-LHRH release in the two models. In the hen, beta END cell bodies are located in the periarcuate area with axons projecting to both the ME and the POA. LHRH perikarya are located in the medial POA and anterior hypothalamus and project to the ME and infundibulum through the ventrolateral hypothalamus. In the spontaneous C2 ovulatory model, both beta END and LHRH content in the ME remained unchanged during the 14 h preceding the C2 ovulation. However, POA-LHRH content was increasing at the time of the LH surge (4 h before the expected C2 ovulation) and remained elevated until the C2 ovulation occurred. In contrast, POA-beta END content was lowest at the time of the LH surge and remained low until the C2 ovulation occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B;

    collected across beach ridge deposits from Feddet, eastern Denmark, and resolve past relative sea level with a relatively high precision. Feddet is a spit located in Faxe Bay (western part of the Baltic Sea) close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound and is considered a key locality for studies...... in both the present beach face and upper shoreface deposits and in the interpreted beach face and upper shoreface GPR reflections. The break point marks the present transition from beach to upper shoreface and coincides with actual sea level within a few centimetres. Furthermore, our observations indicate...... that downlap points of deposits formed under both relatively high and low water levels are preserved and are identified in GPR reflection data. Thus, records of these sea-level markers constrain the local relative sea level history during the Holocene. Downlap points identified in GPR data across other...

  13. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  14. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    A digital model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas was used to simulate ground-water flow for the period from 1918 to 2049. The model results were used to evaluate effects on water levels caused by demand for ground water from the alluvial aquifer, which has increased steadily for the last 40 years. The model results showed that water currently (1998) is being withdrawn from the aquifer at rates greater than what can be sustained for the long term. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer has been reduced in some areas resulting in dry wells, degraded water quality, decreased water availability, increased pumping costs, and lower well yields. The model simulated the aquifer from a line just north of the Arkansas-Missouri border to south of the Arkansas River and on the east from the Mississippi River westward to the less permeable geologic units of Paleozoic age. The model consists of 2 layers, a grid of 184 rows by 156 columns, and comprises 14,118 active cells each measuring 1 mile on a side. It simulates time periods from 1918 to 1998 along with further time periods to 2049 testing different pumping scenarios. Model flux boundary conditions were specified for rivers, general head boundaries along parts of the western side of the model and parts of Crowleys Ridge, and a specified head boundary across the aquifer further north in Missouri. Model calibration was conducted for observed water levels for the years 1972, 1982, 1992, and 1998. The average absolute residual was 4.69 feet and the root-mean square error was 6.04 feet for the hydraulic head observations for 1998. Hydraulic-conductivity values obtained during the calibration process were 230 feet per day for the upper layer and ranged from 230 to 730 feet per day for the lower layer with the maximum mean for the combined aquifer of 480 feet per day. Specific yield values were 0.30 throughout the model and specific storage values were 0.000001 inverse-feet throughout

  15. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  16. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  17. Factors Influencing the Iterative Accuracy of Ground Water Level in Forecasting the Water Burst of Deep Drawdown Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎; 杨小荟; 武强; 张志忠

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influential factors of iteration accuracy when we use iteration to determine the numerical model for predicting water yield of deep drawdown mines and calculating the groundwater level. The relationship among the calculation error of groundwater level, the pumping rate, the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time, and the aquifer parameters were discussed by using an ideal model. Finally, the water yield of Dianzi iron mine was predicted using the testified numerical model. It is indicated that the calculation error of groundwater level is related to the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time and the aquifer parameters, but not to the pumping rate and the variation of groundwater level.

  18. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys.0008-420410.1139/p65-139 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  19. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  20. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  1. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  2. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  3. Monte Carlo transport simulation for a long counter neutron detector employed as a cosmic rays induced neutron monitor at ground level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio Tizziani; Carlson, Brett Vern [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio Antonio; Goncalez, Odair Lelis [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Great effort is required to understand better the cosmic radiation (CR) dose received by sensitive equipment, on-board computers and aircraft crew members at Brazil airspace, because there is a large area of South America and Brazil subject to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). High energy neutrons are produced by interactions between primary cosmic ray and atmospheric atoms, and also undergo moderation resulting in a wider spectrum of energy ranging from thermal energies (0:025eV ) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. Measurements of the cosmic radiation dose on-board aircrafts need to be followed with an integral flow monitor on the ground level in order to register CR intensity variations during the measurements. The Long Counter (LC) neutron detector was designed as a directional neutron flux meter standard because it presents fairly constant response for energy under 10MeV. However we would like to use it as a ground based neutron monitor for cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum (CRINS) that presents an isotropic fluency and a wider spectrum of energy. The LC was modeled and tested using a Monte Carlo transport simulation for irradiations with known neutron sources ({sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 251}Cf) as a benchmark. Using this geometric model its efficiency was calculated to CRINS isotropic flux, introducing high energy neutron interactions models. The objective of this work is to present the model for simulation of the isotropic neutron source employing the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) and then access the LC efficiency to compare it with experimental results for cosmic ray neutrons measures on ground level. (author)

  4. Section 11: Surface Water Pathway - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water releases can include the threat to targets from overland flow of hazardous substances and from flooding or the threat from the release of hazardous substances to ground water and the subsequent discharge of contaminated ground w

  5. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  6. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  7. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data collected from 1993 to 1997, using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95- percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were within the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26

  8. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Aziz, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The analyses presented in this paper include the concentration levels of NO2 and O3 measured during 2 successive years in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan from November 2009 to March 2011. NO2 was determined using the passive sampling method, while ozone was determined by Model 400E ozone analyzer. The average NO2 and O3 concentration in twin cities of Pakistan was found to be 44 ± 6 and 18.2 ± 1.24 ppb, respectively. Results indicate that the concentration of NO2 and O3 show seasonal variations. Results also depict that NO2 and O3 concentration levels are high in areas of intense traffic flow and congestion. Rawalpindi has more elevated levels of NO2 and O3 as compared to the Islamabad due to the narrow roads, enclosing architecture of road network and congestion. Climatic variables also influenced the NO2 and O3 concentration, i.e., temperature is positively related with O3, while negatively related with NO2, relative humidity is directly related with NO2 and inversely related with O3, whereas rainfall show negative association with both NO2 and O3 concentration. Comparing the results with WHO standards reveals that NO2 concentration levels at all the sampling points are above the permissible limit, while ozone concentration is still lower than the WHO standards. Thus, there is a need to take appropriate steps to control these continuously increasing levels of NO2 and O3 before they become a serious hazard for the environment and people living in those areas.

  10. Two Methods to Derive Ground-level Concentrations of PM2.5 with Improved Accuracy in the North China, Calibrating MODIS AOD and CMAQ Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Baolei; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard; Russell, Armistead; Bai, Yuqi

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and accurate characterizations of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations are essential to understand pollution sources and evaluate human exposures etc. Monitoring network could only provide direct point-level observations at limited locations. At the locations without monitors, there are generally two ways to estimate the pollution levels of PM2.5. One is observations of aerosol properties from the satellite-based remote sensing, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD). The other one is from deterministic atmospheric chemistry models, such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). In this study, we used a statistical spatio-temporal downscaler to calibrate the two datasets to monitor observations to derive fine-scale ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 with improved accuracy. We treated both MODIS AOD and CMAQ model predictions as biased proxy estimations of PM2.5 pollution levels. The downscaler proposed a Bayesian framework to model the spatially and temporally varying coefficients of the two types of estimations in the linear regression setting, in order to correct biases. Especially for calibrating MODIS AOD, a city-specific linear model was established to fill the missing AOD values, and a novel interpolation-based variable, i.e. PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator, was introduced to account for the spatial dependence among grid cells. We selected the heavy polluted and populated North China as our study area, in a grid setting of 81×81 12-km cells. For the evaluation of calibration performance for retrieved MODIS AOD, the R2 was 0.61 by the full model with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator being presented, and was 0.48 with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator not being presented. The constructed AOD values effectively predicted PM2.5 concentrations under our model structure, with R2=0.78. For the evaluation of calibrated CMAQ predictions, the R2 was 0.51, a little less than that of calibrated AOD. Finally we

  11. Ground level observations of relativistic solar particles on Oct 29th, 2015: Is it a new GLE on the current solar cycle?

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Nepomuceno, A A; Fauth, A C

    2016-01-01

    On Oct. 29th, 2015, the Earth crossed through a fold in the heliospheric current sheet. This is called a "solar sector boundary crossing". Under this circumstances, a large coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred at 2:24 UT, behind the west limb on the sun. Therefore, the boundary crossing occurred when in the blast's nearby environment was filled with energetic particles accelerated by the CME shock waves, spacecraft measurements (ACE and GOES) have shown that in such a case, protons with energies at least up to 30 MeV were stored within the range of the sector boundary. Thus, a fraction of the solar energetic particles (SEP) from CME, reached Earth around 03:00 UT in the aftermath of the solar blast, reaching the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level. The effect at ground level was a small increase in the counting rate in some ground based detectors, such as the South Pole Neutron Monitor (NM) and a sharp peak observed in the counting rate in the New-Tupi detector in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Thule...

  12. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the chemical speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their role in ground-level ozone formation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China, measurements of 56 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and 12 carbonyls were conducted at three sites in summer. Alkanes were the largest group of NMHCs (>50%), followed by alkenes and aromatics. Acetone was the most abundant carbonyl species (>50%). The OH loss rates (LOH) of VOCs were calculated to estimate their chemical reactivities. Alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity, among which ethene and propene were the largest contributors. Isoprene contributed 11.61-38.00% of the total reactivity of measured VOCs. Alkenes and aromatics were the largest contributors (47.65-61.53% totally) to the total Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) of measured VOCs based on the observed mixing ratio. Isoprene was the most reactive species, but originated mainly from biogenic emissions. Ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and 1-butene were considered to play significant roles in ground-level ozone formation in this region. The OFPs of total measured NMHCs increased by 10.20-22.05% when they were calculated based on the initial mixing ratio. Photochemical losses of hydrocarbons and the secondary formation of carbonyls in this region were also determined. Vehicle exhaust emissions contributed substantially to ambient VOCs.

  13. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  14. Low-Level Volatile Organic Compounds in Active Public Supply Wells as Ground-Water Tracers in the Los Angeles Physiographic Basin, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Land, Michael; Gronberg, JoAnn

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected to evaluate the use of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOC) to assess the vulnerability of public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Samples of untreated ground water from 178 active public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin show that VOCs were detected in 61 percent of the ground-water samples; most of these detections were low, with only 29 percent above 1 mg/L (microgram per liter). Thirty-nine of the 86 VOCs analyzed were detected in at least one sample, and 11 VOCs were detected in 7 percent or more of the samples. The six most frequently detected VOCs were trichloromethane (chloroform) (46 percent); trichloroethene (TCE) (28 percent); tetrachloro-ethene (PCE) (19 percent); methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 percent); 1,1-dichloroethane (11 percent); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (11 percent). These VOCs were also the most frequently detected VOCs in ground water representative of a wide range of hydrologically conditions in urban areas nationwide. Only two VOCs (TCE and PCE) exceeded state and federal primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water in a total of seven samples. Because samples were collected prior to water treatment, sample concentrations do not represent the concentrations entering the drinking-water system.Ground water containing VOCs may be considered to be a tracer of postindustrial-aged water-water that was recharged after the onset of intense urban development. The overall distribution of VOC detections is related to the hydrological and the engineered recharge facilities in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin and the Coastal Santa Ana Basin that comprise the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Most of the ground-water recharge occurs at engineered recharge facilities in the generally coarse-grained northeastern parts of the study area (forebay areas). Ground-water recharge from the land surface is minimal in the southwestern part of the basins, distal from the recharge

  15. Modeling of Morelia Fault Earthquake (Mw=5.4) source fault parameters using the coseismic ground deformation and groundwater level changes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychikhina, O.; Glowacka, E.; Mellors, R. J.; Vázquez, R.

    2009-12-01

    On 24 May 2006 at 04:20 (UTC) a moderate-size (Mw=5.4) earthquake struck the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, México, roughly 30 km to the southeast of the city of Mexicali, in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF). The earthquake occurred on the Morelia fault, one of the east-dipping normal faults in the Mexicali Valley. Locally, this earthquake was strongly felt and caused minor damage. The event created 5 km of surface rupture and down-dip displacements of up to 25-30 cm were measured at some places along this surface rupture. Associated deformation was measured by vertical crackmeter, leveling profile, and Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR). A coseismic step-like groundwater level change was detected at 7 wells. The Mw=5.4 Morelia Fault earthquake had significant scientific interest, first, because of surprisingly strong effects for an earthquake of such size; second, the variability of coseismic effects data from different ground-based and space-based techniques which allows to the better constrain of the source fault parameters. Source parameters for the earthquake were estimated using forward modeling of both surface deformation data and static volume strain change (inferred from coseismic changes in groundwater level). All ground deformation data was corrected by anthropogenic component caused by the geothermal fluid exploitation in the CPGF. Modeling was based on finite rectangular fault embedded in an elastic media. The preferred fault model has a strike, rake, and dip of (48°, -89°, 45°) and has a length of 5.2 km, width of 6.7 km, and 34 cm of uniform slip. The geodetic moment, based on the modeled fault parameters, is 1.18E+17 Nm. The model matches the observed surface deformation, expected groundwater level changes, and teleseismic moment reasonably well and explains in part why the earthquake was so strongly felt in the area.

  16. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  17. Comparison between reflectivity statistics at heights of 3 and 6 km and rain rate statistics at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the relations between the empirical distribution functions of reflectivity at specified locations above the surface and the corresponding functions at the surface. A bistatic radar system was used to measure continuously the scattering cross section per unit volume at heights of 3 and 6 km. A frequency of 3.7 GHz was used in the tests. It was found that the distribution functions for reflectivity may significantly change with height at heights below the level of the melting layer.

  18. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available molecules for which spectroscopic data for the vibrational modes are available in literature. A density matrix approach was followed. The time evolution of the density matrix is given by the Von Neumann equation [1] , , 1 ( )a l b lN i t i tab lb al... of the individual vibrational levels, and Iab the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian [2] which include the detailed time dependence of the shaped femtosecond pulse. 2. Simulation results A transform limited 150 femtosecond laser pulse with a...

  19. Dead leaves and the dirty ground: low-level image statistics in transmissive and occlusive imaging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Joel; Pfau, David; Deweese, Michael Robert

    2012-12-01

    The opacity of typical objects in the world results in occlusion, an important property of natural scenes that makes inference of the full three-dimensional structure of the world challenging. The relationship between occlusion and low-level image statistics has been hotly debated in the literature, and extensive simulations have been used to determine whether occlusion is responsible for the ubiquitously observed power-law power spectra of natural images. To deepen our understanding of this problem, we have analytically computed the two- and four-point functions of a generalized "dead leaves" model of natural images with parameterized object transparency. Surprisingly, transparency alters these functions only by a multiplicative constant, so long as object diameters follow a power-law distribution. For other object size distributions, transparency more substantially affects the low-level image statistics. We propose that the universality of power-law power spectra for both natural scenes and radiological medical images, formed by the transmission of x-rays through partially transparent tissue, stems from power-law object size distributions, independent of object opacity.

  20. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  1. The revision of the air quality legislation in the european union related to ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, M; Lutz, M

    2000-11-01

    Complying with the obligation in the current ozone directive, the European Commission came forward in 1999 with a strategy to combat tropospheric ozone together with a proposed revision of the air quality legislation for this pollutant. As a daughter legislation under the 1996 Framework Directive on Air Quality, the proposed ozone daughter directive defines for the first time (interim) air quality targets for ozone to be attained by 2010, complemented by long-term objectives for ozone based on the guideline values of the World Health Organisation. It also sets out enhanced requirements for monitoring and assessment of ozone concentrations, as well as minimum criteria for appropriate information of the public about the measured air pollution. In the past, abatement strategies against air pollution consisted of concrete obligations for controlling emissions derived solely on the basis of technical and economic aspects, covering specific types of installations or activities, thus with no direct quantitative relationship to the level of air pollution let alone to its effects. In compensating this deficit, the Commission presented, as a complement to the existing sectoral legislation, a proposal for a directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) which quantifies emission targets for every Member State to bring its total precursor emissions by 2010 down to levels being considered as necessary to achieve everywhere on a regional scale the air quality targets set in the ozone daughter directive. As the core element of the ozone abatement strategy, the national ceilings for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ammonia (NH(3)) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were derived from a cost-effectiveness analysis integrating information on economic, technical, physical and biological aspects of ozone pollution and abatement. This integrated assessment considers the potential and costs for further emission control in the various economic sectors in the

  2. Hexabromocyclododecane inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, M.M.L.; Heusinkveld, H.J.; de Groot, A.; Bergman, A.; van den Berg, M.; Westerink, R.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental levels of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) have been increasing. HBCD has been shown to cause adverse effects on learning and behavior in mice, as well as on dopamine uptake in rat synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. For other BFRs, alterations in the

  3. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located......, salt, and volume overload. In contrast, the events controlling the function of renin-secreting cells at the organ and cellular level are markedly less clear and remain mysterious in certain aspects. The unravelling of these mysteries has led to new and interesting insights into the process of renin...

  4. Determination of trace levels of herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, specific and highly sensitive method is described for the determination of several commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by using gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry. The compounds included atrazine, and its degradation products desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine; Simazine; Cyanazine; Metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. The method was applied to surface-water samples collected from 16 different stations along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, and ground-water samples beneath a cornfield in central Nebraska. Average recovery of a surrogate herbicide, terbuthylazine, was greater than 99%. Recoveries of the compounds of interest from river water spiked at environmental levels are also presented. Full-scan mass spectra of these compounds were obtained on 1 ng or less of analyte. Data were collected in the full-scan acquisition mode. Quantitation was based on a single characteristic ion for each compound. The detection limit was 60 pg with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1.

  5. Signals at ground level of relativistic solar particles associated to the "All Saints" filament eruption on 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; de Oliveira, M N; Shigueoka, H; Nepomuceno, A A; Fauth, A C

    2015-01-01

    Far away from any sunspot, a bright flare erupted on November 1st, 2014, with onset at 4:44 UT and a duration of around three hours, causing a C2.7-class flare. The blast was associated with the sudden disappearance of a large dark solar filament. The rest of the filament flew out into space, forming the core of a massive CME. Despite the location of the explosion over the sun's southeastern region (near the eastern edge of the sun) not be geoeffective, a radiation storm, that is, solar energetic particles (SEP) started to reach the Earth around 14:00 UT, reaching the condition of an S1 (minor) radiation storm level on Nov. 2th. In coincidence with onset of the S1 radiation storm (SEP above 5 MeV), the Tupi telescopes located at $22^090'$S; $43^020'$W, within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) detected a muon enhancement caused by relativistic protons from this solar blast. In addition an increase in the particle intensity was found also at South Pole neutron monitor. This means that there was a transverse prop...

  6. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a

  7. Cystine accumulation attenuates insulin release from the pancreatic β-cell due to elevated oxidative stress and decreased ATP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Bernadette; Sumayao, Rodolfo; Slattery, Craig; McMorrow, Tara; Newsholme, Philip

    2015-12-01

    The pancreatic β-cell has reduced antioxidant defences making it more susceptible to oxidative stress. In cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder, an altered redox state may contribute to cellular dysfunction. This rare disease is caused by an abnormal lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin, which causes excessive accumulation of cystine in the lysosome. Cystinosis associated kidney damage and dysfunction leads to the Fanconi syndrome and ultimately end-stage renal disease. Following kidney transplant, cystine accumulation in other organs including the pancreas leads to multi-organ dysfunction. In this study, a Ctns gene knockdown model of cystinosis was developed in the BRIN-BD11 rat clonal pancreatic β-cell line using Ctns-targeting siRNA. Additionally there was reduced cystinosin expression, while cell cystine levels were similarly elevated to the cystinotic state. Decreased levels of chronic (24 h) and acute (20 min) nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion were observed. This decrease may be due to depressed ATP generation particularly from glycolysis. Increased ATP production and the ATP/ADP ratio are essential for insulin secretion. Oxidised glutathione levels were augmented, resulting in a lower [glutathione/oxidised glutathione] redox potential. Additionally, the mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced, apoptosis levels were elevated, as were markers of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the basal and activated phosphorylated forms of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB were increased in cells with silenced Ctns. From this study, the cystinotic-like pancreatic β-cell model demonstrated that the altered oxidative status of the cell, resulted in depressed mitochondrial function and pathways of ATP production, causing reduced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion.

  8. PERCHLORATE: Occurrence is Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond to and Lessen Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    tomatoes and spinach, having higher perchlorate levels than others. According to researchers, concentrations of perchlorate at or above 100 parts per...These food items represent the major components of the American diet, such as dairy, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Certain foods, such as tomatoes ...Administration’s Total Diet Study: Dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine ,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 18 (2008

  9. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  10. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.;

    2007-01-01

    -frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal......In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level...

  11. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  12. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Groner, Peter; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    Insight gained from examining the "pure" torsional, vibrational and vibration-torsional (vibtor) levels of the single rotor molecules: toluene (methylbenzene) and para-fluorotoluene (pFT), is applied to the double rotor para-xylene (p-dimethylbenzene) molecule . Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy are employed in order to investigate the S_{1} and ground cationic states of para-xylene. Observed transitions are assigned in the full molecular symmetry group (G_{72}) for the first time. J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance, J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  13. Torsional, Vibrational and Vibration-Torsional Levels in the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William Duncan; Whalley, Laura E.; Claydon, Andrew; Carter, Joseph H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    The S_{1} electronic state and ground state of the cation of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Here we focus on the low wavenumber region where a number of "pure" torsional, fundamental vibrational and vibration-torsional levels are expected; assignments of observed transitions are discussed, which are compared to results of published work on toluene (methylbenzene) from the Lawrance group. The similarity in the activity observed in the excitation spectrum of the two molecules is striking. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). J. R. Gascooke, E. A. Virgo, and W. D. Lawrance J. Chem. Phys., 143, 044313 (2015).

  14. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 1. Guideline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. This volume includes specific recommendations for decision-making managers and site operators on how to use these guidelines. The more detailed discussions about the code selection approach are provided. 242 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  17. The ground-level enhancement of 2012 May 17: Derivation of solar proton event properties through the application of the NMBANGLE PPOLA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plainaki, Christina; Laurenza, Monica; Storini, Marisa [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133, Rome (Italy); Mavromichalaki, Helen; Gerontidou, Maria; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios, E-mail: christina.plainaki@iaps.inaf.it [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Pan/polis Zografos, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2014-04-20

    In this work, we apply an updated version of the Neutron Monitor (NM) Based Anisotropic GLE Pure Power Law (NMBANGLE PPOLA) model, in order to derive the characteristics of the ground-level enhancement (GLE) on 2012 May 17 (GLE71), the spectral properties of the related solar energetic particle (SEP) event, the spatial distributions of the high-energy solar cosmic ray fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, and the time evolution of the location of the GLE source. Our modeling, based uniquely on the use of ground-level NM data, leads to the following main results. The SEP spectrum related to GLE71 was rather soft during the whole duration of the event, manifesting some weak acceleration episodes only during the initial phase (at ∼01:55-02:00 UT) and at ∼02:30-02:35 UT and ∼02:55-03:00 UT. The spectral index of the modeled SEP spectrum supports the coronal mass ejection-shock driven particle acceleration scenario, in agreement with past results based on the analysis of satellite measurements. During the initial phase of GLE71, the solar proton source at the top of the atmosphere was located above the northern hemisphere, implying that the asymptotic directions of viewing of the northern hemisphere NMs were more favorably located for registering the event than the southern ones. The spatial distribution of the solar proton fluxes at the top of the atmosphere during the main phase manifested a large variation along longitude and latitude. At the rigidity of 1 GV, the maximum primary solar proton flux resulted on the order of ∼3 × 10{sup 4} part. m{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} GV{sup –1}.

  18. Spectroscopical Determination of ground-level concentrations of Reactive Halogen Species (RHS) above salt lakes, salt pans and other areas with high halogen emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robert; Landwehr, Sebastian; Platt, Ulrich; Kotte, Karsten; Lisitsyna, Linda V.; Mulder, Ines; Emmerich, Maren; Huber, Stefan; Heidak, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Reactive Halogen Species (RHS), especially BrO and IO, are crucial for the photo chemistry of ozone, the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and have an impact on the equilibria of many atmospheric reaction cycles. This also induces a potential influence on the earth's climate. Beside polar regions, volcanoes and the marine boundary layer salt lakes are an important source for reactive halogen species. At the Dead Sea BrO mixing ratios of up to 176 ppt were measured in summer 2001 [Matveev et al., 2001] and IO was identified with maximal mixing ratios of more than 10 ppt by [Zingler and Platt, 2005]. The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia showed the presence of up to 20 ppt BrO [Hönninger et al., 2004]. Salt pans and salt deserts may be important halogen sources as well. Saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth and might increase in the near future due to desertification as one aspect of the global climate change. Within the scope of the DFG research group HALOPROC a measurement campaign in Southern Russia was performed in August 2009. The ground-level concentrations of BrO, IO, Ozone and other trace gases above the salt lakes El'Ton, Baskuntschak and other local areas were measured using the Multi-AXis-DOAS technique. A further campaign was performed in Mauritania in November/December 2009 in cooperation with the BMBF project SOPRAN. In addition to the above-mentioned measurements the Long-Path DOAS technique was used in order to measure the ground-level concentrations at two different sites: 1. the salt pan Sebkha N'Dramcha and 2. close to a sea weed field at Poste Iwik in a coastal area. We present results from both campaigns concerning the concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), ozone (O3)and formaldehyde (HCHO) and give an outlook on possible further campaigns in the future.

  19. Cesium accumulation by aquatic organisms at different trophic levels following an experimental release into a small reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E., E-mail: jepinder@uga.ed [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Taylor, B.E., E-mail: TaylorB@dnr.sc.go [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Whicker, F.W., E-mail: ward.whicker@colostate.ed [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado, State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The rates of accumulation and subsequent loss of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) by organisms at different trophic levels within plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains were measured following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} dry mass) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each organism using time-series measurements of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in water and biota, and these parameters were used to estimate maximum concentrations, times to maximum concentrations, and concentration ratios (C{sub r}). The maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for plankton, periphyton, the insect larva Chaoborus punctipennis, which feeds on plankton, and the snail Helisoma trivolvis, which feeds on periphyton, occurred within the first 14 days following the addition, whereas the maximum concentrations for the fish species Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides occurred after 170 days. The C{sub r} based on dry mass for plankton and C. punctipennis were 1220 L kg{sup -1} and 5570 L kg{sup -1}, respectively, and were less than the C{sub r} of 8630 L kg{sup -1} for periphyton and 47,700 L kg{sup -1} for H. trivolvis. Although the C{sub r} differed between plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains, they displayed similar levels of biomagnification. Biomagnification was also indicated for fish where the C{sub r} for the mostly nonpiscivorous L. macrochirus of 22,600 L kg{sup -1} was three times less than that for mostly piscivorous M. salmoides of 71,500 L kg{sup -1}. Although the C{sub r} for M. salmoides was greater than those for periphyton and H. trivolvis, the maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for periphyton and H. trivolvis were greater than that for M. salmoides. - Research highlights: {yields} A simple uptake and loss model described the Cs dynamics in all the various biota. {yields} Concentrations of Cs were greater in periphyton than in plankton

  20. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  1. Level Recession Of Emissions Release By Motor-And-Tractor Diesel Engines Through The Application Of Water-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Chikishev, E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to a problem of environmental pollution by emissions of hazardous substances with the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. It is found that application of water-fuel emulsions yields the best results in diesels where production of a qualitative carburetion is the main problem for the organization of working process. During pilot studies the composition of a water-fuel emulsion with the patent held is developed. The developed composition of a water-fuel emulsion provides its stability within 14-18 months depending on mass content of components in it while stability of emulsions’ analogues makes 8-12 months. The mode of operation of pilot unit is described. Methodology and results of pilot study of operation of diesel engine on a water-fuel emulsion are presented. Cutting time of droplet combustion of a water-fuel emulsion improves combustion efficiency and reduces carbon deposition (varnish) on working surfaces. Partial dismantling of the engine after its operating time during 60 engine hours has shown that there is a removal of a carbon deposition in cylinder-piston group which can be observed visually. It is found that for steady operation of the diesel and ensuring decrease in level of emission of hazardous substances the water-fuel emulsion with water concentration of 18-20% is optimal.

  2. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscular activity of different shooting distances, different release techniques, and different performance levels, with and without stabilizers, in target archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Cabri, J; Bollens, E; Sleeckx, R; Taeymans, J; Vermeiren, M; Van Reeth, G; Voss, G

    1990-01-01

    The quadruple approach in the title refers to four different studies over a period of 3 years. The common factor in these studies is the methodology of the (Brussels) Electromyographic Signal Processing and Analysis System (ESPAS), a hardware and software EMG data acquisition system that has constantly been improved. Therefore, the ESPAS methodology is described extensively (i.e. the electrodes, amplifier, tape-recorder and processing hardware). Experiment 1 investigated muscular behaviour in target shooting, both indoors (18 and 25 m) and outdoors (50, 70 and 90 m). It was found (via iEMG) that a significant increase in activity only exists between 25 and 50 m, and that there is no linear increase of activity with increased distance. No differences in muscular pattern (IDANCO system: Clarys and Cabri, 1988) or activity between the indoor distances and between the outdoor distances were found. Experiment 2 investigated the muscular economy of four string grips: the three-finger grip, two-finger grip, thumb grip and reversed grip. The largest variations in activity were found for the two most unfamiliar grips, i.e. the thumb and reversed grips; however, low iEMG and the rapid precision improvement (over a limited number of shots) suggest that the thumb grip, if practised long enough, might be the most economical technique. Experiment 3 attempted to differentiate muscular activity and a number of performance variables in three different populations of archers--Olympic athletes, National competitors and beginners--in order to obtain feedback regarding improved performance. Apparently, overall muscle pattern, intensities and arrow speed were not discriminatory. The differences found between the groups (or levels of skill) were affected by the ability to reproduce identical patterns and arrow velocities in consecutive shots and by the constancy of neuromuscular control of the M. trapezius, M. biceps brachii and M. extensor digitorum. Finally, Experiment 4 investigated

  4. Neuromodulatory properties of fluorescent carbon dots: effect on exocytotic release, uptake and ambient level of glutamate and GABA in brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Nazarova, Anastasia; Dekaliuk, Mariia; Krisanova, Natalia; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Borysov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2015-02-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots), a recently discovered class of fluorescent nano-sized particles with pure carbon core, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of fluorescent C-dots obtained from β-alanine by microwave heating were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on the key characteristics of GABA- and glutamatergic neurotransmission in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was found that C-dots (40-800 μg/ml) in dose-dependent manner: (1) decreased exocytotic release of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (2) reduced acidification of synaptic vesicles; (3) attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (4) increased the ambient level of the neurotransmitters, nevertheless (5) did not change significantly the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Almost complete suppression of exocytotic release of the neurotransmitters was caused by C-dots at a concentration of 800 μg/ml. Fluorescent and neuromodulatory features combined in C-dots create base for their potential usage for labeling and visualization of key processes in nerve terminals, and also in theranostics. In addition, natural presence of carbon-containing nanoparticles in the human food chain and in the air may provoke the development of neurologic consequences.

  5. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  6. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  7. Assessment of stress levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menk, Tais A S; Inácio, Marlene; Macedo, Delanie B; Bessa, Danielle S; Latronico, Ana C; Mendonca, Berenice B; Brito, Vinicius Nahime

    2017-05-23

    The objective of the study was to determine the stress levels of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) before and during treatment with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). The Child Stress Scale (CSS) was used for 10 unrelated girls with CPP before and after the first year of GnRHa treatment. The CSS is divided into four subscales (physical, psychological, psychological with depressive component and psychophysiological reactions). Through a quantitative analysis, it is possible to classify stress into four stages: alarm, resistance, near-exhaustion and exhaustion. At diagnosis, 90% of the girls showed stress levels scores at the alarm or resistance stage on at least one subscale, mostly in terms of physical and psychological reactions. The mean total stress score was significantly higher before when compared to after GnRHa treatment (43.4±15.6 vs. 28.9±9.7; pstress scores obtained in all subscales, except the one on psychophysiological reactions, were significantly higher before GnRHa treatment. Higher stress levels were a common finding in girls with CPP before treatment. The significant stress level reduction after pubertal suppression reinforces the idea that sexual precocity is a stressful condition in children. The CSS might be a useful tool for psychological assessment of patients with CPP.

  8. Relationship of ground-level aerosol concentration and atmospheric electric field at three observation sites in the Arctic, Antarctic and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Odzimek, Anna; Neska, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol number concentrations in the particle size range from 10 nm to 1 μm and vertical electric field strength in the surface layer was measured between September 2012 and December 2013 at three observation sites: mid-latitude station Swider, Poland, and, for the first time, in Hornsund in the Arctic, Spitsbergen, and the Antarctic Arctowski station in the South Shetland Islands. The measurements of aerosol concentrations have been performed simultaneously with measurements of the electric field with the aim to assess the local effect of aerosol on the electric field Ez near the ground at the three stations which at present form a network of atmospheric electricity observatories. Measurements have been made regardless of weather conditions at Swider and Arctowski station and mostly on fair-weather days at Hornsund station. The monthly mean particle number concentrations varied between 580 and 2100 particles cm- 3 at Arctowski, between 90 and 1270 particles cm- 3 in Hornsund, and between 6700 and 14,000 particles cm- 3 in the middle latitude station Swider. Average diurnal variations of the ground-level electric field Ez and particle number concentrations in fair-weather conditions were independent of each other for Arctowski and Hornsund stations. At Swider station the diurnal variation is usually characterized by an increase of aerosol concentration in the evening which results in the increased electric field. The assumption of neglecting the influence of varying aerosol concentration on the variation of the electric field in the polar regions, often adopted in studies, is confirmed here by the observations at Arctowski and Hornsund. The results of aerosol observations are also compared with modelled aerosol concentrations for global atmospheric electric circuit models.

  9. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  10. Vibration and Vibration-Torsion Levels of the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene and Para-Xylene Below 1000 \\wn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    We have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to investigate the first excited electronic singlet (S_{1}) state and the cationic ground state (D_{0}^{+}) of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) and para-xylene (pXyl). Spectra have been recorded via a large number of selected intermediate levels, to support assignment of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels in these molecules and to investigate possible couplings. The study of levels in this region builds upon previous work on the lower energy regions of pFT and pXyl and here we are interested in how vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels might combine and interact with vibrational ones, and so we consider the possible couplings which occur. Comparisons between the spectra of the two molecules show a close correspondence, and the influence of the second methyl rotor in para-xylene on the onset of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in the S_{1} state is a point of interest. This has bearing on future work which will need to consider the role of both more flexible side chains of substituted benzene molecules, and multiple side chains. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press). W. D. Tuttle, A. M. Gardner, K. O'Regan, W. Malewicz and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  11. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant.

  12. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  13. [Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake.

  14. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  15. Characterization of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume over the Iberian Peninsula by lidar remote sensing and ground-level data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, M. A.; Sastre, M.; Fernández, A. J.; Martín, L.; García, R.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.; Molero, F.

    2012-03-01

    In April and May 2010 the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano disrupted air traffic across Europe. The vast economic impact of this event has stirred interest on accurate plume dispersion estimation and detailed ash characterization, in order to establish a more precise threshold for safe aircraft operation. In this work we study the physical and chemical properties of volcanogenic aerosol detected at ground level at several locations over the Iberian Peninsula, nearly 3000 km away from the Icelandic volcano. Between 4 and 14 May, the volcanogenic plume was detected at ground level, identified by an increase in sulfur dioxide, particle mass concentrations, and particulate sulfate concentration, at most EMEP stations as well as at the CIEMAT site (for the sulfate concentration in PM). At the CIEMAT site, the synergic use of Raman lidar and on-site instruments provided relevant information on the evolution and properties of the plume over the central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles provided by the lidar station show the presence of remarkable aerosol layers between 6 May and 15 May. Provenance studies using FLEXTRA backtrajectories confirmed that most of the aerosol layers originated in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The large suite of semi-continuous instruments present in the latter site allowed a better characterization of the aerosol properties. Size distribution and chemical composition were continuously monitored during the event, revealing a large increase in the aerosol fine mode, in coincidence with increases in ambient sulfate concentration, while the coarse mode remained almost unaltered. These results show that the plume carried mainly fine particles, with sizes between 0.1 and 0.7 μm in diameter, in contrast with studies of the plume that affected Central Europe in April, where particles with diameters larger than 20 μm were present in the ash layers. A possible explanation for this can be related to the

  16. Rapid Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonism in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with High Gonadotropin Levels in the AGRA Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kåss

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins, which appear to be proinflammatory, undergo profound secretory changes during events associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA onset, flares, or improvement e.g. menopausal transition, postpartum, or pregnancy. Potential anti-inflammatory effects of GnRH-antagonists may be most pronounced in patients with high GnRH and gonadotropin levels. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a GnRH-antagonist, cetrorelix, in RA patients with high gonadotropin levels.We report intention-to-treat post hoc analyses among patients with high gonadotropin levels (N = 53, i.e. gonadotropin levels>median, from our proof-of-concept, double-blind AGRA-study (N = 99. Patients with active longstanding RA, randomized to subcutaneous cetrorelix (5mg days1-2; 3mg days 3-5 or placebo, were followed through day 15. Only predefined primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed.The primary endpoint, Disease Activity Score of 28-joint counts with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP, improved with cetrorelix compared with placebo by day 5 (-1.0 vs. -0.4, P = 0∙010. By day 5, more patients on cetrorelix achieved at least a 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology scale (44% vs. 19%, P = 0.049, DAS28-CRP≤3.2 (24% vs. 0%, P = 0.012, and European League against Rheumatism 'Good-responses' (19% vs. 0%, P = 0.026. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, and CRP decreased with cetrorelix (P = 0.045, P = 0.034, P = 0.020 and P = 0.042 respectively compared with placebo by day 15. Adverse event rates were similar between groups.GnRH-antagonism produced rapid anti-inflammatory effects in RA patients with high gonadotropin levels. GnRH should be investigated further in RA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00667758.

  17. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  18. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.emberson@york.ac.uk; Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Mike R. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO{sub 3}SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O{sub 3} risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O{sub 3} risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests.

  19. Ground Level Observations of a Possible Downward-Beamed TGF during a Rocket-Triggered Lightning Flash at Camp Blanding, Florida in August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Rassoul, H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Grove, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground level high-energy observations of an August 2014 rocket-triggered lightning event at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, Florida show a 180 µs burst of multiple-MeV photons during the latter part of the Upward Positive Leader (UPL) phase of an altitude-triggered lightning flash, following the first, truncated return stroke. The timing and waveform profile being atypical from x-ray emissions from lightning leaders, our observations suggest the occurrence of a downward beamed terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF). Instrumentation operating during this event include a set of 16 NaI(TI)/PMT detectors plus 7 1-m2 plastic scintillation detectors spread across the 1 km2 facility, with 38 additional Na(TI)/PMT detectors located inside the 1"-thick Pb-shielded x-ray camera and an x-ray spectrometer. Comparing the location and energy data from these detectors to Monte Carlo simulations of TGFs from the REAM code developed by Dwyer [2003], our analysis investigates possible TGF production regions and determines the likelihood of the observed high-energy emissions being produced by a TGF inside the thunderstorm.

  20. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and outcomes after ground-level falls in geriatric trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa; Kaminski, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after a fall in geriatric patients. We sought to determine whether there were differences in ICH rates and outcomes based on type of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent after a ground-level fall (GLF). Our institutional trauma registry was used to identify patients 65 years old or older after a GLF while taking warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin over a 2-year period. Rates and types of ICH and patient outcomes were evaluated. Of 562 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 218 (38.8%) were on warfarin, 95 (16.9%) were on clopidogrel, and 249 (44.3%) were on aspirin. Overall ICH frequency was 15 per cent with no difference in ICH rate, type of ICH, need for craniotomy, mortality, or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Patients with ICH were more likely to present with abnormal Glasgow Coma Score, history of hypertension, and/or loss of consciousness.

  1. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lisa D; Büker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R

    2007-06-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO(3)SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O(3) risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O(3) risk.

  2. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  3. Mechanisms of glycine release, which build up synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine levels: the role of synaptic and non-synaptic glycine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Matyus, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Glycine is an amino acid neurotransmitter that is involved in both inhibitory and excitatory neurochemical transmission in the central nervous system. The role of glycine in excitatory neurotransmission is related to its coagonist action at glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The glycine levels in the synaptic cleft rise many times higher during synaptic activation assuring that glycine spills over into the extrasynaptic space. Another possible origin of extrasynaptic glycine is the efflux of glycine occurring from astrocytes associated with glutamatergic synapses. The release of glycine from neuronal or glial origins exhibits several differences compared to that of biogenic amines or other amino acid neurotransmitters. These differences appear in an external Ca(2+)- and temperature-dependent manner, conferring unique characteristics on glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine transporter type-1 at synapses may exhibit neural and glial forms and plays a role in controlling synaptic glycine levels and the spill over rate of glycine from the synaptic cleft into the extrasynaptic biophase. Non-synaptic glycine transporter type-1 regulates extrasynaptic glycine concentrations, either increasing or decreasing them depending on the reverse or normal mode operation of the carrier molecule. While we can, at best, only estimate synaptic glycine levels at rest and during synaptic activation, glycine concentrations are readily measurable via brain microdialysis technique applied in the extrasynaptic space. The non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may obtain glycine for activation following its spill over from highly active synapses or from its release mediated by the reverse operation of non-synaptic glycine transporter-1. The sensitivity of non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to glutamate and glycine is many times higher than that of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors making the former type of receptor the primary target for drug action. Synaptic

  4. Plasma adiponectin levels are increased despite insulin resistance in corticotropin-releasing hormone transgenic mice, an animal model of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinahara, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Shuichi; Noguchi, Toru; Kambayashi, Machiko; Okada, Yasushi; Tsuda, Masayuki; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdN), an adipokine derived from the adipose tissue, has an insulin-sensitizing effect, and plasma AdN is shown to be decreased in obesity and/or insulin resistant state. To clarify whether changes in AdN are also responsible for the development of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance, we examined AdN concentration in plasma and AdN expression in the adipose tissue, using corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transgenic mouse (CRH-Tg), an animal model of Cushing syndrome. We found, unexpectedly, that plasma AdN levels in CRHTg were significantly higher than those in wild-type littermates (wild-type: 19.7+/-2.5, CRH-Tg: 32.4+/-3.1 microg/mL, pAdN mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the adipose tissue of CRH-Tg. Bilateral adrenalectomy in CRH-Tg eliminated both their Cushing's phenotype and their increase in plasma AdN levels (wild-type/sham: 9.4+/-0.5, CRH-Tg/sham: 15.7+/-2.0, CRH-Tg/ADX: 8.5+/-0.4 microg/mL). These results strongly suggest that AdN is not a major factor responsible for the development of insulin resistance in Cushing syndrome. Our data also suggest that glucocorticoid increases plasma AdN levels but decreases AdN expression in adipocytes, the latter being explained possibly by the decrease in AdN metabolism in the Cushing state.

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of the breaking force of extended-release matrix tablets prepared by roller-compaction: influence of plasticizer levels and sintering temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Fahmy, Raafat M; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the determination of the influence of sintering temperature and plasticizer levels on the breaking force of extended-release matrix tablets prepared via roller-compaction. Six formulations using theophylline as a model drug, Eudragit® RL PO or Eudragit® RS PO as a matrix former and three levels of TEC (triethyl citrate) as a plasticizer were prepared. The powder blend was roller compacted using a fixed roll-gap of 1.5 mm, feed screw speed to roller speed ratio of 5:1 and roll pressure of 4 MPa. The granules, after removing fines, were compacted into tablets on a Stokes B2 rotary tablet press at a compression force of 7 kN. The tablets were thermally treated at different temperatures (Room Temperature, 50, 75 and 100 °C) for 5 h. These tablets were scanned in reflectance mode in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm and were evaluated for breaking force. Tablet breaking force significantly increased with increasing plasticizer levels and with increases in the sintering temperature. An increase in tablet hardness produced an upward shift (increase in absorbance) in the NIR spectra. The principle component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was able to distinguish samples with different plasticizer levels and sintering temperatures. In addition, a 9-factor partial least squares (PLS) regression model for tablets containing Eudragit® RL PO had an r(2) of 0.9797, a standard error of calibration of 0.6255 and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 0.7594. Similar analysis of tablets containing Eudragit® RS PO showed an r(2) of 0.9831, a standard error of calibration of 0.9711 and an SECV of 1.192.

  6. Effects of prolonged ethanol vapor exposure on forced swim behavior, and neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor levels in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brendan M; Drimmer, David A; Walker, Jennifer L; Liu, Tianmin; Mathé, Aleksander A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2010-09-01

    Depressive symptoms in alcohol-dependent individuals are well-recognized and clinically relevant phenomena. The etiology has not been elucidated although it is clear that the depressive symptoms may be alcohol independent or alcohol induced. To contribute to the understanding of the neurobiology of chronic ethanol use, we investigated the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure on behaviors in the forced swim test (FST) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) levels in specific brain regions. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to intermittent ethanol vapor (14 h on/10 h off) or air exposure for 2 weeks and were then tested at three time points corresponding to acute withdrawal (8-12 h into withdrawal) and protracted withdrawal (30 and 60 days of withdrawal) in the FST. The behaviors that were measured in the five-min FST consisted of latency to immobility, swim time, immobility time, and climbing time. The FST results showed that the vapor-exposed animals displayed depressive-like behaviors; for instance, decreased latency to immobility in acute withdrawal and decreased latency to immobility, decreased swim time and increased immobility time in protracted withdrawal, with differences between air- and vapor-exposed animals becoming more pronounced over the 60-day withdrawal period. NPY levels in the frontal cortex of the vapor-exposed animals were decreased compared with the control animals, and CRF levels in the amygdala were correlated with increased immobility time. Thus, extended ethanol vapor exposure produced long-lasting changes in FST behavior and NPY levels in the brain.

  7. Effects of Prolonged Ethanol Vapor Exposure on Forced Swim Behavior, and Neuropeptide Y and Corticotropin Releasing Factor Levels in Rat Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brendan M.; Drimmer, David A.; Walker, Jennifer L.; Liu, Tianmin; Mathé, Aleksander A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in alcohol-dependent individuals are well recognized and clinically relevant phenomena. The etiology has not been elucidated although it is clear that the depressive symptoms may be alcohol independent or alcohol-induced. In order to contribute to the understanding of the neurobiology of chronic ethanol use, we investigated the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure on behaviors in the forced swim test (FST) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) levels in specific brain regions. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to intermittent ethanol vapor (14 hours on / 10 hours off) or air exposure for two weeks and were then tested at three time points corresponding to acute withdrawal (8–12 hours into withdrawal) and protracted withdrawal (30 and 60 days of withdrawal) in the FST. The behaviors that were measured in the five minute FST consisted of latency to immobility, swim time, immobility time and climbing time. The FST results showed that the vapor-exposed animals displayed depressive-like behaviors, for instance decreased latency to immobility in acute withdrawal and decreased latency to immobility, decreased swim time and increased immobility time in protracted withdrawal, with differences between air- and vapor-exposed animals becoming more pronounced over the 60 day withdrawal period. NPY levels in the frontal cortex of the vapor-exposed animals were decreased compared to the control animals and CRF levels in the amygdala were correlated with increased immobility time. Thus, extended ethanol vapor exposure produced long-lasting changes in FST behavior and NPY levels in the brain. PMID:20705420

  8. Changes in sample collection and analytical techniques and effects on retrospective comparability of low-level concentrations of trace elements in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, T.; Szabo, Z.; Gibs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water sampling techniques were modified to reduce random low-level contamination during collection of filtered water samples for determination of trace-element concentrations. The modified sampling techniques were first used in New Jersey by the US Geological Survey in 1994 along with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of 18 trace elements at the one microgram-per-liter (μg/L) level in the oxic water of the unconfined sand and gravel Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The revised technique tested included a combination of the following: collection of samples (1) with flow rates of about 2L per minute, (2) through acid-washed single-use disposable tubing and (3) a single-use disposable 0.45-μm pore size capsule filter, (4) contained within portable glove boxes, (5) in a dedicated clean sampling van, (6) only after turbidity stabilized at values less than 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), when possible. Quality-assurance data, obtained from equipment blanks and split samples, indicated that trace element concentrations, with the exception of iron, chromium, aluminum, and zinc, measured in the samples collected in 1994 were not subject to random contamination at 1μg/L.Results from samples collected in 1994 were compared to those from samples collected in 1991 from the same 12 PVC-cased observation wells using the available sampling and analytical techniques at that time. Concentrations of copper, lead, manganese and zinc were statistically significantly lower in samples collected in 1994 than in 1991. Sampling techniques used in 1994 likely provided trace-element data that represented concentrations in the aquifer with less bias than data from 1991 when samples were collected without the same degree of attention to sample handling.

  9. Babassu mesocarp bran levels associated with whole or ground corn grains in the finishing of young bulls: carcass and meat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding corn and inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB in the diet of crossbred dairy young bulls finished in feedlot on their carcass and meat characteristics. Twenty-four young bulls were fed four experimental diets containing two BMB inclusion levels (0 and 41.24% and corn in two forms of processing (ground and whole grains for 98 days, and then slaughtered in a commercial packing plant. Among the quantitative carcass characteristics, there was interaction only in fat trimmings/whole hot carcass weight and cold carcass yield. The whole hot carcass and hot carcass weights showed reduced means with the use of whole corn. The other quantitative variables were not separately affected by BMB inclusion levels or by the form corn was processed. There was interaction between the factors for pistol cut weight, edible portion and weight of the cuts of the pistol cut, in which the use of whole corn and BMB promoted reduction in the mean values. The use of the whole corn grain reduced the participation of flank cut and elevated the participation of the bone fraction in the carcass. Inclusion of 41.24% of BMB did not change the qualitative meat characteristics, but the use of corn grain resulted in darker meat. The use of whole corn resulted in alteration in the weight of cuts like eye of rump and striploin, which have a high commercial value. There was interaction between factors for the percentages of moisture and minerals of the meat, whereas the crude protein content was affected by the two factors. The use of diets with whole corn or with babassu mesocarp bran may modify the carcass and meat characteristics of finishing crossbred young bulls.

  10. Simulated effects of projected withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifer on ground-water levels in the Camden, New Jersey, area and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is being considered as a potential source of future water supply for the Camden, New Jersey, area. The deeper Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is currently the major major source of water supply for the area, but its use may be curtailed or reduced by 35 percent of 1983 withdrawals through its designation by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy as "Water Supply Critical Area#2." Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer currently (1989) total about 7 million gallons per day. The anticipated use of this aquifer by communities with access to it, as an alternative supply, could increase to more than 14 million gallons per day by 2020. If the communities of Clayton and Glassboro decrease their withdrawals from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system by 50 percent or cease them entirely because of their proximity to saline water, the use of Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer could increase to greater than 15 million gallons per day by 2020. Simulation of the ground-water system indicates that the projected increase in withdrawals will cause cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in the Camden metro- politan area by 2020 that extend to depths ranging from 10 feet above sea level to 60 feet below sea level. This represents a secline of about 40 to 100 feet thr 1990 conditions. Withdrawals in northeastern Burlington County will cause a large cone of depression that, by 2020, will extend to depths of about 220 feet below sea level, represent- ing a decline of about 140 feet from 1990 conditions. Simulation results indicate that water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer near the Salem Nuclear Power Plant are somewhat insensitive to withdrawals elsewhere in the aquifer. In some areas, especially in Burlington County, the cones of depression have developed in proximity to the aquifer-outcrop area and could induce infiltration from streams crossing the

  11. Ground-water level contours for the unconfined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing conditions during October 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  12. Ground-water level contours for the confined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing the partial-development conditions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  13. Ground-water level contours for the confined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing conditions during October 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  14. Ground-water level contours for the unconfined aquifer in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, representing partial-development conditions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  15. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  16. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  17. Ankle Fractures and Modality of Hospital Transport at a Single Level 1 Trauma Center: Does Transport by Helicopter or Ground Ambulance Influence the Incidence of Complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah E; Ihejirika, Rivka C; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Lang, Maximilian F; Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Prablek, Marc A; Chern, Alexander Y; Thakore, Rachel V; Obremskey, William T; Joyce, David; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    In an era of concern over the rising cost of health care, cost-effectiveness of auxiliary services merits careful evaluation. We compared costs and benefits of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) with Ground Emergency Medical Service (GEMS) in patients with an isolated ankle fracture. A medical record review was conducted for patients with an isolated ankle fracture who had been transported to a level 1 trauma center by either HEMS or GEMS from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. We abstracted demographic data, fracture grade, complications, and transportation mode. Transportation costs were obtained by examining medical center financial records. A total of 303 patients was included in the analysis. Of 87 (28.71%) HEMS patients, 53 (60.92%) had sustained closed injuries and 34 (39.08%) had open injuries. Of the 216 (71.29%) GEMS patients, 156 (72.22%) had closed injuries and 60 (27.78%) had open injuries. No significant difference was seen between the groups regarding the percentage of patients with open fractures or the grade of the open fracture (p = .07). No significant difference in the rate of complications was found between the 2 groups (p = 18). The mean baseline cost to transport a patient via HEMS was $10,220 + a $108/mile surcharge, whereas the mean transport cost using GEMS was $976 per patient + $16/mile. Because the HEMS mode of emergency transport did not significantly improve patient outcomes, health systems should reconsider the use of HEMS for patients with isolated ankle fractures. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High serum levels of extracellular vesicles expressing malignancy-related markers are released in patients with various types of hematological neoplastic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Antonella; Laurenzana, Ilaria; De Luca, Luciana; La Rocca, Francesco; Simeon, Vittorio; Trino, Stefania; D'Auria, Fiorella; Traficante, Antonio; Maietti, Maddalena; Izzo, Tiziana; D'Arena, Giovanni; Mansueto, Giovanna; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Laurenti, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Many cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies, which play a role in physiology and diseases. Presence and phenotype of circulating EVs in hematological malignancies (HMs) remain largely unexplored.The aim of this study was to characterize EVs in peripheral blood of HM patients compared to healthy subjects (controls). We isolated serum EVs from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and controls. EVs were isolated from serum of peripheral blood by ultracentrifuge steps and analyzed by flow cytometry to define count, size, and immunophenotype. MV levels were significantly elevated in WM, HL, MM, AML, and some MPNs and, though at a lesser degree, in CLL and NHL as compared to healthy controls. HL, MM, and MPNs generated a population of MVs characterized by lower size (below 0.3 μm) when compared to controls. MVs from patients specifically expressed tumor-related antigens, such as CD19 in B cell neoplasms, CD38 in MM, CD13 in myeloid tumors, and CD30 in HL. Both total and antigen-specific count of MVs significantly correlated with different HM clinical features such as Rai stage in CLL, International Prognostic Scoring System in WM, International Staging System in MM, and clinical stage in HL. MVs may represent a novel biomarker in HMs.

  19.  The impact of IL18 gene polymorphisms on mRNA levels and interleukin-18 release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Dziedziejko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:Interleukin-18 (IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine playing an important role as a modulator of immune responses, found to play a role in pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory-associated disorders. In the present study a potential association between 7 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning the whole IL18 gene, gene expression and the release of IL-18 from the stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was investigated.Materials/Methods:PBMCs were isolated from peripheral blood of 29 healthy volunteers, genotyped for the presence of IL18 SNPs: rs1946518: A>C, rs187238: G>C, rs360718: A>C, rs360722: C>T, rs360721: C>G, rs549908: T>G, and rs5744292: A>G. IL-18 concentration and IL18 mRNA levels were investigated after incubation of cells for 48 h with different stimulants (PHA, LPS, and anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies.Results:After treatment with LPS and antibodies IL-18 concentrations were significantly lower in rs1946518AA homozygotes than in C allele carriers. When differences in IL18 mRNA levels between non-stimulated and stimulated cells were analyzed, significantly decreased gene expression was noted in rs1946518 AA homozygotes (as compared with C allele carriers in samples treated with PHA and LPS. Similar trends were observed in the case of rs187238 SNP; however, the differences reached statistical significance only after PHA treatment.Conclusions:Our study supports the role of rs1946518 (-607A>C and rs187238 (-137G>C SNPs as genetic determinants of the observed variability in IL18 expression.

  20. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative

  1. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small watersheds in eastern Ohio that were surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water-level and water-quality data were compared with similar data collected during previous investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by sequences of flat-lying sedimentary rocks containing two major coal seams and underclays. An aquifer was present above each of the underclays. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the sediment. This created a new upper aquifer with different hydraulic and chemical characteristics. Mining did not disturb the middle aquifer. A third, deeper aquifer in each watershed was not studied. Water levels were continuously recorded in one well in each aquifer. Other wells were measured every 2 months. Water levels in the upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining ceased. Water levels in the middle aquifers increased more than 5 feet during mining and reached equilibrium almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Two samples were collected in 1986 and 1987, and one each in 1988 and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant upper-aquifer and surface-water anion after mining. For the upper aquifer of a watershed located in Muskingum County, water-quality data were grouped into premining and late postmining time periods (1986-89). The premining median pH and concentration of dissolved solids and sulfate were 7.6, 378 mg/L (milligrams per liter), and 41 mg/L, respectively. The premining median concentrations of iron and manganese were 10? /L (micrograms per liter) and 25?, respectively. The postmining median values of pH, dissolved solids, and sulfate were 6.7, 1,150 mg/L, and 560 mg/L, respectively

  2. Influence of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine and dietary standardized ileal digestible lysine level on growth performance and carcass quality of grower-finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molist, F; Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Prüst, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys levels of the diet on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of entire males (EM), surgical castrates (SC), and males vaccinated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine (GV). In total, 252 crossbred pigs were fed 6 different experimental diets consisting of 3 sexes (EM, SC, and GV pigs) and 2 dietary SID Lys levels (2008 CVB standard SID Lys recommendation [Std] or 15% extra SID Lys [+15]) according to a 3-phase feeding scheme (d 0 to 35, 35 to 70, and 70 to 105 of experiment) with 6 pens per treatment and 6 pigs per pen. To determine if dietary SID Lys could be reduced for GV males after the second vaccination, an additional dietary treatment was included (GV+15-Std). The GV males on the GV+15-Std were fed the diet with 15% extra SID Lys in the starter and grower phases and the standard SID Lys level in the finisher phase. First vaccination was administered to pigs at the start of the experiment (23.4 kg BW and 63.6 d of age), and the second vaccination occurred 6 wk before slaughter (77.2 kg BW and 126.6 d of age). Until the second vaccination, GV pigs showed a lower (P ≤ 0.05) ADFI than SC but similar to EM. After the second vaccination, GV pigs had an intermediate (P ≤ 0.05) G:F between EM and SC. The GV+15 pigs showed a better G:F (P ≤ 0.05) than GV pigs fed the GV+15-Std diet in the finisher phase. No differences in the growth rate of the pigs were observed. The SC had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) carcass weight and dressing percentage than EM and GV pigs. The GV-Std pigs had a lower (P ≤ 0.05) meat percentage and greater (P ≤ 0.05) backfat thickness than the GV+15 pigs. The GV pigs and SC fed the standard SID Lys diet had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of SFA in the subcutaneous fat than EM+15 pigs. On the other hand, SC showed the greatest (P ≤ 0.05) concentration of MUFA compared to EM and GV pigs. The SC and GV pigs

  3. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  4. Estimating ground-level PM_{2.5} concentrations over three megalopolises in China using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yixuan; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous previous studies have revealed that statistical models which combine satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 measurements acquired at scattered monitoring sites provide an effective method for deriving continuous spatial distributions of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Using the national monitoring networks that have recently been established by central and local governments in China, we developed linear mixed-effects (LMEs) models that integrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD measurements, meteorological parameters, and satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 column density measurements as predictors to estimate PM2.5 concentrations over three major industrialized regions in China, namely, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). The models developed for these three regions exploited different predictors to account for their varying topographies and meteorological conditions. Considering the importance of unbiased PM2.5 predictions for epidemiological studies, the correction factors calculated from the surface PM2.5 measurements were applied to correct biases in the predicted annual average PM2.5 concentrations introduced by non-stochastic missing AOD measurements. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our models. Cross-validation of the daily predictions yielded R2 values of 0.77, 0.8 and 0.8 and normalized mean error (NME) values of 22.4%, 17.8% and 15.2% for BTH, YRD and PRD, respectively. For the annual average PM2.5 concentrations, the LOOCV R2 values were 0.85, 0.76 and 0.71 for the three regions, respectively, whereas the LOOCV NME values were 8.0%, 6.9% and 8.4%, respectively. We found that the incorporation of satellite-based NO2 column density into the LMEs model contribute to considerable improvements in annual prediction accuracy for both BTH and YRD. The satisfactory performance of our

  5. The 'Aachen Falls Prevention Scale' - development of a tool for self-assessment of elderly patients at risk for ground level falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Hans-Christoph; Schemmann, Ulrike; Foerster, Juergen; Knobe, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of falls in the elderly population is difficult to determine and therefore potentially underestimated. Screening algorithms usually have in common that the evaluation is undertaken by trained individuals in a hospital setting. This leads to the inclusion of a high proportion of low-risk people and a waste of resources. It would be advantageous to pretest the individuals at risk in their own environment using a simple self-assessment approach. The consensus process of our group of clinicians and physical therapists included: 1. a preparative literature review about risk profiles and assessment tools for ground level falls; 2. a selection of appropriate questions that cover all health aspects involved in an increased risk for falling; and 3. a selection of a simple physical test that can be used at home without the need of a health care professional. We thus searched to develop a scale that can be used by older citizen at higher risk of falling. The current manuscript summarizes the results of this review, consensus and selection process. The literature search was undertaken between March and August 1, 2013. The selection process for the questions used (Part I) lasted between March 2013 and January 2014. Among all tests evaluated the 20 second standing test (Part II) was deemed to be safe to be performed even by an individual at risk for a fall, as it closely resembles activities of daily living. The `Aachen Falls Prevention Scale` finally uses a self-assessment tool grading falls risk on a scale of 1 to 10 by the individual itself after completion of Part I and Part II. In summary, we present a scale that might offer a self-assessment option to improve the measures of falls prevention pass for elderly citizens. The introduction of the `Aachen Falls Prevention Scale` which combines a simple questionnaire with a safe and quick balance tool, meets the criteria to identify whether or not a balance problem exists - the first step in evaluation of falls

  6. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  7. Ground water flow in a desert basin: challenges of simulating transport of dissolved chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Charles B; Neville, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A large chromium plume that evolved from chromium releases in a valley near the Mojave River was studied to understand the processes controlling fate and migration of chromium in ground water and used as a tracer to study the dynamics of a basin and range ground water system. The valley that was studied is naturally arid with high evapotranspiration such that essentially no precipitation infiltrates to the water table. The dominant natural hydrogeologic processes are recharge to the ground water system from the Mojave River during the infrequent episodes when there is flow in the river, and ground water flow toward a playa lake where the ground water evaporates. Agricultural pumping in the valley from the mid-1930s to the 1970s significantly altered ground water flow conditions by decreasing water levels in the valley by more than 20 m. This pumping declined significantly as a result of dewatering of the aquifer, and water levels have since recovered modestly. The ground water system was modeled using MODFLOW, and chromium transport was simulated using MT3D. Several innovative modifications were made to these modeling programs to simulate important processes in this ground water system. Modifications to MODFLOW include developing a new well package that estimates pumping rates from irrigation wells at each time step based on available drawdown. MT3D was modified to account for mass trapped above the water table when the water table declines beneath nonirrigated areas and to redistribute mass to the system when water levels rise.

  8. The P2X7 loss-of-function Glu496Ala polymorphism affects ex vivo cytokine release and protects against the cytotoxic effects of high ATP-levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselius Anke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P2X7 receptor plays an important role in cytokine release during the inflammatory response in vivo. Polymorphisms within the P2X7 receptor gene that lead to loss of receptor function may contribute to impaired cytokine release by immune cells. Therefore, we investigated whether a known loss-of-function polymorphism (Glu496Ala in the P2X7 receptor gene leads to alterations in cytokine release in response to ATP. Results An ex vivo whole blood model was used to induce an inflammatory reaction with the pro-inflammatory stimuli LPS and PHA (phytohemagglutinin. Blood from n=9 subjects with the Glu496Ala P2X7 SNP (P2X7MUT and n=7 ‘wild-type’ subjects (no P2X7 SNP; P2X7WT was used. Addition of ATP (0.9-3 mM to LPS/PHA-stimulated whole blood induced an increase in IL-1β release in P2X7MUT subjects, whereas decreased release was observed in P2X7WT subjects. Decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in response to ATP were shown in both P2X7MUT and P2X7WT subjects, which was less pronounced in P2X7MUT subjects. ATP at 3 mM also significantly decreased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in P2X7MUT subjects compared to P2X7WT subjects. Conclusions The presence of the non-synonymous Glu496Ala loss-of-function polymorphism within the P2X7 receptor gene is likely to be of importance in the release of cytokines during inflammation. Furthermore, this study suggests that carriers of the Glu496Ala loss-of-function polymorphism are protected against the cytotoxic effects of high ATP-levels.

  9. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  10. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  11. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  12. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  13. Discussion on possibilities of taking ground ice in permafrost as water sources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during climate warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of ground ice are born with permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Degradation of permafrost resulted from the climate warming will inevitably lead to melting of ground ice.The water released from the melting ground ice enters hydrologic cycles at various levels,and changes regional hydrologic regimes to various degrees.Due to difficulties in monitoring the perma-frost-degradation-release-water process,direct and reliable evidence is few.The accumulative effect of releasing water,however,is remarkable in the macro-scale hydrologic process.On the basis of the monitoring results of water-levels changes in some lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,and combined with the previous results of the hydrologic changing trends at the regional scale,the authors preliminarily discussed the possibilities of the degrading permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a potential water source during climate warming.

  14. Lava Lake Level Drop and Related Ground Subsidence in the Nyiragongo Main Crater (D.R.Congo) Measured by Close-Range Photogrammetry and InSAR Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Samsonov, S. V.; Nobile, A.; Geirsson, H.; Kervyn, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nyiragongo volcano is the most active African volcano and among the most active volcanoes on Earth. It is also among the infrequent volcanoes that host a long-lived lava lake. The morphology of the Nyiragongo main crater is characterized by 2 levels of remnant platforms partly preserved and attached to its inner flanks, which correspond to former lava lake levels, and by a bottom "active" platform, which delimits the current active lava lake. The elevation of the bottom platform increases through time, with successive lava lake overflows. After a period of low level between late 2010 and August 2011, the lava lake next came back to its highest level. However, on September 30, 2011, it started a long and progressive fall, reaching ~70 m below the bottom platform in July 2014. This recent evolution of the lava lake, which occurred at the same time period as eruptive events at the neighboring Nyamulagira volcano, was accompanied by a ground subsidence of the bottom platform, leading to the appearance of ring fissures. This ground deformation is restricted to the bottom platform and, hence, suggests a very shallow source for the observed movement. All these changes in the Nyiragongo main crater were recorded by time-series of photographs, allowing the 3D reconstruction of the crater using close-range photogrammetric techniques and, hence, a detailed measurement of the observed changes. The ground subsidence was also recorded by time-series of RADARSAT-2 and CosmoSky-Med SAR interferograms, providing more detailed information on the velocity of deformation. Based on field data and the photogrammetric and InSAR time-series measurements, several hypotheses on the cause(s) of these changes in the Nyiragongo crater are discussed. The present work also highlights the potential of close-range photogrammetry and high-resolution InSAR to study and monitor active volcanoes in Equatorial environment.

  15. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  16. Analysis of ground-water levels and associated trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  17. Area risk level classification for hazardous gas release in petroleum refining installations%炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章博; 王磊; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    The prediction results obtained from simulation of typical release scenarios for petroleum refining installations have difficulties in reflecting the real risk of hazardous gas release. In order to solve this problem, a new method of area risk level classification for hazardous gas release was proposed. It combines wind filed set and release source set to build the release scenario set and predicts the probability of each release scenario. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) method was used to predict the concentration field of gas leakage diffusion. Based on the leakage probability and consequences, the risk matrix of hazardous gas leakage area could be achieved. The research results indicate that the release scenario set for hazardous gas could predict the probability of each scenario quantitatively and the CFD model of hazardous gas leakage in a petroleum refi-ning installation could predict its consequence. The risk matrix of hazardous gas leakage area would provide useful reference for classifying the area risk level in petroleum refining installations.%以典型场景为代表开展的气体泄漏扩散模拟研究未能体现炼油装置的真实泄漏风险。提出一种基于泄漏场景集的炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级划分方法。融合泄漏源和风场等重要随机因素生成泄漏场景集,定量预测场景发生概率,采用计算流体力学方法( CFD)预测气体泄漏扩散体积分数场。基于场景概率和泄漏后果,得到各场景有害气体泄漏区域风险矩阵。结果表明:构建的有害气体泄漏场景集能够定量预测场景发生概率;建立的炼油装置有害气体泄漏精细CFD模型能够预测有害气体泄漏场景后果;表征各场景有害气体泄漏区域风险的区域风险矩阵可以划分符合真实情况的炼油装置有害气体泄漏区域风险等级。

  18. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  19. Ground water in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  20. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  2. Extremely elevated methyl mercury levels in water, sediment and organisms in a Romanian reservoir affected by release of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Cosio, Claudia; Amouroux, David; Zopfi, Jakob; Chevalley, Pierre-Alain; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Ungureanu, Viorel-Gheorghe; Dominik, Janusz

    2014-02-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry and biomagnification in the Babeni Reservoir, a system strongly affected by the release of Hg from a chlor-alkali plant. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in river water reached 88 ng L(-1) but decreased rapidly in the reservoir (to 9 ng L(-1)). In contrast, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations increased from the upstream part of the reservoir to the central part (0.7 ng L(-1)), suggesting high methylation within the reservoir. Moreover, vertical water column profiles of THg and MMHg indicated that Hg methylation mainly occurred deep in the water column and at the sediment-water interface. The discharge of Hg from a chlor-alkali plant in Valcea region caused the highest MMHg concentrations ever found in non-piscivorous fish worldwide. MMHg concentrations and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of plankton and macrophytes revealed that the highest biomagnification of MMHg takes place in primary producers.

  3. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    oriented but still emphasizes stable concepts. Moreover, it does not give primacy to oppression. Finally, it adopts a critical stance on the nature of the macro, meso, and micro levels as dominant analytical perspectives. As a result, this paper focusses on the importance of intersectionality...

  4. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... (i.e. sea-level) at the time of deposition. Combining the variations in height of the downlaps (in meters above present mean sea-level) with optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques provides estimates of relative sealevel at specific times....... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  5. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, B A; Doane, R W; Haywood, F F; Shinpaugh, W H

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations.

  6. The "Aachen fall prevention App" - a Smartphone application app for the self-assessment of elderly patients at risk for ground level falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Peter; Mertens, Alexander; Bröhl, Christina; Theis, Sabine; Seinsch, Tobias; Wille, Matthias; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Knobe, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Fall incidents are a major problem for patients and healthcare. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) represents the first mobile Health (mHealth) application (app) empowering older patients (persons 50+ years) to self-assess and monitor their individual fall risk. Self-assessment is based on the "Aachen Fall Prevention Scale," which consists of three steps. First, patients answer ten standardized yes-no questions (positive criterion ≥ 5 "Yes" responses). Second, a ten-second test of free standing without compensatory movement is performed (positive criterion: compensatory movement). Finally, during the third step, patients rate their subjective fall risk on a 10-point Likert scale, based on the results of steps one and two. The purpose of this app is (1) to offer a low-threshold service through which individuals can independently monitor their individual fall risk and (2) to collect data about how a patient-centered mHealth app for fall risk assessment is used in the field. The results represent the first year of an ongoing field study. From December 2015 to December 2016, 197 persons downloaded the AFPA (iOS(™) and Android(™); free of charge). N = 111 of these persons voluntarily shared their data and thereby participated in the field study. Data from a final number of n = 79 persons were analyzed due to exclusion criteria (age, missing objective fall risk, missing self-assessment). The objective fall risk and the self-assessed subjective risk measured by the AFPA showed a significant positive relationship. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) is an mHealth app released for iOS and Android. This field study revealed the AFPA as a promising tool to raise older adults' awareness of their individual fall risk by means of a low-threshold patient-driven fall risk assessment tool.

  7. 平朔东露天煤矿工业场地地下水位变化影响因素分析%Analysis of influencing factors of groundwater level variation at Donglutian coal industrial ground of Pingshuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杜军; 宫守才; 张银洲

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of study for three-dimensional flow numerical model , The author analyzed influencing factor of variation in water level at Donglutian coal industrial ground by the parameter sensitivity analysis method. The results showed that there are several factors influence the change of ground-water level by filling , there were infiltrate performance of highly weathered sandstone, filling areas of precipitation infiltration recharge ability and blind drainage ability. In response to these main factors, author studied the permeability coefficient of all kinds of soil and rock layers, provided strong basis for improvement of surface drainage system and control quality of blind ditch. All of these approaches were to control the rise of ground water lever.%在地下水三维流数值模型研究的基础上,采用参数灵敏度分析的方法,对东露天煤矿工业场地地下水位变化影响因素进行定量分析.结果表明,场地内强风化砂泥岩的渗透性能、填土区大气降水补给能力、盲沟排水能力对工业场地因填土引起的地下水位变化有显著影响.针对这些主要影响因素,进行工业场地各地层渗透系数研究,为完善地面排水系统,控制盲沟质量等提供有力依据,控制工业场地的地下水位上升.

  8. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level; Dosimetria de Rn-222 no ar em ambientes localizados acima e abaixo do nivel do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m{sup 3} for homes and 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y{sup -1}, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Detailed investigation of the beta-decay of the 9/2(+) ground state of Nb-99 to levels in Mo-99

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhersonneau, G; Pfeiffer, B; Persson, B.L.; Suhonen, J; Toivanen, J; Campbell, P; Dendooven, P; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Jones, PM; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Oinonen, M; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Savelius, A; Jicheng, W; Wang, JC; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    The decay of Nb-99 to Mo-99 has been investigated. The use of the ion-guide technique for on-line mass separation and of a Ge-array for gamma-ray detection have allowed the observation of decay branchings lower than 10(-3). Medium-spin levels, some already known from reaction studies and new ones at

  10. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion...

  11. Ground-based observation of the cyclic nature and temporal variability of planetary-scale UV features at the Venus cloud top level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masataka; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Kouyama, Toru; Watanabe, Shigeto; Gouda, Shuhei; Gouda, Yuya

    2016-11-01

    A planetary-scale bright and dark UV feature, known as the "Y-feature," rotates around Venus with a period of 4-5 days and has been long-time interpreted as planetary waves. When assuming this, its rotation period and spatial structure might help to understand the propagation of the planetary-scale waves and find out their role in the acceleration-deceleration of the zonal wind speed, which is essential for understanding the super-rotation of the planet. The rotation period of the UV feature varied over the course of observation by the Pioneer Venus orbiter. However, in previous explorations of Venus such as Pioneer Venus and Venus Express, the spacecraft were operated in nearly fixed inertial space. As a result, the periodicity variations on sub-yearly timescales (one Venusian year is ∼224 Earth days) were obscured by the limitations of continuous dayside observations. We newly conducted six periods of ground-based Venus imaging observations at 365 nm from mid-August 2013 to the end of June 2014. Each observation period spanned over half or one month, enabling long-term monitoring of Venus' atmosphere above the equator region. Distributions of the relative brightness were obtained from the equatorial (EQ) to mid-latitudinal regions in both hemispheres, and from the cyclical variations of these distributions we deduced the rotation periods of the UV features of the cloud tops brightness. The relative brightness exhibited periods of 5.2 and 3.5 days above 90% of significance. The relative intensities of these two significant components also seemed subject to temporal variations. Although the 3.5-day component considered persists throughout the observation periods, its dominance over the longer period varied in a cyclic fashion. The prevailing first significant mode seems to change from 5.2-day waves to 3.5-day waves in about nine months, which is clearly inconsistent with the Venusian year. Clear periodic perturbations, indicating stability of the planetary

  12. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  13. Cloning and characterization of mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) complementary DNA: increased GRH messenger RNA levels in the growth hormone-deficient lit/lit mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, M A; Downs, T R; Chomczynski, P; Frohman, L A

    1989-10-01

    We have isolated and cloned the full length cDNA for mouse GH-releasing hormone (mGRH) from mouse hypothalamus using a recently described strategy involving the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were selected based on short (six amino acids) conserved regions in the human and rat GRH peptides that would recognize DNA sequences encoding similar amino acids regardless of codon usage. Primer-extended cDNA was amplified by PCR on cDNA templates prepared by reverse transcribing total mouse hypothalamic RNA. After cloning and sequencing the initial product, the 3' and 5' ends of mGRH were generated using a separate PCR strategy (RACE protocol). The mGRH cDNA encodes a 103-amino acid reading frame, structurally similar to the human and rat GRH genes, containing a signal sequence, a 42-residue GRH peptide, and a 31-residue C-terminal region. Although the structures of mouse and rat GRH are highly conserved in the signal peptide and C-terminal region, there is considerable diversity in the GRH region, which exhibits nearly comparable homology with the rat (68%) and human (62%) structures. Differences between mouse and rat GRH were also found in the amino acid cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends of the mature peptide and at the polyadenylation signal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  15. [Release of mercury from soil and plant in water-level-fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its accumulation in zebrafish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Xian; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Yang; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the production, distribution and bioavailability of methylmercury (MMHg) in soil and plants of the water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted in laboratory. Results indicated that the level of total mercury (THg) in soil decreased with the lengthening of submerging time while that in water increased obviously. The level of MMHg in inundated soil and water increased, especially in the water treated by Echinochloa crusgalli and soils. And the MMHg level in that treatment was 2.52 times higher than that treated only by soils for 21 days. This indicated that soil and plants of WLFZ were important sources of mercury in the water of the reservoir. Echinochloa crusgalli as the tested plant was decomposed after being submerged, leading to lower pH and DO and higher DOC, which had little effect on MMHg in soil but significant effect on MMHg in water. The level of THg in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish increased obviously, which had a significant correlation with that in water (P mercury to water so as to cause elevated levels of MMHg in fish.

  16. Teores de compostos bioativos em cafés torrados e moídos comerciais Levels of bioactive compounds in commercial roasted and ground coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilaine Mansano Nicolau de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of nicotinic acid, trigonelline, 5-CQA, caffeine, kahweol and cafestol in 38 commercial roasted coffees ranged from 0.02 to 0.04; 0.22 to 0.96; 0.14 to 1.20; 1.00 to 2.02; 0.10 to 0.80 and 0.25 to 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. Evaluation of color and content of thermo-labile compounds indicated similarity in roasting degree. Differences in the levels of diterpenes and caffeine, components less influenced by the roasting degree, could be mainly explained by the species used (arabica and robusta. Gourmet coffees showed high concentrations of diterpenes, trigonelline and 5-CQA and low levels of caffeine, indicating high proportion of arabica coffee.

  17. Impacts of climate change on ground level gas-phase pollutants and aerosols in the Iberian Peninsula for the late XXI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan José; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2012-08-01

    Climate change alone influences future air pollution levels through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. Hence, the goal of this study is to determine at what extent concentrations of air pollutants respond to changes over the Iberian Peninsula under a climate change scenario. The methodology includes the use of the regional modeling system MM5 (regional climate model version)-CHIMERE for two nested domains covering Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Two time slices driven by ECHO-G global circulation model covering from 1991 to 2010 and 2071 to 2100 under the SRES A2 scenario have been compared. Climate change influences the concentrations of both gas-phase pollutants and aerosols through changes in temperature, precipitation, mixing height, transport, humidity, and oxidant levels. The trends of variation of ozone (changes up to 5 ppb, +10% increase during summertime) and aerosols over southwestern Europe are influenced by the higher mean temperature modeled for the future climate (up to +5.4 K), since it favors the formation of secondary gas-phase products. It also enhances sulphates (+2 μg m-3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (+2.5 μg m-3 under SRES A2 scenario) and contributes to the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, remaining in the gas phase. Further, the 17% percent decrease of precipitation modeled for 2071-2100 has a strong effect in the frequency of the washout and therefore in the levels of natural aerosols: the concentrations of aerosols decrease with increasing precipitation as wet deposition provides the main aerosol sink.

  18. Detailed investigation of the {beta}-decay of the 9/2{sup +} ground state of {sup 99}Nb to levels in {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhersonneau, G. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Pfeiffer, B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Persson, J.R. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Suhonen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Toivanen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Campbell, P. [Department of Physics, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dendooven, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Honkanen, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Huhta, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Jones, P.M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Julin, R. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Juutinen, S. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Oinonen, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Penttilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Peraejaervi, K. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Savelius, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Jicheng, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, J.C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-08-01

    The decay of {sup 99}Nb to {sup 99}Mo has been investigated. The use of the ion-guide technique for on-line mass separation and of a Ge-array for {gamma}-ray detection have allowed the observation of decay branchings lower than 10{sup -3}. Medium-spin levels, some already known from reaction studies and new ones at high energy, are populated. The {beta}-feeding patterns of the decays of the 9/2{sup +} states in {sup 99}Nb and in its isotones {sup 97}Y, and {sup 101}Tc are qualitatively reproduced by QRPA calculations. (orig.). With 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Unaltered striatal dopamine release levels in young Parkin knockout, Pink1 knockout, DJ-1 knockout and LRRK2 R1441G transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Sanchez

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative brain diseases; it is accompanied by extensive loss of dopamine (DA neurons of the substantia nigra that project to the putamen, leading to impaired motor functions. Several genes have been associated with hereditary forms of the disease and transgenic mice have been developed by a number of groups to produce animal models of PD and to explore the basic functions of these genes. Surprisingly, most of the various mouse lines generated such as Parkin KO, Pink1 KO, DJ-1 KO and LRRK2 transgenic have been reported to lack degeneration of nigral DA neuron, one of the hallmarks of PD. However, modest impairments of motor behavior have been reported, suggesting the possibility that the models recapitulate at least some of the early stages of PD, including early dysfunction of DA axon terminals. To further evaluate this possibility, here we provide for the first time a systematic comparison of DA release in four different mouse lines, examined at a young age range, prior to potential age-dependent compensations. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal sections prepared from young, 6-8 weeks old mice, we examined sub-second DA overflow evoked by single pulses and action potential trains. Unexpectedly, none of the models displayed any dysfunction of DA overflow or reuptake. These results, compatible with the lack of DA neuron loss in these models, suggest that molecular dysfunctions caused by the absence or mutation of these individual genes are not sufficient to perturb the function and survival of mouse DA neurons.

  20. Schistocephalus solidus infections increase gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH3) mRNA levels in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi Ta; Tseng, Yung Che; Trombley, Susanne; Hwang, Pung Pung; Schmitz, Monika; Borg, Bertil

    2012-09-01

    Parasites often impair the reproduction of their hosts, one well known case being the cestode Schistocephalus solidus which is a common parasite in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. One of the possible ways that this could be exerted is by suppression on the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. In this study, mRNA levels of FSH-β and LH-β and of GnRH2 (cGnRH II) and GnRH3 (sGnRH) were measured via Q-PCR in infected and uninfected fish sampled from the field a few weeks before the onset of breeding. The pituitary mRNA levels of both FSH-β and LH-β were higher in infected males than in uninfected males. Also in females, FSH-β mRNA levels were higher in infected individuals than in others, whereas there was no significant difference found in LH-β expression. Brain mRNA levels of GnRH3 were higher in infected fish than in uninfected fish in both sexes, but no difference was found in GnRH2 mRNA levels. Thus, infection by S. solidus was able to alter the expressions not only of gonadotropins (GtHs), but also of GnRH which has not been observed previously. However, the effects are opposite to what should be expected if the parasite suppressed reproduction via actions on the brain-pituitary level. The gonads are perhaps more likely to be impaired by the parasites in other ways, and changed feedbacks on the BPG axis could then lead to the increases in GtHs and GnRH.

  1. Changes in stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels induced by neonatal estradiol treatment are associated with enhanced dopamine release in adult female rats: reversal by progesterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Patrizia; Lallai, Valeria; Locci, Andrea; Catzeddu, Sandro; Serra, Valeria; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Serra, Mariangela; Dazzi, Laura; Concas, Alessandra

    2017-03-01

    Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood. Female rats were treated with 10 μg of EB or vehicle on the day of birth. During adulthood, the response to acute foot shock stress was assessed by measuring changes in brain allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels, as well as extracellular dopamine output in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neonatal EB treatment enhanced stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels in the hypothalamus, as well as extracellular dopamine output in the mPFC; this latest effect is reverted by subchronic progesterone treatment. By contrast, neonatal EB treatment did not alter stress-induced corticosterone levels, sensitivity to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback, or abundance of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. The persistent decrease in brain allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, enhances stress-stimulated allopregnanolone levels and extracellular dopamine output during adulthood. These effects are not associated to an impairment in HPA axis activity. Heightened sensitivity to stress is a risk factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders; these results suggest that exposure to estrogen during development may predispose individuals to such disorders.

  2. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Cousin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols of the lower troposphere (0–3000 m. Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program. They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios with those of the last decade found in the literature for two high-elevation sites (Pic du Midi, 2877 m and Jungfraujoch, 3580 m leads to a trend that has slowed down compared to old trends but remains positive. This could be attribuable to the reduction of ozone precursors at European scale, that however do not compensate an ozone increase at the global scale. Averaged levels of ozone increase with elevation in good agreement with data provided by the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft, showing a highly stratified ozone field in the lower troposphere, with a transition at about 1000 m asl between a sharp gradient (30 ppb/km below but a gentler gradient (3 ppb/km above. Ozone variability also reveals a clear transition between boundary-layer and free-tropospheric regimes at the same altitude. Below, diurnal photochemistry accounts for about the third of the variability in summer, but less than 20% above – and at all levels in winter – where ozone variability is mostly due to day-to-day changes (linked to weather

  3. Prognosis of peracute period of brain ischemic aterotrombotic stroke course on the ground of TNF-α serum levels detection in the first day of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Neryanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The results of investigation of 78 patients in acute period of brain ischemic aterotrombotic stroke are given in the article. Methods and results. It was revealed that development of brain ischemic aterotrombotic stroke is accompanied with elevation of TNF-α (Δ%=419,8; p<0,05 in the first day of disease. Serum concentration of TNF-α during first 24 hours of brain ischemic aterotrombotic stroke onset correlates with summary ball on NIH scale in the onset of stroke (R=0,67; p<0,05, modified Rankin’s scale ball on 21st day (R=0,69; p<0,05 and course of the disease. Conclusion. Mathematic model of peracute period of brain ischemic aterotrombotic stroke course prognosis was designed, which was based on TNF-α serum levels detection on the first day of stroke onset. It is characterized with accuracy of 87.2%.

  4. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001─2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Cousin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols of the lower troposphere (0–3000 m. Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program. They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios to those of the last decade at Pic du Midi (2877 m, as well as trends calculated over 14-year data series at three high-altitude sites in the Alps (Jungfraujoch, Sonnblick and Zugspitze reveal that ozone is still increasing but at a slower rate than in the 1980s and 1990s. The 2001–2004 mean levels of ozone from surface stations capture the ozone stratification revealed by climatological profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft and from ozone soundings above Payerne (Switzerland. In particular all data evidence a clear transition at about 1000–1200 m a.s.l. between a sharp gradient below (of the order of +30 ppb/km and a gentler gradient (+3 ppb/km above. The same altitude (1200 m is also found to be a threshold regarding how well the ozone levels at the surface stations agree with the free-tropospheric reference (MOZAIC or soundings. Below the departure can be as large as 40%, but suddenly drops within 15% above. For stations above 2000 m, the departure is even less than 8%. Ozone variability also

  5. Evaluating CALIOP Nighttime Level 2 Aerosol Profile Retrievals Using a Global Transport Model Equipped with Two-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation and Ground-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. R.; Tackett, J. L.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Westphal, D. L.; Vaughan, M.; Winker, D. M.; Welton, E. J.; Prospero, J. M.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.

    2011-12-01

    Launched in 2006, the Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization instrument (CALIOP) flown aboard the NASA/CNES Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite has collected the first high-resolution global, inter-seasonal and multi-year measurements of aerosol structure. Profiles for aerosol particle extinction coefficient and column-integrated optical depth (AOD) are unique and highly synergistic satellite measurements, given the limitations of passive aerosol remote sensors from resolving information vertically. However, accurate value-added (Level 2.0) CALIOP aerosol products require comprehensive validation of retrieval techniques and calibration stability. Daytime Level 2.0 CALIOP AOD retrievals have been evaluated versus co-located NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-AQUA) data. To date, no corresponding investigation of nighttime retrieval performance has been conducted from a lack of requisite global nighttime validation datasets. In this paper, Version 3.01 CALIOP 5-km retrievals of nighttime 0.532 μm AOD from 2007 are evaluated versus corresponding 0.550 μm AOD analyses derived with the global 1° x 1° U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS). Mean regional profiles of CALIOP nighttime 0.532 μm extinction coefficient are assessed versus NASA Micropulse Lidar Network and NIES Skynet Lidar Network measurements. NAAPS features a two-dimensional variational assimilation procedure for quality-assured MODIS and NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) AOD products. Whereas NAAPS nighttime AOD datasets represent a nominal 12-hr forecast field, from lack of MODIS/MISR retrievals for assimilation in the dark sector of the model, evaluation of NAAPS 00-hr analysis and 24-hr forecast skill versus MODIS and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates adequate stability for conducting this study. Corresponding daytime comparisons of CALIOP retrievals with NAAPS

  6. Outdoor ground impedance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith; Bashir, Imran; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-05-01

    Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.

  7. Similarity scaling of surface-released smoke plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Nielsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Concentration fluctuation data from surface-layer released smoke plumes have been investigated with the purpose of finding suitable scaling parameters for the corresponding two-particle, relative diffusion process. Dispersion properties have been measured at downwind ranges between 0.1 and 1 km...... from a continuous, neutrally buoyant ground level source. A combination of SF6 and chemical smoke (aerosols) was used as tracer. Instantaneous crosswind concentration profiles of high temporal (up to 55 Hz) and spatial resolution (down to 0.375 m) were obtained from aerosol-backscatter Lidar detection...... and duration statistics. The diffusion experiments were accompanied by detailed in-situ micrometeorological mean and turbulence measurements. In this paper, a new distance-neighbour function for surface-released smoke plumes is proposed, accompanied by experimental evidence in its support. The new distance...

  8. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  9. High level of IFN-γ released from whole blood of human tuberculosis infections following stimulation with Rv2073c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kun; Zhang, Jingyan; Teng, Xindong; Liang, Jinping; Wang, Xiaochun; Yuan, Xuefeng; Tian, Maopeng; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-07-01

    More efficacious and specific biomarkers are urgently needed for better control of tuberculosis (TB), the second leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. The region of difference 9 (RD9) presents the genome of the causative pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis rather than other species of the genus Mycobacterium, which might be promising targets for specific diagnosis, vaccine development and pathogenesis. In this study, two proteins Rv2073c and Rv2074, encoded by the RD9 were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli system. Following stimulation with both proteins, the levels of IFN-γ secreted by T cells from a total of 49 whole blood samples obtained from clinically diagnosed active TB patients, patients with latent TB infections (LTBIs), and healthy donors, were compared with those of the incubation with recombinant fusion protein of CFP21 and MPT64 (rCM). Our results demonstrated that only Rv2073c could induce a higher level of IFN-γ in TB infections than healthy controls and there was a positive correlation between Rv2073c- and rCM-specific IFN-γ levels in TB infections and healthy donors, respectively. These findings indicate that Rv2073c might be a promising antigen for specific diagnostic reagents and vaccine candidates of TB.

  10. Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Hvidberg, A; Juul, A

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we 1) determined whether the impaired spontaneous 24-h GH secretion as well as the blunted GH response to provocative testing in obese subjects are persistent disorders or transient defects reversed with weight loss and 2) investigated 24-h urinary GH excretion and basal...... profiles, the decreased GH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and L-arginine, the decreased basal IGF-I levels and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio, as well as the elevated insulin levels were returned to normal after a massive weight loss in the obese subjects. In conclusion, the present study has shown...... levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as insulin in obese subjects before and after a massive weight loss. We studied 18 obese subjects (age, 26 +/- 1 yr; body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2); 18 normal age-, and sex-matched control subjects; and 9...

  11. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  12. The impact of ground-level fireworks (13 km long) display on the air quality during the traditional Yanshui Lantern Festival in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Lin, Ta-Hsiung; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chung-Te

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, NO(X), SO(2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), PM₁₀, and PM₂.₅ were continuously monitored before and after the fireworks display during the traditional Lantern Festival from March 2-7, 2007 in Yanshui Town, Taiwan. Major roads in Yanshui Town were surrounded by fireworks 13 km in length, with the display lasting for 45 min. More than 200 small firecracker towers popped up randomly in town, resulting in exceedingly inhomogeneous air quality until the end of display at 03:00 the next day, March 5. During the fireworks display, the hourly concentration of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at Yanshui Primary School reached about 429 and 250 μg m⁻³, respectively, which is 10 times the normal level, and 6 s values even went as high as 1,046 and 842 μg m⁻³, respectively. Similarly, BTEX concentration went up to about five to 10 times its normal value during the fireworks display. As indicated by the distribution of submicron particle sizes, the number of particles with a diameter less than 100 nm increased abruptly during the event period. Metal components with concentrations of more than 10 times higher than the normal value at Yanshui Primary School were Sr, K, Ba, Pb, Al, Mg, and Cu, in sequence. Among water-soluble ions, the content of K( + ), Mg²( + ), and Cl( - ) increased the most, all of which were related to the materials used in the fireworks. The results of this study indicate that fireworks can cause an abrupt increase in the concentration of trace substances in the air within a short period. Although the risks of these trace substances on public health remain to be further assessed, the study results can be utilized in the management of folk events.

  13. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  14. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics: rate of tooth movement, pain, and release of RANKL and OPG in GCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Arantza; Gómez, Clara; Palma, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate tooth movement, receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL/OPG ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in compression side and pain level during initial orthodontic tooth treatment to determine the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Ten volunteers who required fixed appliance positioned from the upper first premolars to upper first molars were selected. For each patient, the upper first premolar of the quadrant 1 was chosen to be irradiated with a laser diode at 670 nm, 200 mW, and 6.37 W/cm(2), applied on the distal, buccal, and lingual sides during 9 min on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The same procedure was applied in the first premolar of the contralateral quadrant inserting the tip but without laser emission. Samples of GCF from the compression side of the upper first premolars to distalize were collected at baseline and after 2, 7, 30, and 45 days posttreatment for determination of RANKL and OPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, tooth movement was assessed by scanning models and pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. There was improvement in the parameters studied (pain, tooth movement, levels of RANKL in GCF, and RANKL/OPG ratio) in the laser group when compared to the control group, although differences were not statistically significant. The accumulated retraction of the upper premolar at 30 days was higher in the laser group, and this difference was statistically significant between groups. LLLT delivered in repeated doses (six times in the initial 2 weeks) leads in some extent to a slight orthodontical improvement.

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy on inflammatory mediator release during chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Othon-Leite, Angélica Ferreira; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Arantes, Adriano Moraes; Bariani, César; Duarte, Luciana Garcia Lobo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira; Queiroz-Júnior, Celso Martins; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are submitted to a conditioning regimen of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, which usually results in oral ulcerations and mucosal barrier breakdown. Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating toxicity side effect of autologous and allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the severity of OM and inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, metalloproteinases, and growth factors) levels in saliva and blood of HSCT patients. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n = 15) and laser (n = 15). LLLT was applied from the first day of the conditioning regimen until day 7 post-HSCT (D + 7). Saliva and blood were collected from patients on admission (AD), D-1, D + 3, D + 7, and on marrow engraftment day (ME). Clinical results showed less severe OM in the laser group (p < 0.05). The LLLT group showed increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels in saliva on D + 7 (p = 0.04). Significant differences were also observed for IL-10 on D + 7 and on ME in blood plasma, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in saliva or blood for the other inflammatory mediators investigated. LLLT was clinically effective in reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced OM in HSCT patients, and its mechanism of action does not seem to be completely linked to the modulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors or matrix metalloproteinases.

  16. Comparison of different models for ground-level atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) prediction with a new model according to local weather data for FSO applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia Bazil Raj, A; Arputha Vijaya Selvi, J; Durairaj, S

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric parameters strongly affect the performance of free-space optical communication (FSOC) systems when the optical wave is propagating through the inhomogeneous turbulence transmission medium. Developing a model to get an accurate prediction of the atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) according to meteorological parameters (weather data) becomes significant to understand the behavior of the FSOC channel during different seasons. The construction of a dedicated free-space optical link for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m built at Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu) is described in this paper. The power level and beam centroid information of the received signal are measured continuously with weather data at the same time using an optoelectronic assembly and the developed weather station, respectively, and are recorded in a data-logging computer. Existing models that exhibit relatively fewer prediction errors are briefed and are selected for comparative analysis. Measured weather data (as input factors) and C(n)(2) (as a response factor) of size [177,147×4] are used for linear regression analysis and to design mathematical models more suitable in the test field. Along with the model formulation methodologies, we have presented the contributions of the input factors' individual and combined effects on the response surface and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) estimated using analysis of variance tools. An R(2) value of 98.93% is obtained using the new model, model equation V, from a confirmatory test conducted with a testing data set of size [2000×4]. In addition, the prediction accuracies of the selected and the new models are investigated during different seasons in a one-year period using the statistics of day, week-averaged, month-averaged, and seasonal-averaged diurnal Cn2 profiles, and are verified in terms of the sum of absolute error (SAE). A Cn2 prediction maximum average SAE of 2.3×10(-13)  m(-2/3) is achieved using the new model in

  17. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-08-15

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whethe